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immunoprecipitation and opsonic cross-reaction between type-14 pneumococcus and group-b streptococcus type iii.antisera directed against type-14 pneumococcus was opsonic for several strains of type-iii group-b streptococcus. furthermore, the polysaccharide antigen in the polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine reacted to form precipitation lines with antisera directed against type-14 pneumococcus and group-b streptococcus type iii immunisation with currently available pneumococcal vaccine may provide opsonic antibody against group-b streptococci and provide a method of preventing neonatal group-b streptococcal i ...197984130
nasal colonization of infants with group b streptococcus associated with intrauterine pressure transducers.the rate of nasal colonization with group b streptococcus in infants cultured at the time of discharge from the nursery rose significantly during a four-month interval. investigation of this trend resulted in detection of group b streptococci in the domes of two intrauterine pressure transducers (ipts). subsequent routine sterilization of ipt domes after each maternal use was associated with a decline in infant group b streptococcal colonization to the usual endemic rate in the nursery. retrospe ...1978105055
immunogenicity of polysaccharides from type iii, group b streptococcus.the immunogenicity and safety of two polysaccharides isolated from type iii, group b streptococcus, were tested in adults selected for existing low concentrations of natural antibody to the capsular polysaccharide of this organism. both vaccine preparations (trichloroacetic acid and edta) were found to lack pyrogenicity and toxicity for experimental animals. a single 50-microgram subcutaneous injection of either polysaccharide in human subjects elicited significant increase in antibody concentra ...197896132
significance of radiographic findings in early-onset group b streptococcal infection.chest radiographs on 73 neonates with early-onset group b streptococcus (gbs) infection were reviewed. eighty-six percent of the infants were premature (less than 38 weeks); 68% weighed less than or equal to 1,500 g. in infants weighing less than or equal to 1,500 g, the predominant radiographic pattern was hyaline membrane disease (hmd) (80%). there was a significant increase in radiographic hmd in 1,000 to 1,500-g neonates with gbs infection (77%) when compared to a control group of infants wi ...1977331225
mouse protection test for group b streptococcus type iii.the mouse model has been used previously for the study of protection against challenge with strains of group b streptococcus types ia, ib, and ic, but investigators have not yet been successful in causing lethal disease when type iii strains are inoculated. in this study, six clinical isolates belonging to serotype iii were lethal in seven-week-old outbred albino mice; the 50% lethal dose (ld50) for mice tested ranged from 1.8 x 10(4) to 4.6 x 10(6). in contrast, a laboratory prototype strain of ...197988492
immunochemical characterization of native polysaccharides from group b streptococcus: the relationship of the type iii and group b determinants. 197880423
perinatal immunity to group b beta-hemolytic streptococcus type ia.sera from 14 of 56 adult women protected mice from intraperitoneal challenge with mouse-virulent group b streptococcus serotype ia, and sera from seven of 25 nonparturient women in this group were bactericidal for greater than 99% of the organisms in the presence of normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. there were no discrepancies between the in vivo and in vitro assays. protective activity was found in the igg class in seven sera, and in the igm class in one. opsonic activity was partially depen ...197772125
immunological investigation of infants with septicemia or meningitis due to group b streptococcus.purified polysaccharide from type iii group b streptococcus contains both a type iii-specific determinant and another determinant that is common to strains of serotypes other than type iii. the polysaccharide contains sialic acid, galactose, heptose, glucose, glucosamine, and mannose. serum antibody to this antigen was measured by means of a radioactive antigen-binding assay. sera from 36 (67.9%) of 53 women with healthy newoborns contained antibody, a prevalence significantly different from tha ...197770493
summary of the workshop on perinatal infections due to group b streptococcus. 197769669
pulmonary changes in neonatal sepsis to group b beta-hemolytic streptococcus: relation of hyaline membrane disease.the radiographic changes of hyaline membrane disease were seen in seven of eight infants with group b beta-hemolytic streptococcal sepsis. hyaline membranes were found throughout the lungs of all six infants who were examined after death. the most striking finding was the presence of group b streptococci within the membranes of five infants. streptococci were so numerous in one instance that they comprised the bulk of the membrane. another infant uas thought to have classical hyaline membrane di ...197657196
complement activation and group b streptococcal infection in the newborn: similarities to endotoxin shock.serial measurements of ch50, c3, c4, and factor b were performed on three newborn infants with group b streptococcal sepsis. two of the septic infants had a colonized but noninfected identical twin. all three infants with group b streptococcal sepsis had hypotension, prolonged coagulation times, neutropenia, and respiratory failure. during the course of the sepsis, factor b was depressed 30% to 35%, c3 was depressed 40% to 60%, and ch50 was depressed by 100% when compared to their cord blood lev ...1977341069
immunochemical characterization of the "native" type iii polysaccharide of group b streptococcus.the type iii polysaccharide of -roup b streptococcus has been isolated and purified by a method that employs washing of intact cells at neutral ph. that the polysaccharide prepared by this procedure is the "native" type iii antigen is suggested by its molecular size in excess of 10(6) daltons, its degradation by acid and heat treatment to a fragment with immunologic characteristics of the classical hcl antigen, and its type-specific serologic activity. the type iii polysaccharide in native form ...197655450
identification of sialic acid in polysaccharide antigens in group b streptococcus.by means of paper chromatographic techniques with purified, sialic acid-containing, bacterial antigen standards, sialic acid, as well as galactose and glucosamine, have been identified as components of each type-specific antigen of group b streptococcus. rhamnose was not detected in the group b antigen isolated by the classical hcl and heat extraction method.197655386
immunochemical cross-reactions between type iii group b streptococcus and type 14 streptococcus pneumoniae.serological cross-reactions between certain streptococci and some serotypes of streptococcus pneumoniae have been reported. these studies detail the serological cross-reactivity observed between hot hcl-extracted group b streptococcus type iii (gbs iii) antigens and s. pneumoniae type 14 (pn 14) polysaccharide. similar electrophoretic migration patterns of gbs iii and pn 14 were observed when either type-specific bgs iii antisera or pneumococcal omniserum was utilized to precipitate these antige ...197940876
comparison of staphylococcal coagglutination, latex agglutination, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis for bacterial antigen detection.soluble antigens of haemophilus influenzae type b, streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis, and group b streptococcus were looked for in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and urine by using the staphylococcal coagglutination test, latex agglutination test, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. the staphylococcal coaggultination and latex agglutination tests were more sensitive than counterimmunoelectrophoresis in identifying antigens of h. influenzae type b, s. pneumoniae, and n. meningitidis. no ...197934622
isolation of type-specific polysaccharide antigen from group b type ib streptococci.group b streptococcus type ib (strain h36b) was subjected to digestion with extracellular muralytic enzymes prepared from streptomyces albus. type ib-specific polysaccharide antigen was isolated from the lysate by alcohol precipitation and sepharose 6b chromatography. the purified type ib antigen has a kd value of 0.31 on a sepharose 4b column and contains four sugars, galactose, glucose, n-acetyl glucosamine, and sialic acid in a molar ratio of 2.05:0.86:1.00:0.90. acid treatment (ph 2.0) of th ...197933225
prospects for the prevention of bacterial meningitis with polysaccharide vaccines.most suppurative infections of the meninges are caused by five bacterial species: escherichia coli, haemophilus influenzae type b, streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis, and group b streptococcus. the immune response of adults to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides has been studied in great detail and their responses to meningococcal and h. influenzae type b capsular polysaccharides are quite similar. immune responses of adults to e. coli and group b streptococcal antigens are disap ...197831985
early-onset pneumococcal sepsis in newborn infants.five infants with pneumococcal sepsis presented with respiratory distress and clinical signs of infection in the first day of life. although there was no apparent epidemiological relationship among the patients, four of the five were seen within a 12-month period. pneumonia, prolonged rupture of fetal membranes, and prematurity were features in these patients. three infants died, two within 12 hours of diagnosis. streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the vagina of three of the mothers; in t ...197719725
microcapsule of type iii strains of group b streptococcus: production and morphology.the yield of purified type iii polysaccharide of group b streptococcus was significantly improved by modification of the growth medium. culture of organisms in standard todd-hewitt broth resulted in acid accumulation during the exponential phase of growth and poor yield of type iii polysaccharide when extracted from cells by washing with neutral buffer solution. by increasing the buffering capacity of the broth medium, acid accumulation was prevented, and the number of viable cells was increased ...19762557
an etiologic shift in infantile osteomyelitis: the emergence of the group b streptococcus.twenty-one infants from six to 52 days of age (mean 23.3 days) with osteomyelitis were studied between 1965 and 1977. the etiologic agents were group b streptococcus (8), staphylococcus aureus (6), gramnegative bacilli (4), streptococcus pneumoniae (1), and unknown (2). patients with group b streptococcal osteomyelitis were characterized by an uncomplicated neonatal course, single bone involvement with a predilection for involvement of the proximal humerus, and lack of inflammatory signs. in con ...1978359771
streptococcus group b: an old bug with new dangers.infection of the newborn infant with group b hemolytic streptococcus is increasing in importance as other pathogens decline. such infection may appear within the first 48 hours of life and resemble respiratory distress syndrome, or around the tenth day, when signs of meningeal irritation may be present. early onset disease may be due to any of the five serotypes of the group b streptococcus and is fatal in a high percentage of cases. late onset infection usually is due to serotype iii. the epide ...1977330610
radiographic findings in early onset neonatal group b streptococcal septicemia.chest roentgenograms obtained in the first two days of life from 67 infants with respiratory distress were reviewed to determine whether the radiographic features of group b streptococcal septicemia were diagnostic or distinctive. the retrospective review contained 24 infants with proven and 14 with suspected septicemia, as well as 29 patients with other causes of respiratory distress. the films were reviewed in random order by two pediatric radiologists without their prior knowledge of clinical ...1977325489
group b streptococci in the female genital tract and nosocomial colonization of newborns.in a long-term study, rates for group b streptococcus prevalence in the vagina and/or anus of nonpregnant women and pregnant women in the first trimester and in the second trimester were found as follows: 7.1%, 7.3% and 5.4% respectively. at delivery, positivity rates of 4.8% and 3.8% were found for mothers and newborns, respectively. each pair of strains isolated from mother and newborn was of the same serotype. in 13.6% of newborns nosocomial colonization of the upper respiratory tract occurre ...1978367004
serological cross-reactivity between group b streptococcus and sporothrix schenckii, ceratocystis species, and graphium species.serological cross-reactivity of a group b streptococcus (h36b) with sporothrix schenckii and 39 different ceratocystis and graphium species was investigated by double immunodiffusion. rabbit anti-h36b serum reacted with antigens from s. schenckii and from 36 of 39 ceratocystis and graphium species. it is speculated that low-titer agglutinins to s. schenckii in normal sera are due to antibodies raised against various bacteria which share common antigens with s. schenckii.1977324913
new cause of penicillin treatment failure.a large empyema infected with a penicillin-sensitive haemolytic group b streptococcus failed to respond to high doses of penicillin. after two weeks' treatment the pus aspirated was found not only to contain no penicillin, but also to inactivate penicillin added to it. we believe that the inactivating agent is an enzyme that may destroy various penicillins and cephalosporins but has no effect on other common antibiotics. when treatment was changed to doxycycline the patient made a rapid recovery ...1977322815
vaginal colonization with group b streptococcus: a study in college women.vaginal specimens for culture of group b streptococcus and anonymous questionnaires were obtained from 499 college women. group b streptococcus was isolated from 90 (18.0%) of the participants. a selective broth medium was more sensitive for detection of vaginal isolates (85 of 493; 17.2%) than was direct inoculation of blood agar plates (44 of 466; 9.4%). the most prevalent serotypes among the isolates were type iii (37.9%) and type ii (25.3%). logit analysis identified four factors associated ...1977321702
a review of laboratory methods for identification of group b streptococci (streptococcus agalactiae).a selected review is presented of the history of group b streptococcal infections and the laboratory tests used to identify group b streptococcus (streptococcus agalactiae), an opportunistic pathogen which causes serious infections in newborn infants and compromised patients in other age groups. its isolation may be increased by growth in a selective medium. the methods for group b streptococci identification include the hydrolysis of sodium hippurate, the camp reaction, pigment production, and ...1979371403
rectal colonization with group b streptococcus: relation to vaginal colonization of pregnant women.anorectal carriage as a possible primary source of vaginal colonization by group b streptococcus was investigated. the study was performed during two separate periods and included 789 pregnant women and 422 neonates. specimens from multiple sites were obtained for culture from all women and infants and were streaked onto blood agar plates containing 8 mug of gentamicin sulfate/ml and 15 mug of nalidixic acid/ml, which allow selective growth of streptococci. cultures positive for group b streptoc ...1977320278
effect of storage processes on the bacterial growth-inhibiting activity of human breast milk.human breast milk samples were collected from lactating mothers, and aliquots were maintained at room temperature, frozen, and pasteurized. samples were inoculated with 10 to 50 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml) of escherichia coli or group b streptococcus, and incubated at 37 c. quantitative growth was measured at eight and 24 hours. no inhibitory activity was demonstrated by control broth, commercial formula, and pasteurized breast milk, which had a rapid logarithmic growth to a max ...1979375180
suprarenal abscess due to group b streptococcus. 1979376807
neonatal sepsis at the johns hopkins hospital, 1969-1975: bacterial isolates and clinical correlates.the experience with neonatal sepsis at the johns hopkins hospital during 1969-1975 was reviewed. major pathogens included escherichia coli, group b streptococcus, other streptococci, and klebsiella. nineteen percent of coliform isolates were kanamycin-resistant. the frequency of recovery of e. coli was increased in early-onset sepsis, and the frequency of recovery of klebsiella was increased in late-onset sepsis. the mortality rate was 23%. the frequency of recovery of e. coli was increased in f ...1977319288
perinatal infections: prevention of long-term sequelae.all the congenital infections and most of the natal and postnatally acquired infections of man are associated with disease of the central nervous system and long-term sequelae in the survivors. the most important perinatal pathogens in this regard are group b streptococcus, escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma gondii and herpes simplex virus. all these agents are the subject of active and, in some instances, promising investigation. the strategies for prevent ...1979233357
colonization with group b streptococci in girls under 16 years of age.cultures from the vagina, pharynx, and anal canal of 100 healthy girls, 2 months through 15 years of age, were examined for the presence of group b streptococci. of the 100 participants, 20% were colonized at one or more of these three sites. pharyngeal colonization was detected in 15% of the girls under 11 years of age and in 5% of those over 11 years of age. colonization at anogenital sites were observed in 19% of participants under 3 years of age, in 25% of those 11 years of age and older, an ...1977333366
streptococcus group b typing: comparison of counter-immunoelectrophoresis with the precipitin method.the method of counter-immunoelectrophoresis (cie) was tested for its applicability to group b streptococcus typing. the results obtained were compared with the typing by the ring precipitin test. identical antigens and identical hyperimmune typing serum batches had been used in both methods. a large majority of 75 freshly isolated strains were typed identically by both methods. five strains with a weak antigenic outfit were untypable by the ring precipitin test but were typed by cie owing to a h ...1977333825
neonatal lung abscess. a report of six cases.six infants 8 weeks of age or younger had lung abscesses treated in our medical center during the 20-year period of from 1957 to 1977. the duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, the etiologic organisms, and the therapeutic approach differ from those in older children and adults. the pathogenic organisms were escherichia coli, group b streptococcus, and klebsiella pneumoniae, initial therapy with a penicillin and an aminoglycoside are indicated until identification and susceptibility results ar ...1979382838
loss of plasmid-mediated resistance after conversion of a group b streptococcus strain to a stable cell wall deficient variant.a group b streptococcus strain carrying plasmid dna determining resistance to several drugs was converted by penicillin to cell wall (cw) defective and then to cw deficient variants (l-forms). the stable cw deficient variants became susceptible to antibiotics in study. dye-buoyant density analysis of the dna of cw deficient variants showed that the loss of antibiotic resistance was associated with the loss of extrachromosomal dna.1979382949
countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in group b streptococcal disease.countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis was used for the detection of group- and type-specific antigens in the body fluids of 61 infants from st. louis and indiana with group b streptococcal infections. urine concentrated using an amicon filter yielded the highest percentage of positive results; 81% were positive in the st louis group. when three body fluids (urine, csf, and blood) were available, at least one was positive for group b streptococcus in 95% of the cases. this study demonstrates the a ...1979386239
malignant group b streptococcal endocarditis associated with saline-induced abortion.a 20-year-old woman developed acute group b streptococcal endocarditis following saline-induced abortion. in the pre-antibiotic era, most cases of group b streptococcal endocarditis occurred in parturient or postabortal women. currently, this disease is rarely described in obstetrical patients, and no previous cases following saline-induced abortion have been reported. purulent pericarditis and a perivalvular abscess were present in our patient and represent only the second instance in which the ...1979389576
myocardial abscess and fatal sepsis caused by group b streptococcus (s agalactiae) in an adult. 1979390721
indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of haemophilus influenzae type b infection.we report the development and testing of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with excellent sensitivity for the detection of haemophilus influenzae type b (hi(b)) antigen in clinical specimens from patients with hi(b) meningitis. the assay, an indirect sandwich technique, uses polystyrene balls as a solid phase and an alkaline phosphatase-labeled goat anti-rabbit globulin conjugate. specimens are incubated with polystyrene balls armed with burro anti-hi(b) antiserum, and recognition antibody is ...1979393714
immunodeterminant specificity of human immunity to type iii group b streptococcus.the type iii polysaccharides of group b streptococcus in its native state chemically consists of glucose, galactose, glucosamine, and sialic acid. the core of this polysaccharide lacks sialic acid and precipitates with type iii antiserum to give a partial identity with the precipitate between the native antigen and this serum. the core determinant is immunochemically similar to the capsular polysaccharide of type xiv streptococcus pneumoniae, while the native type iii group b streptococcal polys ...197984042
necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing cellulitis due to group b streptococcus. 1977333902
group b streptococcus (s. agalactiae) bacteremia in adults: analysis of 32 cases and review of the literature. 1977335186
early neonatal bacteraemia. comparison of group b streptococcal, other gram-positive and gram-negative infections.all cases of neonatal bacteraemia associated with clinical illness occurring at hammersmith hospital, over a 9-year period, 1967-1975 inclusive, have been reviewed. the infants studied were those born in the hospital's maternity unit and those admitted from other hospitals from a wide area round london who were ill or of low birthweight. positive blood cultures occurred in 91 infants, 47 of them in the first 48 hours of life. these 47 infants were analysed separately and divided into three group ...1977335983
endocarditis with myocardial abscesses and pericarditis in an adult: group b streptococcus as a cause.group b beta-hemolytic streptococcus, s agalactiae, is an uncommon cause of endocarditis in adults. we present the clinical, laboratory, and postmortem findings of an adult patient with group b streptococcal endocarditis and major arterial emboli. what to our knowledge are previously unreported features are purulent pericarditis and myocardial abscesses. twenty-five cases of endocarditis caused by group b streptococcus that are reported in the literature are reviewed.1977337917
rapid bioassay for clindamycin alone and in the presence of aminoglycoside antibiotics.a rapid bioassay for determination of concentrations of clindamycin in serum was developed with use of a strain of lancefield group b streptococcus (streptococcus agalactiae) that is uniformly resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics, tetracycline, and polymyxin. an agar diffusion assay system was used that included the addition of patient's sera and three standard concentrations of clindamycin to 5-mm wells cut in the seeded agar. pretreatment of serum with penicillinase allowed measurement of c ...1977409783
multiple polysaccharide antigens of group b streptococcus, type ia: emphasis on a sialic acid type-specific polysaccharide.group b streptococci, type ia (strain 090/14/4), were subjected to sequential extraction procedures and the various extracts were fractionated by a combination of deae-cellulose chromatography and gel-filtration. three major antigens were isolated: the conventional group-specific and type-specific carbohydrates and an acidic polysaccharide consisting of galactose, glucose, glucosamine, and sialic acid. immunochemical data suggest that the acidic antigen, with the exception of the immunodominant ...197768081
group b streptococcal meningitis associated with a csf fistula.an elderly man had group b streptococcal meningitis. the infection may have seeded the meninges through a rhinocerebral fistula. despite the frequency of nasopharyngeal colonization with this organism, reports of adult meningitis secondary to group b streptococcus are rare; to our knowledge, no previous cases specifically associated with rhinocerebral fistula have been described. reasons for the discrepancy between the frequency of nasopharyngeal colonization and the rarity of meningitis are sug ...1978341863
osteomyelitis due to group b streptococcus in a diabetic adolescent. 1978344851
rapid, colorimetric test for the determination of hippurate hydrolysis by group b streptococcus.a colorimetric test for the determination of hippurate hydrolysis was developed. brain heart infusion broth made with 1% sodium hippurate served as the test medium. hydrolysis was determined by the addition of two chemical developers, m (rhodamine b) and a (uranium acetate). a dark pink color indicated hydrolysis; no color change indicated no hydrolysis. the method was efficacious in either rapid or overnight incubation. one hundred twenty-five strains of group b, 44 strains of group a, 15 strai ...1976767358
obstetric observations in eleven cases of neonatal sepsis due to the group b beta hemolytic streptococcus.neonatal sepsis due to group b streptococcus is reported to be increasing, but the reasons are unclear. eleven cases from a single hospital were reviewed for common obstetric factors. frequent observations associated with 8 surviving infants were maternal infection, early evaluation and treatment of the newborn, and 4+ or 5+ growth on maternal cultures. in contrast, mothers of the 3 infants who died had no clinical signs of infection, and cultures were not obtained. all 11 infants had direct mon ...1976768844
group b beta-hemolytic streptococci in an intramural neonatal population.an intramural population of 2480 neonates (88.7% of total births at the grace maternity hospital, halifax, canada) was studied by rectal swabs collected within one hour after birth. group b streptococci were recovered from 54 (21.7/1000 livebirths). of these, 12(4.8/1000 livebirths) became symptomatic; all were term infants and none was born after prolonged membrane rupture. two infants with pneumonia (0.8/1000) had severe life threatening illness; one was infected with group b streptococcus, se ...1978345422
immunity to the group b streptococci: interaction of serum and macrophages with types ia, ib, and ic.the opsonization and phagocytosis of group b streptococci of types ia, ib, and ic were studied in vitro by measuring the uptake of radioactivity by coverslip cultures of rabbit alevolar macrophages during incubation with radiolabeled, nonviable bacteria which had been exposed to rabbit serum. the uptake of counts per minute was quantitative, reproducible, and reversibly inhibited by cold, indicating that it was largely a measurement of phagocytic ingestion rather than of attachment of bacteria-i ...1976772153
streptococcal endocarditis initially seen as septic arthritis.two patients were initially seen with culture-positive streptococcal arthritis as an early manifestation of bacterial endocarditis. the organisms were an alpha-hemolytic, nongroup d streptococcus and a beta-hemolytic, group b streptococcus. one patient had a persistent septic monarthritis; the other had migratory arthritis in which a positive synovial culture was followed by a negative culture from the same joint before antimicrobial treatment was started. this experience suggests that some ster ...1978348136
epidemiology of group b streptococcus: longitudinal observations during pregnancy.a longitudinal, three-year study of the epidemiology of group b streptococcus was conducted with repeated (four to 11) observations of 382 patients followed through pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. group b streptococci (2.3% of which were nonhemolytic) were isolated from the birth canal at first visit from 15% of the patients and from 28% with repeated cultures. overall, group b streptococci were isolated at 12% of culture visits. streptococcal carriage was significantly less comm ...1978351070
[colonization of the pregnant woman and the newborn by group b streptococcus: therapeutic and preventive implications].in a search for group b streptococci, vagina and urethra of 196 pregnant women entering the delivery room were cultured using a selective medium. sixteen (8.2%) were positive. fifteen (15%) of 101 nonpregnant women cultured similarly during a clinical consultation were positive. esogastric aspiration fluid of 199 neonates from the former group of women was also cultured: 8 (4.0%) were positive. thus, maternal genital colonization was accompanied by neonatal contamination in 7 of 16 cases (43%). ...1978353974
group b streptococcus endocarditis in a prosthetic valve. 1978354543
failure of penicillin to eradicate the carrier state of group b streptococcus in infants.serial cultures were obtained from 12 patients being treated with a form of penicillin for group b streptococcal disease or asymptomatic colonization. these cultures were collected prior to initiation of therapy, during therapy, and at the end of the treatment period. pencillin eradicated gbs from the involved system (blood, csf, bone, and joint). cultures remained positive from at least one of three carrier sites (throat, umbilicus, and rectum) in 70% of patients cultured between days one and e ...1976781199
[group b streptococcus infections during the neonatal period (author's transl)].nowadays, in severe infections during the neonatal period new bacteria--group b streptococci--have to be taken into account, since in some clinics they already predominate over gramnegative rods. septicemia and meningitis may be caused by group b streptococci. the septicemia which especially threatents prematures starts with apnoeic spells in the very first hours after birth and may be easily misdiagnosed as an idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. the mortality is very high (about 60%). men ...1978357954
characterization of and bovine intramammary infection by group b streptococcus agalactiae of human origin. 1975802765
immunochemistry of purified polysaccharide type antigens of group b streptococcal types ia, ib, and ic.the hcl-extracted purified polysaccharide type antigens of group b streptococcus types ia and ib were composed of galactose and n-acetylglucosamine in a molar ratio of 3:1 for the ia antigen and 2:1 for the ib antigen. immunochemical data were the same for the ia antigens of type ia, purified in this study, and type ic, purified earlier. glucosamine inhibited the ib quantitative precipitin reactions more effectively than did n-acetylglucosamine, whereas the reverse was true of the ia reaction. o ...1975804441
group b streptococcal osteomyelitis in adults.osteomyelitis due to group b streptococcus occurred in two adult male patients. both patients responded to parenteral penicillin g. a review of the literature verifies that group b streptococcus has been an exceedingly rare cause of osteomyelitis in adults.1978362544
ampicillin prevents intrapartum transmission of group b streptococcus.early-onset group b streptococcus (gbs) disease in the infant is acquired by vertical transmission from the mother colonized with gbs. thirty-four women colonized with gbs were treated with intravenous ampicillin sodium during labor. none of their infants were colonized with gbs at birth or within 48 hours. twenty-four women colonized with gbs received no antibiotic therapy; 14 (58%) of their infants were colonized with gbs at birth or by 48 hours. this difference was highly significant. mechani ...1979368363
recurrent group b streptococcal infections: report of three cases.the group b streptococcus has become a leading cause of neonatal infection. despite the increasing incidence of this infection, recurrence in the same patient is extremely uncommon. this report describes three infants with proved recurrent group b streptococcal disease. all patients were treated with benzylpenicillin for at least 10 days, but, after a symptom-free interval, each developed symptoms again. whether the illness in these patients represents a relapse or a true reinfection is difficul ...1979368966
group b streptococcal colonization and antibody status in lower socioeconomic parturient women.this investigation was undertaken to determine the prevalence of group b streptococcal vaginal and throat colonization among lower socioeconomic pregnant women and the antibody concentration to the capsular polysaccharide antigen of type iii group b streptococcus in their sera. group b streptococci were recovered from 28.6 per cent of the 112 women studied; vaginal colonization was detected in 23.4 per cent, throat colonization in 4.7 per cent, and colonization at both sites in 0.9 per cent of t ...1979369376
electron microscopic definition of surface antigens of group b streptococcus.strains representing each of the five serologically distinct types of group b streptococcus and variant strain 090r, which is devoid of type-specific polysaccharide, were studied by electron microscopy after incubation with various ferritin-conjugated antibodies. ferritin-conjugated types ia, ii and iii antibodies localized on homologous cells in a pattern that defines the capsular location of the type ia, ii, and iii polysaccharide antigen. type ib and ic cells have surface antigens to which fe ...1979374641
vertical transmission of group b streptococcus. relation to intrauterine fetal monitoring.a prospective study of 70 mother-infant pairs was designed to evaluate vertical transmission of group b streptococcus (gbs) in relation to the use of intrauterine fetal monitors (iufms). multiple-site cultures obtained from mothers during the intrapartum interval and those obtained from infants on day 1 and at discharge or day 4 were plated on a selective medium. thirteen (27.1%) of 48 iufm-exposed women vs seven (31.8%) of 22 non-iufm-exposed women had gbs at one or more sites. the gbs coloniza ...1979376881
[maternal carriage and vertical transmission of group b streptococcus (gbs)].the pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis are common diseases of gbs infection in infants. there are early-onset and late-onset types in this disease, the result of the infection is unknown. m. sugiyama reported that m9 is a new type of gbs in japan in 1989. analysis of gbs typing and serum specific antibody concentrations of the type are simple with new technics. by studying the infants' contamination we discovered that gbs appeared to originate from mother-infant sources. the infants were followed ...19921293221
epidemiology of the group b streptococcus: maternal and nosocomial sources for infant acquisitions.repeated bacteriologic observations were made in 462 newborn infants and correlated with similar data from their mothers to evaluate the relative contributions of the birth canal and the hospital environment to acquisition of group b streptococci in the first few days of life. fifty-eight percent of infants whose mothers were intrapartum carriers acquired streptococci in comparison with 12% of those whose mothers were noncarriers. acquisitions from the birth canal were not influenced by the rou ...1979381619
plasmids mediating multiple drug resistance in group b streptococcus: transferability and molecular properties. 1979382199
group b streptococcal sepsis with osteomyelitis and arthritis. its occurrence with acute heart failure.in a 20-day-old female infant, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and pyogenic arthritis developed due to infection with group b streptococcus, type ic. she had an unusual clinical presentation with overwhelming sepsis and acute congestive heart failure.1979382836
human immunity to group b streptococci measured by indirect immunofluorescence: correlation with protection in chick embryos.an indirect immunofluorescence (if) assay has been developed as a useful semiquantitative method for determination of type-specific igg antibody in human sera to the five serotypes of group b streptococcus. antibody titers measured by if correlated with passive protection in chick embryos, and antibody titers associated with chick embryo protection were delineated. except for types ia and ic, if antibody to each of the streptococcal types was completely absorbed by homologous strains, and antibo ...1979393777
opsonic specificity of human antibody to the type iii polysaccharide of group b streptococcus.the functional significance of vaccine-induced or naturally acquired antibody to the capsular polysaccharide of type iii group b streptococcus was determined in human sera by means of an opsonophagocytic assay. sera containing a sufficient concentration of type-specific antibody and endogenous serum complement caused a significant reduction (greater than 1 log10) in colony-forming units for each of 22 type iii clinical isolates after incubation for 40 min. in contrast, serum with a very low conc ...1979396335
[study of vaginal colonization by group b streptococcus. importance of the transportation of samples and means of isolation]. 1979396609
changes and changing concepts in the biology of group a streptococci and in the epidemiology of streptococcal infections.concepts of the cellular structure of group a streptococci have been modified by the recognition of surface fimbriae and by problems with the older view of a layered arrangement of cell wall components. evidence of genetic drift of serologic types and of some increase in the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant strains has appeared. a curiois bimodal age distribution for streptococcal pharyngitis and an increase in the prevalence of non-group a strains has been detected. despite repeated challen ...1979399388
neonatal group b streptococcal infection.group b streptococcus is now recognized as a major cause of serious neonatal infection. between january 1973 and july 1979 35 infants with 'early onset' group b streptococcal infection were admitted to the special nursery, aberdeen maternity hospital. ten infants died, nine of whom were of low birth weight. current research is directed towards defining 'high risk' groups and establishing an effective means of prevention. the concept of early administration of antibiotics to 'high risk' infants, ...1979399902
on the relationship between glycerophosphoglycolipids and lipoteichoic acids in gram-positive bacteria. ii. structures of glycerophosphoglycolipids.1. eight glycerophosphoglycolipids were isolated from six gram-positive bacteria. besides sn-glycero-1-phospho-beta-gentiobiosyldiacylglycerol (i) and sn-glycero-1-phospho-alpha-kojibiosyldiacylglycerol (ii), three novel structures have been established: 1,2-di-o-acyl-3-o-[6-(sn-glycero-1-phospho)-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 2)-(6-o-acyl-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl)]glycerol (iii), 1,2-di-o-acyl-3-o-[6-(sn-glycero-1-phospho)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 6)-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 lead ...1978416848
mixed bacterial and fungal meningitis in a neonate.mixed infections of the central nervous system occurring in children without underlying neurological disease may be more frequent than previously suspected. in this case report, a neonate whose cerebrospinal fluid culture at 24 hours showed group b streptococcus only, was found on postmortem examination at six days of age to have disseminated candidiasis with cerebral abscesses. the degree of systemic involvement in this newborn suggested intra-uterine acquired candidiasis. early diagnosis of po ...1979574475
significance of positive cervical cultures for chlamydia trachomatis in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes.we tested the hypothesis that in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes the presence of chlamydia trachomatis in the cervix shortens the latent period (time from rupture of membranes to delivery) and increases the incidence of chorioamnionitis and early endometritis. a total of 178 conservatively managed patients with prom between 22 and 35 weeks' gestation had cervical cultures for chlamydia, group b streptococcus (gbs) and neisseria gonorrhoeae performed at the time of rupture. p ...19921418135
group b streptococcal colonization in the diabetic gravida patient.previous reports have suggested that pregnant diabetic patients have higher carriage rates of group b streptococcus (gbs) than nondiabetic gravidas. in order to evaluate this in our population, we cultured the posterior pharynx, endocervix, vagina, and rectum of 101 diabetic pregnant women and 100 nondiabetic gravida patients. the colonization rate of gbs was higher in the diabetic population, 31.7%, than in the nondiabetic group 19.0%, (p < 0.039). the vagina was the site most often positive in ...19921418148
bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells: a cell culture model of bacterial superinfection.mdck cells (a line of stable canine kidney cells) infected with influenza a/nws/33 virus (a neurotropic variant of the wilson smith strain) were tested with 18 selected bacterial species to determine whether mammalian cells become susceptible to bacterial adherence as a result of virus infection. cell monolayers were washed and examined microscopically for adherence. bacteria of only two of 18 species were seen to adhere to the infected cells: a group b streptococcus and streptococcus sanguis. c ...1978627737
chemical nature of a substance isolated from a group b streptococcus causing the "camp" reaction.a purification method for the "camp" factor is described. the purified preparation obtained is a peptide with a molecular weight of about 15 000. amino acid analysis has shown that this peptide contains an appreciable amount of hydroxyproline.1975769682
experimental group b streptococcal infections in mice: hematogenous virulence and mucosal colonization.a group b streptococcus recovered from a blood specimen from a neonate with sepsis was used to evaluate the use of mice for studies characterizing the hematogenous virulence and the asymptomatic mucosal colonization of the vagina or of the respiratory tract by these bacteria. when injected intravenously, the 50% lethal dose for mice was 10(6); however, as few as 10(2) organisms produced septic deaths. in mice undergoing water diuresis, bacteriuria and pyelonephritis were not produced after direc ...1976773831
letter: persistent group b streptococcus bacteremia without clinical "sepsis" in infants. 1976775043
letter: bilateral breast abscess due to group b streptococcus. 1976775967
recurrence of group b streptococcal infection.it is clear that the group b streptococcus has become a major pathogen of young infants within the comparatively recent past. further it is clear that, as with other endemic and epidemic pathogens, increasing clinical and laboratory experience brings to light variations not initially evident. in addition, therapy presumably effective in initial cases may not continue to be so. the following papers by coincidence were received over a relatively brief period of time. hence, for emphasis of some of ...1976781195
group b streptococcal disease in the united states, 1990: report from a multistate active surveillance system.group b streptococcal (gbs) disease is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in the united states. it is also an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and adults with underlying medical conditions. because most states have not designated gbs disease as a reportable condition, previous estimates of the incidence of gbs disease were based on studies from single hospitals or small geographic areas. this report summarizes the results of population-based active surveilla ...19921470102
comparison of bacteriological methods for the isolation of group of b streptococcus from vaginal cultures.three bacteriological techniques for the isolation of group b streptococci in vaginal cultures were compared. a selective broth medium (sbm) containing gentamicin and nalidixic acid was more sensitive for the detection of vaginal isolates (28/76, 36.8%) from 76 women enrolled in a venereal disease clinic than was an identical selective plate medium (spm) (17/76, 25%). similarly, sbm allowed identification of positive cultures from college women (82/459, 17.9%) significantly more often than direc ...1976783189
maternal abo blood group type b: a risk factor in the developement of neonatal group b streptococcal disease.in a prospective study of maternal genital colonization with group b streptococci (gbs) at the time of delivery, epidemiological data, including blood type (abo group), were recorded for the 1,062 patients studied. blood type b was found in a statistically significant higher proportion of patients colonized with gbs (28%) compared with the total population (16.4%) (p less than .005, x2 = 8.43). women with blood type b were twice as likely to be colonized as those with types o or a. hypotheses to ...1978362365
intravenous immune globulin therapy for early-onset sepsis in premature neonates.newborn infants may have igg deficiencies that increase their susceptibility to bacterial infection. to determine whether intravenous immune globulin (ivig) therapy improves survival rates in early-onset sepsis, we prospectively entered 753 neonates (birth weight 500 to 2000 gm, gestation less than or equal to 34 weeks, age less than or equal to 12 hours) into a multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial. blood culture specimens were obtained and infants randomly assigned to receive 10 ml (per ...19921517923
prosthetic hip-joint infection associated with a penicillin-tolerant group b streptococcus.we report a case of prosthetic hip-joint infection with streptococcus agalactiae (lancefield group b streptococcus). the infection recurred after 3 months' treatment with amoxycillin. on further investigation, the isolate was found to be amoxycillin-tolerant. addition of gentamicin abolished tolerance in vitro and the patient has remained asymptomatic since receiving a 10-day course of amoxycillin and gentamicin followed by amoxycillin alone.19921522327
[pharmacokinetic, bacteriological and clinical studies on meropenem in children].pharmacokinetic, bacteriological and clinical studies on meropenem (mepm) were performed in children. the results are summarized as follows: 1. a total of 16 patients was treated with mepm. each dose was 20 mg/kg, and administration was made 3 times daily using 30-minute intravenous drip infusion for 5-28 days. clinical efficacies of mepm in 16 patients with bacterial infections (1 with purulent meningitis, 1 with suspected subdural abscess, 2 with suspected sepsis, 4 with pneumonia, 1 with acut ...19921522674
[incidence of mycoplasma and group b streptococci in the genitourinary system of pregnant women and their effect on pregnancy].this study included 59 pregnant women and their mature infants born in term in order to establish the incidence of potential microorganisms that may transmit through the birth canal to infant and the evidence for vertical transmission in pregnancy. using isolation studies based on selective methods, it was found that u.urealyticum had the highest incidence with 26 (44%) and diphtheroid was isolated from 19 (32.2%), staphylococcus from 17 (28.8%), m.hominis from 16 (27.1%), group b streptococcus ...19921528145
[neonatal digestive implantation of streptococcus group b. influence of antibiotic therapy].group b streptococcus (gbs) is an important cause of neonatal infection. early-onset diseases are due to perinatal contamination. the epidemiology of late-onset infections is poorly known. maternal colonization may be responsible for some of them. the relationships between neonatal colonization and late disease could be a colonization of the gut. the purpose of this 3 year-prospective study was to analyse the kinetics of gut colonization in neonates and the influence of antibiotherapy. one hundr ...19921530437
meningitis caused by streptococcus in adults.meningitis caused by streptococcus is uncommon in adults. otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, or trauma has antedated most cases reported in the past. data on 10 recent cases suggest changes in the current pathogenesis of streptococcal meningitis in adults and emphasize the importance of accurate streptococcal speciation. endocarditis was present in five cases; trauma played a role in two others. brain abscess, corticosteroids, alcoholic cirrhosis, and peritonitis secondary to chronic peritone ...19751092775
[group b streptococcus--streptococcus agalactiae--in man]. 19751096355
emergence of group b streptococci in obstetric and perinatal infections.a retrospective study of obstetric and perinatal illness due to group b streptococci during 1972-4 based on bacteriological referrals from aberdeen maternity hospital and special nursery disclosed (1) a wide spectrum of maternal morbidity, particularly associated with amniotomy and a prolonged rupture-delivery interval, and (2) the emergence of the group b streptococcus as a major cause of serious neonatal infection in infants of low birth weight, often in the absence of maternal pyrexia. the gr ...19751097038
group b streptococcus in a general hospital.eighty-six percent of 707 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated in a general hospital and excluded by presumptive tests from groups a and d were identified serologically as group b. more than 70% of the group b isolates were from urine cultures, the female genital gract, or newborn infants. types iii and ii were the most common group b serotypes from most sources. however, types ia, ib, and ic were more commonly isolated from the respiratory tract than from other sites, and type iii was responsib ...19751102616
bacteriocin of a group b streptococcus: partial purification and characterization.the production of bacteriocin-like inhibition by two of 135 strains of group b streptococci was demonstrated during the growth of these organisms on solid nutrient media. although a variety of gram-positive organisms was susceptible, none of a wide range of different gram-negative strains was inhibited. the active substance produced by one of these strains was extracted from cultures grown on solid media (todd-hewitt agar) and was shown to be bactericidal in action. this bacteriocin (streptocin ...19751155919
postpartum periarticular hip abscess with later coxitis caused by group b streptococcus.intrapartum haematogenous spread of vaginal group b streptococcus is rare, but it can lead to severe complications like abscesses, endocarditis and meningitis postpartum. we report a postpartum periarticular hip abscess caused by group b streptococcus. clinically it caused pain in the hip and a compression of the femoral nerve with motor and sensory component. diagnosis was made by aspiration under computed tomography control. the only sign of infection was an increased sedimentation rate. after ...19921294415
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