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detailed phylogeny of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria determined by rdna sequences and dna homology values.a comparison of the phylogeny of 38 isolates of chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (aob) based on 16s rrna gene sequences, 16s-235 rdna intergenic spacer region (isr) sequences and species affiliations based on dna homology values was performed. the organisms studied all belong to the beta-subclass of the proteobacteria and included representatives of nitrosomonas, nitrosococcus and nitrosospira. the similarity values of the 16s rdna sequences were high, particularly within the nit ...200111760943
bacterial and archaea community present in the pine barrens forest of long island, ny: unusually high percentage of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.of the few preserved areas in the northeast of united states, the soil in the pine barrens forests presents a harsh environment for the microorganisms to grow and survive. in the current study we report the use of clustering methods to scientifically select the sampling locations that would represent the entire forest and also report the microbial diversity present in various horizons of the soil. sixty six sampling locations were selected across the forest and soils were collected from three ho ...201122028845
serological diversity within a terrestrial ammonia-oxidizing population.fluorescent antibodies (fas) prepared against 16 ammonia-oxidizing nitrifying bacteria were examined as to cross-reactivity in heterologous fa staining tests. virtually all cross-reactions to the seven nitrosomonas fas were confined to the nitrosomonas isolates. the five nitrosospira, three nitrosolobus, and one nitrosovibrio fas stained isolates only within their respective genera. within each genus shared antigens were more common among nitrosomonas and nitrosolobus than among nitrosospira iso ...197816345320
genera-specific immunofluorescence labeling of ammonia oxidizers with polyclonal antibodies recognizing both subunits of the ammonia monooxygenase.polyclonal antibodies that recognize the two subunits amoa and amob of the ammonia monooxygenase (amo) were applied to identify ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by immunofluorescence (if) labeling in pure, mixed, and enriched cultures. the antibodies against the amoa were produced using a synthetic peptide of the amoa of nitrosomonas eutropha, whereas the antibodies against the amob had been developed previously is against the whole b-subunit of the amo [pinck et al. (2001) appl environ microbiol 67:1 ...200414994172
polyclonal antibodies recognizing the amob protein of ammonia oxidizers of the beta-subclass of the class proteobacteria.a 41-kda protein of nitrosomonas eutropha was purified, and the n-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be nearly identical with the sequence of amob, a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. this protein was used to develop polyclonal antibodies, which were highly specific for the detection of the four genera of ammonia oxidizers of the beta-subclass of proteobacteria (nitrosomonas, including nitrosococcus mobilis, which belongs phylogenetically to nitrosomonas; nitrosospira; nitrosolobus; and n ...200111133435
taxon-specific content of oligonucleotide triplets in 16s rrnas of anoxygenic phototrophic and nitrifying bacteria.theoretical evaluation of the content of oligonucleotide triplets aaa, ccc, and uau in 16s rrnas of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (genera chlorobium; chloroflexus; chromatium: rhodopseudomonas) and nitrifying bacteria (genera nitrosococcus, nitrosomonas, nitrosolobus, nitrosovibrio, nitrospira, nitrospina, nitrobacter) showed that the number of the aaa, ccc or uau triplets in 16s rrnas specifically corresponds to the genus and species of bacteria. the ratio of aaa and ccc triplet numbers in t ...199910049622
a gene encoding a membrane protein exists upstream of the amoa/amob genes in ammonia oxidizing bacteria: a third member of the amo operon?the gene cluster encoding ammonia monooxygenase (amo) in the chemolithotrophic soil bacterium nitrosospira sp. npav was found to contain a third open reading frame, termed amoc, upstream of the genes amoa and amob that encode the subunits of amo. the amoc gene and its flanking regions were isolated and sequenced from a 4.4 kb ecori fragment that contains one of three copies of the ammonia monooxygenase gene cluster. the presence of this gene upstream of the other two amoa gene copies in nitrosos ...19979163908
serological studies on lithotrophic, ammonia oxidizing bacteria.rabbit antisera were prepared against living cells of six different ammonia oxidizing nitrifying bacteria. they were examined as to cross-reactivity in the agglutination test (microtiter-system) with 24 nitrifier strains, including members of all known genera. usually distinct cross-reactions were obtained only within the genera, but some exceptions were noticed. there was stated a clear cross-reaction between the two anti-nitrosospira-antisera and the four tested nitrosolobus strains. in some c ...19807212926
deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among 96 strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.dna of 96 strains of the genera nitrosomonas, nitrosococcus, nitrosospira, nitrosolobus, and nitrosovibrio was isolated and analysed spectrophotometrically. percentages of guanine plus cytosine (g + c) content, genome sizes, and dna-dna homologies were determined. the results indicated the presence of eight nitrosomonas species, three or four nitrosococcus species, five nitrosospira species, and two species of both nitrosolobus and nitrosovibrio. dna homologies between strains of a separate spec ...19854004447
nitrosovibrio spp., the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in building sandstone.in five historical buildings in the federal republic of germany, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the genera nitrosovibrio, nitrosospira, and nitrosomonas were detected in high cell numbers. in building stones, nitrosovibrio was the most abundant ammonia-oxidizing organism. in the soil at the foot of each building, nitrosomonas spp. were the most common ammonia oxidizers, whereas nitrosovibrio spp. were not detected.198916348002
phylogenetic relationships among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as revealed by gene sequences of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase.the three previously recognized genera of 'nitrosolobus', nitrosospira and 'nitrosovibrio' were combined into one genus, nitrosospira, on the basis of 16s rdna sequence similarities. however, this classification has been controversial for some time, since the marked differences in their shapes suggest that they are not closely related. in this study, the phylogenetic analyses of the three groups using two genotypical markers, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap, gap), and 3-phosphoglyc ...200516233833
identification of genus nitrosovibrio, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, by comparison of n-terminal amino acid sequences of phosphoglycerate kinase.nitrosospira, nitrosolobus, and nitrosovibrio, three genera of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (aob), are morphologically distinct from each other (nitrosospira: spiral, nitrosolobus: lobate, nitrosovibrio: slender curved rods). however, these three genera cannot be classified using the phylogenetic tree based on 16s rdna sequences. phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) was purified from 10 aob strains as an index for identification, and its enzymatic properties were investigated. no distinction could be mad ...200416233723
susceptibility of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to nitrification inhibitors.activity of nitrification inhibitors to several typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria isolated recently, i. e. nitrosococcus, nitrosolobus, nitrosomonas, nitrosospira and nitrosovibrio species was assayed using 2-amino-4-methyl-trichloromethyl-1,3,5-triazine (mast), 2-amino-4-tribromomethyl-6-trichloromethyl-1,3,5-triazine (br-mast), 2-chloro-6-trichloromethylpyridine (nitrapyrin) and others, and compared to confirm the adequate control of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by the inhibitors. the order of ...200312710742
an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, nitrosovibrio tenuis nov. gen. nov. sp.an ammonia-oxidizing, autotroph growing, slender, curved rod was isolated from the soil of hawaii. it is well distinguishable from any other nitrifying bacteria thus far described by their morphology. the cells are 1.1-3.0 mum long and 0.3-0.4 mum wide. they are motile by means of 1-4 subpolar to lateral flagella. in contrast to most of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria the isolated vibrio is void of an extensive cytomembrane system. to categorize this not yet described species we propose to create ...19765980
incorporation of organic compounds into cell protein by lithotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.incorporation of organic compounds into cell protein by the obligate chemolithotrophs nitrosomonas spec., nitrosococcus oceanus, nitrosococcus mobilis, nitrosovibrio tenuis, nitrosolobus spec., and nitrosospira spec. was studied. in the presence of ammonia as energy source organic substrates were supplied. distribution of 14c into cell amino acids arising from 14c-labelled glucose, na-pyruvate, and na-acetate was investigated. while carbon from glucose was distributed unrestricted, carbon from p ...19827149699
the phylogeny of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as determined by analysis of 16s ribosomal rna gene sequences.partial sequences of the 16s ribosomal rna genes of eleven autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were determined by pcr amplification from small amounts of heat-lysed biomass followed by direct sequencing of pcr products. the sequences were aligned with those of representative proteobacteria and phylogenetic trees inferred using both parsimony and distance matrix methods. this confirmed that the autotrophic ammonia-oxidizers comprise two major lines of descent within the proteobacteria. nitroso ...19937689633
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