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[letter: influencing of the nelson-test by drugs]. 19744849085
[diagnosis of enteropathogenic coli types in hospitalism using the fluorescent antibody test]. 19704929508
antigenic characterization of the salmonid pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, was purified from infected immortal chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cells by a combination of differential and percoll density gradient centrifugation. immune sera from rabbits immunized with purified whole cells of p. salmonis reacted with four protein antigens and two carbohydrate antigens with relative molecular sizes of 65, 60, 54, 51, 16, and approximately 11 kda, respectively. the carbohydr ...19968945567
the rickettsia: an emerging group of pathogens in fish.piscirickettsia salmonis is the first of the previously unrecognized rickettsial pathogens of fish to be fully characterized. since the recognition of p. salmonis in 1989, the impact of rickettsial pathogens in fish has become increasingly apparent. growing awareness of the emergence of these fastidious intracellular organisms has led to the discovery of rickettsial diseases among diverse species of fish from different geographic locations and aquatic environments. the source, reservoir, and mod ...19979204294
the hydroxylation of d-amphetamine by liver microsomes of the male rat. 19744824906
[beta-galactosidase activity in leptospires]. 19734791975
proceedings: the relation between placental and fetal growth. 19744452917
[current problems in bcg vaccination]. 19744445318
[experiences with freter's anaerobic chamber in the clinical laboratory]. 19744154683
[forensic veterinary evaluation of infection with equine herpes virus 1]. 19724336411
ontogeny of serotonergic inhibition of behavioral arousal in the rat. 19744272776
macrophages in pacinian corpuscles.the presence of macrophages in the outer bulb region of mouse, monkey and human pacinian corpuscles was demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. in the normal, nontreated, pacinian corpuscles, a few particular cells were located in the spaces between lamellae of the outer bulb. these cells contained numerous vesicles and vacuoles, and various cytoplasmic processes. when horseradish peroxidase (hrp) was injected locally or systemically, many hrp-positive cells, which were considered to be s ...19853976340
fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to traumatic rupture of the vertebral artery.massive fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage maximal in the posterior fossa following minor trauma to the head and neck was first attributed to rupture of a vertebral artery (va) in 1971. typically, a young, healthy, but intoxicated man receives a minor blow and immediately collapses and dies within minutes. early reports suggested an extracranial site of rupture with upward tracking of blood into the subarachnoid space. in few cases has this site of rupture been histologically verified, and more recen ...19863754721
salicylate effects on proton gradient dissipation by isolated gastric mucosal surface cells.the effects of salicylate were examined on na+/h+ exchange by isolated gastric mucosal surface cells loaded with h+ and resuspended in a buffered medium. choline salicylate (ph 7.4) increases the dissipation of an intracellular proton gradient which was measured using acridine orange. the exchange of extracellular na+ with intracellular h+ by surface cells not only remains intact but also is enhanced upon exposure to salicylate. this was confirmed by cellular uptake of 22na and titration of cell ...19863020564
[penis endoscopy: our experience apropos of 200 cases].the use of the colposcope and acetic acid in the man has shown many genital lesions due to papillomavirus which had not been revealed until then by clinical examination. the authors study the prevalence of these lesions in 200 partners of women with an hpv genital infection. 71.5 per cent abnormal peniscopies were found; 73.5 per cent in the group of partners of women presenting a simple viral disease and 63.5 per cent when the women has an associated cervical dysplasia. 34 per cent of the patie ...19902291046
identification of an abundant s-thiolated rat liver protein as carbonic anhydrase iii; characterization of s-thiolation and dethiolation reactions.an s-thiolated 30-kda protein has been purified from rat liver by two steps of ion-exchange chromatography. this monomeric protein has two "reactive" sulfhydryls that can be s-thiolated by glutathione (form a mixed disulfide with glutathione) in intact liver. the protein has been identified as carbonic anhydrase iii by sequence analysis of tryptic peptides from the pure protein. the two "reactive" sulfhydryls on this protein can produce three different s-thiolated forms of the protein that can b ...19911899179
[studies on the variability of content and composition of volatile oil in leaf- and herb-drugs of thymus vulgaris l]. 19704245001
piracetam does not change the anaesthetic requirement for halothane.mac of halothane was determined in rats before and after the injection of piracetam 0.5 or 2.5 g kg-1, or both. no consistent changes in mac were found. we conclude that piracetam is unlikely to influence halothane requirement appreciably.19854052302
growth of pure cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells using chorioretinal biopsies from the pig. 19883289957
tolerance to hypoxia of myocardium from adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.myocardial mechanics and high-energy phosphate content [atp and creatine phosphate (crp)] of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle preparations from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (shr) and normotensive wistar-kyoto rats (wky) were compared at 6 and 18 mo of age. in comparison with oxygenated (95% o2-5% co2) glucose-supplied (5.5 mm) papillary muscles from hearts of wky rats, papillary muscles from hypertrophied hearts of the 18-mo-old shr exhibited a prolonged time to peak tension, e ...19873591964
evaluation of prostaglandins as mediators of tubuloglomerular feedback.orthograde and retrograde microperfusion experiments were conducted in sprague-dawley rats to evaluate the participation of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids as mediators of tubuloglomerular feedback (tgf) signals. retrograde perfusion with 160 microm arachidonic acid (aa) added to a hypotonic solution enhanced the stop-flow pressure (sfp) feedback responses compared with those obtained with the control hypotonic solution (delta sfp, 1.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 10.1 +/- 0.7 mmhg with aa). blockade of thromboxane ...19883364575
[sensitization to streptococcal antigens in animals with experimental endocarditis after heparin administration]. 19751189373
minimally invasive detection of piscirickettsia salmonis in cultivated salmonids via the pcr.the attributes of the pcr allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. this opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids.19989687475
piscirickettsia salmonis gen. nov., sp. nov., the causative agent of an epizootic disease in salmonid fishes.a novel intracellular pathogen morphologically similar to the ehrlichiae has been isolated in cell culture and identified as the cause of an epizootic disease of salmonid fish. like the ehrlichiae, the salmonid pathogen, designated strain lf-89, replicates within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles in host cells. this agent is the first with characteristics of this type to be isolated from a fish. analysis of the lf-89 16s rrna indicated that, unlike the ehrlichiae, lf-89 is a gamma proteobacter ...19921371057
immunization with bacterial antigens: piscirickettsiosis.piscirickettsiosis is a septicaemic disease of salmonid fish caused by the obligated intracellular rickettsia, piscirickettsia salmonis. this disease was first reported in 1989 in salmon cultured in sea water netpens in southern chile where it is still a major problem causing high mortality among cultured salmonids. in recent years related agents have been reported in farmed salmonids from ireland, canada and norway. mortality, however, at these locations has been reported to be low. because of ...19979270845
phylogenetic analysis of piscirickettsia salmonis by 16s, internal transcribed spacer (its) and 23s ribosomal dna sequencing.piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, is a systemic disease of salmonid fish. variations in virulence and mortality have been observed during epizootics at different geographical regions and in laboratory experiments with isolates from these different locations. this raises the possibility that biogeographical patterns of genetic variation might be a significant factor with this disease. to assess the genetic variability the 16s ribosomal dna, the internal transcri ...199910092974
in vitro infection of a cell line from ictalurus nebulosus with piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (srs), affects several species of salmonids. previous reports using the appearance of cytopathic effect (cpe) as the criterion for susceptibility, showed that piscirickettsia salmonis (atcc strain) can be grown in vitro in some cells lines derived from salmonid fish, but not in bb cells from brown bullhead (ictalurus nebulosus) and bf-2 cells from bluegill (lepomis macrochirus). in this study we describe growth of p ...19979008805
relative virulence of three isolates of piscirickettsia salmonis for coho salmon oncorhynchus kisutch.piscirickettsia salmonis was first recognized as the cause of mortality among pen-reared coho salmon oncorhynchus kisutch in chile. since the initial isolation of this intracellular gram-negative bacterium in 1989, similar organisms have been described from several areas of the world, but the associated outbreaks were not reported to be as serious as those that occurred in chile. to determine if this was due to differences in virulence among isolates of p. salmonis, we conducted an experiment co ...199910092973
an alternative efficient procedure for purification of the obligate intracellular fish bacterial pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of salmonid fish and the etiological agent of the aggressive disease salmonid rickettsial syndrome. today, this disease, also known as piscirickettsiosis, is the cause of high mortality in net pen-reared salmonids in southern chile. although the bacteria can be grown in tissue culture cells, genetic analysis of the organism has been hindered because of the difficulty in obtaining p. salmonis dna free from contaminating host ...200314532090
pathogenesis of liver lesions caused by experimental infection with piscirickettsia salmonis in juvenile atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (srs), or piscirickettsiosis, causes substantial economic losses to the salmon industry. the pathogenesis of the disease has not been fully characterized. the aim of this study is to describe the hepatic lesions associated with experimental p. salmonis infection in atlantic salmon juveniles. fish were maintained in fresh water and inoculated intraperitoneally (ip), orally, or on the gill surface with p. salmonis. a ...200011108456
a piscirickettsia salmonis-like bacterium associated with mortality of white seabass atractoscion nobilis.mortality among hatchery-reared juvenile white seabass atractoscion nobilis in southern california, usa, was associated with infections by a piscirickettsia salmonis-like organism (wspslo). infected fish had no consistent external signs other than pale gills, lethargy and impaired swimming behavior. internally, the kidney and spleen were enlarged, and some fish had livers with multiple pale foci. smears from infected kidney, liver, and spleen stained with wright-giemsa had intracytoplasmic cocco ...200011145452
ospa, a lipoprotein antigen of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.no effective recombinant vaccines are currently available for any rickettsial diseases. in this regard the first non-ribosomal dna sequences from the obligate intracellular pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis are presented. genomic dna isolated from percoll density gradient purified p. salmonis, was used to construct an expression library in lambda zap ii. in the absence of preexisting dna sequence, rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against p. salmonis, with a bias toward p. salmonis surface anti ...200111200233
an efficacious recombinant subunit vaccine against the salmonid rickettsial pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis is the aetiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicaemia, an economically devastating rickettsial disease of farmed salmonids. infected salmonids respond poorly to antibiotic treatment and no effective vaccine is available for the control of p. salmonis. bacterin preparations of p. salmonis were found to elicit a dose-dependent response in coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch), which varied from inadequate protection to exacerbation of the disease. however, an outer su ...200111257358
virulence and antigenic characteristics of a cultured rickettsiales-like organism isolated from farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar in eastern canada.the present study describes culture, virulence and antigenic characteristics of a rickettsiales-like organism (rlo) associated with mortality in farmed atlantic salmon in eastern canada. clinical disease was reproduced in naive atlantic salmon parr by intraperitoneal i.p. inoculation with kidney homogenate from naturally infected fish. pure cultures of rlo were isolated into chinook salmon embryo (chse) cells from kidney of experimentally infected fish. the rlo caused cytopathic effect in cultur ...19989653456
piscirickettsiosis and piscirickettsiosis-like infections in fish: a review.piscirickettsia salmonis was the first "rickettsia-like" bacteria to be recognized as a pathogenic agent of fish. since the first reports of piscirickettsiosis emerged from chile in the late 1980s, piscirickettsia-like bacteria have been recognized with increasing frequency in a variety of fish species, from both fresh and saltwaters around the world. although the first reported incidents of piscirickettsia were in salmonids, piscirickettsia-like bacteria are now being frequently associated with ...200212069766
trna genes were found in piscirickettsia salmonis 16s-23s rdna spacer region (its).piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, a disease affecting salmon aquaculture industry. we analyzed the 16s-23s rdna spacer region (internal transcribed spacer, its) of chilean p. salmonis isolates lf-89 and em-90. two main its amplification products were obtained by pcr using l1 and g1 primers, differing from that described where only one its region was found. by southern blot, it was established that these two amplification products contained sequ ...200111287140
isolates of piscirickettsia salmonis from scotland and ireland show evidence of clonal diversity.salmonid rickettsial septicemia, caused by piscirickettsia salmonis, causes major mortalities in chilean salmonid aquaculture and is an increasing problem in atlantic salmon in ireland and scotland. analysis of 16s-to-23s internal transcribed sequences and 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) shows that irish isolates of p. salmonis form two new groups of the organism while scottish isolates cluster together with norwegian and canadian isolates from atlantic salmon.200415240328
cloning and expression of the coding regions of the heat shock proteins hsp10 and hsp16 from piscirickettsia salmonis.the genes encoding the heat shock proteins hsp10 and hsp16 of the salmon pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis have been isolated and sequenced. the hsp10 coding sequence is located in an open reading frame of 291 base pairs encoding 96 aminoacids. the hsp16 coding region was isolated as a 471 base pair fragment encoding a protein of 156 aminoacids. the deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from other prokaryotic organisms. both proteins w ...200314631874
routes of entry of piscirickettsia salmonis in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss.since 1989, piscirickettsia salmonis, the causal agent of piscirickettsiosis, has killed millions of farmed salmonids each year in southern chile. the portal of entry for the pathogen was investigated by use of selected experimental infections in juvenile rainbow trout (12 g). the methods used were intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, patch contact on skin, patch contact on gills, intestinal intubation and gastric intubation. cumulative mortalities at day 33 post-inoculation were 9 ...199910546046
immunoresponse of coho salmon immunized with a gene expression library from piscirickettsia salmonis.we have used the expression library immunization technology to study the protection of coho salmon oncorhynchus kisutch to the infection with piscirickettsia salmonis. purified dna from this bacterium was sonicated and the fragments were cloned in the expression vector pcmv-bios. two libraries were obtained containing 22,000 and 28,000 colonies and corresponding to approximately 8 and 10 times the genome of the pathogen, respectively. on average, the size of the inserts ranged between 300 and 1, ...200314631865
infectivity of a scottish isolate of piscirickettsia salmonis for atlantic salmon salmo salar and immune response of salmon to this agent.a scottish isolate of piscirickettsia salmonis (sco-95a), previously shown by intraperitoneal injection to have a lethal dose (ld50) of < 2 x 10(3) infectious rickettsial units, was tested for virulence by bath challenge, surface application to the skin, or dorsal median sinus injection. atlantic salmon salmo salar post-smolts were used in all experiments, and exposure to 1 x 10(5) tissue culture infective doses (tcid) of p. salmonis ml(-1) for 1 h in a bath challenge resulted in only 1 mortalit ...200415460853
purification of piscirickettsia salmonis and associated phage particles.piscirickettsia salmonis was isolated from cell culture using differential centrifugation and purified on a 30% percol gradient. the purity of the preparation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and phage-like particles were found to be associated with some of the p. salmonis isolates examined. this is believed to be the first report of a phage associated with rickettsia from fish.200111383571
dna hybridization assays for the detection of piscirickettsia salmonis in salmonid fish. 200415228613
[physiopathological aspects of hypertensive changes in the retinal vessels (author's transl)]. 19751239916
growth of piscirickettsia salmonis to high titers in insect tissue culture cells.piscirickettsia salmonis was grown in established insect, frog, and fish tissue culture cells. the yield of p. salmonis in sf21 cells was up to 100 times that obtained in chse-214 cells, and virulence for atlantic salmon was retained. the ceiling temperature for growth of p. salmonis in sf21 cells was 24 degrees c.200415155687
experimental vertical transmission of piscirickettsia salmonis and in vitro study of attachment and mode of entrance into the fish ovum.piscirickettsia salmonis is a pathogenic bacterial agent causing septicaemic disease in salmon. since its isolation in chile in 1989, p. salmonis has continually produced high mortality rates in salmon farms. little information exists regarding the mechanisms of vertical transmission of this pathogen. experimental vertical transmission was established in the present study by inoculation of male and female rainbow trout broodstock with p. salmonis. the bacterium was subsequently detected using in ...200314524498
isolation and expression of the genes coding for the membrane bound transglycosylase b (mltb) and the transferrin binding protein b (tbpb) of the salmon pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.we have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the membrane bound transglycosylase b (mltb) and the transferring binding protein b (tbpb) of the salmon pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis. the results of the sequence revealed two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 38,830 and 85,140. the deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from phylogenetically related microorganisms. partial sequences codin ...200415586827
piscirickettsia salmonis: a gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogen of fish.piscirickettsia salmonis is the first gram-negative, intracellular bacterial pathogen isolated from fish and is a significant cause of mortality in salmonid fish. recent reports of p. salmonis or p. salmonis-like organisms from new fish hosts and geographic regions have increased the interest in the bacterium. in this review, the important characteristics of the bacterium including recent taxonomic changes, features of the disease caused by the bacterium including transmission, hosts, reservoirs ...200312962234
electrophoretic analysis of its from piscirickettsia salmonis chilean isolates.piscirickettsia salmonis is the most important pathogen in salmonid mariculture in chile. since it was reported numerous piscirickettsiosis outbreaks have occurred differing in virulence and mortality. genetic variability of p. salmonis isolates has been suggested as one factor to explain this. however until now isolates obtained from outbreaks have not been analyzed. knowledge of genetic variability of p. salmonis is very limited and also a useful screening method for genetic variations in isol ...200312951237
monitoring piscirickettsia salmonis by denaturant gel electrophoresis and competitive pcr.reported strains of piscirickettsia salmonis, a pathogen of salmonid fishes, were analyzed by amplifying part of the internal transcribed spacer (its) of the ribosomal rna (rrna) operon followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of the amplicons. all amplified fragments differing in sequence were distinguished by migration during dgge. a simpler format, constant denaturant gel electrophoresis (cdge), allowed the same diagnostic distinctions among strains. sampling during 1997 and ...200010907135
experimental infection of coho salmon oncorhynchus kisutch by exposure of skin, gills and intestine with piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsiosis pathogenesis was examined using some tissues as entry portals of piscirickettsia salmonis in coho salmon. juvenile fish, weighing approximately 8.4 g, were used in this trial. inocula were prepared using the strain slgo-95 of p. salmonis. the micro-organism was cultured in the chse-214 cell line as described by fryer et al. (1990) and doses containing 10(4.7) and 10(3.7) tcid50 were prepared. each dose was used to infect the fish via skin, gills and intestine. skin and gills w ...200415584410
immunological characterization of a bacterial protein isolated from salmonid fish naturally infected with piscirickettsia salmonis.the salmon rickettsia syndrome (srs) remains a major infectious disease in the chilean aquaculture. a limited number of piscirickettsia salmonis proteins have been characterized so far for their use as potential candidates for vaccines studies. in this study, we identified and expressed a highly immunogenic protein of p. salmonis extracted by selective hydrophobicity from crude-cell macerates of naturally infected salmonid fish. one and two-d page gels followed by western blot analysis with a ba ...200717250933
use of arthrobacter davidanieli as a live vaccine against renibacterium salmoninarum and piscirickettsia salmonis in salmonids.arthrobacter davidanieli (proposed species nomenclature) is a non-pathogenic gram-variable bacterium related to, but taxonomically distinct from, renibacterium salmoninarum, the aetiological agent of bacterial kidney disease (bkd). we have demonstrated that vaccination with live a. davidanieli is effective against bkd in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) showing above 80 relative percent survival in experimental challenge trials. good protection was also demonstrated in long-term field trials where ...200515962482
aquatic francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass morone chrysops x m. saxatilis.the present study identifies an emerging disease associated with an aquatic francisella-like bacterium that can cause mortality in hybrid striped bass morone chrysops x m. saxatilis reared intensively in freshwater. clinically affected fish were lethargic, had scattered haemorrhagic cutaneous lesions and diffuse gill pallor. the head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen and contained numerous interstitial granulomas; histological examination revealed small, pleomorphic gram-negative coccobaci ...200617140136
confirmation of piscirickettsia salmonis as a pathogen in european sea bass dicentrarchus labrax and phylogenetic comparison with salmonid strains.european sea bass dicentrarchus labrax from the mediterranean were diagnosed with a severe encephalitis. rickettsia-like organisms (rlos) were associated with brain lesions in routine paraffin sections. these were found to share common antigens with the piscirickettsia salmonis type-strain, lf-89, by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and by immunohistochemistry (ihc). in addition, we compared the dna sequences of the 16s rdna and 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer region (its) with thos ...200515918473
improved purification of piscirickettsia salmonis using percoll gradients.viable preparations of intact piscirickettsia salmonis, purified from host cell material, are necessary for studying characteristics associated with this bacterium. however, purification of the organism is difficult due to its obligate intracellular nature. a simple and effective method for isolating whole p. salmonis, which is quick and easy to perform, but still maintains the viability and antigenicity of the bacterium is described. p. salmonis was purified by differential pelleting and densit ...200616434115
persistence of piscirickettsia salmonis and detection of serum antibodies to the bacterium in white seabass atractoscion nobilis following experimental exposure.white seabass atractoscion nobilis surviving experimental exposure to piscirickettsia salmonis harbored the bacterium for periods up to at least 123 d post injection (dpi). intraperitoneal injections of juvenile white seabass with 1.26 x 10(2) tcid50 p. salmonis fish(-1) resulted in a 29% cumulative mortality over a 27 d period. both molecular and histologic methods provided evidence for persistence of the bacterium in fish sampled sequentially from the surviving population. throughout the perio ...200617260832
real time pcr detection of piscirickettsia salmonis from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.piscirickettsia salmonis is the causative agent of piscirickettsiosis, a transmissible disease of salmonid fish. diagnosis of piscirickettsiosis has traditionally been based upon identification of typical pathological changes by histological investigation, with confirmation by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. however, implementation of more rapid confirmatory techniques, preferably with higher levels of sensitivity and possibilities for quantification, is desira ...200818681901
structural features of lipid a of piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiological agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia.the composition and structure of lipid a isolated from the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of piscirickettsia salmonis were investigated by chemical analyses, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gcms), and electrospray ionization (esi) combined with the tandem mass spectrometry (ms/ms). our study revealed moderate compositional and structural heterogeneity of lipid a with respect to the content of phosphate groups and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinopyranose (ara4n) residues and with regard to the degree of ...200718197732
detection of piscirickettsia salmonis in fish tissues by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific monoclonal antibodies.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of piscirickettsia salmonis in fish tissue samples was developed. the test uses a combination of different monoclonal antibodies specific against p. salmonis in the capture step of the assay. the antibodies 7g4, 6e2 and 2c1 chosen for the capture step are bound to the solid support with an adhesive protein purified from a bivalve mollusc, resulting in a high yield of adsorption and binding stability. the monoclonal antibody 7g4, used ...200212093039
genetic characterization and experimental pathogenesis of piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from white seabass atractoscion nobilis.an intracellular bacterium originally isolated from hatchery-reared juvenile white seabass atractoscion nobilis in southern california, usa, was identified by sequences of the small and large subunit ribosomal (16s and 23s) dna and the internal transcribed spacer (its) as piscirickettsia salmonis. considering all rdna sequences compared, the white seabass isolate (wsb-98) had a 96.3 to 98.7% homology with 4 previously described strains of p. salmonis isolated from salmon in chile, norway, and br ...200515819429
characterization of a novel and genetically different small infective variant of piscirickettsia salmonis.we report a novel genetically different small infective variant of the fish pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis (sp.s). sp.s variants were recovered both from ageing post-infected chse-214 culture cells as well as from naturally infected fish. the its region of sp.s variants, although sharing a common core sequence, is different from the its of the prototype strain lf-89 from which they originate. thus, sp.s can be selectively amplified with sequence-specific discriminatory set of pcr primers. tra ...200818166333
survival and replication of piscirickettsia salmonis in rainbow trout head kidney macrophages.piscirickettsia salmonis is pathogenic for a variety of cultured marine fish species worldwide. the organism has been observed within host macrophages in natural disease outbreaks among coho salmon and european sea bass. in vitro studies, incorporating transmission electron microscopy (tem) and ferritin loading of lysosomes, have confirmed that p. salmonis is capable of surviving and replicating in rainbow trout macrophages. certain features of this intracellular survival underline its differenc ...200818691656
a vaccine against the salmonid pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis based on recombinant proteins.we report here the protective effect against piscirickettsiosis elicited in fish by a mixture of recombinant proteins. a comparative genomics strategy was used on a genomic library of piscirickettsia salmonis in order to select optimal candidates for a recombinant subunit vaccine to protect fish from rickettsial septicaemia (srs). based on this information, 15 p. salmonis orfs encoding heat shock proteins, virulence factors, membrane bound and other surface exposed antigens, were isolated and ex ...200616697089
agar culture of piscirickettsia salmonis, a serious pathogen of farmed salmonid and marine fish.piscirickettsia salmonis, a serious bacterial pathogen of farmed marine fish, previously considered culturable only in eukaryotic cell-culture systems, was grown for the first time on agar and broth containing enhanced levels of cysteine, thus greatly increasing the potential for isolation, in vitro culture and study of this organism. virulence towards atlantic salmon following passage on agar media was retained in a controlled laboratory trial. of the studied temperatures, optimal growth on aga ...200818028392
characterization of a piscirickettsiosis-like disease in hawaiian tilapia.in 1994, tilapia (oreochromis mossambicus and sarotherodon melanotheron) in wild and farmed populations on oahu, hawaii, usa, began to die of an unknown disease that was similar but not identical to piscirickettsiosis in salmonids. only tilapia were affected. diseased tilapia often swam erratically and had trouble staying at depth. scattered cutaneous haemorrhage and exophthalmia were often noted. in many cases, fish were found dead with no clinical signs. gills exhibited epithelial hyperplasia ...200312691196
an evaluation of potential reference genes for stability of expression in two salmonid cell lines after infection with either piscirickettsia salmonis or ipnv.abstract:201020398263
purification of piscirickettsia salmonis and partial characterization of antigens.piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, an economically significant disease affecting the salmon aquaculture industry. as with other rickettsial pathogens, antigenic analysis of p. salmonis has been limited by the inherent difficulties of purifying an intracellular organism away from host cell material. in this report, we describe the use of diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium (dmds) density gradient centrifugation to purify p. salmonis grow ...19989678968
microarray analyses identify molecular biomarkers of atlantic salmon macrophage and hematopoietic kidney response to piscirickettsia salmonis infection.piscirickettsia salmonis is the intracellular bacterium that causes salmonid rickettsial septicemia, an infectious disease that kills millions of farmed fish each year. the mechanisms used by p. salmonis to survive and replicate within host cells are not known. piscirickettsiosis causes severe necrosis of hematopoietic kidney. microarray-based experiments with qpcr validation were used to identify atlantic salmon macrophage and hematopoietic kidney genes differentially transcribed in response to ...200415454580
Multiple tissue transcriptomic responses to Piscirickettsia salmonis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).The bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), a severe disease that causes major economic losses to the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry every year. Little is known about the infective strategy of P. salmonis, which is able to infect, survive within, and replicate inside salmonid macrophages as an intracellular parasite. Similarly there is little knowledge concerning the fish host's response to invasion by this pathogen. We have exa ...201121878610
association of red-mark syndrome with a rickettsia-like organism and its connection with strawberry disease in the usa.red-mark syndrome (rms), a disease seen mostly in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, is of unknown aetiology. the research presented here indicates the presence of an intracellular bacterium in rms-affected fish. a positive reaction was observed using immunohistochemistry (ihc) with skin lesions, liver, kidney and spleen of affected fish sampled from several locations within the united kingdom using two different polyclonal antisera raised against piscirickettsia salmonis. the same reaction was ...201020854353
oral vaccination of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) against salmonid rickettsial septicaemia.effective oral immunization systems may be very helpful to the salmon industry, particularly during the seawater growth stages in which vaccination through injection is not possible. during the seawater growing stage, fish become more susceptible to several types of disease, due to the natural decay of vaccine-induced immune responses. in this study, we demonstrate the immune response and efficacy of a new salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (srs) oral vaccine, developed using micromatrix™ technolo ...201121219985
determination of minimal concentration of piscirickettsia salmonis in water columns to establish a fallowing period in salmon farms.abstract a highly sensitive real-time pcr procedure to detect and quantify the number of pisciricketsia salmonis units in seawater samples from affected farm sites has been developed. the purpose was to determine a fallowing period that would allow safe restocking of the target farm with new fish. bacterial load was determined in water samples by comparing the obtained amplification values against a standard curve generated by the amplification of known concentrations of the its-ribosomal compon ...201020088869
production and immune response of recombinant hsp60 and hsp70 from the salmon pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.we have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the heat shock proteins 60 (hsp60) and 70 (hsp70) of the salmon pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis. the sequence analysis revealed the expected two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 60,060 and 70,400. the proteins exhibit a 70-80% homology with other known prokaryotic hsp60 and hsp70 sequences. the coding regions have been expressed in e. coli as thioredoxin fusion proteins. both recombinant proteins wer ...200515977412
characterization of a functional toxin-antitoxin module in the genome of the fish pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.this is the first report of a functional toxin-antitoxin (ta) locus in piscirickettsia salmonis. the p. salmonis ta operon (ps-tox-antox) is an autonomous genetic unit containing two genes, a regulatory promoter site and an overlapping putative operator region. the orfs consist of a toxic ps-tox gene (p. salmonis toxin) and its upstream partner ps-antox (p. salmonis antitoxin). the regulatory promoter site contains two inverted repeat motifs between the -10 and -35 regions, which may represent a ...201121241361
characterisation of an emerging rickettsia-like organism in tasmanian farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar.a rickettsia-like organism (rlo) was observed in farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar located in south-east tasmania, australia. several assays such as immunoperoxidase, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid sequencing, as well as phylogenetic analysis of rdna sequences, were performed on infected fish tissues. immunohistochemistry results suggested the presence of related antigenic determinants between the tasmanian rlo and the type strain lf-89 of piscirickettsia ...200515900686
productive infection of piscirickettsia salmonis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout, a possible survival strategy.piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (srs), an endemic disease which causes significant losses in salmon production. this intracellular bacterium is normally cultured in salmonid epithelial cell lines inducing characteristic cytopathic effects (cpes). in this study we demonstrate that p. salmonis is able to infect, survive, replicate, and propagate in the macrophages/monocytes cell line rts11 derived from rainbow trout spleen, without inducing th ...200919681041
lipopolysaccharide primes the respiratory burst of atlantic salmon shk-1 cells through protein kinase c-mediated phosphorylation of p47phox.the superoxide-producing nadph oxidase complex of phagocytes plays a crucial role in host defenses against microbial infection. nadph oxidase consists of a membrane heterodimeric protein, composed of gp91phox and p22phox, and the cytosolic proteins, p40phox, p47phox and p67phox. in the present study, we clone and sequence the full-length cdnas coding for the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) phagocyte nadph oxidase components, p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox, using a homology cloning approach. the seq ...201020621116
piscirickettsia salmonis induces apoptosis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout.piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (srs) which causes significant losses in salmon production in chile and other and in other regions in the southern hemisphere. as the killing of phagocytes is an important pathogenic mechanism for other bacteria to establish infections in vertebrates, we investigated whether p. salmonis kills trout macrophages by apoptosis. apoptosis in infected macrophages was demonstrated by techniques based on morphological ...201020432244
culture of piscirickettsia salmonis on enriched blood agar.piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, an economically significant disease of fish. isolation of p. salmonis by culturing on fish cell lines has been the standard technique since the initial isolation of the organism. the ability to grow p. salmonis on artificial media would relieve facilities of the cost of maintaining cell lines, permit isolation at fish culture sites with fewer contamination problems, and allow easier transport of isolates to diagnostic facilit ...200818319435
ispsa2, the first mobile genetic element to be described and characterized in the bacterial facultative intracellular pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis is a novel, aggressive, facultative gram-negative bacterium that drastically affects salmon production at different latitudes, with particular impact in southern chile. initially, p. salmonis was described as a rickettsia-like, obligate, intracellular alphaproteobacteria, but it was reclassified recently as a facultative intracellular gammaproteobacteria. this designation has prompted the independent growth of the bacterium to a pure state for detailed study of its biolo ...201021073510
multiplex pcr for the detection of piscirickettsia salmonis, vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida and streptococcus phocae in chilean marine farms.a multiplex (m-)pcr-based protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of the main marine bacterial pathogens in chilean salmon farms: streptococcus phocae, aeromonas salmonicida, vibrio anguillarum and piscirickettsia salmonis. each of the 4 oligonucleotide primer pairs exclusively amplified the target gene of the specific bacterial pathogen. the detection limit of the m-pcr using purified total bacterial dna was 50 pg microl(-1) for v anguillarum, 500 fg microl(-1) for p. salmonis, and ...201122303630
a natural peptide and its variants derived from the processing of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) displaying enhanced antimicrobial activity: a novel alternative for the control of bacterial diseases.the larger segment of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) codifies most of the structural and non-structural proteins of the virus in two overlapping open reading frames (orfs). the longer of the two orf is expressed as a polyprotein which generates a number of variable length peptides of unknown function during processing. since an appealing hypothesis would be that these peptides are generated by the virus to act as antimicrobial agents that favor viral infectivity in their fish ho ...201121291934
on the phenomenology of anger and hate. 20144654370
an enzymatic determination of ammonia in biological fluids. 20154284306
on the phenomenology of anger and hate. 20144654370
the nonsuppressibility of plasma cortisol persists after pregnancy.to determine if normal balance is restored to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after pregnancy, we compared the dexamethasone suppressibility of plasma cortisol in women four days after delivery of their infant, with that of nonpregnant women. plasma concentrations of cortisol before dexamethasone administration were similar in the post-partum women and in women taking oestrogen contraceptives, but both were higher than in normally cycling women. after dexamethasone, plasma cortisol in th ...20133557282
comparative growth of the thermal algae cyanidium caldarium on nitrate and ammonia at different temperatures. 20165072724
the drug problem and the school nurse. 20154490697
epidemiological trends in gonorrhoea in recent years. 20165014421
[determination of volatile water-soluble organic compounds in hermetically sealed objects]. 20154652090
distortion produced by pinhole collimators. 20165056700
[in memoriam. werner schwidder]. 20164928833
[churg and strauss allergic granulomatous angiitis and an inflammatory pseudotumor of the orbit]. 20133764132
varicella pneumonia. treatment with tracheostomy and mechanical endotracheal positive-pressure ventilation. 20164860512
bicaudate index in computerized tomography of huntington disease and cerebral atrophy.ventricular sizes on computerized tomographic (ct) scans were compared in seven patients with huntington disease, 20 patients with cerebral atrophy, and 20 normal controls. the bicaudate index--the ratio of the width of both lateral ventricles at the level of the heads of the caudate nuclei to the distance between the outer tables of the skull at the same level--significantly discriminated among the three groups. the bicaudate indices were: huntington disease 0.209 +/- 0.007, cerebral atrophy 0. ...2003152416
impairment of doctors: are beginning medical students psychologically vulnerable?the hypothesis that the stressful nature of medical training is a major cause of impairment of doctors is explored in this study by examining whether changes in psychological adjustment occur during the first year, the first year is stressful, and sex differences in psychological adjustment or stress occur. all first-year medical students at an australian university completed self-rating measures of psychiatric symptomatology, ego-resilience, depressive mood and role conflict, support and confid ...20144069020
[roberto martin pinto (1910-1971)]. 20154619490
letpomeningeal aspergillosis causing internal carotid artery stenosis. 2004444826
[instrumentation physics in medicine: capacitance and dielectric constants]. 20133820784
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