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fine structure and distribution of extracellular polymer surrounding selected aerobic bacteria.the structure and distribution of extracellular polymer surrounding bacillus circulans, diplococcus (streptococcus) pneumoniae, streptococcus salivarius, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, herella vaginacola (acinetobacter calcoaceticus), and agrobacterium tumefaciens were studied by electron microscopy. a modified ruthenium red staining procedure was used to examine the fine structure of capsule and slime. freeze-etching and critical-point drying were used to ...197546774
susceptibility to butirosin and neomycin b in bacillus circulans, the butirosin-producing organism.butirosin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is produced by bacillus circulans b-3312. experiments using recombined ribosomal and supernatant fractions from this strain and from b. megaterium km have shown that the ribosome of both are sensitive to butirosin. the aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase present in b. circulans modifies butirosin and neomycin in vitro but confers resistance only to the former in vivo. the phosphotransferase does not modifya detectable amount of extracellular butirosin wh ...197993616
structure of the peptide antibiotic polypeptin.polypeptin, a basic peptide antibiotic isolated from bacillus circulans, was separated into two components by countercurrent distribution. the two components, polypeptin a and polypeptin b, had identical amino acid compositions but varied in the structure of the hydroxy acid constituent attached to the alpha-amino group of the peptide chain. polypeptin a contained 3-hydrosy-4-methylhexanoic acid and polypeptin b contained 3-hydrosy-5-methylhexanoic acid. t-he sterochemistry of these hydroxy acid ...1976186604
microorganism capable of decomposing n-acetylglucosaminyl ribitol teichoic acid of staphylococcus aureus.enzyme(s) capable of decomposing n-acetylglucosaminyl ribitol teichoic acid prepared from the cell wall of staphylococcus aureus fda 209 p was obtained from the culture supernatant of a gram-negative, rod-shaped, spore-forming soil bacterium. properties of the bacterium were very similar to those of bacillus circulans.1976948143
simple method for the isolation of astaxanthin from the basidiomycetous yeast phaffia rhodozyma.a method is described for the quantitative and, possibly, large-scale extraction of astaxanthin from the yeast phaffia rhodozyma. the method utilizes extracellular enzymes produced by the bacterium bacillus circulans wl-12, which partially digests the yeast cell wall and renders the carotenoid pigments extractable by acetone or ethanol. complete recovery of astaxanthin from heat-killed p. rhodozyma cells was obtained after growing b. circulans wl-12 on these yeast cells for 26 h and then extract ...197828079
production of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase of bacillus circulans var. alkalophilus atcc21783 in b. subtilis.the cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase, e.c. 2.4.1.19) gene from an alkalophilic bacillus circulans var. alkalophilus atcc21783 was cloned into escherichia coli and b. subtilis. when cloned from e. coli to b. subtilis, the entire insert containing the cgtase gene was, depending on the plasmid construction, either unstable or the recombinant b. subtilis did not secrete the enzyme in significant amounts. to achieve efficient enzyme production in b. subtilis, the gene was placed under the ...19921368772
construction of an escherichia coli export-affinity vector for expression and purification of foreign proteins by fusion to cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase.a novel export-affinity fusion vector employing the gene encoding cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase; cgt) from bacillus circulans var. alkalophilus (atcc 21783) is described. cgtase binds to various sugar polymers, which makes it simple to purify it to near homogeneity in a single step. the cgtase fusion protein vector was constructed by deleting the translational stop codons from the gene encoding cgtase (cgt) by in vitro mutagenesis. as models, genes encoding escherichia coli alkali ...19921368771
enzymic synthesis of 4(5)-o-beta-galactosyl-maltopentaose by bacillus circulans beta-galactosidase. 19911368744
[cloning and expression of alpha-hydroxy-gamma-aminobutyl acylase gene of bacillus circulans nrrl-b3312].with shot-gun cloning strategy, we used pub110 plasmid as a vactor to clone dna fragment of bacillus circulans nrrl-b3312, which is butirosin producer, into bacllus subtilis 168. among the transformants, the results of tlc, bioautography and fab mass, spectrum analysis for the bioconversion product of no. 733 transformant showed that this transformant could transform kanamycin into amikacin. according to these results, the haba acylase gene locates on the insert fragment of pubc733 plasmid harbo ...19921305824
cell wall studies of histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis using autologous and heterologous enzymes.enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cell walls of blastomyces dermatitidis and chemotypes i and ii of histoplasma capsulatum were prepared in the laboratory or obtained from commercial sources. they included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, beta-1,6-glucanase, and pronase. monosaccharides and disaccharides of glucose released from the cell walls by the enzymes were determined qualitatively by paper and gas-liquid chromatography, and monosaccharides were quantitated by the latter technique as well. an ...1977870437
chemical and physical properties of peptidoglutaminase i and ii from bacillus circulans.some chemical and physical properties of peptidoglutaminase i and ii have been determined. for example, molecular weight, isoelectric point, intrinsic viscosity, partial specific volume, sedimentation and diffusion coefficient were 89 000 and 105 000, ph = 4.1 and 4.0, 0.042 and 0.065 dl/g, 0.733 and 0.728 ml/g, 5.85 and 5.3 s, 5.32 and 4.57-10(-7) cm2-s-1, respectively. their amino acid compositions were also determined. between them, peptidoglutaminanse ii was a glycoprotein containing 2 mol o ...1976816382
aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme of an antibiotic-producing bacterium acts as a determinant of antibiotic resistance in escherichia coli.bacillus circulans nrrl b-3312, a nonpathogenic bacterium that produces the aminoglycoside antibiotic butirosin, is known to contain an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase that is similar to the neomycin phosphotransferases of clinically isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria. purified dnas from b. circulans and the plasmid cole1-apr were digested with ecori endonuclease and the resulting fragments covalently joined with polynucleotide ligase. the recombined dna was used to transform e. coli and a ...1977322154
ribostamycin production by a mutant of butirosin producing bacteria.by the use of our improved colony selection technique, xylostasin and ribostamycin producing mutants were isolated from nitrosoguanidine treated bacillus circulans b15m, a producer of butirosins a and b. among these structurally related aminoglycosides, ribostamycin is the well-known product of a steptomyces and has not been isolated as a bacterial metabolite. a selected mutant of strain 306, which produces xylostasin and ribostamycin, was futher mutagenized in expectation of getting an improved ...197881827
mutational biosynthesis of butirosin analogs. iii. 6'-n-methylbutirosins and 3', 4'-dideoxy-6'-c-methylbutirosins, new semisynthetic aminoglycosides.two pairs of butirosin analogs were isolated from the fermentation broths obtained by cultivating a neamine-negative mutant of the butirosin-producing organism bacillus circulans in the medium supplemented with 6'-n-methylneamine and gentamine c2, respectively. these amtibiotics were characterized as 6'-n-mentylbutirosins a and b (nmb-a & nmb-b), and 3', 4'-dideoxy-6'-c-methylbutirosins a and b (dcb-a & dcb-b), respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic studies. nmb-a and nmb-b exhibited broad- ...197881824
mutational biosynthesis of butirosin analogs. ii. 3', 4'-dideoxy-6'-n-methylbutirosins, new semisynthetic aminoglycosides.a pair of new butirosin analogs was isolated from the fermentation broth obtained by cultivating a neamine-negative mutant of the butirosin-producing organism bacillus circulans in the medium supplemented with 6'-n-methylgentamine c1a. these antibiotics were characterized and elucidated as 3', 4'-dideoxy-6'-n-methylbutirosins a and b (dmb-a & dmb-b), by chemical and spectroscopic studies. dmb-a and dmb-b exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities with in vitro potency similar to or slight ...197881823
mutational biosynthesis of butirosin analogs. i. conversion of neamine analogs into butirosin analogs by mutants of bacillus circulans.by n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine treatment, neamine-negative mutants which required neamine for biosynthesis of butirosins were obtained from a butirosin-producing organism bacillus circulans. these mutants also produced butirosins from paromamine and could be divided into two types i and ii. mutants of type i could not produce butirosins from 2-deoxystreptamine, whereas those of type ii could. two typical mutants mcrl 5003 (type i) and mcrl 5004 (type ii) could produce butirosin analogs, ...197881822
lysis of yeast cell walls. lytic beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanases from bacillus circulans wl-12.bacillus circulans wl-12 when grown in a mineral medium with yeast cell walls or yeast glucan as the soli carbon source, produced five beta-glucanases. two beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanases (i and ii), which are lytic to yeast cell walls, were isolated from the culture liquid by batch adsorption on yeast glucan, and separated by chromatography on hydroxylapatite. lytic beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanase i was further purified by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography. the specific activity of lytic beta- ...19764310
lysis of yeast cell walls. lytic beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucanase from bacillus circulans wl-12.when grown in a mineral medium with yeast cell walls or yeast glucan as the sole carbon source, bacillus circulans wl-12 produces wall-lytic enzymes in addition to non-lytic beta-(1 leads to 3) and beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucananases. the lytic enzymes were isolated from the culture liquid by adsorption on insoluble yeast glucan in batch operation. after digestion of the glucan, the mixture of enzymes was chromatographed on hydroxylapatite on which the lytic activity could be resolved into one lyti ...19764309
highly homologous cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases from bacillus circulans strain 8 and a strain of bacillus licheniformis. 19901368625
molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression in escherichia coli of the beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase gene from bacillus circulans strain no. 8.the beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (beta-cgtase) gene was isolated from a lambda-library prepared from bacillus circulans strain no. 8. it was subcloned into plasmid ptz and expressed by its endogenous regulatory sequences in escherichia coli jm 103. the structural gene was sequenced and showed an open reading frame for a polypeptide of 718 amino acid residues. the recombinant beta-cgtase had the same enzymatic properties as the extracellular cgtase (684 amino acid residues, corresponding ...19901368573
peptidoglutaminase (bacillus circulans). 19761012012
the structure of permetin a, a new polypeptin type antibiotic produced by bacillus circulans.the structure of permetin a(i), an antibiotic substance produced by bacillus circulans aj 3902, has been elucidated as a cyclic acyl peptide by means of the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. (formula: see text.) the structure was found to be the same as polypeptin a(ii) except that l-thr in ii is replaced by l-ser in i. details of the structural determination are given for the permetin a itself as well as for the hydrolyzed permetin a. (formula: see text.)1979438100
on the role of histidine residues in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase: chemical modification with diethyl pyrocarbonate.ethoxyformylation with diethyl pyrocarbonate of approximately 1.5 his residues per molecule of enzyme reduced the cyclising activity of both the alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from klebsiella pneumoniae strain m 5 al and the beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus circulans strain 8 by greater than 90%. pre-incubation with substrate protected the enzymes from ethoxyformylation. digestion of starch by the modified enzymes resulted in a delayed formation of cyclodextrins (cyclo ...19911828005
isolation of a new peptide antibiotic, permetin a, from bacillus circulans.permetin a was purified from the culture filtrate of bacillus circulans aj 3902 by extraction with n-butanol, precipitation with sodium helianthate, cm-cellulose column chromatography and sephadex lh-20 column chromatography. the compound was found to be a new peptide antibiotic containing 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (dab), leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, serine (in a molar ratio of 3:2:1:1:1:1) and a fatty acid. this antibiotic showed activity in vitro against gram-negative, gram-positi ...1979438099
aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase in bacillus circulans producing butirosins. 197769624
antibiotics derived from a mutant of bacillus circulans.a mutant of bacillus circulans, which produces butirosins only when 2-deoxystreptamine is added to the fermentation medium, was employed in the biosynthesis of antibiotics containing modified aminocyclitols. the blocked mutant converted 2,5-dideoxystreptamine into 5-deoxybutirosamine. streptamine was incorporated into a complex differing from butirosin by an additional hydroryl at c-2.197660328
enzymatic synthesis of p-nitrophenyl 4(5)-o-beta-d-galactosyl-alpha-maltopentaoside as a substrate for human alpha-amylases.enzymatic modification at the nonreducing end d-glucosyl residue of p-nitrophenyl alpha-maltopentaoside was developed by using the transglycosylation of beta-d-galactosidase from bacillus circulans. the enzyme regioselectively synthesized p-nitrophenyl 4(5)-o-beta-d-galactosyl-alpha-maltopentaoside (a yield of 12.0% based on the amount of p-nitrophenyl alpha-maltopentaoside added) on a preparative scale from lactose as a donor and p-nitrophenyl alpha-maltopentaoside as an acceptor. it revealed t ...19921377891
proteolytic modification of raw-starch-digesting amylase from bacillus circulans f-2 with subtilisin: separation of the substrate-hydrolytic domain and the raw substrate-adsorbable domain.raw starch-digesting amylase (bf-2a, 93,000 da) from bacillus circulans f-2 was converted into two components during digestion with subtilisin. the two components were separated and designated bf-2a' (63 kda) and bf-2b (30 kda), respectively. bf-2a' exhibited the same hydrolysis curve for soluble starch as the original amylase (bf-2a). moreover, the catalytic activities of original and modified enzymes were indistinguishable in km, vmax and in their specific activity for soluble starch hydrolysi ...19921380302
analysis of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase isoenzymes by isoelectric focusing in immobilized ph gradients.the catalytically active subforms of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase; ec 2.4.1.19) from bacillus circulans var. alkalophilus and from a strain in which the cgtase expressing gene had been cloned were studied by using isoelectric focusing (ief) in immobilized and in conventional ph gradients. even with high protein loads the best resolution was achieved in immobilized ph gradients (ipg). native cgtase, focused on ipg 4.5-5.4, was resolved into more than 6 subforms, a major one with p ...19902140579
chemical modification of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from bacillus circulans var. alkalophilus.counting of integral numbers of cysteine residues of the reduced and denaturated form of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase) from bacillus circulans var. alkalophilus (atcc 21783) showed two cysteine residues per enzyme molecule. titrations of the enzyme with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) led to the same result. no free sh-group was detected in denatured form of cgtase, indicating that the two cysteine residues are linked by one disulfide bridge. cyclizing activity of the gdmcl- ...19921385982
structure of the gene encoding chitinase d of bacillus circulans wl-12 and possible homology of the enzyme to other prokaryotic chitinases and class iii plant chitinases.the gene (chid) encoding the precursor of chitinase d was found to be located immediately upstream of the chia gene, encoding chitinase a1, which is a key enzyme in the chitinase system of bacillus circulans wl-12. sequencing analysis revealed that the deduced polypeptide encoded by the chid gene was 488 amino acids long and the distance between the coding regions of the chia and chid genes was 103 bp. remarkable similarity was observed between the n-terminal one-third of chitinase d and the c-t ...19921729234
catalytic center of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase derived from x-ray structure analysis combined with site-directed mutagenesis.an x-ray structure analysis of a crystal of mutant asp229----ala of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus circulans (ec 2.4.1.19) that had been shortly exposed to beta-cyclodextrin showed density corresponding to a maltose bound at the catalytic center. the crystal structure was refined to an r-factor of 18.7% at 2.5-a resolution. the catalytic center is defined by homology with the structurally known alpha-amylases and by the observation that mutants asp229----ala and asp328----ala are ...19921390660
studies of the mechanism of the cyclisation reaction catalysed by the wildtype and a truncated alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from klebsiella pneumoniae strain m 5 al, and the beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus circulans strain 8.the actions of the wildtype and a truncated alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from klebsiella pneumoniae strain m 5 al on malto-oligosaccharides showed no significant differences, and there was marked dependence of the kinetic parameters on the chain lengths of the substrate. the action of the beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus circulans was less dependent on the chain length of the substrate, but vmax of the initial cyclisation with the longer malto-oligosaccharides was on ...19902150008
isolation of a new peptide antibiotic complex, b-43 (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xv).a new peptide antibiotic complex b-43, active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, was isolated from a strain of bacillus circulans. this antibiotic contains aspartic acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. it seems to be related to polypeptin and antibiotic complex 4205, but differs in that it contains aspartic acid residue.1976993119
isolation of a new antibiotic 333-25, related to antibiotic em 49. (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xi).a new antibiotic, 333-25, active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, was isolated from the culture broth of bacillus circulans 333-25. the antibiotic is a basic acylpeptide containing 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (5), leucine (2), phenylalanine (1) and a fatty acid. it is closely related to antibiotic em 49, but can be differentiated by chromatographic behaviour.1976956039
primary structure of a chitinase-encoding gene (chi1) from the filamentous fungus aphanocladium album: similarity to bacterial chitinases.chitinase 1 (chi1) is the major extracellular chitinase from the hyperparasitic fungus, aphanocladium album. we determined the complete sequence of the chromosomal and cdna copies of the structural gene (chi1) coding for chi1. the coding region is interrupted by three short introns (55, 53 and 49 bp long). chi1 is 423 aa long and begins with a stretch of 34 aa not found in the mature protein. the chi1 sequence presents overall similarities with bacterial chitinases from serratia marcescens and b ...19921398137
purification, properties, and partial amino acid sequence of chitinase from a marine alteromonas sp. strain o-7.chitinase (ec 3.2.1.14) was isolated from the culture supernatant of a marine bacterium, alteromonas sp. strain o-7. the enzyme (chi-a) was purified by anion-exchange chromatography (deae-toyopearl 650 m) and gel filtration (sephadex g-100). the purified enzyme showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the molecular size and pi of chi-a were 70 kda and 3.9, respectively. the optimum ph and temperature of chi-a were 8.0 and 50 degrees c, respectively. chi- ...19921464065
the enzymic degradation of an alkali-soluble glucan from the cell walls of saccharomyces cerevisiae.an alkali-soluble glucan from the cell walls of saccharomyces cerevisiae ncyc1109 has been hydrolysed with a purified endo-(1 leads to 3)-beta-d-glucanase and an endo-(1 leads to 6)-beta-d-glucanase from bacillus circulans wl-12. the products of enzyme action include various oligosaccharide and polysaccharide fractions which have been separated by gel filtration and characterized, giving new information on the fine structure of the glucan. the isolated cell walls have also been subjected to enzy ...1977323412
purification and some properties of l-fucose dehydrogenase from agrobacterium radiobacter and its application to the assay of bound-fucose in glycoconjugates.l-fucose dehydrogenase was found in the cell extract of agrobacterium radiobacter and purified to homogeneity about 480-fold with 16% recovery. the molecular weight of the enzyme was approx. 64,000. the enzyme was active in the neutral ph range, unlike other l-fucose or d-arabinose dehydrogenases which are active only in the alkaline ph range. using this enzyme and alpha-l-fucosidase f-i of bacillus circulans (tsuji, y., yamamoto, k., tochikura, t., seno, t., ohkubo, y. and yamaguchi, h. (1990) ...19921525177
isolation and partial characterization of an 87-kilodalton beta-1,3-glucanase from bacillus circulans iam1165.bacillus circulans iam1165 produces at least two extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases that lyse fungal cell walls. one of these extracellular enzymes was purified to homogeneity. the molecular mass was 87 kda, and the pi was 4.3. the optimum temperature of the enzyme reaction was 70 degrees c when laminarin (a soluble beta-1,3-glucan) was used as the substrate. the ph range of the enzyme was broad (ph 4.5 to 9.0), and the optimum ph was 6.5. the enzyme is an endo beta-1,3-glucanase and has a random ...19921610176
characterisation of bcibii, an isoschizomer of bstni from a strain of bacillus circulans b. 19921614883
nucleotide sequence of a 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanase-encoding gene in bacillus circulans wl-12. 19902377467
purification and characterization of alpha-l-fucosidase from bacillus circulans grown on porcine gastric mucin.bacillus circulans isolated from soil was found to produce two types of alpha-l-fucosidase differing in substrate specificity. one was able to liberate l-fucose from porcine gastric mucin (pgm), but not from artificial substrates, including p-nitrophenyl and methyl alpha-l-fucosides, while the other acted not on pgm but on p-nitrophenyl alpha-l-fucoside. the production of the former enzyme was enhanced about 150 times as much by pgm added to the medium as by glucose. the alpha-l-fucosidase actin ...19901694531
the chromosomal integration site of the streptomyces element psam2 overlaps a putative trna gene conserved among actinomycetes.the psam2 element of streptomyces ambofaciens integrates site-specifically in the genome of different streptomyces species by recombination between a 58 bp sequence common to the plasmid (attp) and the chromosome (attb). southern hybridization analysis showed that sequences similar to the psam2 attb site were found in other actinomycetes (mycobacterium, nocardia, micromonospora) as well as unrelated bacteria (bacillus circulans, escherichia coli, clostridium botulinum, bordetella pertussis, and ...19901703270
three n-terminal domains of beta-1,3-glucanase a1 are involved in binding to insoluble beta-1,3-glucan.limited proteolysis of beta-1,3-glucanase a1 by three different proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain, gave three major active fragments. the sizes of the three major fragments generated by each protease treatment were identical to those of beta-1,3-glucanase a2, a3, and a4 detected in both the culture supernatant of bacillus circulans wl-12 and the periplasmic space of escherichia coli carrying a cloned glca gene. these results indicate a four-domain structure for the enzyme. at the n te ...19921729208
maltodextrin-dependent crystallization of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from bacillus circulans.crystals of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from bacillus circulans (ec 2.4.1.19) suitable for high-resolution x-ray analysis were obtained by vapor diffusion against 60% (v/v) 2-methyl 2,4-pentanediol buffered with 100 mm-sodium hepes, ph 7.55. the crystals have p2(1)2(1)2(1) space group symmetry, with a = 120.4 a, b = 110.9 a and c = 66.4 a, and contain one molecule of 68,000 in the asymmetric unit. growth of single enzyme crystals was found to require the presence of either alpha-cyclode ...19902143786
[selection and physiological study of culture of bacillus circulans-- producer of butirosin].for isolating a highly active variant of the butirosin-producing culture, a strain forming trace amounts of the antibiotic substance was used. exposure to nitrosomethylbiuret and nitrosoguanidine and the use of selective media containing streptomycin and butirosin resulted in a 30-fold increase in the strain productivity. thin layer chromatography of the produced antibiotic substance in the solvent system developed by the authors, mass spectrometry and assay of the antimicrobial spectrum in rega ...19921384451
purification and characterization of an isoschizomer of sphi from bacillus circulans. 19902146591
engineering a heavy atom derivative for the x-ray structure analysis of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.based on a preliminary structural model of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus circulans (ec 2.4.1.19), ser428 and ser475 of the enzyme were mutated to cysteines in order to produce suitable heavy atom derivatives. mutant ser475----cys could not be expressed as protein. mutant ser428----cys was expressed in escherichia coli and purified. it crystallized isomorphously and gave rise to a mercury derivative that improved the electron density map. the structural results show that the new ...19902149760
endocarditis caused by bacillus circulans. 19911816117
galactosylation at side chains of branched cyclodextrins by various beta-galactosidases.the galactosyl transfer reaction to branched cyclodextrins (cds) was investigated using lactose as a donor substrate and branched cds as acceptors by various beta-galactosidases. bacillus circulans beta-galactosidase synthesized galactosyl transfer products to branched cds, of which the galactose residues were linked at side chains of branched cds, not directly at cd rings. aspergillus oryzae and penicillium multicolor beta-galactosidases also produced derivatives galactosylated at side chains o ...19921368300
structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase refined at 2.0 a resolution.the previously reported structural model of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (ec 2.4.1.19) from bacillus circulans has been improved. for this purpose the known sequence was built into an electron density map established by multiple isomorphous replacement and subsequent solvent-flattening at 2.5 a resolution. the resulting model was refined at 2.0 a resolution using a simulated annealing refinement method. based on 70,171 independent reflections in the range 7.0 to 2.0 a resolution, a final r-f ...19911826034
purification and some properties of a novel alpha-l-fucosidase capable of acting on alpha-(1----6)-l-fucosidic linkages from bacillus circulans m28.two types of alpha-l-fucosidase (f-i and f-ii), that differ in substrate specificity, were produced in the culture fluid by bacillus circulans isolated from soil when the bacterium was cultivated on medium containing porcine gastric mucin. f-i was able to cleave the alpha-(1----2), alpha-(1----3), and alpha-(1----4)-l-fucosidic linkages in various oligosaccharides and glycoproteins, but not p-nitrophenyl alpha-l-fucoside, as previously reported [y. tsuji et al. (1990) j. biochem. 107, 324-330]. ...19902172224
synthesis and secretion of a bacillus circulans wl-12 1,3-1,4-beta-d-glucanase in escherichia coli.the synthesis and secretion of a 1,3-1,4-beta-d-glucanase were studied in different strains of escherichia coli transformed with plasmids carrying the bacillus circulans wl-12 1,3-1,4-beta-d-glucanase structural gene. this gene (named bgc) is contained within a 1.9-kilobase bamhi-hindiii fragment and directs the synthesis in e. coli of an enzyme that specifically degrades lichenan. only one active form of the enzyme was found when the gene was expressed in different e. coli strains. the electrop ...19902180919
cloning and expression of raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase gene from bacillus circulans f-2 in escherichia coli.the raw potato-starch-digesting alpha-amylase gene of bacillus circulans f-2 was cloned for the first time in escherichia coli c600, using plasmid pyej001. the recombinant plasmid, named pyka3, has a 5.4 kb insert from a chromosome of the donor bacterium. subcloning of this amylase gene gave plasmid pha300 which carried 3.15 kb of the inserted dna. the transformed bacterium, e. coli c600 (pyka3), produced the amylase in the periplasmic space, whereas it is secreted outside the cell in the donor ...19902182125
two-stage reimplantation in infected total knee arthroplasty.twenty-one infected total knee arthroplasties (tka) in 21 patients were treated from september 1980 through october 1987. of these, 15 were followed for more than one year. treatment of these patients consisted of thorough debridement of all infected tissue and components; a cement spacer was used in ten patients. the cement was impregnated with antibiotics. this procedure was followed for an average of 4.2 weeks with intravenous antibiotics and tka utilizing antibiotic-impregnated cement. five ...19883180576
microbial metabolism of quinoline and related compounds. ix. degradation of 6-hydroxyquinoline and quinoline by pseudomonas diminuta 31/1 fa1 and bacillus circulans 31/2 a1.two strains, using 6-hydroxyquinoline as sole source of energy, carbon and nitrogen, have been isolated. these bacteria, designated 31/1 fa1 and 31/2 a1, are also able to degrade quinoline. according to their physiological properties strain 31/1 fa1 has been identified as pseudomonas diminuta and strain 31/2 a1 as bacillus circulans. 6-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline was found as intermediate in the degradation of 6-hydroxyquinoline and quinoline. 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline was the first meta ...19911910576
complete amino acid sequence of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from flavobacterium sp.the complete amino acid sequence of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from flavobacterium sp. has been determined by analysis of peptides after cleavage with lysyl endopeptidase, pepsin and chymotrypsin. the protein consists of a single polypeptide chain consisting of 267 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 27972 da. the sequence of flavobacterium endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase is very close to that of the streptomyces enzyme (endo-h), having 60% similarity and very similar hydropathy ...19911935974
structure of the gene encoding beta-1,3-glucanase a1 of bacillus circulans wl-12.the nucleotide sequence of the glca gene encoding the precursor of extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase (beta gl) a1, a polysaccharidase produced by bacillus circulans wl-12, was determined. the putative glca gene was 2046 bp long, encoding a polypeptide of 682 amino acids (aa). the n-terminal aa sequence of beta gl produced in escherichia coli harboring the glca plasmid was identical to that of beta gl a1 prepared from the culture fluid of b. circulans wl-12. in both proteins, cleavage of the signa ...19902311931
cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from bacillus circulans e 192. i. purification and characterization of the enzyme.the cyclomaltrodextrin glucanotransferase (cgtase) [1,4-alpha-d-glucan:4-alpha-d-(1,4-alpha-d-glucano)-transferase (cyclizing), ec 2.4.1.19] from bacillus circulans e 192 has been purified to homogeneity by cetavlon treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, deae trisacryl m chromatography, q fast flow chromatography, and affinity on beta-cyclodextrin-sepharose 4b. two isoenzymes were separated by fplc on a mono q column. their isoelectric points were estimated as 6.7 and 6.9 and they represente ...19921532314
chitinase system of bacillus circulans wl-12 and importance of chitinase a1 in chitin degradation.bacillus circulans wl-12, isolated as a yeast cell wall-lytic bacterium, secretes a variety of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes into culture medium. when chitinases of the bacterium were induced with chitin, six distinct chitinase molecules were detected in the culture supernatant. these chitinases (a1, a2, b1, b2, c, and d) showed the following distinct sizes and isoelectric points: mr 74,000, pi 4.7 (a1); mr 69,000, pi 4.5 (a2); mr 38,000, pi 6.6 (b1); mr 38,000, pi 5.9 (b2); mr 39,000, pi 8.5 ...19902361948
relationship between butirosin biosynthesis and sporulation in bacillus circulans.the relationship between butirosin biosynthesis and certain biochemical characteristics related to sporulation in a strain of bacillus circulans nrrl b-3313 was examined. the cellular content of dipicolinic acid increased while the amount of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased with changes in antibiotic productivity. oligosporogenous mutants failed to synthesize the antibiotic and to degrade poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. these observations suggest that spore formation may be related to antibiotic p ...19852409916
molecular cloning and characterization of the beta-amylase gene from bacillus circulans.a gene encoding the beta-amylase of bacillus circulans was isolated from a lambda library and sequenced. the structural gene consists of a 1725 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a predicted molecular wt of 62830 daltons. two active forms of the enzyme were found when the gene was expressed in e. coli. the larger 60 kd form was approximately 3 kd larger than the mature beta-amylase secreted from b. circulans, suggesting that processing of this protein is different between the two ...19872455212
multiple domains in endoglucanase b (cenb) from cellulomonas fimi: functions and relatedness to domains in other polypeptides.endoglucanase b (cenb) from the bacterium cellulomonas fimi is divided into five discrete domains by linker sequences rich in proline and hydroxyamino acids (a. meinke, c. braun, n. r. gilkes, d. g. kilburn, r. c. miller, jr., and r. a. j. warren, j. bacteriol. 173:308-314, 1991). the catalytic domain of 608 amino acids is at the n terminus. the sequence of the first 477 amino acids in the catalytic domain is related to the sequences of cellulases in family e, which includes procaryotic and euca ...19911938913
exopolysaccharide structure from bacillus circulans. 19912001692
[identification of 2 protein components in the flagella of bacillus circulans]. 19724649778
butirosin, a new aminoglycosidic antibiotic complex: isolation and characterization.butirosin, a new water-soluble aminoglycosidic antibiotic complex, active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, has been isolated from fermentation filtrates of bacillus circulans by ion exchange. the complex has been resolved into isomeric a and b components, c(21)h(41)n(5)o(12), by means of dowex 1 x 1 or dowex 1 x 2 chromatography. properties of the free bases and the n, n', n'', n'''-tetraacetyl derivatives of butirosin a and b are given.19724670491
cloning of two genes from bacillus circulans wl-12 which encode 1,3-beta-glucanase activity.two genes encoding distinct 1,3-beta-glucanases have been cloned from bacillus circulans and expressed in escherichia coli. a cosmid library of b. circulans wl-12 dna was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid plafr1 and screened in e. coli for clones which exhibited 1,3-beta-glucanase activity. two 1,3-beta-glucanase-positive clones were identified which contained genes encoding two independent 1,3-beta-glucanases as shown by biochemical, physical and molecular analyses. the cosmids, design ...19902127800
identification of two distinct bacillus circulans xylanases by molecular cloning of the genes and expression in escherichia coli.two genes coding for xylanase synthesis in bacillus circulans were cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. after digestion of genomic dna from bacillus circulans with ecori and psti, the fragments were ligated into the corresponding sites of puc19 and transformed into escherichia coli. restriction enzyme mapping of the two inserts coding for xylanase activity indicated distinctly different nucleotide sequences. cross-hybridization assays confirmed the absence of sequence homology between the t ...19892648989
hyperexpression of a bacillus circulans xylanase gene in escherichia coli and characterization of the gene product.a 4.0-kilobase (kb) fragment of bacillus circulans genomic dna inserted into puc19 and encoding endoxylanase activity was subjected to a series of subclonings. a 1.0-kb hindiii-hincii subfragment was found to code for xylanase activity. maximum expression levels were observed with a subclone that contained an additional 0.3-kb sequence upstream from the coding region. enhancer sequences in the upstream region are thought to be responsible for these high expression levels. southern hybridization ...19892667461
structure and glycosylation of lipoteichoic acids in bacillus strains.the occurrence, structure, and glycosylation of lipoteichoic acids were studied in 15 bacillus strains, including bacillus cereus (4 strains), bacillus subtilis (5 strains), bacillus licheniformis (1 strain), bacillus polymyxa (2 strains), and bacillus circulans (3 strains). whereas in the cells of b. polymyxa and b. circulans neither lipoteichoic acid nor related amphipathic polymer could be detected, the cells of other bacillus strains were shown to contain lipoteichoic acids built up of poly( ...19892914853
sequence and interspecies transfer of an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene (aph) of bacillus circulans. self-defence mechanism in antibiotic-producing organisms.the aph gene of a butirosin-producing bacillus circulans was cloned and shown to be expressed in escherichia coli and streptomyces lividans. the gene was sequenced and a possible developmentally regulated promoter identified. when the deduced protein sequence was compared with those from transposon tn5, transposon tn903, streptomyces fradiae, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus faecalis, significant homology was found, indicating that the genes may have a common origin.19863006668
evolution and transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes under natural conditions.3'-aminoglycoside phosphotransferases [aph(3')] were chosen as a model to study the evolution and the transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes under natural conditions. comparison of the amino acid sequences of aph(3') enzymes from transposons tn903 (type i) and tn5 (type ii) detected in gram-negative bacteria, from the gram-positive staphylococcus and streptococcus (type iii), from the butirosin-producing bacillus circulans (type iv) and from a neomycin-producing streptomyces fradiae (type v ...19863027020
microorganisms capable of metabolizing the herbicide metolachlor.we screened several strains of microorganisms and microbial populations for their ability to mineralize or transform the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-n-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-n-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)-acetami de] because such cultures would potentially be useful in the cleanup of contaminated sites. although we used various inocula and enrichment culture techniques, we were not able to isolate microorganisms that could mineralize metolachlor. however, strains of bacillus circulans, bacill ...19873105457
molecular cloning of an amylase gene of bacillus circulans.an amylase gene of bacillus circulans was cloned in b. subtilis and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the putative proamylase consists of 528 amino acids, which correspond to a molecular weight of 58,776. homologous regions with other amylases of bacillus species were found. a sigma 55-type promoter is located at about 250 bp upstream from the starting codon. this promoter was also functional in escherichia coli, and able to express beta-galactosidase activity.19873109866
alginate lyase releases cell-bound lipase from mucoid strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa.alginate lyase (ec 4.2.2.3) was partially purified from the culture medium of bacillus circulans jbh2 by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. the purified enzyme was unstable in the absence of protecting substances such as gelatin. at a ph optimum of 5.8, the enzyme depolymerized algal as well as bacterial alginates, the latter in the deacetylated form more effectively than in the acetylated form. incubation of various mucoid strains of pseudomonas aer ...19873125706
alginase treatment of mucoid pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances phagocytosis by human monocyte-derived macrophages.mucoid pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes and infects the respiratory tract of most older patients with cystic fibrosis. these bacteria resist both opsonin-dependent and -independent phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. resistance to phagocytosis is thought to be mediated in part by the mucoid exopolysaccharide associated with the bacterial surface. the purpose of this study was to determine whether degradation of the mucoid exopolysaccharide by algi ...19883139564
bacillus infections in patients with cancer.eighteen febrile patients experienced 24 episodes of bacillus bacteremias from january 1978 to june 1986. bacillus species isolated included bacillus cereus (eight cases), bacillus circulans (three), bacillus subtilis (two), bacillus pumilus (two), bacillus licheniformis (one), bacillus sphaericus (one), bacillus coagulans (one), and six that could not be speciated. fifteen patients had lymphoma or leukemia and three had breast cancer. nine patients were neutropenic (polymorphonuclear neutrophil ...19883401098
gene cloning of chitinase a1 from bacillus circulans wl-12 revealed its evolutionary relationship to serratia chitinase and to the type iii homology units of fibronectin.a chitinase gene of bacillus circulans wl-12 was cloned into escherichia coli by transforming hb101 cells with a recombinant plasmid composed of chromosomal dna fragments prepared from b. circulans wl-12 and the plasmid vector pkk223-3. dna sequencing analysis revealed that the region necessary for the normal expression of chitinase activity contained one open reading frame of 2097 base pairs which codes for the precursor of chitinase a1. the precursor of chitinase a1 contained a long signal seq ...19902203782
bagougeramines a and b, new nucleoside antibiotics produced by a strain of bacillus circulans. i. taxonomy of the producing organism and isolation and biological properties of the antibiotics.a bacterial isolate from soil, designated as tb-2125 had a unique pattern of multiple resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics (ag) and produced new nucleoside antibiotics. taxonomic properties of this strain fell into those of bacillus circulans, providing unique characteristics such as strict susceptibility to acidic ph, motility of colony as well as multiple ag-resistance. two new antibiotics which were named bagougeramines a and b had a broad antimicrobial activity and a specific activity ag ...19863759653
production of a new aminoglycoside antibiotic by a mutant of bacillus circulans.a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, s-11-a, was isolated from the fermentation broth of the 2-deoxystreptamine negative (dos-) mutant of bacillus circulans s-11. the structure of s-11-a was elucidated as 1-deamino-1-hydroxyxylostasin, which contains an intermediate of dos biosynthesis (s-11-p) and has resistance to some aminoglycoside-inactivating enzymes. this is the first finding of antibiotic production by a dos- mutant without any supplementation of dos or a dos analog, and could be described a ...19807429987
bagougeramines a and b, new nucleoside antibiotics produced by a strain of bacillus circulans. ii. physico-chemical properties and structure determination.bagougeramines a and b obtained as sulfates were soluble in water and positive to sakaguchi, chlorine-tolidine and ninhydrin color reactions. their structures were determined by acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic analysis. structurally they were closely related to gougerotin and they contained the guanidino-d-alanine instead of the serine residue in gougerotin. bagougeramine b had the spermidine instead of the 6'-nh2 in structure of bagougeramine a.19863759654
[infection of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt system by bacillus circulans and bacillus larvae].a two episodes case of csf ventriculo-atrial shunt infection due to b. circulans and b. larvae is presented. b. circulans was first isolated from 4 blood cultures and csf (shunt valve tap). the patient showed a brain damage syndrome reversible with antibiotic treatment. lethal toxin production was demonstrated for the b. circulans strain in a mouse model. this strain was found to be a variant of gordon's description as it produced urease and was tolerant to 7% nacl. the patient recovered after c ...19853870747
isolation of bacillus circulans from a wound infection. 19854019805
demonstration of a fibrillar component in the cell wall of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and its chemical nature.the ultrastructure of isolated cell walls of saccharomyces cerevisiae from the log and stationary phases of growth was studied after treatment with the following enzymes: purified endo-beta-(1 --> 3)-glucanase and endo-beta-(1 --> 6)-glucanase produced by bacillus circulans; purified exo-beta-glucanase and endo-beta-(1 --> 3)-glucanase produced by schizosaccharomyces versatilis; commercial pronase. while exo-beta-glucanase from s. versatilis had no electron microscopically detectable effect on t ...19744135002
butirosin, a new aminoglycosidic antibiotic complex: bacterial origin and some microbiological studies.butirosin, a new aminoglycosidic antibiotic complex, was produced by submerged fermentation with each of two strains of bacillus circulans. a paper-disc, agar-diffusion assay which employs escherichia coli (p-d 04863) as the test organism has been developed. shaken-flask and stirred-jar fermentations in a medium containing glycerol, soybean meal, meat peptone, ammonium chloride, and calcium carbonate reach titers of 500 to 700 mug of butirosin base per ml. butirosin is active against several gra ...19724207954
lysis of yeast cell walls: glucanases from bacillus circulans wl-12.endo-beta-(1 --> 3)- and endo-beta-(1 --> 6)-glucanases are produced in high concentration in the culture fluid of bacillus circulans wl-12 when grown in a mineral medium with bakers' yeast cell walls as the sole carbon source. much lower enzyme levels were found when laminarin, pustulan, or mannitol was the substrate. the two enzyme activities were well separated during sephadex g-100 chromatography. the endo-beta-(1 --> 3)-glucanase was further purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and hydro ...19744407251
formation of a cycloinulo-oligosaccharide from inulin by an extracellular enzyme of bacillus circulans okumz 31b.a strain of bacillus circulans okumz 31b, isolated from soil, has been shown to produce an extracellular enzyme that converts inulin into cycloinulo-oligosaccharides. the main product was identified as cycloinulo-hexaose. the enzyme is arbitrarily designated as cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase.19892611778
a plasmid which does not encode the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase in the butirosin-producing strain of bacillus circulans.bacillus circulans nrrl b-3312 produces the aminoglycoside antibiotic butirosin and encodes an aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase. we detected a 48 kilobase plasmid, pip850, in this strain; this was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis following digestion with ecori restriction endonuclease and by nucleic acid hybridization. the results obtained indicate that plasmid pip850 does not carry the structural gene for the aminoglycoside modifying enzyme.19826179916
three-dimensional structure of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from bacillus circulans at 3.4 a resolution.cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (ec 2.4.1.19) from bacillus circulans has been purified, crystallized and analyzed by x-ray diffraction. the enzyme is monomeric. sds/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave an mr of 73,600(+/- 1000), corresponding to 670(+/- 10) amino acid residues. the structure of the crystalline enzyme has been elucidated at a resolution of 3.4 a, using multiple isomorphous replacement and solvent flattening for phase determination. the resulting electron density map allowed ...19892531228
molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes from bacillus polymyxa and bacillus circulans.endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes from bacillus circulans and from b. polymyxa were cloned by direct expression by using bacteriophage m13mp9 as the vector. the enzymatic activity of the gene products was detected by using either the congo red assay or hydroxyethyl cellulose dyed with ostazin brilliant red h-3b. the b. circulans and b. subtilis pap115 endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes were shown to be homologous by the use of restriction endonuclease site mapping, dna-dna hybridization, s1 nuclease dige ...19902307659
effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth.the effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide (no) and nitrogen dioxide (no2) on actively dividing cultures of staphylococcus aureus, micrococcus luteus, micrococcus roseus, serratia marcescens, bacillus subtilis, bacillus circulans, bacillus megaterium, and bacillus cereus were studied. fresh cultures of each organism were incubated for 24 h at 25 degrees c on both nutrient agar and mineral salts glucose agar plates under atmospheres containing various low concentrations of no in air (0 to ...19836351744
nucleotide sequence of a bacillus circulans xylanase gene. 19883405767
direct sequencing of superoxide dismutase genes from two bacterial strains amplified by polymerase chain reaction.the nucleotides of the mn-superoxide dismutase (sod) gene of bacillus circulans and the fe-sod gene of aerobacter aerogenes were sequenced by pcr. these sod genes were specifically amplified by using oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the amino-terminal amino acid sequences and the antisense strand primer corresponding to the common amino acid sequence near the carboxyl-terminus among various mn- and fe-sods thus far sequenced. the pcr products amplified from b. circulans and a. aerogenes ...19937764218
bu-2743e, a leucine aminopeptidase inhibitor, produced by bacillus circulans. 19836643284
cloning of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (aph) gene from antibiotic-producing strain of bacillus circulans into a high-expression vector, pkk223-3. purification, properties and location of the enzyme.the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene from a butirosin-producing strain of bacillus circulans was cloned in a high-expression vector (pkk223-3) to give the recombinant plasmid pms5. escherichia coli harbouring the plasmid, e. coli jm103[pms5], was characterized, and several features of the expression of the phosphotransferase were studied. the phosphotransferase activity was best expressed in a medium lacking glucose, and the highest levels of the enzyme were found between 12 and 24 h of gr ...19902163618
[taxonomy of bacillus circulans].four strains of bacillus circulans sensu stricto (atcc 4513 (type strain), 4515, 4516, and 4530) were subjected to 236 morphological, biochemical and physiological tests, including 162 carbon source utilization tests. b. circulans s. s. is a species of facultative anaerobes able to ferment carbohydrates. many carbohydrates and a few aliphatic acids were used as sole carbon and energy sources, but amino acids were not. the guanine-plus-cytosine content of dna (four strains studied) was 37.2 +/- 0 ...19836651128
lipases production by bacillus circulans under mesophilic and osmophilic conditions. factors affecting lipases production.a facultative osmophilic bacterium able to produce lipases (isolated from bee honey) was identified as bacillus circulans. factors affecting lipases production by such isolate were studied. dox's liquid medium supplied with 2 and/or 30% sucrose was used as a basal medium, under static culture condition, for such a purpose. results have showed that the optimal sucrose concentration at which the isolate produced its maximal yield of lipases was 30% after an incubation period of 24 hours at 40 degr ...19836681018
bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. i. production, isolation and properties of bu-2470 a, b1 and b2.a strain of bacillus circulans produced a complex of basic peptide antibiotics designated bu-2470, which was found to contain four active components, a, b1, b2a and b2b. bu-2470 a specifically inhibited various pseudomonas species including p. aeruginosa, p. maltophilia and p. putida, but otherwise its antibacterial spectrum was limited to certain gram-negative organisms. bu-2470 b1 and b2 (b2a + b2b) showed broad antibiotic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including pse ...19836874583
aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic sporeforming bacteria in buffalo milk.seasonal variation of the population of aerobic sporeformers in raw milk was higher in summer than in other seasons. least variation was in fall, but variation in winter and spring was similar. aerobic mesophilic sporeformers in raw milk consisted mainly of bacillus subtilis (42.5%) and bacillus megaterium (34.8%), followed by bacillus circulans (4.9%), bacillus cereus (4.6%), bacillus pumilus (2.9%), bacillus polymyxa (2.8%), bacillus licheniformis (1.9%), bacillus badius (1.5%), bacillus brevi ...19836886164
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