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[activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the dairy cow milk serum in relation to positive mastitis test nk].the level of total lactate dehydrogenase activity in dairy cow milk serum was studied in sets of quarter-udder milks showing different degrees of a positive response to mastitis test-nk. the bacteriological examination for streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, streptococcus uberis, staphylococcus aureus, and for coliform germs was performed at the same time. increasing positiveness of the response to mastitis test-nk was found to be accompanied by almost proportionate increase of ...1975813356
esculin hydrolysis by streptococcus dysgalactiae.in a mastitis control program based on eradication of intramammary infection, it is important to differentiate streptococci. according to earlier reports, streptococcus dysgalactiae was unable to hydrolyze esculin. preliminary data from the present study indicated that under optimal conditions, some strains of s dysgalactiae were capable of esculin hydrolysis. in a study of 45 strains of s dysgalactiae, 55.5% were able to hydrolyze esculin. in the past, these organisms would probably have been i ...1976962216
activity of penicillin and novobiocin against bovine mastitis pathogens.penicillin (p), novobiocin (n), and both (p-n) were evaluated in vitro against 143 clinical isolates of bovine mastitis, including, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, and streptococcus uberis. greater antistaphylococcal activities were demonstrated with n alone and p-n than with p alone. streptococcus spp were more susceptible to p alone than to n alone, and the effectiveness of p-n corresponded with that of p alone. in vitro, p-n had a wider spectrum of ...19751090221
adherence and colonization by bacterial pathogens in explant cultures of bovine mammary tissue.explant cultures of bovine mammary tissue taken from virgin heifers were used to examine adherence, colonization and cytopathogenesis of streptococcus uberis, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli in the putative target tissue. none of the five bacteria was able to adhere to healthy ductular epithelium but all showed a marked tropism for exposed connective tissue. s. aureus and e. coli induced a marked cytopathic effect in ductular epith ...19921496817
studies on the possible role of cattle nuisance flies, especially hydrotaea irritans, in the transmission of summer mastitis in denmark.the summer mastitis pathogens actinomyces pyogenes, peptococcus indolicus, bacteroides melaninogenicus ss. levii, fusobacterium necrophorum and streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated from the polyphagous symbovine dipterans hydrotaea irritans (fallén) and morellia sp. caught around dairy heifers on pasture, but not from the haematophagous species haematobia irritans (l.), haematobosca stimulans (meigen), culicoides sp. and simulium sp. secretions from clinical cases of summer mastitis proved t ...19911773120
an abattoir survey of pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter weight swine from 9 selected herds. iv. bacteriological findings in chronic pneumonic lesions.a total of 855 pig lungs were collected at slaughter and evaluated macroscopically. bacteriological examinations were carried out on tissue samples from chronic pleuropneumonic lesions (n = 196) and from chronic bronchopneumonic lesions with suppuration (n = 14). samples from normal lung tissue (n = 22) were also included. pasteurella multocida was isolated from 54%, actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae from 11%, and streptococcus spp. from 14% of the pneumonic lesions, respectively. fr ...19911814189
bacteriological investigations of clinical mastitis in heifers in sweden.bacterial analyses were carried out of 2069 udder secretions, isolated from 1481 heifers with mastitis in eight veterinary districts in sweden. streptococci, e.g. streptococcus dysgalactiae and str. uberis, dominated the bacterial flora, being isolated from 34.4 and 19.5% respectively of heifers with clinical mastitis occurring from puberty up to 14 d post partum. bacterial species generally regarded as important pathogens in the summer mastitis complex, e.g. actinomyces pyogenes, stuart-schwan ...19911856352
streptococcus dysgalactiae infection in calves. 19911888314
inhibitory effects of fibrinogen on phagocytic killing of streptococcal isolates from humans, cattle and horses.the effects of fibrinogen on phagocytic killing of streptococcus dysgalactiae from cattle and s. equi from horses were studied in comparison to that of s. pyogenes from humans. phagocytic killing was determined by a fluorometric microassay using glass adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (pmn) from the respective host species, preopsonization with homologous sera led to a dose-dependent increase in phagocytic killing of all streptococcal cultures, preincubation of streptococci with fibrinogen ...19911897132
evaluation of two fluorogenic assays for identification of streptococcus species isolated from bovine mammary glands.liquid and agar assays that utilized 4-methylumbelliferyl-conjugated beta-d-glucuronide, beta-d-galactoside, or n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide, and agglutination by dolichos biflorus lectin were evaluated for identification of streptococcus species isolated from bovine mammary glands. a greater number of streptococcus uberis isolates were negative for n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase by the liquid assay compared with the agar assay. enzyme profiles for streptococcus dysgalactiae were similar by bo ...19911904457
characterization of a murine igg3 monoclonal antibody against chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide and its purification by affinity chromatography on igg fc-receptors from streptococcus dysgalactiae.purification of a murine igg3 monoclonal antibody (mab 22) directed against an epitope of chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide by affinity chromatography on recently described solid phase igg fc-receptors from streptococcus dysgalactiae is reported. sds-page studies revealed the purity of the eluted antibody. the purified mab 22 was characterized by determination of class, subclass and light chain-type, and by dot tests and immunoblot analysis.19912063637
efficacy of chlorhexidine as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis during lactation.a natural exposure trial was conducted for 12 mo in a herd of 150 lactating jersey cows to determine efficacy of a .35% chlorhexidine teat dip containing a glycerine emollient for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections. right teats of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal and left teats were not dipped. the herd was free of streptococcus agalactiae and had a low prevalence of staphylococcus aureus. most new major pathogen intramammary infections re ...19902229606
group c streptococcal arthritis: case report and review.streptococci account for approximately 15%-20% of cases of nongonococcal septic arthritis. the majority of these are due to group a streptococci, but group b and group g streptococci are being isolated more frequently. we present a case of group c streptococcal arthritis and summarize nine additional cases reported in the literature. the group c streptococci include the large colony of voges-proskauer-negative bacteria (streptococcus equi, streptococcus equisimilis, streptococcus zooepidemicus, ...19902237126
group c streptococcal meningitis.group c streptococci have been infrequently described as human pathogens. a case of meningitis caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae, in a 73-year-old man with alcoholic liver disease, was treated successfully with penicillin and chloramphenicol.19902314337
minimum inhibitory concentrations and disk diffusion zone diameter for selected antibiotics against streptococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections.the antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antibiotics was determined of 358 streptococcal isolates representing six species was determined. all isolates were from milk samples obtained from clinical or subclinical cases of bovine mastitis. agar disk diffusion zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentrations were obtained for all isolates. of the antibiotics tested that are available for mastitis therapy, cephalothin, penicillin, ampicillin, novobiocin, and erythromycin demonstrated acceptable a ...19902365883
[efficacy of a modified formula dry cow preparation for dairy cattle containing 600 mg cloxacillin].the efficacy of a dry cow preparation containing 600 mg of cloxacillin in a modified formulation was investigated in 177 cows on 44 dutch dairy farms. the cure-rate of 43 quarters infected with the most common udder pathogenic streptococci (streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus uberis and streptococcus dysgalactiae) was 100%. the cure-rate of 146 quarters infected with staphylococcus aureus was 71.9%. the number of new infections during the dry period was low (3.4%).19902375025
bindings of plasma proteins to streptococci of serological group l with special reference to their immunoglobulin g fc-receptor activity.of 33 streptococcal cultures belonging to serological group l, all bound human immunoglobulin (ig) g, fibrinogen, and fibronectin; 32 bound bovine igg; 31 bound alpha 2-macroglobulin; 5 bound albumin; and none bound either haptoglobin or iga. the binding sites for igg could be isolated from the l streptococci by trypsinization and purified by affinity chromatography on human igg-sepharose. the purified fc receptors reacted with igg subclasses 1, 2, 3, 4 of humans, 1 and 2 of bovines, ovines, and ...19882454150
isolation of immunoglobulin g by affinity chromatography using an igg fc receptor protein from streptococcus dysgalactiae coupled to a solid phase.a culture of streptococcus dysgalactiae (c 26) was shown to bind only to 125i-igg, whereas another s. dysgalactiae culture (c 12) bound both 125i-igg and 125i-albumin. the igg-binding proteins could be readily solubilized by lysozyme treatment of the bacteria and isolated by affinity chromatography on igg sepharose. the purified igg-binding protein from s. dysgalactiae c 26, which lacked simultaneous albumin binding activity, precipitated with igg preparations from man, cow, horse, pig and mouse ...19892509567
the microbial ecology of soybean soaking for tempe production.soybeans soaked in tap water for 24 to 36 h at 20, 30 or 37 degrees c underwent a natural fermentation that was characterized by the growth of microorganisms to 10(8)-10(10) cfu/ml (depending on temperature) and a reduction of ph from 6.5 to 4.5. lactobacillus casei, streptococcus faecium, staphylococcus epidermidis and streptococcus dysgalactiae dominated the fermentation but, significant contributions were also made by klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella ozaenae, enterobacter cloacae, enterobact ...19892518226
mycoplasma infection as disposing factor to streptococcus dysgalactiae mastitis.the authors studied a synergistic effect of an arginine hydrolising, but glucose negative mycoplasma strain (9293/3/2/1) and streptococcus (str.) dysgalactiae. both agents, as mono-infections, caused only slight mastitis, but if the udder had been previously infected with mycoplasma, str. dysgalactiae provoked very severe mastitis.19892619461
prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.a natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. the experimental teat dip reduced staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, st ...19892625499
incidence of clinical mastitis on farms with low somatic cell counts in bulk milk.a total of 1140 clinical cases of mastitis, with at least one inflamed quarter, were reported on 125 farms with somatic cell counts in bulk milk less than 150,000/ml. the average annual incidence was 17.9 cases per 100 cows and ranged from none to 80 cases per 100 cows. the microorganisms most frequently isolated were escherichia coli (16.2 per cent), coagulase negative staphylococci (13.0 per cent), staphylococcus aureus (9.6 per cent) and streptococcus uberis (8.0 per cent). only two cases of ...19892672542
interaction of type ii igg fc-receptors from streptococci of serological group a with murine igg.a group a streptococcal strain demonstrated binding activities for 125i-murine igg3 and 125i-human igg. this 125i-murine igg3 binding could be inhibited by unlabelled equine igg but not by igg from cattle, chickens and dogs, indicating binding properties of igg fc-receptors of type ii. in contrast to binding sites of streptococcus dysgalactiae (serogroup c) carrying type iii igg fc-receptors, the binding sites of the group a streptococcus appeared to be antigenically different, extremely sensiti ...19892684206
[bacteriological findings in samples of milk from cows studied for the causative agent of mastitis].milk samples (483,413 on the whole), collected from 237,026 cows, were investigated in the state veterinary institute at pardubice in the period from 1983 to 1987. in the individual years, the proportion of cows whose milk contained the mastitis-inducing bacteria ranged from 18.0 to 24.8%, the average being 21.0%. streptococcus agalactiae was identified most frequently as the causative agent of mastitis in the examined cows (6.4%); then followed streptococcus dysgalactiae (3.7%), staphylococcus ...19892728263
adherence of streptococcal isolates from cattle and horses to their respective host epithelial cells.adherence of streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from cattle and s equi isolates from horses to their respective host epithelial cells was compared with the adherence of s pyogenes to human epithelial cells. the adherence was quantitatively determined by use of fluorescein-labeled streptococci. all 3 streptococcal species adhered selectively to their respective host cells. the mechanism of adherence was evaluated by binding studies with adhesive plasma protein, fibronectin. although all 3 strept ...19883066243
[clinical evaluations of flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].flomoxef (fmox, 6315-s), a new antibacterial drug, was administered to 9 cases with respiratory tract infections for a duration of 8 approximately 16 days at a daily dose of 2 g. diagnosis of these patients were bronchopneumonia 5 cases, chronic bronchitis 3 cases and acute bronchitis 1 case. from transtracheal aspiration several organisms were isolated; haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 3 cases, streptococcus pneumoniae in 3 cases, h. influenzae plus branhamella catarrhalis in 1 case, stre ...19873444019
physiological characteristics of streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis and the effect of the lactoperoxidase complex on their growth in a chemically-defined medium and milk.aerobic or anaerobic degradation of glucose by streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis yielded products qualitatively similar to those observed previously for streptococcus agalactiae. there were, however, quantitative differences. though acetoin was formed during aerobic growth of streptococcus uberis, there was none with streptococcus dysgalactiae. differences between streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis in their aerobic metabolism of glucose was in lower oxygen cons ...19853916277
response of bovine to immunization against streptococcus dysgalactiae. 19704098217
[simplified diagnosis of streptococcus dysgalactiae (author's transl)]. 19734150111
[fermentative properties of the species streptococcus dysgalactiae]. 19744210143
inhibitory effect of experimentally induced peritoneal leukocytosis on streptococcus dysgalactiae infection in mice. 19744857351
a passive hemagglutination technique for detection of streptococcus dysgalactiae antibody. 19694973057
isolation and characterization of two virulent antigens of streptococcus dysgalactiae. 19714993794
surface receptors for serum albumin in group c and g streptococci show three different types of albumin specificity.a total of 100 bacterial strains were tested for binding uptake of radiolabeled albumin preparations from 15 mammalian species. three types of surface structures with specific binding sites for albumin were defined. a previously described receptor for albumin was separated into type a in streptococcus equisimilis strains and in human group g streptococcal strains and type b in bovine group c streptococci. a new type of albumin receptor, type c, was found in streptococcus dysgalactiae strains, th ...19826295942
binding of human fibronectin to group a, c, and g streptococci.a total of 387 bacterial strains belonging to 35 species were tested in direct binding experiments for the uptake of purified radiolabeled human fibronectin. positive binding was found in group a, c, and g streptococci and in staphylococcus aureus. the group c streptococcal species streptococcus equisimilis, streptococcus zooepidemicus, streptococcus equi, and streptococcus dysgalactiae were uniformly reactive with fibronectin. beta-hemolytic bovine group g streptococci showed the same degree of ...19836299959
bacteriocin-like activity of group b and group c streptococci of human and of animal origin.an inhibitor "fingerprinting' technique was used to test 120 group b and 50 group c streptococcus strains for production of inhibitory activity. the incidence of inhibitor production was low. five of 70 group b streptococci of animal origin and one of 50 from human sources consistently produced inhibitory activity. six of 20 animal strains and three of 30 human strains of group c streptococci were inhibitor producers. these included two streptococcus dysgalactiae, three s. equisimilis and four s ...19836337211
growth of gram-positive mastogenic bacteria in normal, simulated bulk tank, and mastitic milk held at simulated fluctuating temperatures of farm bulk tank.growth of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, streptococcus bovis, and streptococcus uberis was studied in normal milk, simulated bulk tank milk, and aseptic mastitic milk held at simulated fluctuating temperatures of farm bulk tank for 48 h. with the exception of s. bovis, growth rates of the other five bacteria were similar in both normal and simulated bulk tank milk. mastitic milk inhibited growth of all bacteria studied. a ...19863531259
a survey of clinical mastitis in south-east queensland dairy herds.a survey if clinical mastitis in 26 south-east queensland dairy herds supplying more than 300,000 litres of milk annually, revealed a quarter incidence of 2.6% with a cow incidence of 9% over a 3-month period. secretion samples from cows yielded staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, streptococcus uberis, coliforms, pseudomonas spp and other bacteria in 38.5%, 12.5%, 6.6%, 3.4%, 2.6%, 0.6% and 2.0% of cases respectively. samples from 38% of the cases were cu ...19826751309
demonstration of a new type of immunoglobulin g receptor in streptococcus zooepidemicus strains.forty-seven bacterial strains representing four different group c streptococcal species were tested for binding of human and bovine immunoglobulin g (igg) subclasses. specific binding sites for igg were found in all bacterial species studied. the four species included differed, however, in their capacities to interact with various igg subclasses, indicating the existence of different types of igg receptors. streptococcus equisimilis and streptococcus dysgalactiae were found to carry the same typ ...19806769810
characterization and identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.a total of 317 gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci isolated from bovine mammary glands were characterized and identified using current species descriptions. two hundred eighty-seven isolates (90.5%) could be placed in 11 distinct species. streptococcus uberis was the most frequently encountered species and could be separated into two previously described genetic types based upon sucrose utilization. streptococcus dysgalactiae and a newly described species, streptococcus saccharolyticus, were ...19883403756
evaluation of the rapid mastitis test for identification of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.a latex agglutination test system (rapid mastitis test [rmt]; immucell, portland, maine) containing reagents for the identification of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. the rmt staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive staphylococcus hyicus isolate ...19883284897
inflammatory changes during experimental bovine mastitis induced by staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis. 19873124405
flotation of mastitis pathogens with cream from subclinically infected quarters. prospects for developing a cream-rising test for detecting mastitis caused by major mastitis pathogens.bacterial isolates, originating from 36 subclinically infected quarter milk samples, were labelled with 75se and checked for cream-rising at various temperatures in a system analogous to the abr test ("abortus bang ringprobe"; the cream-rising test based on stained brucella organisms for detection of brucellosis). diagnostic specificity and sensitivity were analyzed in experiments where labelled bacterial isolates were mixed with a number of quarter milk samples with known bacteriological status ...19892929195
differences in intramammary pathogenicity of four strains of streptococcus dysgalactiae.the intramammary pathogenicity of four strains of streptococcus dysgalactiae was measured by infusion of small numbers of bacteria (8-16 colony-forming units) into the teat sinus after milking. significant differences in the infectivity of strains were detected.19807411585
comparison of mics of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the united states, canada, and denmark.the mics of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents, tested for comparison, for 515 bacterial isolates of pigs from the united states, canada, and denmark with various diseases were compared. the organisms tested included actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, escherichia coli, pasteurella multocida, salmonella choleraesuis, salmonella typhimurium, streptococcus suis, streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. in additio ...19957494042
evaluation of the rapid strep system for identification of gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci isolated from bovine intramammary infections.the rapid strep system (analytab products, plainview, ny) was used to identify 199 gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci isolated from bovine intramammary infections. the system accurately identified 88.4% of isolates. the system identified 100% of 46 streptococcus agalactiae, 100% of 48 streptococcus dysgalactiae, 54.5% of 11 streptococcus equinus, and 96.2% of 53 streptococcus uberis isolates. enterococcus spp. were identified correctly 83.3% of the time. one of 4 streptococcus saccharolyticu ...19892689485
a protein g-related cell surface protein in streptococcus zooepidemicus.this work describes the cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a plasma protein receptor from streptococcus zooepidemicus. this receptor, termed protein zag, is a 45-kda protein that binds alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2m), serum albumin, and immunoglobulin g (igg). the igg-binding activity is located in the c-terminal part of the molecule and is mediated by two repeated domains highly homologous to each other as well as to the corresponding domains in streptococcal type iii fc receptors. the ...19957542636
purification of goat immunoglobulin g1 (igg1) and igg2 antibodies by use of streptococcus dysgalactiae cells with fc receptors.the application of stabilised streptococcal cells for the purification of both immunoglobulin 1 (igg1) and igg2 subclasses from goat sera was evaluated. guanidinium chloride extracted, lyophilised cells of the lancefield group c streptococcus dysgalactiae sc1 strain showed strong binding to goat igg, reaching a capacity of approximately 1.4 mg igg per 100 mg cells (dry weight). the igg preparation obtained was of high quality. in immunoelectrophoretic analysis the preparation appeared to consist ...19957604529
evaluation of the minitek gram-positive set for identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.a total of 127 isolates were used to evaluate the minitek gram-positive set for identification of streptococci cultured from bovine mammary glands. the overall accuracy of the minitek gram-positive set was 34.6%. of 12 streptococcus agalactiae strains, 4 (33.3%) were correctly identified. of 43 streptococcus dysgalactiae strains, 32 (74.4%) were identified correctly. of 44 streptococcus uberis strains, 42 (95.5%) were identified as enterococcus spp. poor performance was attributed to the limited ...19892663909
subclinical mastitis and milk production in primiparous simmental cows.the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in beef cows was investigated and its relationship with milk production and 205-d adjusted calf weaning weights (adjww) determined. primiparous simmental cows (n = 25) were milked six times at approximately 30-d intervals. before each milking, milk samples were aseptically collected from each quarter for bacteriological analyses. after recording milk weights, samples were obtained for determination of somatic cell counts (scc), butterfat (bf), and protein ( ...19957673048
nisin inhibits several gram-positive, mastitis-causing pathogens.organisms known to cause bovine mastitis, enterococcus faecalis ssp. liquefaciens atcc 27959, staphylococcus aureus atcc 29740, streptococcus agalactiae atcc 27956, streptococcus equinus atcc 27960, streptococcus dysgalactiae atcc 27957, streptococcus uberis atcc 27958, and the neotype staphylococcus epidermidis atcc 14990 were examined for their susceptibility to the small peptide antibiotic, nisin. using a disc assay, minimum inhibitory concentrations of nisin ranged from 10 to 250 micrograms/ ...19892516858
binding of immunoglobulin g and albumin to streptococcus dysgalactiae.all 24 cultures of streptococcus dysgalactiae investigated bound 125i-igg, 13 cultures additionally interacted with 125i-albumin. inhibition experiments with unlabelled igg and albumin preparations from humans and various animal species indicated the specificity of the binding sites which showed characteristics of igg fc-receptors of type iii and albumin-receptors of type c. igg and albumin-binding proteins could be removed from the streptococcal surface by solubilization and subsequently isolat ...19892508657
streptococcal protein mag--a protein with broad albumin binding specificity.protein mag is a cell surface protein from streptococcus dysgalactiae which binds alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2m), serum albumin and immunoglobulin g (igg). in this work protein mag was expressed in escherichia coli, purified and analysed for its albumin-binding specificity. the binding of protein mag to serum albumins of different species origin was studied in a dot-blot assay and compared with the binding of streptococcal protein g, so far the best studied bacterial albumin receptor. the albu ...19957766685
[occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing mastitis in dairy cows].in 1986-1992 the susceptibility to antibiotics was investigated in 799 strains of causative agents of bovine mastitis. of these, streptococci, staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and other bacteria presented 43.5%, 22.2%, 17.9% and 16.6%, respectively. the strains examined were obtained from herds in which mastitis had been treated. within the period of investigation, the resistance of s. aureus to antibiotics reached the following values: penicillin (pnc) 33.0-20.3%, chloram ...19947975048
streptococcus dysgalactiae polyarthritis in dairy goats.two saanen does on the same farm developed signs of polyarthritis. streptococcus dysgalactiae was isolated on microbial culture of samples from multiple joints of both goats. antibiotic susceptibility testing of the s dysgalactiae revealed resistance to tetracycline, a commonly used antibiotic to treat arthritis in goats. the isolate was susceptible to penicillin. polyarthritis was clinically diagnosed in 25 saanen goats on this farm over a 2-year period. streptococcus dysgalactiae has been repo ...19947989246
isolation and characterization of hyaluronidases from streptococcus dysgalactiae, s. zooepidemicus and s. equi.10 out of 10 cultures each of streptococcus dysgalactiae and s. zooepidemicus and 6 out of 10 cultures of s. equi tested for hyaluronidase produced this enzyme. hyaluronidase could be precipitated from the cell-free culture supernatant with ammonium sulphate and purified by chromatography on deae-cellulose, isoelectric focussing and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the isoelectric points of the hyaluronidases from s. dysgalactiae and s. equi were near ph 5, of that from s. zooepid ...19902331294
fibronectin receptors from gram-positive bacteria: comparison of active sites.many parasitic bacteria express fibronectin binding proteins that are located on the cell surface. these proteins may act as adhesins and mediate the adherence of the microorganisms to fibronectin-containing host tissues. the ligand binding sites in the fibronectin receptor proteins from gram-positive bacteria are composed of unique 37-48 amino acid long motifs that are repeated 3-4 times. we have now expressed the ligand binding sites of fibronectin receptors from staphylococcus aureus, strepto ...19948193122
fibronectin receptors from streptococcus dysgalactiae and staphylococcus aureus. involvement of conserved residues in ligand binding.the nucleotide sequence of two genes encoding fibronectin (fn) receptors fnba and fnbb of streptococcus dysgalactiae s2 revealed the presence of repeated motifs (called ra1-a3 and rb1-b3, respectively) which encode fn binding activity (lindgren, p.-e., mcgavin, m. j., signäs, c., guss, b., gurusiddappa, s., höök, m., and lindberg, m. (1993) eur. j. biochem. 214, 819-827). synthetic peptides of 32-37 amino acids, corresponding to individual repeated motifs, were assayed for the ability to inhibit ...19938226935
contagious mastitis.contagious mastitis is defined. the major mastitis pathogens are streptococcus agalactiae, staphylococcus aureus, corynebacterium bovis, mycoplasma sp, and streptococcus dysgalactiae. these pathogens are discussed relative to prevalence, virulence factors, pathology, and control. these control measures include milking time hygiene, segregation, culling, vaccination, and treatment.19938242453
focal dermatitis and cellulitis in broiler chickens: bacteriological and pathological findings.involvement of aerobic bacteria, especially escherichia coli, in lesions of cellulitis in broiler chickens was investigated. samples of subcutaneous caseous material for bacteriological examination were collected aseptically at the slaughterhouse from 109 broilers with lesions. skin tissue was taken from five of these birds for histopathological examination. in 96 of the 109 (88.1%) broilers sampled, e. coli was isolated from the lesion, and in 60 of these birds it was the only bacterial species ...19938257380
summer mastitis in heifers: a bacteriological examination of secretions from clinical cases of summer mastitis in denmark.a total of 166 samples of secretions collected from danish heifers suffering from clinically diagnosed summer mastitis were examined bacteriologically. one hundred and sixty three samples yielded positive findings whereas no growth was obtained from 3 specimens. the majority of samples revealed a mixed flora in which the predominant components were actinomyces pyogenes, peptostreptococcus indolicus, a microaerophilic coccus (stuart-schwan coccus), fusobacterium necrophorum, bacteriodes melaninog ...19901973009
use of modified rambach agar to differentiate streptococcus uberis from other mastitis streptococci.the medium of rambach was modified to permit differentiation of mastitis streptococci. a total of 377 streptococci isolated from bovine imi was used in the study. of the 159 strains identified as streptococcus uberis, 151 strains (94.9%) were beta-galactosidase-positive and yielded blue colonies on modified rambach agar. in comparison, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, enterococcus saccharolyticus, or enterococcus faecalis strains were negative for propylene glycol utilizatio ...19938326035
effect of milking without pulsation on teat duct colonization with streptococcus agalactiae and penetrability to endotoxin.forty quarters of 10 cows were milked for a 9-d period with one of four treatments: 1) no liner pulsation, 2) conventional milking, 3) no pulsation for 4 d followed by conventional milking for 5 d, and 4) conventional milking for 4 d followed by milking without pulsation for 5 d. all teat orifices were inoculated with approximately .5 million cfu of streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus dysgalactiae on d 1 and 5. recoveries of strep. agalactiae from the teat end were increased for teats mil ...19911779054
phenotypic characterization of streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from bovine mastitis by their binding to host derived proteins.the binding of 80 streptococcus dysgalactiae mastitis isolates from 51 farms to plasma and connective tissue proteins fibronectin (29 kda n-terminal fragment), vitronectin, collagen type i, fibrinogen, alpha 2-macroglobulin, igg, and albumin was studied. all isolates boiund the bovine 29 kda fibronectin fragment and the binding of bovine fibrinogen, caprine albumin, bovine alpha 2-macroglobulin-trypsin complexes and caprine igg was also very frequent (92.5, 92.5, 72.5% and 87.5%, respectively). ...19958560738
bactericidal activity of the bovine myeloperoxidase system against bacteria associated with mastitis.myeloperoxidase (mpo) is a lysosomal enzyme found in the primary granules of mammalian neutrophils. together with mpo, peroxide and halide form a system of defense against bacteria. the present investigation was undertaken to study the bactericidal effects of the bovine-mpo/peroxide/halide system on pathogenic bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. we demonstrated that mpo together with oxidizing agents generated by xanthine oxidase, hypoxanthine and chloride form a potent antibacterial syste ...19958560739
a monoclonal antibody enhances ligand binding of fibronectin mscramm (adhesin) from streptococcus dysgalactiae.a monoclonal antibody 3a10, generated from a mouse immunized with the streptococcus dysgalactiae fibronectin (fn) binding protein fnba, was isolated, and its effect on ligand binding by the antigen was examined. the epitope for 3a10 was localized to a previously unidentified fn binding motif (designated an) just n-terminal of the repeat domain which represents the primary ligand binding site on fnba. fn binding to au was enhanced by 3a10 rather than inhibited. this effect was demonstrated in two ...19968576126
staphylococcal and other bacterial species associated with intramammary infections in danish dairy herds.four thousand six hundred forty-five quarter milk samples from 1179 cows from 20 commercial dairy herds were examined in order to determine the prevalence of bacterial species. a total of 859 isolates from 839 (18.1%) culture positive samples could be assigned to 34 different species and subspecies. diagnostics of staphylococcal species was based on conventional procedures able to differentiate between all 36 species and subspecies presently acknowledged. staphylococcus aureus was found in 10.2% ...19958669375
growth of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus species in bovine mammary secretions during the nonlactating and peripartum periods following intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide at cessation of milking.the objective was to determine if induced mammary inflammation at cessation of milking influenced growth of gram-positive mastitis pathogens in mammary secretions, particularly during early involution. growth of all mastitis pathogens evaluated was similar in cell-free fat-free mammary secretions from lps-infused and control glands. these data indicate that intramammary infusion of lps at cessation of milking did not alter growth of gram-positive mastitis pathogens in mammary secretion during th ...19911776381
influence of streptococcus dysgalactiae surface hydrophobicity on adherence to mammary epithelial cells and phagocytosis by mammary macrophages.bacterial surface hydrophobicity (sh) plays a role in adhesion of bacteria to host surfaces and ingestion by phagocytic cells. streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 60) isolated from bovine intramammary infections were examined for expression of sh after growth in todd-hewitt broth (thb) and thb supplemented with skim milk, whey, lactose, and casein. strains were significantly more hydrophobic after growth in thb and thb plus whey and more hydrophilic after growth in thb plus skim milk. both trypsin a ...19968779807
tetracycline resistance determinants in streptococcal species isolated from the bovine mammary gland.seventy-one streptococci isolated from dairy cows with clinical mastitis were tested for tetracycline resistance. twenty-one (30%) isolates were tetracycline resistant (tcr), and eight hybridized with the tet o, one hybridized with the tet l, and one hybridized with both the tet l and tet k determinants. the remaining tcr isolates did not hybridize with any of the 5 gram-positive tet determinants tested. the tet o determinants were plasmid-mediated, and four selected strains transferred the tet ...19911746156
role of complement s protein (vitronectin) in adherence of streptococcus dysgalactiae to bovine epithelial cells.the binding of bovine complement s protein (vitronectin) to streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from cattle with mastitis and the s protein's role in streptococcal adherence to bovine epithelial cells were investigated. all 25 clinical isolates of s dysgalactiae interacted with bovine s protein. none of the other streptococcal species tested bound to bovine s protein. the s protein-binding sites were saturable and highly sensitive to trypsin. the binding of bovine s protein to s dysgalactiae iso ...19901695066
protein f2, a novel fibronectin-binding protein from streptococcus pyogenes, possesses two binding domains.binding of the group a streptococcus (gas) to respiratory epithelium is mediated by the fibronectin (fn)-binding adhesin, protein f1. previous studies have suggested that certain gas strains express fn-binding proteins that are different from protein f1. in this study, we have cloned, sequenced, and characterized a gene (prtf2) from gas strain 100076 encoding a novel fn-binding protein, termed protein f2. insertional inactivation of prtf2 in strain 100076 abolishes its high-affinity fn binding. ...19968858591
incidence of clinical mastitis in a random sample of dairy herds in the southern netherlands.the incidence of clinical mastitis and distribution of pathogens in dairy cows was estimated in 171 randomly selected dairy herds in the southern netherlands. a total of 1103 quarter cases were reported. the average annual incidence rate was 12.7 quarter cases per 100 cows per year. the most frequent isolates from clinical cases were escherichia coli (16.9 per cent), staphylococcus aureus (14.4 per cent), streptococcus uberis (11.9 per cent) and streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.9 per cent). most ca ...19968883335
genotypic and phenotypic diversity of streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis.this study was conducted to characterize streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. one hundred strains from 100 dairy herds in denmark, 29 strains from 29 dairy herds in pennsylvania, usa, 7 reference strains and 18 strains consisting of 9 paired strains from 9 quarters were investigated using biotyping (utilization of tagatose and sorbitol) and hindiii ribotyping. four different biotypes were observed. only 34 of the 100 danish strains utilized either tagatose or sorbit ...19969008342
bacterial isolation from slaughtered pigs associated with endocarditis, especially the isolation of streptococcus suis.bacterial isolation from slaughtered pigs with endocarditis was carried out from 1985 to 1994. a total of 495 (0.025%) out of 2,006,127 pigs were diagnosed as having endocarditis. though bacteria were significantly isolated from 399 of the 495 pigs, bacteria could not be isolated in 96 pigs (19.4%). in 11 pigs, 2 bacterial species were isolated from heart lesion. streptococcus suis was isolated from 127 cases (25.7%), streptococcus dysgalactiae from 75 (15.2%), erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from ...19979035085
septicemia caused by streptococcus canis in a human.we describe a case of septicemia due to streptococcus canis in a 77-year-old man. the organism was presumably transmitted from a domestic animal. ulcers of the lower limbs were the likely portals of entry. the differentiation between streptococcus canis and streptococcus dysgalactiae was based on biochemical properties and dna macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.19979041434
cloning and expression of two different genes from streptococcus dysgalactiae encoding fibronectin receptors.binding of bacteria to fibronectin has been implicated as a mechanism of bacterial adhesion to the host tissue. in this report we have analyzed the binding of a strain of streptococcus dysgalactiae to fibronectin. the cells bind to a site in the nh2-terminal domain of the protein via trypsin-sensitive cell surface components. furthermore, a lysate prepared by sonication of streptococcal cells contained fibronectin-binding proteins that inhibit the binding of the ligand to intact bacteria. when t ...19921530943
comparison of success of antibiotic therapy during lactation and results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bovine mastitis.antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted on a variety of mastitis pathogens. the infected quarters were subsequently treated during lactation with a commercially available product containing penicillin and novobiocin that was designed for lactating cows. cows were treated as per the recommendations of the product manufacturer, and cures were determined by the absence of bacteria in both sets of duplicate quarter milk samples that were collected at 28 d posttreatment. comparisons were m ...19979058273
comparative bacteriological studies on summer mastitis in grazing cattle and pyogenes mastitis in stabled cattle in denmark.a total of 143 secretions from clinical cases of summer mastitis (sm) in grazing cattle and from 89 cases of pyogenes mastitis (pm) in stabled cattle were examined bacteriologically. the typical bacteriological finding was a mixed flora in which the predominant organisms were actinomyces pyogenes (sm-70%, pm-85%), peptostreptococcus indolicus (54%, 54%), a microaerophilic coccus (stuart-schwan coccus) (26%, 25%), fusobacterium necrophorum biovar b (22%, 12%), bacteroides melaninogenicus (20%, 9% ...19921355316
differentiation of human and animal strains of streptococcus dysgalactiae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the genetic diversity among 54 human isolates and 33 animal isolates belonging to the species streptococcus dysgalactiae (20 alpha-haemolytic streptococcus dysgalactiae, 23 streptococcus equisimilis, 43 group g streptococci and one group l streptococcus) was evaluated by macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal dna with smai and resolution by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. this technique revealed a high degree of intraspecies polymorphism, leading to the differentiation of 80 distinct banding ...19979163914
a case of bacteremia caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae. 19979177971
summer mastitis experimentally induced by hydrotaea irritans exposed to bacteria.summer mastitis is an acute suppurative bacterial infection of the udder in heifers and dry cows. to ascertain the possible role of flies in the transmission of the disease, experimental exposures of recipient heifers to hydrotaea irritans previously exposed to bacteria were carried out. flies were allowed to feed on secretions from clinical cases of summer mastitis. the pathogens present were the bacteria staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus dysgalactiae, actinomyces pyogenes, stuart-schwan coc ...19979226651
streptococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections.streptococcal isolates from 71 dairy herds considered free of streptococcus agalactiae were compared with isolates from 1 herd used in bovine mastitis research over a 12-year period. the incidence of streptococci was as follows: streptococcus uberis, 56.5%; enterococci, 24.2%; streptococcus dysgalactiae, 9.0%; streptococcus bovis, 5.1%; unclassified streptococci, 3.1%; streptococcus agalactiae, 1.5%; and lancefield group g streptococci, 0.7%. the incidence for these streptococci in the 2 groups ...1976817626
identification of staphylococcal and streptococcal causes of bovine mastitis using 16s-23s rrna spacer regions.bovine mastitis is caused mainly by certain staphylococcus and streptococcus species. the sequences of the 16s-23s rrna spacer regions were determined for the nine species which cause mastitis: staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus chromogenes, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus hyicus, staphylococcus simulans, staphylococcus xylosus, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis. significant variation was found between the spacer sequences of different sp ...19979387227
accuracy of methods using somatic cell count and n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity in milk to assess the bacteriological cure of bovine clinical mastitis.this study examined the capability of milk somatic cell count (scc) and nagase activity to discriminate between quarters that had been cured versus those that had not been cured at 4 wk after antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis. the distribution of microorganisms that were isolated before therapy from 630 quarters with mastitis was as follows: 225 strains of staphylococcus aureus, 96 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 152 strains of streptococci (streptococcus dysgalactiae and ...19979406074
detection of new and persistent streptococcus uberis and streptococcus dysgalactiae intramammary infections by polymerase chain reaction-based dna fingerprinting.polymerase chain reaction-based dna fingerprinting was used as a tool to differentiate new and persistent streptococcus uberis and streptococcus dysgalactiae intramammary infections (imi) in dairy cows. the same subtype of s. uberis or s. dysgalactiae was detected from some infected mammary glands from one lactation to the next documenting the persistence of these infections. conversely, some streptococci isolated from mammary glands during a lactation or from one lactation to the next were diff ...19989495014
incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk somatic cell counts.incidence of clinical mastitis was studied in 274 herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk somatic cell count (scc). mean incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 0.278, 0.257, and 0.252 cases per 365 cow-days at risk in herds with low (< or = 150,000), medium (150,000 to 250,000), and high (250,000 to 400,000 cells/ml) bulk milk scc, respectively. the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was not different among the three categories. variance in the incidence of clinical mastitis among herds ...19989532494
[activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the milk serum of dairy cows in relation to the possitive response to the mastitis nk-test].the level of total lactate dehydrogenase activity in dairy cow milk serum was studied in sets of quarter-udder milks showing different degrees of a positive response to mastitis test-nk. the bacteriological examination for streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, streptococcus uberis, staphylococcus aureus, and for coliform germs was performed at the same time. increasing positiveness of the response to mastitis test-nk was found to be accompanied by an almost proportionate increase ...1975814672
factors influencing adherence of streptococcus dysgalactiae to bovine mammary epithelial cell monolayers.factors that affected adherence of streptococcus dysgalactiae to monolayers of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells and to a bovine mammary epithelial transformed cell line were evaluated. cell culture medium inhibited more than 99% of binding of s. dysgalactiae to plastic and was as effective as several blocking agents in decreasing adventitious adherence of this organism to plastic. adherence of two strains of s. dysgalactiae (ut516 and ut519) was higher to a transformed mammary epithelial ...19989588110
meningitis caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae in a preterm infant.this report describes a case of meningitis caused by a lancefield group c streptococcus (streptococcus dysgalactiae) in a 9-week-old infant. bacteria of this group rarely cause serious infections in man. the organism was identified as a member of lancefield group c by the acid extraction method and as s. dysgalactiae by biochemical tests. the patient's condition responded well to penicillin and tobramycin therapy, with no obvious neurologic sequelae.1978569439
potential virulence factors of streptococcus dysgalactiae associated with bovine mastitis.mastitis caused by environmental pathogens is a major problem that affects many well-managed dairy herds. among the environmental pathogens, streptococcus dysgalactiae is isolated frequently from intramammary infections during lactation and during the nonlactating period. in spite of its high prevalence, little is known about factors that contribute to the virulence of s. dysgalactiae. during the last decade, several cell-associated and extracellular factors of s. dysgalactiae have been identifi ...19989646469
identification and molecular characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) of the north and baltic seas.the present study was designed to identify and comparatively investigate 35 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from stranded harbor porpoises or from animals caught in fishing nets of the north and baltic seas. according to biochemical and serological data and to lectin agglutination tests with the lectin of arachis hypogaea, all 35 isolates could be classified in lancefield's serological group l and could be identified as streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. all 35 group l streptoc ...19989650933
wasps are the cause of an increasing mastitis problem in dairy cattle in israel.the german wasp vespula germanica (fabr.) (hymenoptera: vespidae) has been observed to injure dairy cows teats, causing lesions which can lead to mastitis. the number of dairy herds in israel reported to be affected in this way has increased from five prior to 1989 to 32 from 1989 to 1993. likewise, the geographical distribution of the colonies of these wasps has expanded from the galilee to the northern negev. most cases of mastitis appeared during august and september when the wasps were most ...19989684301
evaluation of experimental teat dip containing sodium chlorite and lactic acid by excised teat assay.an experimental teat dip containing sodium chlorite and lactic acid, diluted in water, was evaluated by excised teat protocol. the teat dip was tested against 21 microorganisms. included were: staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, streptococcus uberis, escherichia coli, klebsiella oxytoca, klebsiella pneumoniae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. numerous strains were tested for strain differences. environmental bacteria were included because of their increasing i ...19846530497
mastitis--progress on control.mastitis has been investigated for over 100 yr, but progress in control has been slow. the reasons for this are complex. mastitis is caused by several types of infection, each with a different etiology. the possible methods for control are eradication, immunization, therapy, breeding resistant cows, or by improved management factors, but in practice success has been achieved only with the latter. the first practical control was based on specific hygiene methods coupled with the improved use of a ...19836352750
five homologous repeats of the protein g-related protein mig cooperate in binding to goat immunoglobulin g.protein mig, from streptococcus dysgalactiae, binds alpha2-macroglobulin and immunoglobulin g (igg). mig-derived fusion proteins with one to five igg-binding repeats differed up to 72,000- fold in avidity for goat igg, indicating a considerable cooperativity of the repeats. significant sequence variation in the igg-binding repeats was recognized. protein mig interacted with goat igg1 via both the fc and fab parts.19999864244
multiple specificities of the staphylococcal and streptococcal fibronectin-binding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules.many pathogenic gram-positive bacteria express fibronectin (fn)-binding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (mscramms), most of which have a similar structural organization with a primary ligand-binding domain consisting of 3-6 repeats of 40-50 amino-acid-residue motifs. the mscramms appear to preferentially bind to the n-terminal region of fn, which is composed of five type-i modules. here we report that the fn-binding mscramm fnbpa of staphylococcus aureus contai ...19989874261
subtyping of streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mammary secretions by dna fingerprinting.streptococcus dysgalactiae and streptococcus uberis isolated from mammary secretions of cows from tennessee and new zealand were subtyped using polymerase chain reaction-based dna fingerprinting. such dna fingerprinting using primer 8.6d (5'-gtaacgcc3') resulted in categorizing 116 s. dysgalactiae isolates into 25 different subtypes, with 17 subtypes observed in isolates from tennessee and eight in isolates from new zealand. all s. dysgalactiae dna fingerprint profiles, regardless of origin, con ...19989916549
surface display of functional fibronectin-binding domains on staphylococcus carnosus.the surface expression in staphylococcus carnosus of three different fibronectin binding domains (fnbds), derived from fibronectin binding proteins of streptococcus dysgalactiae and staphylococcus aureus, has been investigated. surface localization of the chimeric proteins containing the fnbds was demonstrated. all three surface-displayed fnbds were demonstrated to bind fibronectin in whole-cell enzyme-linked binding assays. furthermore, for one of the constructs, intranasal immunizations with t ...199910100862
purification and properties of a receptor for the fc-component of immunoglobulin g from streptococcus dysgalactiae.a receptor for the fc-component (fcr) of immunoglobulin (ig) g was isolated from the cell-free supernatant of a streptococcus dysgalactiae-culture by affinity chromatography on human igg-sepharose. the single-step procedure yielded purified fcr with a specific activity of 1.1 x 10(6) u/mg protein. it had an estimated molecular weight of 78 000 dalton and an isoelectric point between ph 4.0 and 4.5. it was destroyed by pronase e and was sensitive to trypsin. purified fcr gave strong single precip ...19836232781
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