a clinical and bacteriological evaluation of the effect of sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim in acne vulgaris, resistant to prior therapy with tetracyclines.42 patients with acne vulgaris, clinically resistant to prior therapy with tetracyclines, were evaluated after therapy with sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (400 + 80 mg) twice daily. initially and after 6, 12 and 18 weeks of treatment in each patient the different acne lesions were counted and pus specimens from unhealed pustules were taken for bacteriological analysis. complete remission or excellent results were obtained in 33 patients (79%) at the end of treatment despite a relative increase o ...1978150980
in vitro activity of ro 23-9424, a dual-action antibacterial agent, against bacterial isolates from cancer patients compared with those of other agents.the in vitro activity of ro 23-9424 against bacterial isolates from patients with cancer was compared with those of fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime. ro 23-9424 inhibited the majority of the members of the family enterobacteriaceae and all aeromonas isolates at a concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/ml. it was also active against acinetobacter spp. and haemophilus influenzae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. the mic for 90% of isolates (mic90) ...19921503453
in-vitro activity of streptogramin rp 59500 against staphylococci, including bactericidal kinetic studies.the in-vitro activity of rp 59500 and comparative agents was determined against 270 clinical isolates of the genus staphylococcus. mics were performed by micro-dilution dilution. mic90 and mbc90 (mg/l) of rp 59500 were as follows: oxacillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (0.5/0.5), oxacillin-resistant s. aureus (0.5/0.5), oxacillin-sensitive staphylococcus epidermidis (0.5/0.5), oxacillin-resistant s. epidermidis (0.25/0.25), oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus hominis (1.0/1.0), oxacillin-resis ...19921399952
a convenient method for differentiation of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.the utility of trehalose-mannitol broth and arabinose-cellobiose broth for identification of staphylococcus epidermidis and novobiocin-resistant staphylococci was determined using 236 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary glands. none of the 49 s. epidermidis strains was positive in trehalose-mannitol broth; whereas, all strains of staphylococcus hyicus, staphylococcus chromogenes, staphylococcus haemolyticus, staphylococcus hominis, staphylococcus warneri, and staphyloco ...19912045549
encapsulation of coagulase-negative staphylococci of bovine origin.capsule expression was assessed in six coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains in serum-soft agar and by india ink and electron microscopy. classification of strains as encapsulated by serum-soft agar and india ink methods differed. staphylococcus chromogenes, staph. hyicus, and staph. simulans grew as diffuse colonies in serum-soft agar and unstained halos were detected in india ink preparations. staphylococcus hominis and staph. simulans grew as diffuse colonies in serum-soft agar but no uns ...19911716624
taxonomy of coagulase-negative staphylococci: a comparison of two widely used classification a comparative study 351 strains of micrococcus subgroups 1-3 (baird-parker, 1963, 1965, 1974) were classified according to the kloos and schleifer scheme (1975b). the results showed that micrococcus subgroups 1, 2 and 3 are heterogeneous groups in the kloos and schleifer scheme. strains belonging to micrococcus subgroups 1 and 2 were mostly classified by the kloos and schleifer criteria as staphylococcus hominis, micrococcus subgroup 3 strains from the skin as s. cohnii, while micrococcus sub ...1978378120
analysis of the relationship between bacterial adherence and extracellular production of mannose, galactose, glucose and ribose in staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus hominis.gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the extracellular extracts of 108 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains for the presence of mannose, galactose, glucose and ribose, in order to determine whether production of these four monosaccharides, regarded as potential staphylococcal slime components, was associated with the adherence capacity of the individuals strains. a total of 90 staphylococcus epidermidis and 18 staphylococcus hominis strains were studied. using the ...19902127398
effect of various microbial preparations on p-388 mouse lymphocytic leukemia.four bacteria-derived immunopotentiators were tested for their protective effect on a p-388 mouse lymphocytic leukemia model. the microbial test products were prepared from the following bacterial strains: atcc 35983 staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from a patient with iv catheter; atcc 31874, a patented strain listed as staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from the urine of a cancer patient; atcc 25615 staphylococcus hominis obtained from a child with lymphocytic leukemia, and atcc 25614 stap ...19921475343
presence of an additional penicillin-binding protein in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus haemolyticus, staphylococcus hominis, and staphylococcus simulans with a low affinity for methicillin, cephalothin, and cefamandole.the presence of an additional penicillin-binding protein (pbp) was demonstrated in methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococcus epidermidis, s. haemolyticus, s. hominis, and s. simulans. in these four species, the apparent molecular mass of this protein was analogous to that of pbp 2' of methicillin-resistant s. aureus sr 1550-9. it exhibited a low affinity for methicillin, cephalothin, and cefamandole; and its synthesis was methicillin inducible. peptide mapping of this pbp from the four spe ...19902285281
epidemiological role of arthropods detectable in health facilities.a total of 161 arthropod specimens were collected from 55 sites in a health care facility during july and september 1990. of the 116 bacterial isolates obtained from their body surfaces 6% were from parasites (mosquitoes), 59% from eusynanthropic arthropods (tenebrionid beetles, flies, german cockroaches, wasps), 16% from hemisynanthropic arthropods (ants, spiders) and 19% from occasionally encountered insects (non-biting midges, moths, beetles). most (88%) of the isolated bacteria were gram-neg ...19921350604
pathogenicity of staphylococcus lugdunensis, staphylococcus schleiferi, and three other coagulase-negative staphylococci in a mouse model and possible virulence factors.staphylococcus lugdunesis and staphylococcus schleiferi, two newly described species, have been isolated from numerous types of human infections. we compared the pathogenicity of 30 strains of s. lugdunensis, s. schleiferi, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus warneri, and staphylococcus hominis, using a mouse model in which a foreign body preadhered with the test strain was implanted subcutaneously, followed by injection of the test strain. all five species of staphylococci produced absce ...19902224644
evaluation of the staph-zym system with staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections.a total of 148 staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections were used to evaluate the staph-zym system (rosco, taastrup, denmark). the overall accuracy of the system was 91.9%. the system correctly identified all strains of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus simulans, and staphylococcus xylosus and 95% of staphylococcus intermedius strains. of 33 staphylococcus hyicus strains, 31 (93.9%) were classified correctly by the staph-zym system, as well as 8 (80%) of 10 staphylococcus c ...19911993769
d-value determinations are an inappropriate measure of disinfecting activity of common contact lens disinfecting solutions.determination of a d value for specific test organisms is a component of the efficacy evaluation of new contact lens disinfecting solutions. this parameter is commonly defined as the time required for the number of surviving microorganisms to decrease 1 logarithmic unit. the assumption made in establishing a d value is that the rate of kill exhibits first-order kinetics under the specified conditions. such exponential kill rates are seen with thermal contact lens disinfection system. a compariso ...19911892391
fluorogenic assay for differentiating staphylococcus warneri and staphylococcus hominis strains of bovine origin.a fluorogenic assay for the detection of beta-glucosidase was developed as part of a simplified conventional method to distinguish staphylococcus warneri and staphylococcus hominis isolated from bovine body sites. the assay is based on the fact that strains of s. warneri produce beta-glucosidase, while strains of s. hominis do not.19902324280
keratinolytic activity of cutaneous and oral bacteria.a test was developed to measure the keratinolytic activity of cutaneous and oral bacteria. keratin, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was used in a phosphate buffer (ph 7.2) with 1 mm dithiothreitol. the degradation of keratin was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of the degradation products in the supernatant of the reaction mixtures in a luminescence spectrometer. several oral and cutaneous bacteria were investigated: bacteroides gingivalis, bacteroides intermedius, treponema dent ...19872434427
peripheral teflon catheters. potential source for bacterial contamination of orthopedic implants?to detect low numbers of bacterial cells on teflon catheters removed from peripheral veins, 74 catheter tips were incubated in thioglycollate media for up to ten days. fifteen (20.3%) of the catheters were found to be culture-positive. propionibacterium acnes was isolated from seven, staphylococcus epidermidis from six, and staphylococcus haemolyticus and staphylococcus hominis from one each, all common skin organisms associated with infection of implants. an increase in documentation of bacteri ...19902323139
recognition of staphylococcus saprophyticus in urine cultures by screening colonies for production of phosphatase.phenolphthalein diphosphate was incorporated into a primary blood agar medium for use in performing quantitative urine cultures. phosphatase-negative staphylococci, such as staphylococcus saprophyticus, were differentiated from phosphatase-positive species, such as staphylococcus epidermidis, by spot testing colonies on filter paper saturated with 1 n naoh. phosphatase-positive colonies turned pink within seconds, and phosphatase-negative colonies showed no color. none of 55 s. saprophyticus iso ...19852984240
in vitro antistaphylococcal activity of pefloxacin alone and in combination with other antistaphylococcal drugs.mics of pefloxacin and nine antistaphylococcal drugs were determined for 200 isolates of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus haemolyticus, staphylococcus hominis, and staphylococcus saprophyticus. all the strains were susceptible to pefloxacin, vancomycin, and rifampin. oxacillin-resistant strains were uniformly resistant to cephalothin and were more likely to be resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than ...19873481244
characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci that help differentiate these species and other members of the family hundred reference strains and 1,240 clinical isolates representing 26 species of the family micrococcaceae were used to evaluate the potential of tests for synergistic hemolysis, adherence to glass, pyroglutamyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis, and susceptibility to a set of five antimicrobial agents for differentiating these species and strains within the species. sixty-eight percent of the clinical isolates exhibited synergistic hemolysis; 69% of the clinical staphylococci but none of the mi ...19882846632
teat skin normal flora and colonization with mastitis pathogen inhibitors.isolates of bacteria from normal teats were used to attempt colonization of teats of dry cows or neonatal calves. isolates for inoculation were chosen on the basis of ability to inhibit mastitis pathogens in vitro, with the ultimate goal of in vivo inhibition of mastitis pathogens at the teat surface. three bacterial normal flora isolates (corynebacterium xerosis, bacillus sp. and aerococcus viridans) persisted less than 10 days on the teats of dry cows. the fourth isolate, staphylococcus homini ...19883188374
in vitro susceptibilities of four species of coagulase-negative staphylococci.the in vitro susceptibilities of 260 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin g, oxacillin, nafcillin, methicillin, cephalothin, and seven non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were determined and compared with the susceptibilities of 54 strains of staphylococcus aureus with known patterns of susceptibility. penicillin g susceptibility for s. aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus haemolyticus, and staphylococcus hominis was readily determined by using beta-lactamase ...19863539009
an immunological study of otitis media with effusion. antibodies directed against coagulase-negative staphylococci in the effusion fluid.from 14 chronic middle ear effusions (mees), 17 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cs) were isolated. we then used an elisa method to determine the antibody titers against these microorganisms in the corresponding effusion fluids and the blood sera of the patients and compared them to the antibody titers against a group of standard cs. in most cases, no specific immune response could be detected against the infecting cs in either the effusion fluids or in the sera. our results can be e ...19873662924
species dependent variability in the susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci to various antimicrobial agents.the in-vitro activity of 20 beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin was determined against three different species of coagulase-negative-staphylococci. all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (mic90 3.12-6.25 mg/l) although occasional tolerance was seen. most isolates (85%) of staphylococcus hominis were susceptible to methicillin and other beta-lactams including cephalothin, cefapirin, cefamandole, imipenem and bmy28142, while 90% of staph. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to these agent ...19853852834
evaluation of the automicrobic system gram-positive identification card for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci.the automicrobic system gram-positive identification card (vitek systems, inc., hazelwood, mo.) was evaluated for identification of a group of 150 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci. identifications obtained with the gram-positive identification card were compared with reference identifications derived from 15 conventional biochemical tests. the automicrobic system correctly identified only 67.3% (101 of 150) of the test isolates. the greatest accuracy was achieved with staphylococcus ...19836352738
the measurement of c-reactive protein and immune complexes in endocarditis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci.coagulase-negative staphylococci are a major cause of early endocarditis following the insertion of prosthetic heart valves but rarely cause endocarditis in natural valves. from a 2-year prospective study we report seven cases: six with endocarditis related to prosthetic valves and one with endocarditis related to a natural valve. each isolate of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was identified biochemically (six staphylococcus epidermidis; one staphylococcus hominis) and characterised by bacter ...19873693924
evaluation of teicoplanin for treatment of endocarditis caused by gram-positive cocci in 20 patients.teicoplanin, a new glycopeptide antibiotic similar to vancomycin, was evaluated for the treatment of bacterial endocarditis in an open multicenter study from may 1985 to august 1987. a total of 20 patients with positive blood culture endocarditis received teicoplanin once daily as a mean intravenous injection of 7.3 mg/kg of body weight (range, 4.8 to 10.6 mg/kg); in 17 patients, teicoplanin was combined with another antibiotic, usually an aminoglycoside. the mean duration of therapy was 28 days ...19892527483
the incidence of bacteremia in skin surgery of the head and neck.the normal microflora of skin vary significantly between sebaceous rich, wet, and dry areas. this would be expected to influence the likelihood of developing transient bacteremia while undergoing skin surgery on these different areas, thereby affecting the risk of infective endocarditis from such procedures. we evaluated the incidence of transient bacteremia in 45 patients undergoing skin surgery on the sebaceous rich areas of the head and neck. after surveillance skin cultures, aerobic and anae ...19883403731
production of experimental endocarditis by coagulase-negative staphylococci: variability in species virulence.the abilities of 11 coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates of human origin to establish infective endocarditis in a rat model were compared. seven of the strains were staphylococcus epidermidis, the species most commonly causing endocarditis in humans. the other four strains were staphylococcus hominis, an infrequent cause of endocarditis. four of the seven strains of s. epidermidis and two of the four strains of s. hominis elaborated surface slime. with an inoculum of 10(7) colony-forming u ...19846491379
synergistic hemolysis associated with coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.a total of 353 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns) isolates from infected bovine mammary glands were tested for cytolysin production by using the synergistic hemolysin assay (sha). overall, 34.6% of cns isolates were sha positive. human-associated, coagulase-negative staphylococcal species contained the greatest number of sha-positive strains. milk leukocyte levels expressed as somatic cell counts (scc) were elevated with sha-positive staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus hominis, and s ...19873693535
hub colonization as the initial step in an outbreak of catheter-related sepsis due to coagulase negative staphylococci during parenteral nutrition.a prospective study was carried out to determine the pathogenesis of coagulase negative staphylococci catheter-related sepsis during parenteral nutrition. forty-three catheters were cultured by semiquantitative and quantitative methods. the skin around the puncture site was cultured at the time of catheter removal and three segments of the catheter were cultured apart: the hub, the proximal subcutaneous segment, and the tip. skin cultures were negative (89%) or yielded different coagulase negati ...19846441008
identification of staphylococcus species of bovine origin with the api staph-ident system.the api staph-ident system was evaluated as a means for identifying the species of bovine strains of staphylococci routinely isolated from quarter-milk samples. the species identity of 314 of 581 (54%) isolates of staphylococci was correctly determined by this method. the api staph-ident system was more accurate in correctly identifying staphylococcus aureus (93.9%) than in correctly identifying non-s. aureus species (41.8%). false identifications of staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus ...19836643670
characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci from urinary tract specimens.species of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from urine specimens submitted from both inpatients and outpatients to the clinical microbiology laboratory of a teaching hospital were identified with a biotyping system, with species then correlated by clinical features and antimicrobial susceptibility. of 145 isolates, 102 (70%) were staphylococcus epidermidis, 24 (17%) were staphylococcus saprophyticus, 7 (4.7%) were staphylococcus haemolyticus, 4 (2.8%) were staphylococcus hominis, 3 (2.1 ...19836833480
classification and characteristics of coagulase-negative, methicillin-resistant staphylococci.sixty-five clinical isolates of coagulase-negative, methicillin-resistant staphylococci have been classified as staphylococcus epidermidis (63.0%), "phosphatase-negative s. epidermidis" (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus aureus (6.2%), staphylococcus hemolyticus (6.2%), staphylococcus hominis (3.1%), and staphylococcus warneri (1.5%). five of the organisms (7.7%) could not be classified with certainty as currently recognized species. novobiocin resistance was encountered in eight of the ...19806971871
comparison of various methods for differentiation of staphylococci and micrococci.a modified oxidase test (remel, lenexa, kans.) and susceptibility to furazolidone and lysostaphin (remel) were evaluated in conjunction with the staph-ident strip (analytab products, plainview, n.y.) to accurately differentiate between staphylococci and micrococci. a total of 414 clinical isolates of catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci were each tested with the staph-ident strip and by glucose fermentation, acid production from glycerol, susceptibility to furazolidone and lysostaphin, and the ...19846381527
effects of test conditions on the susceptibility of staphylococci in vitro to cephradine, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and cefuroxime.methicillin-resistant staphylococci were tested for susceptibility to cephradine, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and cefuroxime and 30 degree c and 37 degree c on ordinary media and on media of enhanced osmotic strength. the coagulase-negative strains were divided into staphylococcus epidermis and staphylococcus hominis. generally the number of susceptible strains decreased with low incubation temperature and osmotic support. when staphylococcus aureus was tested against cephalexin and cefuroxime, m ...19817229101
identification, clinical distribution, and susceptibility to methicillin and 18 additional antibiotics of clinical staphylococcus isolates: nationwide investigation in italy.a multicentric study of clinical staphylococcus isolates was performed by seven operative units working in different areas of italy. over a 6-month period, a total of 3,226 staphylococci, isolated from in- and outpatients, were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by a protocol agreed upon by all units. on the basis of their bacteriolytic-activity patterns and other conventional tests, the isolates were identified by lyogroups , which closely correlate with human staphylococcus ...19846565709
four-year prospective study of staph-ident system and conventional method for reference identification of staphylococcus, stomatococcus, and micrococcus spp..a 4-year prospective study compared the accuracy of the staph-ident system (biomérieux vitek, inc., hazelwood, mo.) with that of the reference procedure of the centers for disease control and prevention for the identification of staphylococcus species, stomatococcus mucilaginosus, and micrococcus species. the study compared the results from 1,106 cultures (500 eye cultures, 217 strains submitted for reference identification, and 389 known stock strains) representing 21 species of the family micr ...19957699074
wound healing accelerated by staphylococcus aureus.while comparing the effects on wound healing of a heated scalpel with those of the cold scalpel, we discovered that inoculation of rat skin incisions with a strain of staphylococcus aureus dramatically accelerated the gain in wound strength. the accelerating effect was evident four days postoperatively, was maximal at seven to ten days, and was still present at 28 days. the accelerating effect was correlated with the number of s aureus organisms introduced into the wound, and was found in conven ...19836824431
evaluation of new agglutination test for identification of oxacillin-susceptible and oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.a new agglutination test (monostaph +; bionor, skien, norway) has been developed. this new agglutination test has been compared with two other agglutination tests for the identification of 128 isolates of staphylococcus aureus and 82 coagulase-negative staphylococci. the sensitivities of both monostaph + and pastorex staph-plus were excellent (98.7 and 97.4%, respectively) in detection of oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. the specificity was 96.4% (two staphylococcus epidermidis isolate ...19957615750
antistaphylococcal activity of cefdinir, a new oral third-generation cephalosporin, alone and in combination with other antibiotics, at supra- and sub-mic levels.cefdinir is one of the few oral third generation cephalosporins that shows useful activity against nosocomial gram-positive pathogens. for this reason the anti-staphylococcal potency of the new drug, alone or in combination with other drugs was further characterized. against penicillin-resistant, oxacillin-susceptible staphylococcus isolates, cefdinir demonstrated useful in-vitro activity. mic90 values (in mg/l) were 0.25 for staphylococcus aureus (30 strains), 0.06 for staphylococcus epidermidi ...19957768782
staphylococcus hominis septicaemia in patients with cancer.we report two cases of staphylococcus hominis septicaemia associated with the use of intravenous catheters. both patients had advanced malignant disease, but infection was eliminated rapidly with antibiotic treatment administered via the catheters. this report confirms the pathogenicity of staph. hominis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. we recommend the wider use of an effective scheme for the correct identification of blood culture isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci.19846749006
identification of a chromosomally encoded abc-transport system with which the staphylococcal erythromycin exporter msra may interact.the energy-dependent efflux of erythromycin (er) in staphylococci is due to the presence of msr a, which encodes an atp-binding protein. msra is related to the multi-component atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters which characteristically also contain membrane-spanning domains. since msra functions in a heterologous host in the absence of other plasmid-encoded products, the requirement for a transmembrane (tm) complex might be fulfilled by hijacking a chromosomally encoded protein. two genes, ...19957883194
speciation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci.during a six month period, 191 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and heart valves were identified to species level and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. seventy-one percent of isolates were staphylococcus epidermidis, 8% staphylococcus warneri, 7% staphylococcus hominis, 7% staphylococcus haemolyticus, 4% staphylococcus capitis, 2% staphylococcus saprophyticus and 1% staphylococcus cohnii. approximately 4% of isolates were felt to be assoc ...19827173185
epidemiology and susceptibilities to mercury preservatives of staphylococci isolated from used eye-drops preserved with thiomersal.minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of seven independent isolates of staphylococcus hominis isolated in the same week from used eye-drops, preserved with thiomersal and collected from wards and clinics in the same hospital, ranged between 1 and 0.03 mg l-1 for thiomersal, 1 and 0.01 mg l-1 for phenyl mercuric nitrate and 10 and 3 mg l-1 for mercuric chloride. although mic values determined on solid nutrient medium indicated a 100-fold variation in susceptibility to the bacteriostatic effect ...19957602479
distribution of coagulase-negative staphylococci, including the newly described species staphylococcus schleiferi, in nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections.four hundred and four coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 4905 urine specimens obtained from 4192 inpatients and outpatients. the distribution of the strains was as follows: 193 staphylococcus epidermidis (47.8%), 171 staphylococcus saprophyticus (42.3%), 29 staphylococcus haemolyticus (7.2%), 5 staphylococcus warneri (1.2%), 3 staphylococcus schleiferi (0.7%), 2 staphylococcus hominis (0.5%) and 1 staphylococcus simulans (0.2%). all three staphylococcus schleiferi strains were i ...19947889974
relatedness of coagulase-negative staphylococci causing bacteremia in low-birthweight investigate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cons) causing bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit (nicu).19947844337
in vitro modulation of keratinocyte-derived interleukin-1 alpha (il-1 alpha) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived il-1 beta release in response to cutaneous commensal microorganisms.the ability of a range of skin commensal microorganisms to modulate interleukin-1 (il-1) release by cultured human keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) was investigated by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and bioassays. three fractions (formaldehyde-treated whole cells, culture supernatants, and cellular fractions) were prepared from propionibacterium acnes, propionibacterium granulosum, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus capitis, staphylococcus ...19957890376
identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci and typing of staphylococcus epidermidis by a 4 h micromethod.a new 4 h micromethod (minibact-s) for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns) important in human medicine, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus hominis, staphylococcus haemolyticus and staphylococcus saprophyticus, has been investigated. the reproducibility for species identification was 100% and the reproducibility for the single reactions was 95%. when compared to a modified kloos & schleifer conventional identification method, discrepant identification was obtained wit ...19948011304
potentiation of antibiotic activity by edta-tromethamine against three clinically isolated gram-positive resistant bacteria. an in vitro investigation.the in vitro synergistic effects of combinations of edta-tromethamine and five antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, cephalexin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphadimethoxine) on three clinically isolated gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hominis and streptococcus faecium) were investigated. the bacteria had been isolated from three cases of canine otitis resistant to beta-lactam antibiotic therapy. the antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the minimal i ...19948091636
identification of staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus hominis from blood cultures by testing susceptibility to desferrioxamine.testing susceptibility to desferrioxamine has recently been described as a method for the identification of staphylococcus epidermidis. this method was compared to a commercial test and the tube coagulase test for the identification of staphylococci from blood cultures and other fluid specimens. a total of 216 isolates was tested over a 13-month period. sensitivity of the desferrioxamine test in identifying isolates of staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus hominis was 97.3%, while specif ...19938500481
activation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat in thp-1 cells by a staphylococcal extracellular product.staphylococcal strains can release a factor that strongly activates the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) long terminal repeat (ltr) in thp-1 cells transfected with the hiv-1 ltr-driven luciferase reporter gene (thp-1 ltrluc). the factor is present in the overnight culture fluid and is readily released from the organisms into aqueous medium by vigorous mixing. staphylococcal extracellular material is a complex mixture of polysaccharide and protein containing peptidoglycan and teichoic ...19947938001
a simple and inexpensive method for the identification of staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus hominis.eight hundred and ninety-two strains of staphylococcus species were identified by means of desferrioxamine susceptibility and fermentation results of three carbohydrates, with the api staph system (biomérieux, france) as reference method. no identification could be obtained for 34 strains with api staph. of the remaining 858 strains, identical identification was obtained with 842 (98.1%). all 707 strains identified as staphylococcus epidermidis or staphylococcus hominis by the api staph system w ...19958681979
mixed bacteremia with vibrio metschnikovii in an 83-year-old female 83-year-old woman suddenly fell ill and was admitted to the hospital on suspicion of a heart attack. after admission she developed high fever, chills and malaise. vibrio metshnikovii and staphylococcus hominis were isolated from 2 separately obtained blood cultures. one of the cultures also yielded escherichia coli. the patient's condition improved rapidly after treatment with ampicillin intravenously. to our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of v. metschnikovii bacteremia in humans ...19947984986
[coagulase-negative staphylococcal septicemia].in the past decade, coagulase negative staphylococcus (cns) has become one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial septicemia, especially in neonatal intensive care units. from january 1, 1990 to june 30, 1992, we documented 41 cases of cns septicemia in the department of pediatrics at mackay memorial hospital. thirty five cases (85%) were found in infants less than 3 months of age. nineteen patients were premature babies. of these, 14 had a body weight less than 1,500 gms. all of the patient ...19947942029
the bacteriology of hidradenitis suppurativa.bacteria have been suggested as a possible cause of hidradenitis. different species have been found in several small studies, and particularly the presence of streptococcus milleri has been linked to disease activity.19968944341
susceptibility of corneal and conjunctival pathogens to ciprofloxacin.ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution has been shown to be effective in the treatment of bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis, and many physicians use ciprofloxacin as sole therapy in these conditions. in this retrospective study, we found seven of 84 isolates from corneal and conjunctival cultures that were resistant to ciprofloxacin. all of the resistant organisms were gram positive. six of the isolates (staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hominis, and four isolates of the streptococcus v ...19968907383
diagnosis and treatment of a solitary infected hepatic cyst in two patients with adult polycystic kidney disease.we report on two women (one 52-year-old who underwent kidney transplantation 15 months ago and the other, 71-year-old, undergoing hemodialysis) both with adult polycystic kidney disease who had to be hospitalized because of recurrent fever attacks up to 40 degrees c without any remarkable abdominal symptoms. staphylococcus hominis and e. coli were recovered respectively from blood cultures of both patients. evidence for the presence of a solitary infected cyst in the liver could only be obtained ...19938261676
minimal functional system required for expression of erythromycin resistance by msra in staphylococcus aureus rn4220.previous studies have suggested that inducible erythromycin (er) resistance in staphylococci mediated by the plasmid-borne abc-transporter msra is dependent on additional unidentified chromosomally encoded transmembrane (tm) domains. the requirement for two s. aureus candidate sequences, stpc and smpc, highly similar to sequences adjacent to msra on the original s. epidermidis plasmid was investigated. deletion of the sequences by allelic replacement was accomplished by electroporation of s. aur ...19968996099
[eustachian valve endocarditis produced by staphylococcus hominis in a patient with hiv infection]. 19968984553
coagulase-negative staphylococci in danish blood cultures: species distribution and antibiotic susceptibility.the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons) isolated from blood cultures was examined in samples from hospitals covering most of denmark. a total of 499 cons isolates were detected in 477 blood cultures from 340 patients and speciated as staphylococcus epidermidis, 285; staphylococcus hominis, 61; staphylococcus haemolyticus, 43; staphylococcus warneri, 12; staphylococcus cohnii, 7; staphylococcus saprophyticus, 4; staphylococcus capitis, 2 and staph ...19968690885
study of the antiseptic efficacy of a quick drying rubbing type povidone-iodine alcoholic disinfectant solution by the glove juice method.the antiseptic efficacy of had hand wash (83% ethanol containing 0.5% povidone-iodine) was investigated by the glove-juice method in 29 cases amongst staff members of our university. the number of viable bacteria on the hands and fingers was counted three times, and the mean of these counts was used as the baseline value for each subject. the number of viable bacteria on both hands was the same prior to disinfection. after the hands were disinfected by rubbing with 3 ml of had hand wash until it ...19938290451
occurrence of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistances among staphylococcal clinical isolates at a university medical center. is false susceptibility to new macrolides and clindamycin a contemporary clinical and in vitro testing problem?a total of 2189 staphylococcal strains at the university of iowa hospitals and clinics (iowa city, ia) were initially screened to determine the incidence of constitutive (29.8%) and potential inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (mls) resistance (11.3%). staphylococcus haemolyticus and s. epidermidis (62.5% and 55.3%) showed the highest incidence of constitutive resistance. staphylococcus hominis had the highest incidence of inducible resistance (40.6%), while s. aureus had the lowest r ...19938477574
[tricuspid endocarditis on the native valve by staphylococcus hominis]. 19979053577
[bacterial strains isolated from neutropenic patients and their resistance to antibiotics].although gram negative as well as gram positive bacteria participate in febrile episodes of neutropenic patients, in particular recently the ratio of gram positive bacteria is increasing. the objective of the present work was to investigate the incidence and antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacterial agents in neutropenic patients.19989511277
emergence of teicoplanin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci.over a period of 5 years we have recovered 32 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons) exhibiting either decreased levels of susceptibility or true resistance to teicoplanin (mics, 16 to 128 micrograms/ml); these isolates make up 0.55% of the total cons isolated by us. twenty-nine of the strains were also methicillin resistant, and all were susceptible to vancomycin. fourteen of the strains were staphylococcus epidermidis, fourteen were staphylococcus haemolyticus, and four w ...19968784585
in vivo binding of the salivary glycoprotein ep-gp (identical to gcdfp-15) to oral and non-oral bacteria detection and identification of ep-gp binding species.extra parotid glycoprotein (ep-gp) is a glycoprotein isolated from human saliva, having homologues in several other body fluids. the biological role of ep-gp and its homologues is unknown. recently, ep-gp was shown to bind in vitro to the bacterium streptococcus salivarius hb. in contrast, no binding to a number of other oral microorganisms could be demonstrated. in the present study we have determined whether binding of ep-gp to bacteria occurs in vivo in saliva and in other ep-gp containing bo ...19979088536
staphylococcus aureus in dairy products in the bologna area.a study was carried out to evaluate the extent of contamination by staphylococcus spp. and in particular by staphylococcus aureus in dairy products on sale in the bologna area. staphylococcus aureus was found in 16.30% of the 135 cheese samples examined: 8.3% in soft cheese, 17.60% in blue cheese, 18.9% in semi-soft cheese and 25.0% in mozzarella-type cheese. the mean concentration was 2699 cfu/g in the 22 positive samples. the most commonly found species were staphylococcus epidermidis (14.8%), ...19979105936
capillary gas chromatography with chemical ionization negative ion mass spectrometry in the identification of odorous steroids formed in metabolic studies of the sulphates of androsterone, dha and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3beta-ol with human axillary bacterial isolates.the products of metabolism of the sulphates (0.5 micromol/l) of androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (dha) and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3beta-ol have been investigated after incubation with 72 h cultures of human axillary bacterial isolates for 3 days at 37 degrees c. the medium used, tryptone soya broth (tsb), contained yeast extract and tween 80. the isolates used were coryneform f1 (known previously to metabolize testosterone and to be involved in under-arm odour (uao) production, i.e. uao +ve), ...19979449209
increased oxacillin activity associated with glycopeptides in coagulase-negative staphylococci.vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococci presents a potential therapeutic problem. in order to understand the impact of low-level vancomycin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci, stepwise selection of vancomycin resistance was accomplished by growing staphylococcus haemolyticus in culture media with increasing concentrations of vancomycin. a >40-fold increase in susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics was observed. no obvious alterations in the growth curve, the p ...19989665294
molecular cloning of a 32-kilodalton lipoprotein component of a novel iron-regulated staphylococcus epidermidis abc transporter.our previous studies identified two iron-regulated cytoplasmic membrane proteins of 32 and 36 kda expressed by both staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus aureus. in this study we show by triton x-114 phase partitioning and tritiated palmitic acid labelling that these proteins are lipoproteins which are anchored into the cytoplasmic membrane by their lipid-modified n termini. in common with those of some other gram-positive bacteria, these highly immunogenic lipoproteins were released fro ...19989673260
clinical importance of identifying coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures: evaluation of microscan rapid and dried overnight gram-positive panels versus a conventional reference method.we evaluated the clinical usefulness of species identification of blood isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci as a predictor of the clinical significance of the isolates. in addition, we compared results of species identification obtained with microscan rapid gram-positive identification panels and dried overnight (conventional) gram-positive identification panels with those obtained by a tube reference method. two hundred eighty-five blood isolates were tested, including 92 judged to rep ...19989650970
the staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis transferrin-binding proteins are expressed in vivo during infection.staphylococci express a 42 kda cell-wall-associated protein which functions as a receptor for the mammalian iron-binding glycoprotein transferrin. to determine whether this transferrin-binding protein (tbp) is expressed during infection, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis were grown in vivo in chambers implanted intraperitoneally in rats. sds-page and western blotting of cell wall proteins prepared from staphylococci recovered directly from the chambers revealed the presence of ...19989579074
changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care a prospective observational study of 40 nurses (20 with diagnosed hand irritation and 20 without), nurses with damaged hands did not have higher microbial counts (p = .63), but did have a greater number of colonizing species (means: 3.35 and 2.63, p = .03). although numbers were small, nurses with damaged hands were significantly more likely to be colonized with staphylococcus hominis (p = .03). fifty-nine percent of s hominis isolates from nurses with damaged hands were resistant to methicil ...19989795681
an inexpensive and reliable method for routine identification of staphylococcal species.the aim of this study was to develop a simple, reliable, and inexpensive in-house system for routine species identification of staphylococci in clinical practice. the system combines 15 key tests (including carbohydrate fermentation) performed in micro-well strips and antimicrobial disk diffusion susceptibility tests performed on standardised paper disk method antibiotic sensitivity medium agar. twenty-eight staphylococcal reference strains belonging to 18 different species were correctly identi ...19989721961
renal tolerability of teicoplanin in a case of neonatal overdose.the literature does not contain reports regarding teicoplanin overdose in newborns. in a neonate with a history of recent postasphyctic acute renal failure which recovered within 7 days of life, antibiotic therapy with teicoplanin was started for sepsis due to staphylococcus hominis. however, for 5 days the dosage was excessive (20 mg/kg twice daily instead of an initial dose of 16 mg/kg and then doses of 8 mg/kg once daily). once this error had been noted, therapy was immediately suspended. cli ...19989822356
synergistic antimicrobial effect of nisin whey permeate and lactic acid on microbes isolated from fish.the antimicrobial activity of a combination of lactic acid and whey permeate fermented by a nisin-producing lactococcus lactis strain was tested by the agar diffusion method using bacteria isolated from fish as test organisms. lactic acid inhibited all bacterial strains studied, but nisin whey permeate inhibited gram-positive bacteria only. the combination was more effective than lactic acid alone against pseudomonas fluorescens and staphylococcus hominis isolated from fish, and pseudomonas aeru ...19989871352
[the use of hydrophobic pall bb22-15ms filters in cross-infection prevention during anesthesia].microbiological testing evaluations of hygienic procedure properties using pall bb22-15ms filters to prevent contamination of "single use" breathing circuits during anesthesia.19989857625
infective endocarditis caused by staphylococcus hominis after vasectomy. 19989675483
staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus subsp. nov., a novel trehalose- and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine-negative, novobiocin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant subspecies isolated from human blood cultures.a new subspecies, staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus, isolated from human blood cultures, a wound, a breast abscess and a catheter tip, is described on the basis of a study of 26 strains isolated between 1989 and 1996. dna-dna reassociation reactions, conducted under stringent conditions, and macrorestriction pattern analysis demonstrated that these strains are closely related to previously characterized s. hominis strains isolated from human skin and clinical specimens, but are signi ...19989734034
chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the resin ladano, of its essential oil and of the isolated compounds.fractionation of the resin ladano from cistus creticus subsp. creticus and susceptibility testing using the chromatographic fractions showed that its antistaphylococcal activity was mainly due to the diterpene sclareol. the antimicrobial activity of its essential oil, of the chromatographic fractions, and of the isolated compounds was also evaluated against staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, and staphylococcus hominis.199910083849
coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from various skin lesions.we isolated 162 coagulase-negative staphylococci (48: from infection, 114: from colonization) from various skin diseases between january, 1995, and january, 1998. from eighteen infected cysts, 10 staphylococcus epidermidis strains, 3 s. capitis strains, 2 s. hominis strains, 2 s. auricularis strains, and one s. saprophyticus strain were individually detected. similarly, from ten folliculitis lesions, 6 s. epidermidis strains, 2 s. capitis strains, and 2 s. hominis strains, and from five furuncle ...19989798341
rapid identification of staphylococcus epidermidis.during the collection of airborne bacteria in a museum in england some bacterial strains were isolated which due to their fatty acid profiles were clearly identified as members of the genus staphylococcus. as fatty acid compositions of coagulase-negative staphylococci are very similar, differing only in quantities but not in qualities, further identification at the species level without a fatty acid database was not achieved. investigation of the isolates using the staph id 32 api system resulte ...200010843049
the ssra-smpb system for protein tagging, directed degradation and ribosome rescue.bacteria contain a remarkable rna molecule - known alternatively as ssra rna, tmrna, or 10sa rna - that acts both as a trna and as an mrna to direct the modification of proteins whose biosynthesis has stalled or has been interrupted. these incomplete proteins are marked for degradation by cotranslational addition of peptide tags to their c-termini in a reaction that is mediated by ribosome-bound ssra rna and an associated protein factor, smpb. this system plays a key role in intracellular protei ...200010881189
antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of syzygium jambos (l.) alston (myrtaceae).syzygium jambos (l.) alston (myrtaceae) is a widespread medicinal plant traditionally used in sub-saharan africa to treat infectious diseases. acetone and aqueous extracts from the bark of s. jambos were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro by the agar dilution method in petri dishes. both extracts showed some activity against the tested micro-organisms. they proved to be particularly effective on staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica and coagulase negative staphylococci among whi ...200010904178
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene as a useful taxonomic tool for staphylococcus spp.the gap gene of staphylococcus aureus, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was used as a target to amplify a 933-bp dna fragment by pcr with a pair of primers 26 and 25 nucleotides in length. pcr products, detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, were also amplified from 12 staphylococcus spp. analyzed previously. hybridization with an internal 279-bp dna fragment probe was positive in all pcr-positive samples. no pcr products were amplified when other gram-positive and gram-negat ...200011101563
binding and cross-linking of tmrna to ribosomal protein s1, on and off the escherichia coli ribosome.uv irradiation of an in vitro translation mixture induced cross-linking of 4-thiou-substituted tmrna to escherichia coli ribosomes by forming covalent complexes with ribosomal protein s1 and 16s rrna. in the absence of s1, tmrna was unable to bind and label ribosomal components. mobility assays on native gels demonstrated that protein s1 bound to tmrna with an apparent binding constant of 1 x 10(8) m(-1). a mutant tmrna, lacking the tag coding region and pseudoknots pk2, pk3 and pk4, did not com ...200011101533
molecular techniques open up new vistas for typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci.several methods were used to type 64 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns) derived from hospitals in morocco. the clinical isolates originated principally from blood cultures and wound sources. these isolates provided the opportunity to substantially compare the proficiency of developing molecular techniques with conventional phenotypic tests for use in the identification of clinical staphylococci. the following molecular methods were examined: utility ribotyping analysis ( ...200111367554
clonal spread of staphylococci among patients with peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.peritonitis is the most important complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns) are the most common causes of peritonitis, only limited information is available regarding the distribution and epidemiology of different cns species associated with capd peritonitis.200010652039
is hospital-acquired intravascular catheter-related sepsis associated with outbreak strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci?macrorestriction fragment profile analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to type strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns) isolated from 30 patients with catheter-related sepsis at the university hospital birmingham nhs trust, uk. twenty-three infections were hospital-acquired. a total of 56 cns were isolated from the patients and identified by api as staphylococcus epidermidis (54), staphylococcus lugdunensis (1) and staphylococcus hominis (1). the micro-organisms were fu ...200011049706
survey of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in the hospitals of central greece.a sample of 450 consecutive, non-replicated coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons), collected from clinical specimens during the period 2000-2001 from the five major hospitals of thessaly district (central greece) were investigated for resistance to methicillin. most of the isolates had been collected in a sporadic fashion from the intensive care units and the surgical wards of the participating hospitals. the majority of the isolates (76%) were staphylococcus epidermidis (50%), staphylococcus ...200111738345
[staphylococcus hominis pneumonia in an immunocompetent girl]. 200111730602
molecular characterization of fema from staphylococcus hominis and staphylococcus saprophyticus, and fema-based discrimination of staphylococcal species.the fema gene encodes a protein precursor which plays a role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis in staphylococcus aureus and is also considered as a factor influencing the level of methicillin resistance. a fema homologous gene was recently characterized in s. epidermidis, entailing the possibility of fema phylogenetic conservation in staphylococcal species. accordingly, we assessed the presence of fema homologous genes in s. hominis and s. saprophyticus. strategy for identification relied upon align ...199910209768
microwave-assisted preparation of cyclic ketals from a cineole ketone as potential cosmetic ingredients: solvent-free synthesis, odour evaluation, in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays.some cyclic ketals derived from (+)1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-6-one were obtained in excellent yields by microwave activation under solvent-free conditions, as a 'green chemistry' procedure. the results obtained using acidic alumina containing 7% p-toluenesulfonic acid, as mineral support, are reported and compared with those obtained by classical methods. the new compounds were tested for their olfactive character and for a potential cosmetic use. in vitro skin cytotoxicity tests ...200211719009
gram positive bacteria induce il-6 and il-8 production in human alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells.inhalation of dust from swine confinement buildings results in an acute inflammatory reaction in the respiratory tract. the dust has a high microbial content, dominated by gram positive bacteria. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of bacteria in the induction of il-6 and il-8 release from respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. the results would give an indication to what extent the bacteria contribute to the toxic inflammation following exposure to swin ...199910392756
smpb, a unique rna-binding protein essential for the peptide-tagging activity of ssra (tmrna).in bacteria, ssra rna recognizes ribosomes stalled on defective messages and acts as a trna and mrna to mediate the addition of a short peptide tag to the c-terminus of the partially synthesized nascent polypeptide chain. the ssra-tagged protein is then degraded by c-terminal-specific proteases. smpb, a unique rna-binding protein that is conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom, is shown here to be an essential component of the ssra quality-control system. deletion of the smpb gene in escheric ...199910393194
a sequence variant of staphylococcus hominis with a high prevalence of oxacillin and fluoroquinolone resistance.a newly identified subspecies of staphylococcus hominis, s. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus, was found to be the cause of several invasive infections at a hospital in new jersey. this subspecies differs from classical s. hominis, now s. hominis subsp. hominis, by the phenotypic characteristics of novobiocin resistance and the inability to ferment trehalose. dna sequences of segments of 16s rrna, dna gyrase (gyra), and dna topoisomerase iv (grla) genes were determined for the type strains of the 2 ...200111763241
effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents on adherence to silicone and hydrophobicity of coagulase-negative staphylococci.objectives: to study the effect of 0.25 mic of antimicrobial agents on adherence to silicone and hydrophobicity of a slime-producing staphylococcus epidermidis (atcc 35984) and non-slime-producing staphylococcus hominis (atcc 35982). methods: adherence was assessed in vitro, using silicone rubber immersed in a suspension of bacteria, pretreated with 0.25 mic of oxacillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin or pefloxacin. after a 24-h period, adherent bacteria, detached by trypsin and sonication, were count ...199611866773
in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, telithromycin and comparator antimicrobial agents against 13 species of coagulase-negative determine in vitro susceptibilities of a large series of speciated coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns) against three new antibiotics, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and telithromycin.200212461014
traffic at the tmrna gene.a partial screen for genetic elements integrated into completely sequenced bacterial genomes shows more significant bias in specificity for the tmrna gene (ssra) than for any type of trna gene. horizontal gene transfer, a major avenue of bacterial evolution, was assessed by focusing on elements using this single attachment locus. diverse elements use ssra; among enterobacteria alone, at least four different integrase subfamilies have independently evolved specificity for ssra, and almost every s ...200312533482
detection and characterization of erythromycin-resistant methylase genes in gram-positive bacteria isolated from poultry litter.the epidemiology of four erythromycin-resistant methylase ( erm) genes, erma, ermb, ermc and msra, was determined in erythromycin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci and streptococci isolated from poultry litter. all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. southern hybridization indicated that 4 of the 20 staphylococci contained the ermc gene on plasmids: on a 2.2 kb plasmid in staphylococcus hominis and s. sciuri, on a 6.0 kb plasmid in s. xylosus, and on a 7.0 kb plasmid in s. lentus ...200212111173
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