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folate analogues altered in the c9-n10 bridge region: n10-toxylisohomofolic acid and n10-toxylisohomoaminopterin. 197897383
antifolate studies. activities of 40 potential antimalarial compounds against sensitive and chlorguanide triazine resistant strains of folate-requiring bacteria and escherichia coli.as part of the search for new antimalarial drugs, a screening program was developed using sensitive and chlorguanide triazine (cgt, cycloguanil) resistant strains of the folate-requiring bacteria, streptococcus faecium durans, lactobacillus casei, and pediococcus cerevisiae. the activities of 40 compounds have been studied against these strains and escherichia coli. observations have been made on the points of 50% growth inhibition, the fold increase of resistance shown to each compound by the r ...1977137981
microbiologic assays of cancer chemotherapeutic agents.among various assay methods available for the study of drug distribution kinetics in cancer chemotherapy, a method that determines the drug in its active form is the most desirable. the microbiologic assay method, with its rapid, simple, and inexpensive procedures, fulfills such a requirement. besides the two commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside, microbiologic assays are available for other chemotherapeutic agents, such as 6-mercaptopurine, 5-fluorouracil, ...1977406993
diastereoisomers of 5,10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroyl-d-glutamic acid.the diastereoisomers of 5,10-methylene 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroyl-d-glutamate were resolved and tested as substrates and inhibitors of lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthetase. no activity was observed. the compounds were neither growth factors nor inhibitors for lactobacillus casei, streptococcus faecium, or pediococcus cerevisiae. 7,8-dihydropteroyl-d-glutamate is 50% as active as 7,8-dihydropteroyl-l-glutamate (dihydrofolate) as a substrate for l. casei dihydrofolate reductase.1977410932
a microbiologic disc assay for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the presence of methotrexate.high-dose methotrexate-citrovorum factor rescue regimens are used extensively for the treatment of human malignancies. since the rescue agent citrovorum factor is rapidly converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, it is desirable to follow the distribution kinetics of both of these coenzymes to assess the selective therapeutic effectiveness of the regimen. the assay methods using methotrexate-resistant strains of lactobacillus casei atcc 7469 (lc/a), streptococcus faecium var. durans atcc 8043 (sf/a ...1977413623
microbiological assay of pantothenic acid. 1979440101
whole-serum assay of l-methionine using a chloramphenicol resistant strain of pediococcus acidilactici. 1979541304
experimental production of elevated serum folate in dogs with intestinal blind loops. ii. nature of bacterially produced folate coenzymes in blind loop fluid.jejunal and ileal blind loops were constructed in separate groups of dogs and the folate coenzymes present in these loops were investigated. although only those dogs with high blind loops had appreciably elevated folate levels active for lactobacillus casei but not streptococcus faecalis, every blind loop appeared to contain four folate compounds--5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid and a compound tentatively identified as 5-formyltetrahydrofolic trig ...1975807096
folate concentration and pattern in bovine milk. 1975807607
effects of volatile bacterial metabolites on the growth, sporulation and mycotoxin production of fungi. 1976817083
[on the metabolism of amino acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine (author's transl)].the changes in the concentrations of amino acids in the culture medium of lactic acid bacteria were determined by ion exchange chromatography after growth of 105 strains that were mainly isolated from wine. after growth of lactic acid bacteria a small but not significant decrease in the concentration of most amino acids is observed. there is apparently no difference between essential or not essential amino acids. certain bacterial strains decompose the amino acids arginine, glutamic acid, histid ...1976973463
an improved procedure for the assay of available lysine and methionine in feedstuffs using tetrahymena pyriformis w.1. a study was made of the assay of available lysine and available methionine using tetrahymena pyriformis w, as applied to a variety of protein-rich feedstuffs. 2. results were strongly influenced by the conditions under which the analyses were done. with most of the test samples predigestion with papain caused a large increase in the values obtained. 3. an improved assay procedure was developed which included enzymic predigestion of the test samples, "all-in" sterilization of the medium consti ...1976817733
lipoic acid content of escherichia coli and other microorganisms.a mutant strain of escherichia coli k-12 requiring lipoic acid. w1485lip 2 (atcc 25645), was used to develop a turbidimetric assay for lipoic acid and a polarographic assay based on the oxidation of pyruvate by suspensions of lipoic acid-deficient organisms. the turbidmetric assay was more sensitive with a working range equivalent to 0.2-2.0 ng of dl-alpha-lipoic acid compared with 5-50 ng for the polarographic method. the mutant responded equally to racemic mixtures of alpha-lipoic acid, beta-l ...1975814874
studies of folic acid compounds in nature. iv. folic acid compounds in soybeans and cow milk.folate compounds in soybean and cow's mild were identified by sephadex chromatography and differential microbiological assaymsoybean contained mainly monoglutamates (ca. 52%), some diglutamates (ca. 16%), and polyglutamates (pentaglutamates representing the major portion). 5-cho-h4pteglun(1-6) constituted 65-70% of total folate activity; cow's milk contained monoglutamates (60%) and polyglutamates (ranging from di- to hepta-conjugates). in contrast to soybean, 90-95% of milk folate was in the 5- ...1975804977
[microbiological measurement of folic coenzymes. i. effect of the concentration of the microorganism]. 1977414770
[influence of nitrogen components of wine on the growth of lactic acid bacteria].three different fractions of nitrogen compounds have been extracted from wine: proteins, peptides, amino acids. they have been tested to support the growth of malolactic bacteria in acid medium: only the peptidic fraction supports this growth.1977411595
deterioration of high-moisture corn.two small, leaky silos were filled with normal high-moisture corn (hmc), and two with hmc severely infested by helminthosporium maydis. counts of mesophilic bacteria, lactobacilli, coliforms, yeasts, and molds were made on corn samples as received and periodically thereafter during 220 days of storage. temperature and gas levels also were monitored. sequential changes in the populations of lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds were determined during spoilage of hmc. these population changes were compa ...19751147609
serum folates in man.in an aseptic microbiological assay of folate compounds and their breakdown compounds, using lactobacillus casei, streptococcus faecalis, and pediococcus cerevisiae, 4a-hydroxy-5methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl-5,8-dihydrofolate were inactive under all conditions to all three organisms and 5-methyl-5,6-dihydrofolate was inactive unless ascorbate was present in the incubation medium, and then only to l. casei. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was active only for l. casei, and activity in puri ...1977405403
biochemical characteristics of streptococcus species. 1978364662
transport and metabolism of folates by bacteria.transport of labeled folic acid (pteglu), pteroylpolyglutamates (pteglu3-5), 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-h4pteglu), and methotrexate in late-log phase cells of lactobacillus casei was active, and subject to inhibition by unlabeled pteroylmonoglutamates, pteroylpolyglutamates, and iodoacetate, but not glutamate or glutamate dipeptides. pteroylpolyglutamates were transported without prior hydrolysis and shared a common uptake system with pteroylmonoglutamates. the affinity and maximum velo ...1975234963
formation of acetaldehyde from threonine by lactic acid bacteria.group n streptococci were found to cleave threonine to form acetaldehyde and glycine. threonine aldolase, the enzyme catalysing this reaction, was found in all strains except streptococcus cremoris z8, an organism which had been shown previously to have a nutritional requirement for glycine. the enzyme was strongly inhibited by glycine and cysteine. the inhibition showed characteristics of allosteric inhibition and was ph-dependent. inhibition by glycine, but not by cysteine, was highly specific ...19761262564
comparison of electrophoretic distribution patterns of ribosomal rna gene restriction fragments and of ribosomal subunit proteins of lactococci, streptococci, and pediococci.comparison of electrophoretic distribution patterns of ribosomal rna gene restriction fragments and of ribosomal subunit proteins are equally effective procedures for detecting differences and similarities in the lactococci, streptococci and pediococci examined. electrophoretic distribution patterns of ribosomal subunit proteins may be a useful tool in taxonomic studies.19921282368
production of racemic lactic acid in pediococcus cerevisiae cultures by two lactate dehydrogenases.nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad)-dependent d(minus)-and l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenases have been partially purified 89- and 70-fold simultaneously from cell-free extracts of pediococcus cerevisiae. native molecular weights, as estimated from molecular sieve chromatography and electrophoresis in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, are 71,000 to 73,000 for d(minus)-lactate dehydrogenase and 136,000 to 139,000 for l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenase. electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-contai ...1975234418
acetaldehyde: an intermediate in the formation of ethanol from glucose by lactic acid bacteria.group n streptococci formed acetaldehyde and ethanol from glucose. as the enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase were present this would enable these organisms to reduce acetyl-coa to acetaldehyde and convert acetyl-coa to acetyl phosphate and acetate. a pentose phosphate pathway which converted ribose-5-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate was also present. acetaldehyde could not be formed via the hexose monophosphate shunt or by direct decarboxylation of py ...1976177470
nucleotide and amino acid sequence of pap-gene (pediocin ach production) in pediococcus acidilactici h.n-terminal analysis of purified pediocin ach produced a partial sequence of 23 amino acids. this sequence matched perfectly with a segment of 23 amino acids in a 62 amino acid molecule generated from the 186 nucleotide sequence open reading frame in a hind iii fragment in psmb74 encoding pap-gene (pediocin ach production). it is suggested that the molecule is translated as inactive prepediocin ach of 62 amino acids. then through enzymatic modifications the leader segment of 18 amino acids is rem ...19921368421
mechanism of resistance of pediococcus cerevisiae strains to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. 1978152131
lipoquinones of some spore-forming rods, lactic-acid bacteria and actinomycetes.the respiratory quinones of 73 strains of gram-positive bacteria including spore-forming rods, lactic-acid bacteria and actinomyctes were examined. menaquinones with seven isoprenoid units (mk-7) were the main quinone type found in representatives of the genus bacillus and in sporolactobacillus inulinus. however, a strain of b. thuringiensis produced mk-8 in addition to mk-7, and strains of b. lentus and b. pantothenticus appeared to produce mk-9 and mk-8, respectively, with no mk-7. in the clos ...1979119033
synthesis of aza homologues of folic acid.folic acid analogues containing an additional nitrogen atom between the phenyl ring and the carbonyl group of the side chain were synthesized. none of the compounds showed significant inhibitory activity against human lymphoblastic leukemia cells (ccrf-cem) in culture or against lactobacillus casei (atcc 7469) growth. against l1210 leukemia in mice, the aza homologue of folic acid, 4, and the aspartic acid analogue, 14, showed no increase in life span over control animals. these compounds were m ...1979109617
aspartate aminotransferase of pediococcus cerevisiae.a five-step procedure is described for preparing highly purified aspartate aminotransferase (l-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, ec.2.6.1.1) from cell-freee enzyme extracts of pediococcus cerevisiae. an overall purification of 130-fold was achieved. some of p. cerevisiae aspartate aminotransferase properties were studied, i.s. ph optimum (7.8--8.0), optimum of temperature (37 degrees), michaelis constans for 4 enzyme substrates and substrate specificity of enzyme. the enzyme is very th ...197767756
aldolases of the lactic acid bacteria. demonstration of immunological relationships among eight genera of gram positive bacteria using an anti-pediococcal aldolase serum.reciprocal qualitative and quantitative immunological experiments employing an anti-pediococcus cerevisiae aldolase serum confirmed many of the interspecific relationships demonstrated previously among lactic acid bacteria with antisera prepared against the streptococcus faecalis fructose diphosphate aldolase. the extent of immunological relatedness observed between the lactobacillus and pediococcus aldolases was markedly gses indicating that the pediococci share closer phylogenetic ties with th ...197665160
microbiological measurement of folic coenzymes. ii. effect of the ph of ascorbic acid. 197723813
significance of starter cultures for raw sausage aging in view of food and nutrition hygiene.the authors studied the effects of liquid starter cultures on the survival of pathogenic germs. it was found that the foreign bacteria tested differed in growth limitation which is obviously dependent on acidity and the amount of lactic acid produced by fermentation. since the pathogenic bacteria differ in the ability to survive, it is imperative to observe strict hygienic measures in preparing starter cultures and to use absolutely sterile monocultures for raw sausage ageing.19768718
resistance to pediococcus cerevisiae to amethopterin as a consequence of changes in enzymatic activity and cell permeability. ii. permeability changes to amethopterin and other folates in the drug-resistant mutant.the accumulation of amethopterin in a pediococcus cerevisiae strain resistant to this analogue was about 30% of that in p. cerevisiae/pteglu, the sensitive parent. the uptake in the resistant strain was strictly glucose dependent, whereas in the sensitive parent about 16% accumulation occurred in absence of glucose. the transport in both strains was inhibited by iodoacetate and kf. amethopterin uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent km of 5 mum in p. cerevisiae/amr and 0.5 mum in ...19766055
resistance of pediococcus cerevisiae to amethopterin as a consequence of changes in enzymatic activity and cell permeability. i. dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthetase and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase in amethopterin-resistant and -sensitive strains of pediococcus cerevisiae.pediococcus cerevisiae/amr, resistant to amethopterin, possesses a higher dihydrofolate reductase (5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydrofolate: nadp+ oxidoreductase, ec 1.5.1.3) activity than the parent, a folate-permeable and thus amethopterin-susceptible strain and than the wild-type. the properties of dihydrofolate reductase from the three strains have been compared. temperature, ph optima, heat stability, as well amethopterin binding did not reveal significant differences between the enzymes from the suscep ...19766054
purification and characterization of the hpr protein of pediococcus halophilus.hpr protein, the ptsh gene product, of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system of pediococcus halophilus was purified to homogeneity using heat and acid treatments, deae-sepharose cl-6b and hydroxyapatite column chromatographies. the purified protein complemented the hpr activity of the phosphotransferase system in staphylococcus aureus ptsh mutant cell lysate. the molecular weight was estimated as 6,500 by sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the amino acid sequence of the am ...19921503564
cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of genes involved in production of pediocin pa-1, and bacteriocin from pediococcus acidilactici pac1.0.the production of pediocin pa-1, a small heat-stable bacteriocin, is associated with the presence of the 9.4-kbp plasmid psrq11 in pediococcus acidilactici pac1.0. it was shown by subcloning of psrq11 in escherichia coli cloning vectors that pediocin pa-1 is produced and, most probably, secreted by e. coli cells. deletion analysis showed that a 5.6-kbp sali-ecori fragment derived from psrq11 is required for pediocin pa-1 production. nucleotide sequence analysis of this 5.6-kbp fragment indicated ...19921514784
[controlled fermentation of pickles using pure bacterial strains]. 19751056609
folate coenzyme forms in fibroblasts from patients deficient in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. 1976826437
detection of pediococcus spp. in brewing yeast by a rapid immunoassay.a membrane immunofluorescent-antibody test was developed to detect diacetyl-producing pediococcus contaminants in brewery pitching yeast (yeast [saccharomyces cerevisiae] slurry collected for reinoculation). centrifugations at 11 and 5,100 x g separate yeast cells from bacteria and concentrate the bacteria, respectively. pelleted bacteria resuspended and trapped on a black membrane filter are reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface antigens and then with fluorescein-conjugat ...19921610194
monoclonal antibody-colony immunoblot method specific for isolation of pediococcus acidilactici from foods and correlation with pediocin (bacteriocin) production.balb/c mice were immunized with broken, heat-killed cells of pediococcus acidilactici h. after murine cell fusions, one monoclonal antibody (mab), ped-2b2, was selected on the basis of its positive reaction with seven of seven strains tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole cells of p. acidilactici. the mab ped-2b2 did not show any cross-reactions with other lactic-acid bacteria or other gram-positive or gram-negative organisms. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro ...19921637167
delay in metabolism of parenteral folinic acid to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in man. 1976826436
recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from pediatric liver transplant recipients.between november 1988 and october 1989, 49 first-time pediatric liver transplant recipients at the children's hospital of pittsburgh were prospectively monitored for the presence of stool colonization and the development of disease caused by vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (vrgpc). quantitative stool culturing was done on a weekly basis, and cultures were planted onto a selective medium for vrgpc. isolates for which the mic was greater than or equal to 8 were considered resistant to van ...19911774255
comparison of chemical and microbiological methods in the estimation of methionine in cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seeds.1. meals were prepared from the seeds of fifteen varieties of cowpea (vigna unguiculata), one of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) and one of yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa), and their methionine content was determined by six different methods. 2. total methionine content was determined by two chemical methods (ion-exchange chromatography and a colorimetric procedure) and by two microbiological methods. the 'available' methionine content was determined by microbiological assay with streptococcus ...1976821514
dihydrofolate reductases in some folate-requiring bacteria with low trimethoprim susceptibility.dihydrofolate reductases from the folate-requiring strains streptococcus faecalis atcc 8043, lactobacillus casei atcc 7496, and pediococcus cerevisiae atcc 8081, as well as from lactobacillus arabinosus, which is not dependent on exogenous folate, were isolated, and their properties were compared to reductases of escherichia coli b, staphylococcus aureus, and rat liver reductase. an inhibition profile with six different inhibitors revealed significant differences among all enzymes. all lactobaci ...1978686702
distribution of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system in fermentative bacteria.a number of selected fermentative bacteria were surveyed for the presence of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system, with particular attention to those organisms which ferment glucose by pathways other than the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway. the phosphoenolpyruvate:glusoe phosphotransferase system was found in all homofermentative lactic acid bacteria tested that ferment glucose via the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway, but in none of a group of heterofermentative species of la ...1979457606
bacteriocin-mediated inhibition of clostridium botulinum spores by lactic acid bacteria at refrigeration and abuse temperatures.the bacteriocinogenicity of lactococcus lactis atcc 11454, pediococcus pentosaceus atcc 43200, p. pentosaceus atcc 43201, lactobacillus plantarum bn, l. plantarum lb592, l. plantarum lb75, and lactobacillus acidophilus n2 against clostridium botulinum spores at 4, 10, 15, and 35 degrees c was investigated by modified deferred and simultaneous antagonism methods. all the strains, except l. acidophilus n2, produced inhibition zones on lawns of c. botulinum spores at 30 degrees c. l. plantarum bn, ...19911785919
the effect of pediococcus damnosus and pediococcus pentosaceus on the growth of pathogens in minced meat.the antibacterial effects of one strain of pediococcus damnosus and two strains of pediococcus pentosacaeus against clostridium perfringens, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella infantis and yersinia enterocolitica were investigated. growth inhibition studies were conducted in juice from minced meat incubated at +6 degrees c and +15 degrees c for various periods after the inoculation with pediococci. inhibitory effects were seen for all bacteria tested.19911907475
the occurrence and growth of microorganisms during the fermentation of fish sausage.minced fish (mullet) sausage mixes containing added sugar, salt, nitrate, nitrite and spices were fermented (48 h, 30 degrees c) by indigenous flora or by a starter culture (pediococcus acidilactici) and the microbial ecology and behaviour of various bacteria was monitored. pediococcus pentosaceus and lactobacillus plantarum dominated the indigenous fermentation, achieving populations of 10(7)-10(8) cfu/g by 48 h, and decreasing the ph of the mix to 4.5-4.7. significant growth (10(5)-10(7) cfu/g ...19911909546
pediococcus cerevisiae mutant with altered transport of folates.a pediococcus cerevisiae mutant that actively accumulated folate (pteglu), in contrast to the wild-type, was also found to exhibit changes in the pattern of uptake of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-ch3-h4pteglu) and amethopterin. most of the 5-ch3-h4pteglue accumulated through a glucose- and temperature-dependent process, and a concentrative uptake was also found in gluocse-starved cells and in cells incubated at oc. about 75% of the accumulated 5-ch3-h4pteglu exchanged with amethopterin. in contr ...19751080150
endocarditis and osteomyelitis caused by aerococcus viridans. 19761084468
pediococcus acidilactici ncib 6990, a new test organism for microbiological assaying of pantothenic acid. 19751194131
use of a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici to inhibit listeria monocytogenes associated with fresh meat.a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici had an inhibitory and bactericidal effect on listeria monocytogenes associated with fresh meat. mics were significantly lower than minimum killing concentrations. when meat was inoculated with l. monocytogenes, the bacteriocin reduced the number of attached bacteria in 2 min by 0.5 to 2.2 log cycles depending upon bacteriocin concentration. meat treated initially with the bacteriocin resulted in attachment of 1.0 to 2.5 log cycles fewer bacteria ...19902117881
non-pts uptake and subsequent metabolism of glucose in pediococcus halophilus as demonstrated with a double mutant defective in phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose phosphotransferase system and in phosphofructokinase.pediococcus halophilus possesses phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose phosphotransferase system (man:pts) as a main glucose transporter. a man:pts defective (man:ptsd) strain x-160 could, however, utilize glucose. a possible glucose-transport mechanism other than pts was studied with the strain x-160 and its derivative, man:ptsd phosphofructokinase defective (pfk-) strain m-13. glucose uptake by x-160 at ph 5.5 was inhibited by any of carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, nigericin, n,n'-dicyclohexylc ...19902142414
antimetabolites of pantothenic acid, ureido- and carbamoyl-derivatives.pantothenic acid analogs have been synthesized that contain alkyl and/or arylureido and carbamate functions in the beta-alanyl portion of the amide moiety of the vitamin. the analogs are inhibitory to growth of lactic acid bacteria at concentrations as low as 0.6 mug/ml, and the inhibitions are competitively reversed by supplements of pantothenic acid. the carbamate derivatives are more toxic to growth of lactobacillus plantarum 8014 and pediococcus cerevisiae 8042 than the ureido analogs, and c ...19751228973
metabolism of dihydroaminopterin and the influence of aminopterin and related derivatives on the metabolism of (-)-5-formyl-tetrahydrofolic acid in pediococcus cerevisiae.[3h]dihydroaminopterin, but not [3h]methotrexate or [3h]aminopterin, was rapidly taken up by resting cell of pediococcus cerevisiae and inhibited the uptake of (-)-5-formyl-tetrahydrofolic acid to more than 90% at a concentration of 25 mum. on the other hand 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolic acid inhibited the uptake of dihydroaminopterin to a similar extent. dihydroaminopterin was metabolized by pediococcus cerevisiae, but not by lactobacillus casei, to a compound tentatively identified as dihydroaminop ...19761247588
isolation and characterization of is1165, an insertion sequence of leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and other lactic acid bacteria.we have cloned and characterized an insertion sequence from leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain db1165. this element, designated is1165, is 1553 bp, has imperfect inverted repeat ends, contains an open reading frame of 1236 bp, and is not related to any previously described insertion sequence. the copy number of is1165 varies from 4 to 13 in l. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strains allowing genetic fingerprinting of strains based on location and number of bands on hybridization. is1 ...19921325060
the phylogeny of aerococcus and pediococcus as determined by 16s rrna sequence analysis: description of tetragenococcus gen. nov.the phylogenetic interrelationships of the genera pediococcus and aerococcus were investigated using reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16s rrna. the genus pediococcus was found to be phylogenetically heterogeneous. the four species p. acidilactici, p. damnosus, p. parvulus and p. pentosaceus formed a phylogenetically distinct group. within this pediococcal cluster, p. acidilactici was closely related to p. pentosaceus whereas p. damnosus showed a specific relationship with p. parvulus. the spe ...19902227360
antigenic property of pediocin ach produced by pediococcus acidilactici h.pediocin ach, a bacteriocin of pediococcus acidilactici h, inhibits the growth of several food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. the antigenic property of partially purified pediocin ach was tested by immunizing mice and a rabbit. pediocin ach was not immunogenic in these animals as determined by immunoblotting even after conjugation to bovine serum albumin. the non-immunogenic nature of pediocin ach, its non-toxicity to laboratory animals and its hydrolysis by gastric proteolytic enzymes may be ...19902272942
assay for citrovorum factor (nsc-3590) in the presence of methotrexate (nsc-740).treatment of certain malignancies with high-dose methotrexate/citrovorum factor rescue has recently been adopted as an effective regimen. a microbiologic assay capable of detecting citrovorum factor in the presence of massive amounts of methotrexate has been developed using a strain of pediococcus cerevisiae resistant to methotrexate. the assay described in this paper is an inexpensive and rapid method of studying the distribution kinetics of citrovorum factor.19751081908
the nutritional requirements of methicillin-dependent and -resistant strains of pediococcus cerevisiae.a new methicillin-dependent and -resistant substrain (called mrd) of pediococcus cerevisiae was developed by serial passages followed by replica-plating. other methicillin-resistant, but not -dependent, substrains were isolated after treatment of the same parent strain with a mutagen. a methicillin-independent partial revertant, still resistant to the drug, was isolated from the original methicillin-dependent and -resistant substrain (crd) developed several years ago. the requirements of some of ...19761082009
behavior of listeria monocytogenes in wiener exudates in the presence of pediococcus acidilactici h or pediocin ach during storage at 4 or 25 degrees c.exudative fluids were collected from packages of five brands of all-beef wieners and inoculated to contain 10(4) to 10(5) cfu of a three-strain (scott a, v7, and 101m) mixture of listeria monocytogenes per ml. listeriae were inactivated (decrease of 0.61 to 3.8 log10 cfu/ml) in all five exudates held at 4 degrees c for 29 days. l. monocytogenes grew (increase of 1.7 to 3.6 log10 cfu/ml) in two of five exudates held at 25 degrees c for 6 days. exudate was inoculated with a derivative of pediococc ...19911906699
glucose and sucrose fermenting capacity of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria used as starters in fermented salads.salads, i.e., vegetables and/or meat in an oil-in-water emulsion with a low ph due to the addition of acids, are popular in western countries. the shelf life of these salads is influenced mainly by storage temperature and the use of preservatives, i.e., sorbic and benzoic acid. lactic acid fermentation could be an interesting novel approach to salad preparation. as part of an investigation on fermented salads, lactic acid bacteria from the genera lactobacillus, pediococcus and streptococcus were ...19921419542
culture media for non-sporulating gram-positive food spoilage bacteria.the spoilage association especially of protein-rich foods can be dominated by gram-positive bacteria, notably lactic acid bacteria (lab) which affect vacuum packaged refrigerated processed meats and some dairy products. new food ecosystems are being created by novel packaging and processing technologies, resulting in spoilage associations differing from those previously reported. in addition, improvement in identification methods, allow the detection and isolation of 'novel' bacterial groups, e. ...19921486021
purification and primary structure of pediocin pa-1 produced by pediococcus acidilactici pac-1.0.the plasmid-encoded bacteriocin pediocin pa-1, produced by the gram-positive bacterium pediococcus acidilactici strain pac-1.0, was purified to homogeneity. the purified product exhibited antibacterial activity against several gram-positive bacterial strains, including the food pathogen listeria monocytogenes. pediocin pa-1 is a 4629-da peptide with 44 amino acids and two disulfide bonds. the amino acid sequence and arrangement of the disulfide bonds were determined. sequence data were used to c ...19921575516
septicaemia caused by pediococcus pentosaceus: a new opportunistic pathogen.a case of septicaemia caused by pediococcus pentosaceus is described. the role played by pediococci, and other vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci, in disease states is examined. we suggest that in immunocompromised patients these organisms act as opportunist pathogens. this would appear to be the first reported case of p. pentosaceus septicaemia.19911753117
in vitro activities of daptomycin and other antimicrobial agents against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria.a comparative evaluation of daptomycin and eight other antimicrobial agents was performed by the agar dilution technique with 56 strains of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria, including leuconostoc, lactobacillus, and pediococcus spp. erythromycin, deptomycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin exhibited the greatest activities, whereas penicillin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime showed moderate activities. the organisms were all highly resistant to vancomycin and cefoxitin.19892552910
reaction mechanism of glutamate racemase, a pyridoxal phosphate-independent amino acid racemase.glutamate racemase of pediococcus pentosaceus contained no cofactor, and was completely inactivated by a thiol reagent. the role of a cysteine residue in the enzyme reaction was studied by chemical modification. the modification of this cysteine residue resulted in a concomitant loss of activity. dl-glutamate protected the enzyme from inactivation. the inactivated enzyme was reactivated by addition of dithiothreitol. the racemization in 2h2o showed an overshoot in the optical rotation of glutama ...19921358877
identification and characterization of two bacteriocin-producing strains of lactococcus lactis isolated from vegetables.isolated from mixed salad and fermented carrots, 123 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened for bacteriocin production. two strains, d53 and 23, identified as lactococcus lactis by dna-dna hybridizations, produced heat stable bacteriocins which were resistant to trypsin and pepsin, but were inactivated by alpha-chymotrypsin and proteinase k. the bacteriocins were active from ph 2 to 9 and inhibited species of listeria, lactobacillus, lactococcus, pediococcus, leuconostoc, carnobacterium, ...19921445757
identification of gram-positive coccal and coccobacillary vancomycin-resistant bacteria.a total of 84 of 150 vancomycin-resistant (defined as no inhibition of bacterial growth around a 30-micrograms vancomycin disk placed on 5% sheep blood-trypticase soy agar [bbl microbiology systems, cockeysville, md.]) bacteria were definitively identified by determining the phenotypic criteria. the identity of representatives was also confirmed by dna-dna hybridizations. the following strains were identified: 1 enterococcus faecium, 18 leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15 leuconostoc citreum, 9 leucon ...19892723037
enhanced control of listeria monocytogenes by in situ-produced pediocin during dry fermented sausage production.to determine whether pediocin is produced and has effective antilisterial activity during food fermentation, six sausage fermentation trials were conducted with antibiotic-resistant, pediocin-producing (bac+) pediococcus acidilactici pac 1.0 (strr rifr) and an isogenic pediocin-negative (bac-) derivative used as a control. meat was inoculated (ca. 10(5) cfu/g) with a composite of five listeria monocytogenes strains, each electrotransformed with pgk12 (cmr emr). p. acidilactici and l. monocytogen ...19921575489
vancomycin-resistant leuconostocs, lactobacilli and now pediococci. 19872888805
purification, characterization and antimicrobial spectrum of a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici.an antimicrobial peptide designated pediocin ach was isolated from pediococcus acidilactici strain h. the pediocin ach was purified by ion exchange chromatography. the molecular weight of pediocin ach was determined by sds-page to be about 2700 daltons. pediocin ach was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes resistant to heat and organic solvents, and active over a wide range of ph. pediocin ach exhibited inhibition against several food spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens including staphylococcu ...19882906056
release of glucose-mediated catabolite repression due to a defect in the membrane fraction of phosphoenolpyruvate: mannose phosphotransferase system in pediococcus halophilus.a spontaneous mutant 9r-4 resistant to 2-deoxyglucose (2dg) was derived from a wild-type strain pediococcus halophilus i-13. phosphoenolpyruvate (pep)-dependent glucose-6-phosphate formation by the permeabilized 9r-4 cells was less than 5% of that observed with the parent i-13. in vitro complementation of pep-dependent 2dg-6-phosphate formation was assayed with combination of the cytoplasmic and membrane fractions prepared from the i-13 and the mutants (9r-4, and x-160 isolated from nature), whi ...19911953293
use of dna probes in the study of silage colonization by lactobacillus and pediococcus strains.a technique to monitor lactic acid bacteria inoculants in silage, based on specific dna probes, was developed and used to evaluate the colonization properties of two strains of lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of pediococcus pentosaceus which were used as maize silage inoculants in farm conditions. the results indicated that these three strains were able to dominate the natural microflora of the silage, representing more than the 95% of the bacterial biomass of the maize silage. these stud ...19911960106
antagonistic effects of lactobacilli and pediococci to control intestinal colonization by human enteropathogens in live poultry. 19912019552
characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of pediococcus acidilactici strains isolated from neutropenic patients. 19921396762
septicemia and hepatic abscess caused by pediococcus acidilactici.a case of postoperative pediococcus acidilactici septicemia with parallel isolation of the organism from hepatic specimens is presented. laboratory methods to identify this vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci are described. very few cases of documented infections due to this bacterium have been reported in the literature.19921396771
purification and amino acid sequence of a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici.a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici has been purified to homogeneity by a rapid and simple four-step purification procedure which includes ammonium sulphate precipitation, chromatography with a cation-exchanger and octyl sepharose, and reverse-phase chromatography. the purification resulted in an approximately 80,000-fold increase in the specific activity and about a 6-fold increase in the total activity. the amino acid composition and sequencing data indicated that the bacterioci ...19921402795
collapse of the proton motive force in listeria monocytogenes caused by a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici.the effect of pediocin jd, a bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici jd1-23, on the proton motive force and proton permeability of resting whole cells of listeria monocytogenes scott a was determined. control cells, treated with trypsin-inactivated bacteriocin at a ph of 5.3 to 6.1, maintained a ph gradient and a membrane potential of approximately 0.65 ph unit and 75 mv, respectively. however, these gradients were rapidly dissipated in cells after exposure to pediocin jd, even though n ...19921444365
genomic analysis of pediococcus starter cultures used to control listeria monocytogenes in turkey summer sausage.the pulsed-field technique of clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis was employed to characterize and size genomic dna of three pediocin-producing (ped+) and two non-pediocin-producing (ped-) strains of pediococcus acidilactici. comparison of genomic fingerprints obtained by digestion with the low-frequency-cleavage endonuclease asci revealed identical restriction profiles for four of the five strains analyzed. summation of results for 10 individually sized asci fragments estimated t ...19921444419
clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediococci.over a 43-month period, 23 separate isolates of nonenterococcal alpha- and nonhemolytic streptococci were reported by our clinical microbiology laboratory to be resistant to vancomycin. this constituted 0.32% of nonenterococcal alpha- and nonhemolytic streptococci reported and 4.4% of such streptococci upon which susceptibility testing was performed. of 13 isolates which were available for further study, all were highly resistant to vancomycin (mic greater than or equal to 1,024 micrograms/ml), ...19902380362
vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria isolated from human sources.recent reports of infections with vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria prompted us to study vancomycin-resistant isolates from human sources to characterize the types of bacteria displaying this phenotype. thirty-six vancomycin-resistant gram-positive isolates, 14 from clinical specimens and 22 from stool samples, were identified. these isolates were tentatively identified as lactobacillus spp. (25 strains), leuconostoc spp. (6 strains), and pediococcus spp. (3 strains) on the basis of mo ...19883182995
septicemia caused by vancomycin-resistant pediococcus acidilactici.a case of septicemia caused by vancomycin-resistant pediococcus acidilactici is discussed. this appears to be the first reported case of septicemia caused by this organism. the characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of this organism are described.19902199529
structure of an exocellular beta-d-glucan from pediococcus sp., a wine lactic bacteria.pediococcus sp. produces an exocellular slime containing exclusively d-glucose. the structure of the polysaccharide was determined by methylation analysis, smith degradation, enzymic hydrolysis, and 13c-n.m.r. spectroscopy as having a trisaccharide repeating unit, ----3)-beta-d-glcp-(1---- 3)-[beta-d-glcp-(1----2)]-beta-d-glcp-(1----.19902224898
molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic position of lactic acid bacteria.lactic acid bacteria, important in food technology, are gram-positive organisms exhibiting a dna g + c content of less than 50 mol%. phylogenetically they are members of the clostridium-bacillus subdivision of gram-positive eubacteria. lactobacillus and streptococci together with related facultatively anaerobic taxa evolved as individual lines of descent about 1.5-2 billion years ago when the earth passed from an anaerobic to an aerobic environment. in contrast to the traditional, morphology-bas ...19883139049
antibacterial activity of plantaricin sik-83, a bacteriocin produced by lactobacillus plantarum.lactobacillus plantarum sik-83 produces a bacteriocin, designated plantaricin sik-83, which inhibits 66 of 68 lactic acid bacteria from the genera lactobacillus, leuconostoc, pediococcus and streptococcus. a 500-fold dilution of l. plantarum sik-83 mrs culture supernatant with phosphate buffer was sufficient to kill 10(5) cells/ml of pediococcus pentosaceus within 120 s. the killing of a sensitive population followed exponential kinetics. it was shown that the bacteriocin binds specifically to s ...19883139056
inhibition of listeria monocytogenes by using bacteriocin pa-1 produced by pediococcus acidilactici pac 1.0.the bacteriocin produced by pediococcus acidilactici pac 1.0, previously designated pa-1 bacteriocin, was found to be inhibitory and bactericidal for listeria monocytogenes. a dried powder prepared from pac 1.0 culture supernatant fortified with 10% milk powder was found to contain bacteriocin activity. an mic against l. monocytogenes and lytic effects in broth cultures were determined. inhibition by pa-1 powder occurred over the ph range 5.5 to 7.0 and at both 4 and 32 degrees c. in addition, i ...19883144243
[extraintestinal isolation of salmonella in chickens: epidemiologic study of 3 salmonellosis outbreaks after ingestion of raw eggs].a taxonomic analysis of the malolactic microflora present in nine grape samples from different zones of galicia, was carried out. nineteen strains were isolated and identified as lactobacillus plantarum (42%), l. brevis (10.6%), l. casei (5.25%), l. hilgardii (5.25%), streptococcus cremoris (5.25%), leuconostoc lactis (5.25%), l. oenos (10.6%), and pediococcus acidilactici (15.8%).19873077329
enzyme electrode composed of the pyruvate oxidase from pediococcus species coupled to an oxygen electrode for measurements of pyruvate in biological media.pyruvate oxidase from pediococcus species was immobilized with gelatin and insolubilized in film form by tanning with glutaraldehyde. the film was fixed onto the tip of an oxygen electrode. the enzyme electrode was specific for pyruvate measurements. this electrode was sensitive to 0.1 mm and could be used up to a final pyruvate concentration of 2 mm. at each step of the enzymatic film preparation and assay 0.7 mm thiamine pyrophosphate, 10 microm flavin adenine dinucleotide, 5 mm mg2+ and 10 mm ...19873504152
effects of dietary chlortetracycline on the antimicrobial resistance of porcine faecal streptococcaceae.breeding pigs and one-half of their progeny were fed antimicrobial-free rations; the other half of the progeny received rations supplemented with 100 g of chlortetracycline (ctc)/ton. effects of dietary ctc with respect to the distribution of species and biotypes of faecal gram-positive cocci and their relative resistance to 12 antimicrobial agents were studied. diversity of antimicrobial resistance (amr) patterns and modal amr patterns were determined for bacterial species common to all three g ...19863700277
antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant leuconostoc, pediococcus, and lactobacillus species.eighty-five strains of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria from three genera, leuconostoc, pediococcus, and lactobacillus, were tested to determine susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution and to 10 agents by disk diffusion. the mics of vancomycin and teicoplanin ranged from 64 to greater than 512 micrograms/ml; however, the mics of daptomycin, a new lipopeptide, were all less than or equal to 0.25 micrograms/ml. none of the organisms were resistant to imipenem, m ...19902344161
resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin: an emerging clinical problem.vancomycin and teicoplanin are glycopeptides active against a wide range of gram-positive bacteria. for 30 years following the discovery of vancomycin in 1956, vancomycin resistance was not detected among normally susceptible bacteria recovered from human specimens. since 1986, however, bacteria resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin or both have been described. strains of the genera leuconostoc, lactobacillus, pediococcus, and erysipelothrix seem inherently resistant to glycopeptides. species a ...19902143434
glycerol teichoic acid as a common antigenic factor in lactobacilli and some other gram-positive organisms. 19734121097
phenotypic characterization, cellular fatty acid composition, and dna relatedness of aerococci and comparison to related genera.aerococci can be misidentified as streptococci, enterococci, pediococci, lactococci, or leuconostocs. to distinguish the genus and determine if another species is needed in the present taxon, we analyzed 37 aerococci for cellular fatty acids and compared them with 377 strains of gram-positive cocci, including the species type strains from each of the related genera. the cellular fatty acid profile of aerococci was distinguishable from other genera. two relatively novel fatty acids found in the a ...19902324269
studies on continuous cultures of pediococci. 19674168168
plasmodium berghei: folic acid levels in mouse erythrocytes. 19734197972
in vitro activity of mersacidin (m87-1551), an investigational peptide antibiotic tested against gram-positive bloodstream isolates.we measured the in vitro activity of mersacidin (formerly m87-1551) against 183 clinical isolates (vancomycin susceptible) and 12 additional vancomycin-resistant strains of gram-positive bacteria. the activity for mersacidin increased an average twofold (range, 1.7- to 7.6-fold) in a calcium-enriched medium. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic)90 for mersacidin was 8-32 times higher than vancomycin for staphylococci, 4-64 times higher for enterococci, and up to 32 times higher for other or ...19921424522
trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole effect on folate metabolism. 19734199529
aldolase of lactic acid bacteria: a case history in the use of an enzyme as an evolutionary marker. 19734203394
[the process of production of various aromatic substances by the lactic acid microbes ped. cerevisiae and lact. plantarum when cultured together for the purpose of using them in production of boiled sausage]. 19734203934
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