phenomenon of hot-cold hemolysis: chelator-induced lysis of sphingomyelinase-treated erythrocytes.staphylococcus aureus produces a phospholipase c specific for sphingomyelin (beta-hemolysin). erythrocytes with approximately 50% sphingomyelin in their membranes, e.g., from sheep, have been shown to have up to 60% of this phospholipid hydrolyzed by this enzyme at 37 c in isotonic buffered saline without hemolysis. cooling of sphingomyelinase c-treated erythrocytes to 4 c causes complete lysis of the cells, a phenomenon known as hot-cold hemolysis. the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (e ...1975333
phospholipase d activity of gram-negative bacteria.a phospholipase hydrolyzing cardiolipin to phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerol was characterized in gram-negative bacteria but was absent in preparations of gram-positive bacteria, saccharomyces cerevisiae, and rat liver mitochondria. in cell-free extracts of escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, proteus vulgaris, and pseudomonase aeruginosa, this cardiolipin-hydrolyzing enzyme had similar ph and mg2+ requirements and displayed a specificity which excluded phosphatidyl glycerol and p ...1975360
bacteriologic diagnosis of acute pneumonia. comparison of sputum, transtracheal aspirates, and lung aspirates. 1976521
current status of treatment of pneumonia.proper treatment of pneumonia is dependent upon a correct diagnosis. pneumonia may be due to infectious agents, allergic phenomena, or chemical causes. treatment regimens are outlined for the various types of pneumonia--pneumococcal, staphylococcal, fungal, and pneumonia due to gram-negative and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, to blastomyces dermatitidis, and to the parasite pneumocystis carinii. in discussing current concepts of treatment, several well-known methods are emphasized, as well as ...1975792
effect of sodium chloride on the staphylococcal growth in milk. 1975868
growth of staphylococcus aureus, experimentally inoculated in damietta cheese. 1975870
multiple forms of staphylococcal alpha-toxin.a group of proteins was readily extracted at neutrality from trichloroacetic acid precipitates of staphylococcal culture filtrate supernatants, while alpha-toxin was dissolved and activated by treating the precipitate with 8 m urea, with acidic buffers or by heating to 90-100 degrees c at neutrality. heat activation of the precipitate produced a relatively pure alpha-toxin with a molecular weight of 39,000. alpha-toxin was eluted together with three other proteins on hydroxyl apatite chromatogra ...1975886
microbiol growth in lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition.parenteral nutrition via central venous catheterization is associated with serious risks, especially that of sepsis. lipid emulsion (intralipidsweden), which may be administered peripherally, was evaluated for its potential to support microbial growth. washed cultures of staphylococcus aureus, candida albicans, and three species of gram-negative rods were all capable of multiplying in the emulsion at room temperature. variations in inoculum size did not affect the growth rate. studies comparing ...1975982
the amino acid sequence of neurospora nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase.the extracellular proteinase of staphylococcus aureus strain v8 was used to digest the nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of neurospora crassa. of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. the sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides wootton, j. c., taylor, j, g., jackson, a. a., chambers, g. k. & fincham, ...19751001
study of acetyl-coa-synthetase from staphylococcus aureus.acetyl-coa-synthetase was isolated from cells of st. aureus 209-p. the method of isolation and partial purification of the enzyme is worked out. km values of the enzyme for acetate, coa and atp are calculated. p-chloromercuribenzoate and monoiodoacetate were shown to inhibit the enzyme activity. the enzyme activity is estimated depending on the age of the cell culture and on the presence of acetate in the culture medium.19751104
production and purification of the gamma haemolysin of staphylococcus aureus 'smith 5r'.the gamma haemolysin of staphylococcus aureus 'smith 5r' was produced on dolman-wilson agar overlain with cellophane. maximal yields of crude lysin with titres of 2000 to 4000 haemolytic units/ml were obtained within 24 h at 37 degrees c in 10% (v/v) co2 in air, on medium adjusted to ph 7-0. the crude lysin was purified 2700-fold (with 75% recovery) by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and ammonium sulphate fractionation. the specific activity of the lysin was 10(5) haemolytic units/mg protein aft ...19761465
the influence of bacterial superinfection on the clinical course of influenza. studies from the influenza epidemics in stockholm during the winters 1969-70 and 1971-72.during two epidemics of influenza a infection in stockholm 1969-72, 249 cases were selected for a study on the effect of bacterial superinfection. bacterial involvement was demonstrated through cultures and serologic reactions. the occurrence of c-reactive protein in increased amount in serum was significantly more common in the group which had the strongest indication of bacterial infection. an increased duration of fever, and a higher incidence of pneumonia, leukocytosis and erythrocyte sedime ...19751847
microbiological study of gentamiycin.gentamycin prepared at the all-union research institute of antibiotics did not differ by its antibacterial spectrum and the activity level from gentamycin samples from other countries. by its activity against clinical strains of ps. aeruginosa gentamycin was somewhat inferior than polymyxin but much more superior than carbenicillin. an agar-diffusion method using bac. pumilus ntcc 8241 as the test microbe was developed for determination of gentamycin activity. the gentamycin sulfate complex and ...19752095
bacterial and fungal growth in total parenteral nutrition solutions,.the most serious complication of prolonged intravenous infusion of hypertonic dextrose and amino acids is infection. frequently, the etiology is fungal rather than bacterial. previous authors have suggested that bacterial survival and growth in the solutions is suppressed by (a) high dextrose concentration, (b) high osmolality, or (c) low ph. this paper presents evidence that proposals (a) and (b) are untenable and (c) is only partly responsible. we call attention to the presence of a factor tha ...19752102
the effect of bile acids and their salts on the lipolytic activity of microorganisms. 19752339
factors affecting the assay of gentamicin by the plate diffusion method.standard curves were prepared by plotting log gentamicin concentration against zone diameter using a conventional plate diffusion method. results were obtained at varying concentrations of sodium chloride and at different phs. under optimum conditions the range in zone diameters was markedly increased, thus considerably improving the potential accuracy of the plate assay method.19762623
proceedings: the influence of ph on the viability of staphylococcus aureus in the presence of methyl5p-hydroxybenzoate. 19752694
proceedings: the antimicrobial efficiencies of contact lens solutions. 19752697
urine conservation by surface-active agents.the antibacterial activity of surface-active substances -- catamine-ab, catapine b-300, giph-200 and tego-51 was measured on the e. coli and staphylococcus aureus cultures and anthracoid spores. the purpose of the measurements was to explore the use of the substances as urine conserving agents. catamine-ab showed the highest antibacterial activity. anthracoid spores exhibited the highest resistance to the substances; staphylococci were less resistant than e. coli. investigations of the effective ...19752807
acetyl-coa-synthetase activity of pigmented 19 strains of staphylococci a study was made of the activity of acetyl-coa-synthetase reaction. all the strains possessed an active enzymatic system transforming the acetate into an active form. the activity of acetyl-coa-synthetase proved to be much greater in the pigmented staphyloccus strains than in the nonpigmented ones. it is supposed that there existed an association between the acetyl-coa-synthetase and the biogenesis of carotinoid pigments in staph. aureus.19753077
sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma.the relation between sperm antibodies (agglutinins and if-antibodies) in serum and seminal plasma was studied in three selected groups of male partners in infertile couples with respect to specificity, concentrations and immunoglobulin classes. agglutinins were found in seminal plasma only when they were also present in serum, but there was no strict correlation between the titres in seminal plasma and serum although serum titres were always the higher ones. however, in cases with tail-to-tail a ...19753485
the role of some microorganisms in the pathogenesis of non-specific bronchopulmonary infections. 19763770
bactericidal activity and pharmacology of flucloxacillin.flucloxacillin, a recent addition to the group of isoxazolyl penicillins, was studied in vitro and in normal volunteers. the bactericidal activity of the drug against most strains of gram-positive bacteria including penicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus was similar to that of oxacillin and approximately fourfold greater than that of cloxacillin. each of the three penicillins was administered orally to a group of ten volunteers for eight days in a dose of 500 mg four times a day. the mean co ...19763969
in vitro susceptibility studies with josamycin and erythromycin.the in vitro activity of josamycin and erythromycin against five bacterial species was compared. in general, erythromycin was slightly more active by weight than josamycin, although both agents had a similar range of activity.19764012
neutrophil pyruvate kinase deficiency with recurrent staphylococcal infections: first reported case.a woman with an intracellular killing defect in the neutrophils had neutrophil pyruvate kinase deficiency. she had had recurrent staphylococcal infections throughout her life. the enzyme present was unstable and its kinetics were abnormal.19764193
viral pneumonias. 19764922
microorganisms in chronic otitis media with effusion.a total of 175 effusions obtained from 172 patients suffering from chronic otitis media with effusions was examined for bacterial smear and culture. eighty percent showed positive bacterial smear, but only 49% yielded positive bacterial culture. the mucoid effusions had positive cultures in only 37%, whereas the bacterial culture rate was higher in serous (59%) and leukocytic (64%) types. the isolation of common pathogens accounted for about 50% of the isolates, and nonpathogens accounted for th ...19765041
the tom gibson memorial lecture. the microbiological role of nitrite in meat products. 19765778
microbial interactions in foods: meats, poultry and dairy products. 19765780
relationship between the antibacterial activity and the acceptor properties of certain penicillins.antibacterial activity of 2 natural and 12 semisynthetic penicillins against 5 strains of grampositive bacteria was determined and quantum chemical estimation of their molecules was performed with the hukkel method. the data were indicative of the fact that antibacterial activity of the penicillins was connected with the acceptor properties of their molecules.19765946
comparative in vitro activity of cephalosporins.the in vitro activity of cephalexin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, cephapirin, cefoxitin, cephamycin c, cepharadine and cefazolin was determined against 443 isolates of bacteria. at a concentration of 12.5 mug/ml, all of the cephalosporins inhibited more than 60% of the isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae. at the same concentration, cephalexin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, cephapirin, cephamycin c and cefazolin inhibited more than 90% of isolates of proteus mirabilis. all of the cephalosporins except ...19766411
chemical modification of streptovaricin c. ii the intramolecular aldol condensation of 19-o-acetonyl-damavaricin c and its analogs. 19766412
the influence of growth medium on the interactions between bordetella pertussis and staphylococcus aureus.previous observers showed that many strains of staphylococcus aureus stimulated the growth of bordetella pertussis but we have found the reverse: the growth of all available strains of b. pertussis on charcoal-agar medium was inhibited by a standard strain of s. aureus; and 17 of 18 strains of s. aureus (as well as several other organisms) inhibited the growth of a standard strain of b. pertussis. all inhibiting colonies had an unusual brown colouration on the charcoal agar used in the investiga ...19766798
quantitative and qualitative determinations of the combined effect of tetracycline and oleandomycin. i. in vitro effect.growth inhibitory effect of combined treatment of tetracycline (tc) and oleandomycin (om), at a ratio of 2:1, on certain species of pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant ones was examined. by the crossed paper strip method, synergistic effects were demonstrated against 9 of the 16 strains of staphylococcus aureus, and all of the 5 strains of escherichia coli studied. antagonism was observed with none of the strains and with 2 strains of streptococcus pyogenes and 2 strains of streptococcu ...19766805
classification of acute bacterial meningitis cases according to their etiology, seen in a children's hospital in ankara from march 1973 to april a 14 months period, as from march 1973 to april 1974 468 cases of acute bacterial meningitis have been diagnosed by c.s.f. findings; namely by examining the protein and sugar content, by the cell counts, gram's staining and culturing of the sediments of c.s.f. 188 cases were proven by culturing to be meningococcic meningitis. all these cases are from the families living in suburban areas of the city under crowded circumstances, which show the importance of population density in the epidemiolo ...19766862
bacteriological findings in materials from patients with nonspecific odontogenic infections.the results of bacteriological studies made between 1964 and 1971 by workers at the varia laboratory, institute of medical microbiology on 767 patients treated at the clinic of gnathofacial surgery, department of medicine, friedrich schiller university at jena, are evaluated. the testees (x=275) were included in groups with specific diagnoses, and a breakdown was made according to the detection of aerobic pus-forming germs. gram-positive cocci were detected in 92% of the cases and their pathogen ...19767062
in vitro activity of josamycin against aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobes.josamycin, a new macrolide antibiotic, was compared with ampicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin in vitro against 25 isolates each of pneumococci, enterococci, staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, and nonenterococcal hemolytic streptococci and against 25 anaerobes including 10 bacteroides fragilis. minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration data were obtained for the aerobic organisms, using serial twofold tube dilutions in mueller-hinton broth. minimal inhibitor ...19767189
magnitude of the protonmotive force in respiring staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli.the membrane potential and ph gradient developed across the plasma membranes of whole cells of staphylococcus aureus and spheroplasts of escherichia coli were estimated. the distributions of potassium ions in the presence of valinomycin and the ph gradient across the membrane were determined from the changes in pk and ph observed in the external medium during transition from the energized respiring state to the de-engerized resting condition. the protonmotive force in respiring cells was estimat ...19767546
counterimmunoelectrophoresis of staphylococcal antibody.modifications of the staphylococcal counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique were evaluated to determine how variations in the procedure affected results. neither a buffer ph range of 7.8 to 9.0 nor buffer molarity of 0.015 or 0.025 when tested in combinations caused appreciable differences. however, use of different agar preparations or delay in addition of antigen to the test slide altered the location of the precipitin band. agarose was found to be more sensitive in determining the serum precip ...19767573
determinants of lung bacterial clearance in normal mice.the determinants of the lung clearance of streptococcus pneumoniae, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, and staphylococcus aureus were studied in normal mice after exposure to an aerosol of viable bacteria and 99mtc-labeled dead bacteria. the fraction of bacteria in lungs that remained viable 4 h after exposure were: s. pneumoniae, 7.3%; k. pneumoniae, 121%; e. coli, 88.5%; s. aureus, 27.6%. the rate of physical removal of bacterial particles (kmc) was determined from the change in lung 99m ...19767575
heterogeneity of cells isolated from rat liver by pronase digestion: ultrastructure, cytochemistry and cell culture. 19767673
development and resistance of staphylococci in bulgaricus milk.studied was the dynamics of development of 9 strains of staphilococci isolated from humans and animals, kept in heat-treated milk, and their resistance in bulgarian sour milk. it was established that the pathogenic staph. aureus and staph. epidermidis develop will in fresh milk kept up to 7 days at 2--6degreesc and 18--22degreesc. in the production of bulgarian sour milk staph, aureus was shown to be viable, remaining active for seven days at 2 to 6degreesc. at room temperature (18--22degreesc) ...19767875
stability of frozen solutions of cefazolin sodium.the stability of frozen solutions of cefazolin sodium was investigated in nine commonly used diluents at concentrations of 1 g with 2.5 ml, 500 mg with 100 ml and 10 g with 45 ml in both glass and polyvinylchloride plastic containers. the diluents were: water for injection usp; 0.9% sodium chloride injection usp; 5% dextrose injection usp (d5w); d5w with 0.02% sodium bicarbonate; d5w in lactated ringer's injection usp; lactated ringer's injection usp; ionosol b in d5w; normasol m in d5w; and pla ...19767955
significance of starter cultures for raw sausage aging in view of food and nutrition hygiene.the authors studied the effects of liquid starter cultures on the survival of pathogenic germs. it was found that the foreign bacteria tested differed in growth limitation which is obviously dependent on acidity and the amount of lactic acid produced by fermentation. since the pathogenic bacteria differ in the ability to survive, it is imperative to observe strict hygienic measures in preparing starter cultures and to use absolutely sterile monocultures for raw sausage ageing.19768718
antibacterial activity of sisomicin in comparison with gentamicin.the antibacterial activity of sisomicin -- a new aminoglycoside antibiotic -- as compared with gentamicin was tested on 521 bacterial strains of different species in a serial-dilution test. staphylococci, streptococci, e. coli, klebsialla-enterobacter, indole-psitive proteus strains, pseufomonads, salmonads, salmonellae, and serratia marcescens were inhibited to the extent of 100% at a maximun of 4.0 mug/ml. sisomicin showed a higher antibacterial activity against part of the bacterial species. ...19769099
factors influencing the immune enhancement of intrapulmonary bactericidal mechanisms.the effect of specific immunization on the antibacterial defense mechanisms of the murine lung was assessed against streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus aureus (smith), serratia marcescens, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. immunization by aerosol inhalation significantly enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus mirabilis but not the remaining organisms. with p. mirabilis, systemic immunization induce ...19769364
bacteriology and antibiotics in acute suppurative otitis hundred and forty-seven patients with acute suppurative otitis media, were divided into three groups and treated with antibiotics (azidocillin, ampicillin, and cephalexin). the therapeutic effect was assessed bacterioloically by swabbing from the aural discharge and from the nasopharynx on the first, second, third, and seventh day after initiation of treatment. in addition, the concentration of antibiotic in the aural discharge and in the nasopharynx was determined. as compared with other pu ...19769519
defective polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis and bactericidal capacity in a boy with recurrent pyogenic infections.a 13-year-old boy with a history of recurrent pyogenic infections had abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmn) function which probably accounted for his susceptibility to infection. pmn phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction were normal but glucose 14c oxidation was abnormally increased in resting cells. the patient's pmns possessed decreased bactericidal activity against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. also documented were decreased pmn chemotactic activity a ...19769619
suppression of lytic effect of beta lactams on escherichia coli and other bacteria.growth of e. coli at ph 5 protected the bacteria against the lytic effect of beta lactam antibiotics typically observed when the cells are grown at ph 7 or 7.5, i.e., the ph values routinely used in laboratory experiments. in contrast, the typical effects of beta lactam antibiotics on cellular shape and elongation and cell division appeared to be similar in cultures grown under neutral and acid ph conditions. the ph-dependent antibiotic tolerance can also be demonstrated with pneumococci, staphy ...19769642
bacterial precipitins and their immunoglobulin class in atopic asthma, non-atopic asthma, and chronic a study of groups of patients with atopic (extrinsic) asthma, non-atopic (intrinsic) asthma, and chronic bronchitis, no difference could be detected in the numbers having precipitating antibodies against species specific antigens from staphylococcus aureus or streptococcus pneumoniae compared to suitably matched control subjects. precipitating antibodies against species specific antigens from haemophilus influenzae, demonstrated in this investigation by double diffusion in agar gel, were foun ...19769702
proteolytic degradation of staphylococcal alpha-toxin.staphylococcal alpha-toxin of mol.wt. 39,000 was degraded at an alkaline ph by staphylococcal extracellular proteases resulting in the formation of three relatively stable intermediates with mol.wt. 27,500, 23,500 and 12,000. the intermediate with mol.wt. 27,500 which existed in two charged forms, was isolated by column chromatography and found to be non-haemolytic. furthermore, it could be obtained by proteolysis of alpha-toxin (mol.wt. 39,000) with chymotrypsin in low concentrations. this inte ...19769775
kinetic investigation of the staphylococcal protease-catalyzed hydrolysis of synthetic investigating the staphylococcal protease-catalyzed hydrolysis of n-tert-butoxycarbonyl-l-glutamate alpha-phenyl ester, n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-glutamate alpha-phenyl ester and n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-glutamate alpha-p-nitroanilide, we obtained kinetic evidence consistent with the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. we found that addition of a nucleophile, such as methanol, led to the partition of the common acyl-enzyme intermediate between water and the alcohol. with n-benzyl-oxycarbonyl-l ...197610162
streptococcal sore throat in general practice--a controlled study.a controlled study was undertaken to determine the incidence of group a haemolytic streptococci and other bacterial pathogens in throat swabs from patients presenting with sore throats. the isolation rate (38-8%) of group a haemolytic streptococci from patients with acute tonsillitis was significantly higher than the isolation rate (8-9%) in a control group, but there was no significant difference in the isolation rates in patients diagnosed as having acute pharyngitis compared with the control ...197610509
the stability of n-pyrrolidinomethyltetracycline in aqueous solution n-pyrrolidinomethyltetracycline (ptc) undergoes decomposition into tetracycline, epitetracylcine, anhydroepitetracycline and ynhydrotetracycline. the decomposition products were identified and separated by tlc and their activity was estimated microbiologically.197610561
susceptibility of staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes and diplococcus pneumoniae to antibiotics. comparison of patterns in poland and federal republic of hundred and eighty five strains of gram-positive cocci were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, including some newer drugs, by agar dilution technique. of these, 100 strains (50 each isolated in poland and germany) were staphylococcus aureus, 55 streptococcus pyogenes, and 30 diplococcus pneumoniae. previous investigations of streptococci and pneumococci isolated in poland and federal republic of grmany, revealed no differences in antibiotic-susceptibility patterns in both countries ...197610702
sport training and some activities of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomes.the acid phosphatase and protease, neutral protease, bactericidal and mitogenic activities were determined in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmnl) lysosomes of 16 years old boys. the investigated group consisted of 20 intense sport training persons during the last six years, the control one of the same age boys without any sport training. the significant decrease of hydrolase activity has been observed in the lysosomes of the peripheral blood pmnl's of the sport training boys.197610703
in vitro study of netilmicin compared with other aminoglycosides.netilmicin (sch 20569) is an ethyl derivative of gentamicin c(1a) that is active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus isolates. among 342 clinical isolates tested, all staphylococci; 92% of escherichia coli, 93% of klebsiella pneumoniae, and 92% of enterobacter were inhibited by 0.8 mug or less of netilmicin per ml, but only 78% of p. aeruginosa were inhibited by 3.1 mug or less per ml. most clinical isolates of enterococci, serratia marcescens, and ...197610829
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
antibacterial activity of ambodryl and benadryl. 197611202
effect of production and storage on the survival of staphylococcus aureus in curd.the effect of curd production on the survival of staphylococci has been studied. at the begining of the manufacture process favourable conditions exist for the development of staphylococci. their number decreases with the increasing acidity and in the final product they occur only sporadically or quite disappeare, especially when the curd is stored at cooling chamber temperatures. the lactose-positive staphylococci take part in the splitting of milk lactose and the production of milk acid as wel ...197611417
a comparison between co-trimoxazole and amoxycillin in the treatment of acute otitis media in general practice. 197611457
a simple procedure for the purification of staphylococcal alpha-toxin.staphylococcal alpha-toxin was produced in a fluid medium based on acid hydrolysed casein using strain wood 46. alpha-toxin and several other proteins were precipitated from bacteria-free culture supernatants by heating at 60 degrees c for 20 min. the process was influenced by the ph of the solution. the toxin was completely inactivated and the precipitate contained a number of proteins if the ph of the solution was adjusted to 4.0-5.0. heat precipitation of solutions having a ph of 6.0-7.0 resu ...197611636
synthesis of staphylococcal enterotoxin a and nuclease under controlled fermentor conditions.the production of enterotoxin a and nuclease by staphylococcus aureus strain 100 was studied in a 1.0-liter fermentor. the effects of the gas flow rate, ph, and dissolved oxygen were evaluated. toxin and nuclease secretion occurred under all conditions which permitted growth of the organism. final yields of toxin and nuclease in cultures grown at constant air flow rates, ranging from 50 to 500 cm3 per min, were higher at successively higher flow rates. an optimum flow rate for either toxin or nu ...197611744
the question of specificity in binding human igg subclasses to protein a-sepharose. 197612109
microbicidal mechanisms of human granulocytes: synergistic effects of granulocyte elastase and myeloperoxidase or chymotrypsin-like cationic protein.the antibacterial activity of a myeloperoxidase (mpo)-glucose oxidase system was found to be greatly increased by granulocyte elastase, present in azurophil granules of human neutrophils. the mpo-h2o3-mediated killing of both escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus was potentiated by granuocyte elastase at an acid ph, whereas at ph 7.4 only killing of e. coli was potentiated. the potentiating effect of elastase was not dependent on the enzymatic properties of the protein since it was not abol ...197612111
effects of staphylococcal products on locomotion and chemotaxis of human blood neutrophils and monocytes.the effects of staphylococcal products as chemo-attractants for human blood neutrophils and monocytes and as inhibitors of locomotion of these cells were studied with bacterial cells, culture filtrates and isoelectrically focused fractions from culture filtrates of nine strains of staphylococcus aureus. little direct chemotactic activity of staphylococcal products for neutrophils was observed, although a chloroform-soluble extract of the whole organisms contained such activity. the major chemota ...197612369
antimicrobial activity of tibezonium (tbz).the activity in vitro of tibezonium (rec 15-0691), a new 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative, has been investigated. the drug was found active especially against streptococcus, diplococcus and corynebacterium strains which are agents of oropharyngeal diseases. the activity of tibezonium was ph dependent against staphylococcus aureus sg 511 and streptococcus pyogenes 821 (at ph 8.0-8.5 it was more active) and the presence of horse serum provoked a small decrease of the antimicrobial properties. no inte ...197712928
microbial acetylation of m factor of virginiamycin.the m component of virginiamycin was found to be modified by whole cells or cell-free enzyme preparations of a staphylococcus aureus strain. it was shown that this reaction proceeds by enzymatic acetylation of the secondary alcoholic function of the molecule, followed by a rapid chemical degradation of the o-acetylated product.197613056
bacteriological examination of sputum (author's transl).the aa., emphasizing the importance of ascertain the bronchial source of microorganisms recoverable from sputum, recommend for this purpose the use of properly collected sputum specimens and the application of washing treatment for mucopurulent materials. the aim of the present study has been to verify the effectiveness of mechanical apparatus to homogenize sputum without affecting the viability of resident microorganisms and the usefulness of prior microscopical examination to establish the rat ...197613741
study on the viscolytic activity of the sputum (author's transl).several mucolytic agents were evaluated on sputum for testing their viscolytic activity and the bacterial tollerance to each of them. proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, papain, pancreatin), kj, and dithiothreitol (or its derivatives) were better tollerated by common respiratory pathogens (h. influenzae, d. pneumoniae, klebsiella, etc.) than other mucolytic agents, as acetil-cysteine, cisteamine-hcl, tension active substances, mercaptoethanol, and others. the dithiothreitol showed also one of ...197613742
resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in respiratory infections (author's transl).the present status of resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in respiratory infections is reviewed. schematically it can outlined as follows. streptococcus b-haemolyticus as well as pneumococcus did not change their sensitivity to penicillin, but some strains are now resistant to tetracycline. streptococcus viridans, enterococcus and h. influenzae did not change substantially their sensitivity to antibiotics. staphylococcus aureus is the bacterial species that always poses some problems ...197613744
bacteriological evaluation of clindamycin-2-phosphate (author's transl).clindamycin-2-phosphate, a newly developed injectable antibiotic, was bacteriologically evaluated in comparison with the parent compound, clindamycin. clindamycin-2-phosphate has a rather weak antibacterial activity. however, it is metabolized into clindamycin in vivo. and this parent compound shows strong activity against both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative cocci. in vitro studies demonstrated that clindamycin-2-phosphate and clindamycin are affected by the ph of the medium used--the ...197714268
use of clindamycin-2-phosphate in ophthalmology (author's transl).clindamycin-2-phosphate was studied to evaluate its possible use in ophthalmology. 1. sensitivity of organisms isolated from human clinical materials: of 44 staphylococcal strains in vitro studied 13 were highly sensitive to 0.1 mug/ml and 28 were resistant to 100 mug/ml or more of clindamycin-2-phosphate. 2. in experiments with rabbits, clindamycin-2-phosphate showed superior penetration into the ocular tissues after intravenous injection than after intramuscular injection. 3. clindamycin-2-pho ...197714269
iodination-deiodination. a radiochemical method for detection of structure and changes in structure in rna.bound iodine is released from radioiodinated nucleotides in polymers exposed to sodium bisulfite. the rate of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of pyrimidines can be controlled both by change of temperature of ph and is also dependent on the molecular association of the nucleotide. the rate of release of iodine from iodocytidine in polycytidylate is greater than the rate of elimination from rna. experiments testing the influence of base-pairing of the iodopyrimidines in synthetic polynucleotides ...197714687
bacteriolysis by immobilized enzymes.bacteriolytic enzymes produced by achromobacter lunatus were immobilized in collagen membrane. intact bacteria such as pseudomonas solanacearum, xanthomonas oryzae, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were lyzed with the bacteriolytic enzyme-collagen membrane. relative activity of the bacteriolytic enzyme-collagen membrane against pseu. solanacearum was about 2% of that of native bacteriolytic enzymes. no difference in the optimum ph was observed between immobilized enzymes and nat ...197714747
la culture cellulaire en phase gazeuse. un nouveau modèle expérimental d'étude in vitro des activités des macrophages alvéolaires.alveolar macrophages, collected by bronchopulmonary lavage and deposited on a membrane filter applied to the surface of a reservoir filled with nutrient medium, were maintained alive in direct contact with the atmosphere. studies of morphology (using both optic and electron microscopy), of bactericidal activity and of atp content confirmed the viability and vitality of the cell culture. this new experimental technique permits the in vitro reconstitution of the alveolar and bronchial microenviron ...197714757
nadph-dependent lipid peroxidation and its effects on aminopyrine n-demethylation in subcellular fractions of human neonatal liver.nadph-dependent lipid peroxidation was determined in humans, using subcellular fractions of livers obtained from newborn infants. as reported for other species, activity was concentrated in the microsomal fraction and was similar to that found in the rat. high activity of lipid peroxidation induced by iron decreased aminopyrine n-demethylation and slightly reduced linearity time for the reaction. compared with the rat, however, human microsomes were more resistant to the effects of lipid peroxid ...197614776
a new semiautomated fluorometric method for estimation of small amounts of l-dopa in human urine.a semiautomated fluorometric method for the quantitative determination of urinary dopa, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-l-alanine, is described. it provides a simple, sensitive and reproducible analytical technique for routine use. dopa is isolated from interfering substances, especially catecholamines, by adsorption onto aluminium oxide, elution with 0.1 m hcl, then passed through a cation-exchange column. by mild oxidation with potassium ferricyanide, dopa is cyclized to dopachrome. this is isomerised ...197714797
mechanism of resistance to the phosphaturic effect of the parathyroid hormone in the hamster.the effect of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on the renal excretion of phosphate, calcium, and cyclic amp was evaluated in the thyroparathyroidectomized hamster, a mammal apparently reisstant to the phosphaturic effect of parathyroid hormone. parathyroid hormone did not increase phosphate excretion, although it decreased excretion of calcium and increased urinary excretion of cyclic amp. this lack of a phosphaturic response to parathyroid hormone was not reversed by administration of 25-oh v ...197714974
mycotoxicoses. 197615366
5-methoxytryptamine: stimulation of 5-ht receptors mediating the rat hyperactivity syndrome and blood platelet aggregation. 197615408
comparative subcutaneous absorption of local anesthetics: lidocaine, procaine and tetracaine.the ph partition hypothesis was applied to the absorption of ionizable local anesthetic amines through the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. solutions of lidocaine hydrochloride (lhcl), procaine hydrochloride (phcl) and tetracaine hydrochloride (thcl) at various ph were implanted on s.c. animal tissue through a glass absorption cell. the s.c. absorption of these drugs was evaluated from the clearances' slopes evolved by determination of the drugs' concentrations in the cell at definite intervals. the h ...197715527
neutrophil function in bone marrow transplant recipients.the neutrophil function of seven patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantion was studied. five of the patients had been transplanted for aplastic anaemia and two for acute leukaemia. determinations were made of neutrophil phagocytosis, chemotaxis, random migration, and microbicidal activity for candida albicans and staphylococcus aureus. one patient showed a decreased ability to kill c. albicans at a time when she had active pneumonia due to pneumocystis carinii. the remainder of the ...197715582
synthesis and biological activity of some vinyl-substituted previous studies 1-methyl-2-nitro-1h-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde and 1-methyl-2-nitro-5-vinyl-1h-imidazole were found to posses interesting antimicrobial activities. we have now prepared some 2-nitro-1h-imidazoles in which the 5-vinyl chain bears selected functional groups (cho, coch3, no2) as well as nitrogen-condensation derivatives of the carbonyl functions. furthermore, 5-methyl-2-nitro-1-vinyl-1h-imidazole has been synthesized. all the compounds, and some intermediates, have been assayed ...197716132
properties of the hexulose phosphate synthase of methylotrophic yeasts and of hexulose phosphate synthase (hps) were studied in extracts of the methanol assimilating yeast candida methylica and the bacterium arthrobacter globiformis b-175 assimilating methylated amines. hps is an inducible enzyme which is localized in the soluble fraction of the cells. the effect of the ph of the reaction mixture, temperature, metal ions, and the concentration of substrates on the activity of hps was studied. properties of the enzyme were different in the yeast and the bacte ...197716201
the transport of l-leucine into the brain of the rat in vivo: saturable and non-saturable components of influx. 197716270
determination of the effective concentration of jodonal a for the disinfection of the skin and teats after milking.the bactericidal effectivity of jodonal a in 1:10, 1:5, and 1:3 solutions was tested on human skin and on the teats of cow mammary glands. the 1:3 dilution ratio proved best for three-minute exposure. jodonal a used in this concentration in 522 cows for the post-milking disinfection of teats for 10 months exerted no harmful effect on the skin of the mammary glands.197616377
devitalizing effect of jodonal a in vitro on bacteria subject to a short-term a three-minute exposure in vitro jodonal a devitalized a culture of serological group b streptococci in a 2% concentration, staphylococcus aureus in a 16% concentration, pneumococcus in a 4.5% concentration, corynebacterium pyogenes in a 2.5% concentration, pseudomonas aeruginosa in a 3% concentration, and klebsiella pneumoniae in a 2% concentration. hence jodonal a concentrations higher than 16% should be tested for udder teat disinfection after the removal of teat cups.197616378
penicillin resistance and penicillinase production in clinical isolates of bacteroides melaninogenicus.the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of penicillin and six other antimicrobials were determined for 50 clinical isolates of bacteroides melaninogenicus. agar dilution susceptibilities were performed using supplemented brucella blood agar and the proposed national committee for clinical laboratory standards standard method for anaerobes; results with the two methods were comparable. a penicillin concentration >/=0.8 mug/ml was needed to inhibit 56% of the isolates, whereas 100% were suscep ...197716564
effect of imidazoles and ph on aging of phosphylated acetylcholinesterase. 197716611
the effect of birth on the maturation of hepatic cytochrome(s) p-450 mono-oxygenase and tyrosine aminotransferase activities in the guinea pig.mixed coat guinea pigs delivered by cesarian section 5 days before term were compared to spontaneously delivered full-term animals with respect to the postnatal maturation of hepatic mono-oxygenase activity in vitro toward aniline and p-chloro-n-methylaniline. tyrosine aminotransferase acitivity was studied in the same preparations as a positive control for birth-related phenomena. mono-oxygenase activities toward both sustrates increased significantly in both premature and full-term animals dur ...197716670
the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of staphylococcus aureus. 3. 1h and 31p nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies on the phosphocarrier protein hpr; tyrosine titration and denaturation studies.the phosphocarrier protein hpr has been investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) at 270 mhz in order to evaluate structural properties of the whole molecule and its active site. the titration behaviour of the three tyrosines of the hpr protein was analysed by monitoring the chemical shifts of the aromatic proton resonances of these residues as a function of ph. it was found that the hpr protein contains a lot of slowly exchanging nh backbone protons which suggested a relatively ri ...197716753
amine binding sites in acyl intermediates of transglutaminases. human blood plasma enzyme (activated coagulation factor xiii) and guinea pig liver enzyme. 197716916
compartmentalization of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in heart rabbit heart homogenates about 50% of the camp-dependent protein kinase activity was associated with the low speed particulate fraction. in homogenates of rat or beef heart this fraction represented approximately 30% of the activity. the percentage of the enzyme in the particulate fraction was not appreciably affected either by preparing more dilute homogenates or by aging homogenates for up to 2 h before centrifugation. the particulate enzyme was not solubilized at physiological ionic streng ...197716921
nosocomial bacteremia. potential for prevention of procedure-related cases.during a six-month period, 187 inpatients had bacteremia associated with community-acquired infection and 91 patients had bacteremia from a nosocomial infection. the most frequently identified sites of infection in both types of bacteremia were the respiratory and urinary tracts. escherichia coli and diplococcus pneumoniae were the organisms most frequently isolated from cultures of patients with community-acquired bacteremia, and e coli, staphylococcus aureus, and klebsiella were most frequentl ...197717018
in vitro examination on antibacterial activity of ciclacillin (acpc) against clinically isolated strains (author's transl).(1) the antibacterial acivity of ciclacillin (acpc) with inoculum size of 10(6) cells/ml was four times less potent than that of ampicillin (abpc) and 4 approximately 8 times less potent than that of ampc, but was 4 approximately 8 times more potent than that of cex against streptococcus pyogenes. for streptococcus pneumoniae, acpc was 2 approximately 4 times less active than abpc and ampc, but 16 approximately 32 times more active than cex. staphylococcus aureus was 4 approximately 8 times less ...197717021
iodination of staphylococcal enterotoxin b by use of chloramine-t.this report describes the conditions that are necessary for iodination of staphylococcal enterotoxin b (seb) by use of chloramine-t. makor chemical co. seb and the two major seb components, which were prepared by isoelectric focusing of partially purified seb, were used in these studies. the antigenic activity of the seb preparations was monitored by radioimmunoassay as the oxidation/reduction (o/r) potential was increased by addition of chloramine-t. the seb preparations lost antigenic activity ...197717366
fiberoptic bronchoscopy and culture bacteria from the lower respiratory.forty-five specimens were obtained by sequential translaryngeal aspiration and fiberoptic bronchoscopy from 31 clinically unifected patients with lung cancer in order to evaluate the reliability of routine fiberoptic bronchoscopy for culture of the lower respiratory tract. bacteria were recovered brom 98 percent (44) of the specimens obtained via fiberoptic bronchoscopy and from 58 percent (26) of the specimens obtained by the preceding translaryngeal aspiration. the microorganisms grown from cu ...197717516
circular dichroic and perturbation spectra of aromatic chromophores in rabbit tropomyosin. topography of tyrosine residues.1. difference spectra of tryosyl residues obtained on denaturation of tropomycosin with urea or guanidinium chloride indicate that strong hydrophobic environments exist in the native coiled-coil state. 2. solvent perturbation difference spectra indicate that tyrosyl residues are partially accessible to the solvent. the accessiblity decreases with increasing size of the solvent molecules. 3. spectral ph titration of tyrosyl residues cannot provide information on the tyrosyl accessibility because ...197717600
factors which influence blood platelet migration.migration of human blood platelets in vitro was investigated by a modification of the capillary-tube migration chamber technique used to study the migration inhibition factor of macrophages. platelets were packed in capillary tubes and incubated in autologous platelet-free plasma (pfp). the extent of migration was quantified by planimetry (measurement of the area of platelet migration visible by stereomicroscopy). among the various anticoagulants employed, sodium citrate was most suitable for st ...197717642
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