evolutionary relationships among sulfur- and iron-oxidizing eubacteria.some 37 reverse transcriptase, partial 16s rrna sequences from sulfur- and/or iron-oxidizing eubacteria, including sequences from species of the genera thiobacillus, thiothrix, thiomicrospira, acidophilium, "leptospirillum," thiovulum, and chlorobium, have been determined. in addition, 16s sequences from a number of unnamed sulfur- and/or iron-oxidizing bacteria from hydrothermal vent sites, from invertebrate-bacterial endosymbioses, and from various mineral recovery operations also have been de ...19921729214
symbiotic relationship of thiothrix spp. with an echinodermimmunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species echinocardium cordatum. thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from e. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. this is the first identification of thiothrix spp. interna ...19989726902
natural communities of novel archaea and bacteria with a string-of-pearls-like morphology: molecular analysis of the bacterial partners.a recently discovered bacterial/archaeal association, growing in a string-of-pearls-like structure, thrives in the cold (approximately 10 degrees c) sulfidic marsh water of the sippenauer moor near regensburg, bavaria, germany. it forms characteristic, macroscopically visible globules, the pearls, containing microcolonies of novel euryarchaeota, which are surrounded by mainly filamentous bacteria (c. rudolph, g. wanner, and r. huber, appl. environ. microbiol. 67:2336-2344, 2001). single pearls i ...200211823239
biofouling of groundwater systems by thiothrix spp.thiothrix spp., sulfide-oxidizing filamentous bacteria, were found to be a principal bacterial component of aquatic biofilms causing biofouling in selected municipal water storage tanks, private wells, and drip irrigation systems in florida. treatments of up to 200 ppm chlorine in the affected systems could not prevent return of the biofouling problem. the water originated from the upper floridan aquifer and associated surficial aquifers in central and north florida. samples were examined where ...19979236300
identification of thiothrix unzii in two distinct ecosystems.molecular procedures were used to identify thiothrix spp. in biofilms from sulphide-rich waters in two distinct ecosystems.200312535127
structure and composition of freshwater microbial mats from a sulfur spring ("font pudosa", ne spain).different types of microbial mats developing on the wall on a non-thermal sulfur freshwater spring have been studied. both, light and electron microscopy as well as hplc analysis of photosynthetic pigments revealed their structure and composition. prokaryotic chlorophylls and carotenoids helped in the taxonomical assignment of the main photosynthetic groups. "inverted position" mats (mat-i) were dominated by chromatiaceae; they were located closed to the water outlets (0.3 mm sulfide). "normal p ...19979106181
phylogenetic relationships of the filamentous sulfur bacterium thiothrix ramosa based on 16s rrna sequence analysis.the phylogeny of thiothrix ramosa based on 16s rrna sequences was determined. this species is the first species in this genus that has been shown to be capable of autotrophic growth with reduced sulfur compounds as sole energy sources. t. ramosa forms a monophyletic clade with thiothrix nivea, as determined by distance, parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. both of these species clearly belong to the gamma subdivision of the proteobacteria, where they are loosely associated with other sulfu ...19968573526
development and application of a monoclonal antibody against thiothrix spp.historically, methods used to identify thiothrix spp. in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate thiothrix spp. from other filamentous microorganisms. we described a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) procedure which was used to identify thiothrix spp. in wastewater, artesian springs, groundwater, and underwater subterranean samples. the elisa utilized monoclonal anti ...19957887596
a survey of filamentous organisms at the deer island treatment plant.the deer island treatment plant (ditp) treating both domestic and industrial wastewater, has a peak flow capacity of up to 1270 million gallons per day (mgd) (3342 m3 min(-1). the ditp contains a pilot plant, which consists of two identical pure oxygen activated sludge treatment trains, each with a maximum capacity of 1 mgd (2.63 m3 min(-1)) to simulate the maximum flow of the full size facility. this study documents the community of filamentous organisms living in the activatedsludge under vari ...200312916837
phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, loihi seamount, hawaii.the phylogenetic diversity of small-subunit rrna genes associated with the domain bacteria was examined (by using previously defined operational taxonomic units [c. l. moyer, f.c. dobbs, and d. m. karl, appl. environ. microbiol. 60:871-879, 1994]; those for pele's vents bacteria are hereafter abbreviated pvb otus) with samples from a microbial mat at an active, deep-sea hydrothermal vent system. a cluster of phylogenetically related pvb otus (otus 2, 3, 6, and 8) was closely affiliated with thio ...19957538279
the genera leucothrix and thiothrix. 195513239547
phylogenetic analysis of a highly specific association between ectosymbiotic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and a marine nematode.the phylogenetic relationship of chemoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing, ectosymbiotic bacteria growing on a marine nematode, a laxus sp. (formerly a catanema sp.), to known endosymbionts and free-living bacteria was determined. comparative 16s rrna sequencing was used to investigate the unculturable nematode epibionts, and rrna-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes were used to identify the ectosymbionts in situ. both analyses revealed a remarkably specific and stable symbiosis. unique hybr ...19947529016
novel epibiotic thiothrix bacterium on a marine amphipod.comparative analysis of the 16s rrna gene and fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) was used to identify epibiotic filamentous bacteria living on the marine amphipod crustacean urothoe poseidonis. the epibionts belong to the gamma proteobacteria and represent a novel marine phylotype within the genus thiothrix. fish and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the thiothrix filaments are present on the majority of the amphipods examined.200415184190
[filamentous bacteria in activated sludge (bulking sludge). i. occurrence of filamentous bacteria in a sewage treatment plant working with the activated sludge process (plug flow system)].the occurrence of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge (bulking sludge) was investigated in the sewage treatment plant berlin-ruhleben. the studies were carried out in five periods from 26.10.1981 to 29.7.1982 (= 112 sampling days). it was noticed that filamentous bacteria appeared in the aeration tanks in different quantities and several kinds of species. with the identification key from eikelboom microthrix parvicella, type 021 n and type 0041 were frequently identified in all aeration tan ...19836670407
beggiatoa, thiothrix, and thioploca. 19836357055
control of thiothrix in activated sludge. 19725009203
filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of thiothrix, beggiatoa, and eikelboom type 021n strains.seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. the isolates were identified as thiothrix spp., beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021n. all bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, multic ...19854004221
[microbiological processes in the lost city vent field, mid-atlantic ridge].microbiological and biogeochemical measurements showed that the intensities of co2 assimilation, methane oxidation, and sulfate reduction in the lost city vent field (30 degrees n) reach 3.8 microg c/(1 day), 0.06 microg c/(1 day), and 117 microg s/(1 day), respectively. on the surface of the carbonate structures occurring in this field, two varieties of bacterial mats were found. the first variety, which is specific to the lost city alkaline vent field, represents jelly bacterial mats dominated ...200515835787
succession of internal sulfur cycles and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial communities in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms.the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (sob) community structure and the complex internal sulfur cycle occurring in wastewater biofilms growing under microaerophilic conditions was analyzed by using a polyphasic approach that employed 16s rrna gene-cloning analysis combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization, microelectrode measurements, and standard batch and reactor experiments. a complete sulfur cycle was established via s(0) accumulation within 80 days in the biofilms in replicate ...200515870342
sulfur metabolism in beggiatoa alba.the metabolism of sulfide, sulfur, and acetate by beggiatoa alba was investigated under oxic and anoxic conditions. b. alba oxidized acetate to carbon dioxide with the stoichiometric reduction of oxygen to water. in vivo acetate oxidation was suppressed by sulfide and by several classic respiratory inhibitors, including dibromothymoquinone, an inhibitor specific for ubiquinones. b. alba also carried out an oxygen-dependent conversion of sulfide to sulfur, a reaction that was inhibited by several ...19873316186
effect of organic substrates on biological sulphide oxidation.neither acetate nor higher fatty acids and glucose have a significant effect on the biotechnological process for sulphide removal at 20 degrees c, in which sulphide is oxidized to sulphur using oxygen. the oxidation of acetate and propionate with oxygen is mainly dependent on the sulphide and oxygen concentrations in the reactor. the occurrence of thiothrix filaments in sulphide-removing waste-water treatment systems has been investigated using a fixer-film upflow reactor. the influent of this r ...19901367471
evaluation of the redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-tolyl-tetrazolium chloride for activity studies by simultaneous use of microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization.three microscopic in situ techniques were used simultaneously to investigate viability and activity on a single-cell level in activated sludge. the redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-tolyl-tetrazolium chloride (ctc) was compared with microautoradiography (mar) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) to indicate activity of cells in thiothrix filaments and in single floc-forming bacteria. the signals from mar and fish correlated well, whereas only 65% of the active thiothrix cells and 41% of all single ...200312514052
ultrastructure of thiothrix spp. and "type 021n" bacteria.the ultrastructural features of two groups of filamentous sulfur bacteria, thiothrix spp. and an unnamed organism designated "type 021n," were examined by transmission electron microscopy. negative staining of whole cells and filaments with uranyl acetate revealed the presence of tufts of fimbriae located at the ends of individual gonidia of thiothrix sp. strain a1 and "type 021n" strain n7. holdfast material present at the center of mature rosettes was observed in thin sections stained with rut ...198716347385
application of oligonucleotide probes for the detection of thiothrix spp. in activated sludge plants treating paper and board mill wastes.filamentous bacteria belonging to the genus thiothrix were detected in activated sludge samples using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (fish) technique. a 16s rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probe was developed for the detection of members of the t. fructosivorans group, and the performance of probe tni for the detection of thiothrix nivea group was enhanced by using an unlabeled competitor. a set of 5 probes covering all phylogenetic groups of thiothrix were used to examine samples taken fro ...200212216687
molecular monitoring of bulking sludge in industrial wastewater treatment plants.fluorescent in situ hybridisation (fish) was used to monitor the presence of filamentous microorganisms in industrial wastewater treatment plants (wwtps). monitoring with a restricted set of fish probes in wwtps from potato industry showed growth and decline of thiothrix populations that could be linked to operational procedures. in a follow up project new fish probes were developed for filamentous bacteria in industrial wwtps and 70 wwtps were analysed for presence of these filaments. several n ...200212216686
a full scale application in the control of the filamentous bulking generated by type 021 n f. thiothrix sp.the presence of industrial effluent in the wastewater incoming to municipal activated sludge treatment plants sometimes causes bulking events. in order to control one of these events a strategy of bacterial selection was applied with an anoxic selector before the main oxidation basin utilising the screw pumps basin. the result of this work confirms what is reported in the literature about the possibility to utilize a metabolic control of some filamentous forms (particularly type 021 n) with high ...200212216678
first results from a screening of filamentous organisms present in buenos aires's activated sludge plants.activated sludge samples from municipal and industry plants were evaluated with the aim to recognise the mainly filamentous bacteria found. the routine tests recommended were performed: gram, neisser, phb-nilo blue epifluorescence reaction and s. the morphologic characteristics were determined. correlation between environmental conditions and abundance of dominant bacteria were made. all plants were completely mixed configurations with anoxic reactor for denitrification ahead of main aerobic rea ...200212216612
characterization of filamentous eikelboom type 021n bacteria and description of thiothrix disciformis sp. nov. and thiothrix flexilis sp. nov.the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 15 strains of eikelboom type 021 n bacteria isolated from wastewater treatment plants were investigated. the strains shared many characters with thiothrix species. however, the eikelboom type 021n bacteria had only 88.3-92.0% 16s rdna sequence similarity to members of the thiothrix nivea group, including t. nivea, 'thiothrix ramosa', thiothrix unzii and thiothrix fructosivorans, and were differentiated from them in sugar utilization and other prope ...200212148645
in situ detection of cell surface hydrophobicity of probe-defined bacteria in activated sludge.the surface hydrophobicity of different types of bacteria in activated sludge were investigated under in situ conditions by following the adhesion of fluorescent microspheres with defined surface properties to bacterial surfaces (the mac-method). this technique was combined with identification of the bacteria with fluorescence in situ hybridization with rrna-targeted oligonucleotides (fish) and could thus be used for characterization of surface properties of probe-defined bacteria directly in a ...200111381978
influence of transient substrate overloads on the proliferation of filamentous bacterial populations in an activated sludge pilot plant.using oligonucleotide probes directed at the rrna of filamentous bacteria, this study looks at the influence of the components of transient substrate overloads on the growth of the dominant filamentous bacteria of activated sludge fed by a synthetic substrate. by dissociating the massive input of organic matter from the oxygen shortage that the latter generally induces, it is revealed that each of these factors applied alone, induces only transitory, small-scale growth of the filaments nostocoid ...200111257866
studies on the in situ physiology of thiothrix spp. present in activated sludge.the in situ physiology of the filamentous sulphur bacterium thiothrix spp. was investigated in an industrial wastewater treatment plant with severe bulking problems as a result of overgrowth of thiothrix. identification and enumeration using fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) with species-specific 16s and 23s rrna probes revealed that 5-10% of the bacteria in the activated sludge were thiothrix spp. by using a combination of fish and microautoradiography it was possible to study the in si ...200011234927
dominant microbial populations in limestone-corroding stream biofilms, frasassi cave system, italy.waters from an extensive sulfide-rich aquifer emerge in the frasassi cave system, where they mix with oxygen-rich percolating water and cave air over a large surface area. the actively forming cave complex hosts a microbial community, including conspicuous white biofilms coating surfaces in cave streams, that is isolated from surface sources of c and n. two distinct biofilm morphologies were observed in the streams over a 4-year period. bacterial 16s rdna libraries were constructed from samples ...200616885314
[microbiological processes of the carbon and sulfur cycle in cold methane seeps in the north atlantic].functioning of microbial communities in surface sediments of the haakon mosby underwater mud volcano (lat. 72 degrees n) and in gas seepage fields of the vestnesa ridge was investigated using mir-1 and mir-2 deep-sea submersibles during the 40th expedition of the research vessel academician mstislav keldysh. large areas of sedimentary deposits of the haakon mosby mud volcano (hmmv) and pockmarks of the vestnesa ridge (vr) are covered with bacterial mats 0.1 to 0.5 cm thick. the microbial communi ...200011195584
filamentous appendages of thiothrix. 19655877737
phylogenetic analysis of and oligonucleotide probe development for eikelboom type 021n filamentous bacteria isolated from bulking activated sludge.fifteen filamentous strains, morphologically classified as eikelboom type 021n bacteria, were isolated from bulking activated sludges. based on comparative 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) sequence analysis, all strains form a monophyletic cluster together with all recognized thiothrix species (88.3 to 98.7% 16s rdna sequence similarity) within the gamma-subclass of proteobacteria. the investigated eikelboom type 021n isolates were subdivided into three distinct groups (i to iii) demonstrating a previou ...200011055962
microbial community change of sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation bacteria in the activated sludge cultivated with acetate and peptone.the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (srb) and filamentous sulfur bacteria was monitored on a laboratory scale in activated sludge reactors using acetate and peptone as the artificial wastewater. when the artificial wastewater contained acetate and peptone, filamentous bacteria increased in the sludge and the svi values increased. there was a good correlation between sulfate reducing activity and sulfur oxidation activity in the produced sludge. the microbial community change of filamentous s ...200617163019
phylogenetic relationships of filamentous sulfur bacteria (thiothrix spp. and eikelboom type 021n bacteria) isolated from wastewater-treatment plants and description of thiothrix eikelboomii sp. nov., thiothrix unzii sp. nov., thiothrix fructosivorans sp. nov. and thiothrix defluvii sp. nov.the relationship of mixotrophic and autotrophic thiothrix species to morphologically similar chemoorganotrophic bacteria (e.g. leucothrix species, eikelboom type 021n bacteria) has been a matter of debate for some years. these bacteria have alternatively been grouped together on the basis of shared morphological features or separated on the basis of their nutrition. many of these bacteria are difficult to maintain in axenic culture and, until recently, few isolates were available to allow compre ...199910555365
quantification of cell-specific substrate uptake by probe-defined bacteria under in situ conditions by microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization.a technique based on quantitative microautoradiography (qmar) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) was developed and evaluated in order to determine the quantitative uptake of specific substrates in probe-defined filamentous bacteria directly in a complex system. the technique, qmar-fish, has a resolution of a single cell and is based on an improved fixation protocol and the use of an internal standard of bacteria with known specific radioactivity. the method was used to study the in si ...200312588299
impact of the repetition of oxygen deficiencies on the filamentous bacteria proliferation in activated sludge.cases of low stress can frequently occur in a wastewater treatment plant (wwtp). as they have no visible impact on the plant operation, they generally go unnoticed. nevertheless, it would appear that an accumulation of such cases can result in serious operational problems. the impact of the repeated application of oxygen deficiency on the proliferation of the filamentous bacteria sphaerotilus natans, haliscomenobacter hydrossis, eikelboom type 021n and thiothrix spp has been studied on wwtp pilo ...200312691883
effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on sludge settleability.this laboratory study presents a detailed evaluation of the effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and accumulation of storage polymers on sludge settleability in activated sludge systems with an aerobic selector. the oxygen and substrate availability regime were simulated in laboratory sequencing batch reactor systems. the experiments showed that low dissolved oxygen concentration (< or =1.1 mg o2 l(-1)) had a strong negative effect on sludge settleability, leading to the proliferation of fi ...200312845496
phylogenetic and physiological characterization of a heterotrophic, chemolithoautotrophic thiothrix strain isolated from activated sludge.the sheathed filamentous bacterium known as strain ct3, isolated by micromanipulation from an activated sludge treatment plant in italy, is a member of the genus thiothrix in the gamma-proteobacteria according to 16s rdna sequence analysis. the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain ct3 are strains i and q(t), which were also isolated from activated sludge and belong to the species thiothrix fructosivorans. these strains have respectively 99.2 and 99.4 % similarity to ct3 by 16s rdna sequence ...200313130005
microbial diversity of mid-stage palinurid phyllosoma from great barrier reef waters.this study aimed to determine the bacterial community associated with wild-caught, mid-stage larvae of spiny lobsters (palinuridae) in their native oligotrophic marine environment, and to compare their diversity and composition with communities associated with aquaculture-reared larvae of the tropical rock lobster panulirus ornatus.200818298531
high-diversity biofilm for the oxidation of sulfide-containing the present work, we describe for the first time the utilization of a complex microbial biofilm for the treatment of sulfide-containing effluents. a non-aerated packed-column reactor was inoculated with anoxic lake sediment and exposed to light. a biofilm developed in the column and showed a stable oxidation performance for several weeks. microbial species composition was analyzed by microscopy, pigment analysis and a bacterial 16s rrna gene clone library. colorless sulfur bacteria, green alg ...200414997354
occurrence and control of filamentous bulking in aerated wastewater treatment plants of the french paper industry.the occurrence of filamentous bacteria was investigated in 15 french pulp and paper activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (wwtp). large filamentous populations were present in most of the plants. identification carried out with conventional methods based on morphological features and staining techniques showed that the four main filamentous bacteria encountered in these industrial wwtp and responsible for bulking belong to the genera thiothrix sp., type 021 n, haliscomenobacter hydrossis a ...200415461396
occurrence and significance of filamentous bacteria in pulp and paper activated sludge systems.a microbial survey of 27 activated sludge (as) systems included 16 conventional activated sludge (cas) systems, five sequential batch reactors (sbr) and six oxygen-activated sludge (oas) systems, all treating pulp and paper effluents. the most prevalent filaments observed were thiothrix (26%) and type 021n (22%). the designs of the activated sludge systems seemed to have an effect on the filament types. we found thiothrix to be the most common filament associated with bulking. for cas systems, a ...200415461397
effect of chlorination bulking control on water quality and phosphate release/uptake in an anaerobic-oxic activated sludge system.this study evaluates the effect of chlorination bulking control on water quality and phosphate release/uptake in an anaerobic-oxic activated sludge system. a series of batch experiments with different specific naocl mass dose were conducted to determine the sludge settling properties, supernatant water quality and phosphate metabolism behavior of filamentous bulking sludge. the harvested sludge was from a continuous-flow anaerobic-oxic (a/o) activated sludge pilot-plant, i.e., enhanced biologica ...200415566201
sulfide-oxidizing activity and bacterial community structure in a fluidized bed reactor from a zero-discharge mariculture the present work we describe a comprehensive analysis of sulfide oxidation in a fluidized bed reactor (fbr) from an environmentally sustainable, zero-discharge mariculture system. the fbr received oxygen-depleted effluent from a digestion basin (db) that is responsible for gasification of organic matter and nitrogen. the fbr is a crucial component in this recirculating system because it safeguards the fish from the toxic sulfide produced in the db. microscale sulfide oxidation potential and b ...200515819240
characterization of the bacterial community in a biotrickling filter treating high loads of h(2)s by molecular biology tools.the diversity and spatial distribution of bacteria in a lab-scale biotrickling filter treating high loads of hydrogen sulfide (h(2)s) were investigated. diversity and community structure were studied by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp). a 16s rrna gene clone library was established. near full-length 16s rrna gene sequences were obtained, and clones were clustered into 24 operational taxonomic units (otus). nearly 74% and 26% of the clones were affiliated with the phyla ...200919380998
substrate uptake tests and quantitative fish show differences in kinetic growth of bulking and non-bulking activated sludge.the competition between filaments and floc formers in activated sludge has been historically described using kinetic selection. however, recent studies have suggested that bacterial storage may also be an important factor in microbial selection, since the dynamic nature of substrate flows into wastewater treatment plants elicit transient responses from microorganisms. respirometry-based kinetic selection should thus be reevaluated by considering cell storage, and a more reliable method should be ...200516155949
mechanism of attachment of swarm cells of thiothrix nivea.swarm cells of thiothrix nivea were found to possess a group of fimbriae at one pole. the other pole either was bare or possessed from one to three fimbriae. by using this polarity as a marker, it was found that the initial step in attachment of swarm cells involves the fimbriated pole and that this initial step is followed by the production of holdfast material.19872890625
occurrence of a thiothrix sp. attached to mayfly larvae and presence of parasitic bacteria in the thiothrix sp.larvae of the mayfly (drunella grandis [eaton]) from diamond fork creek, utah, were covered with a heavy growth of the sulfide-oxidizing bacterium thiothrix. the bacterium did not seem to harm the mayfly, but the thiothrix trichomes were parasitized by three morphologically distinct bacteria, two of which were cytoplasmic and one of which was probably periplasmic. at least two of the parasites destroyed the cytoplasmic contents of the thiothrix sp., thus killing the host cell. attempts to obtain ...199016348112
hco(3) fixation by naturally occurring tufts and pure cultures of thiothrix nivea.naturally occurring tufts of the mixotroph thiothrix nivea blanketed the east everglades (dade county, fla.) chekika artesian well and runoff areas. the rate of hco(3) fixation by these thiothrix tufts was determined to be 14.0 +/- 5.4 nmol of hco(3) per min per mg of dry weight, which reflected a growth rate of 5.0%/h. the addition of 10 mm glucose, ribose, acetate, or pyruvate or 0.05% casamino acids (difco laboratories, detroit, mich.) did not appear to alter the hco(3) fixation rate. whereas ...199016348147
sorption of heavy metals to the filamentous bacterium thiothrix strain a1.a study was undertaken to determine the ability of the filamentous bacterium thiothrix strain a1 to sorb heavy metals from solution. cells of thiothrix strain a1 were harvested, washed, and suspended in solutions of metals. after an equilibration period, biomass was separated from solution and the metal content in acid-digested cells and/or filtrates was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. sorption of nickel and zinc was very rapid; most of the sorbed metal was bound in less than ...199316348924
molecular biological investigations on the bacterial communities of curative well waters of harkány spa.bacterial communities from the sulfide containing curative well waters of harkány spa (hungary) were investigated by cultivation independent molecular cloning and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) methods between 2006 and 2008. the dgge profiles of the bacterial communities originated from the wells of lukewarm waters showed seasonal similarities and were highly different from the thermal well. from the four clone libraries 22 different eubacterial species or genera were identified ...200920038487
sorption of heavy metals to the filamentous bacterium thiothrix strain a1.[this corrects the article on p. 1278 in vol. 59.].199316349004
transient development of filamentous thiothrix species in a marine sulfide oxidizing, denitrifying fluidized bed this study, microscopic and molecular microbial analyses were integrated to characterize rapidly developing white filamentous tufts in a fluidized bed reactor used for nitrate removal from a marine recirculating fish culture system. formation and rapid elongation of the tufts (often exceeding 50 mm day (-1)) was strongly correlated to transient elevated sulfide concentrations (>50 microm) in the reactor. the dominant bacterial constituents of these tufts were filamentous gram-negative bacteri ...200616487315
molecular characterization of microbial communities in canadian pulp and paper activated sludge and quantification of a novel thiothrix eikelboomii-like bulking filament.we examined the microbial community structure and quantified the levels of the filamentous bulking organism thiothrix eikelboomii in samples of activated sludge mixed liquor suspended solids (mlss) from canadian pulp and paper mills. libraries of chaperonin 60 (cpn60) gene sequences were prepared from mlss total microbial community dna and each was compared with cpndb, a reference database of cpn60 sequences ( for assignment of taxonomic identities. sequences similar to b ...200616699576
unsuspected diversity of niphargus amphipods in the chemoautotrophic cave ecosystem of frasassi, central italy.the sulfide-rich frasassi caves in central italy contain a rare example of a freshwater ecosystem supported entirely by chemoautotrophy. niphargus ictus, the sole amphipod species previously reported from this locality, was recently shown to host the first known case of a freshwater chemoautotrophic symbiosis. since the habitat of n. ictus is highly fragmented and is comprised of streams and lakes with various sulfide concentrations, we conducted a detailed study to examine the potential genetic ...201020534131
cultivated beggiatoa spp. define the phylogenetic root of morphologically diverse, noncultured, vacuolate sulfur bacteria.within the last 10 years, numerous ssu rrna sequences have been collected from natural populations of conspicuous, vacuolate, colorless sulfur bacteria, which form a phylogenetically cohesive cluster (large-vacuolate sulfur bacteria clade) in the gamma-proteobacteria. currently, this clade is composed of four named or de facto genera: all known thioploca and thiomargarita strains, all vacuolate beggiatoa strains, and several strains of vacuolate, attached filaments, which bear a superficial simi ...200616788728
biodiversity and monitoring of colorless filamentous bacteria in sulfide aquatic systems of north caucasus region.bacterial mats in sulfide aquatic systems of north caucasus are basically composed by the species of genera thiothrix and sphaerotilus. additionally, several non-filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from the mats and several minor 16s rrna phylotypes were found in clone libraries from these mats. the minor components were affiliated with proteobacteria, chlorobia, cyanobacteria and firmicutes. even in an individual mat population heterogeneity of thiothrix spp. was revealed by ana ...201021090509
a cold-loving crenarchaeon is a substantial part of a novel microbial community in cold sulphidic marsh this paper, we report the identification and first characterization of a novel, cold-loving, prokaryotic community thriving among white-greenish 'streamers' in the cold (c. 10 degrees c) sulphurous water of the marsh sippenauer moor near regensburg, bavaria, germany. it consists of the bacterial genus thiothrix, the bacterium 'sip100' and one archaeal representative, forming together a unique association structure with a distinct life cycle. fluorescence in situ hybridization studies have rev ...200616819950
effect of periodic feeding on substrate uptake and storage rates by a pure culture of thiothrix (ct3 strain).a pure culture of thiothrix strain ct3 has been aerobically cultured under periodic acetate feeding in a sequencing batch reactor (sbr) at volumetric organic load rate of 0.12gcodl(-1)d(-1). two different culture residence times (12d or 20d) were adopted as well as two different feed frequencies (1 and 4d(-1), for each culture residence time), the volumetric organic load rate being the same under all conditions. the transient response of the microorganism to the periodic acetate feed was investi ...200717070891
succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the microbial community on corroding concrete in sewer systems.microbially induced concrete corrosion (micc) in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. a better understanding of the succession of microbial community members responsible for the production of sulfuric acid is essential for the efficient control of micc. in this study, the succession of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (sob) in the bacterial community on corroding concrete in a sewer system in situ was investigated over 1 year by culture-independent 16s rrna gene-based molecular tec ...200717142362
microbial diversity within early-stage cultured panulirus ornatus phyllosomas.a thorough understanding of the microorganisms and pathogens associated with the larval stage of the tropical ornate rock lobster, panulirus ornatus, is required to overcome disease outbreaks that currently block aquaculture attempts. this study used microscopy in addition to culture and molecularly based microbiological techniques to characterize the bacterial community associated with cultured, developmental stage pi to pii p. ornatus phyllosomas. scanning electron microscopy demonstrated colo ...200717220250
impact of septic compounds and operational conditions on the microbiology of an activated sludge activated sludge (as) biotreatment, septic compounds such as volatile organic acids and reduced sulphur compounds have been frequently cited as a major cause of thiothrix and type 021n filamentous bulking. these filaments are common in canadian pulp and paper biotreatment systems, where they cause settling problems in secondary clarifiers. we conducted a 14-week study of a tmp/newsprint mill effluent to characterize the septic compounds entering the biotreatment, and to determine correlations ...200717486844
molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase-encoding genes (aprba) among sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (aps) reductase (aprba) is a key enzyme of the dissimilatory sulfate-reduction pathway. homologues have been found in photo- and chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (sop), in which they are postulated to operate in the reverse direction, oxidizing sulfite to aps. newly developed pcr assays allowed the amplification of 92-93 % (2.1-2.3 kb) of the aps reductase locus aprba. pcr-based screening of 116 taxonomically divergent sop reference strains reve ...200717906146
molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of the soxb gene among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - evolution of the sox sulfur oxidation enzyme system.the soxb gene encodes the soxb component of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing sox enzyme complex, which has been proposed to be widespread among the various phylogenetic groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (sob) that convert thiosulfate to sulfate with and without the formation of sulfur globules as intermediate. indeed, the comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses presented in the present study identified the soxb gene in 121 phylogenetically and physiologically divergent sob, including s ...200717991026
amyloid-like adhesins produced by floc-forming and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.amyloid proteins (fimbriae or other microbial surface-associated structures) are expressed by many types of bacteria, not yet identified, in biofilms from various habitats, where they likely are of key importance to biofilm formation and biofilm properties. as these amyloids are potentially of great importance to the floc properties in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (wwtp), the abundance of amyloid adhesins in activated sludge flocs from different wwtp and the identity of bacteria ...200818192426
niche differentiation among sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations in cave waters.the sulfidic frasassi cave system affords a unique opportunity to investigate niche relationships among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, including epsilonproteobacterial clades with no cultivated representatives. oxygen and sulfide concentrations in the cave waters range over more than two orders of magnitude as a result of seasonally and spatially variable dilution of the sulfidic groundwater. a full-cycle rrna approach was used to quantify dominant populations in biofilms collected in both diluted a ...200818356823
[phylogenetic in situ/ex situ analysis of a sulfur mat microbial community from a thermal sulfide stream in the north caucasus].a phylogenetic in situ/ex situ analysis of a sulfur mat formed by colorless filamentous sulfur bacteria in a thermal sulfide stream (northern spur of the main caucasian ridge) was carried out. nine phylotypes were revealed in the mat. thiothrix sp. and sphaerotilus sp. were the dominant phylotypes (66.3% and 26.3%, respectively). the 16s rrna gene nucleotide sequence of spahaerotilus sp. phylotype from the clone library was identical to the sequences of the seven sphaerotilus strains isolated fr ...200818522328
microbial structure and community of rbc biofilm removing nitrate and phosphorus from domestic wastewater.using a rotating biological contactor modified with a sequencing bath reactor system (sbrbc) designed and operated to remove phosphate and nitrogen, the microbial community structure of the biofilm from the sbrbc system was characterized based on the extracellular polymeric substance (eps) constituents, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques. protein and carbohydrate were identified as the major eps constituents at three different biofilm thicknesses, where the amount of eps and bacterial ...200818756109
multiple approaches to assess filamentous bacterial growth in activated sludge under different carbon source compare molecular and microscopic approaches in determining which filamentous bacteria grow in activated sludge reactors when different carbon sources and different activated sludge mixed liquor inocula are used.200919200333
effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. this study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism artemia. fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) ...200919446976
spatial dominance and inorganic carbon assimilation by conspicuous autotrophic biofilms in a physical and chemical gradient of a cold sulfurous spring: the role of differential ecological strategies.the community composition and ecophysiological features of microbial autotrophic biofilms were studied in fuente podrida, a cold sulfur spring located in east spain. we demonstrated how different ecophysiological strategies, such as resistance and/or utilization of sulfide and oxygen, light adaptation, or resistance to high water flow, allow each of the microorganisms described to efficiently colonize several areas within the environmental gradient. in the zone of the spring constantly influence ...200516211325
bacterial diversity and ecosystem function of filamentous microbial mats from aphotic (cave) sulfidic springs dominated by chemolithoautotrophic "epsilonproteobacteria".filamentous microbial mats from three aphotic sulfidic springs in lower kane cave, wyoming, were assessed with regard to bacterial diversity, community structure, and ecosystem function using a 16s rdna-based phylogenetic approach combined with elemental content and stable carbon isotope ratio analyses. the most prevalent mat morphotype consisted of white filament bundles, with low c:n ratios (3.5-5.4) and high sulfur content (16.1-51.2%). white filament bundles and two other mat morphotypes had ...200416329854
ecology and microbial structures of archaeal/bacterial strings-of-pearls communities and archaeal relatives thriving in cold sulfidic springs.recently, a unique microbial community, growing in a whitish, macroscopically visible strings-of-pearls-like structure was discovered in the cold, sulfidic marsh water of the sippenauer moor near regensburg, bavaria, germany. the pearls interior is predominated by microcolonies of the non-methanogenic sm1 euryarchaeon; the outer part of the pearls is mainly composed of thiothrix. to screen sulfidic ecosystems for the distribution of such unique microbial communities, comparative microbial and ge ...200419712372
temperature characteristics for speed of movement of thiobacteria.the speed of translatory movement of beggiatoa alba is governed by temperature in such a way that between 5 degrees and 33 degrees the temperature characteristics micro = 16,100 and micro = 8,400 respectively obtain for the temperature ranges 5 degrees to 16.5 degrees and 16.5 degrees to 33 degrees . the "break" at 16 degrees -17 degrees is emphasized by the occurrence of a wider latitude of variation in speed above this temperature. above 16 degrees the progression of thiothrix yields micro = 8 ...192619872307
cocleimonas flava gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium isolated from sand snail (umbonium costatum).a gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, heterotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated kmm 3898(t), was isolated from an internal tissue of the sand snail umbonium costatum, collected from the shallow sediments of the sea of japan. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences showed that strain kmm 3898(t) formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the class gammaproteobacteria and was most closely related to leucothrix mucor dsm 2157(t) (89. ...201120348322
dominance of epiphytic filamentous thiothrix spp. on an aquatic macrophyte in a hydrothermal vent flume in sedge bay, yellowstone lake, wyoming.sublacustrine hydrothermal vents, geysers, and fumaroles impart regions of yellowstone lake with distinctive chemical compositions that generate unique freshwater habitats and support diverse microbial life. some microbial communities within sedge bay manifest themselves as accumulations of white-colored films on the surfaces of aquatic macrophytes located within the hydrothermal flow of vents. it was hypothesized that the white films were the product of microbial growth, particularly sulfur-oxi ...201020386899
elucidating mtbe degradation in a mixed consortium using a multidisciplinary approach.the structure and function of a microbial community capable of biodegrading methyl-tert-butyl ether (mtbe) was characterized using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (csia), clone libraries and stable isotope probing of proteins (protein-sip). the enrichment culture (us3-m), which originated from a gasoline-impacted site in the united states, has been enriched on mtbe as the sole carbon source. the slope of isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon(c) of -2.29+/-0.03 per thousand; epsilon(h) o ...201020491917
bacterial community analysis of a gas-phase biotrickling filter for biogas mimics desulfurization through the rrna approach.the bacterial composition of a lab-scale biotrickling filter (btf) treating high loads of h(2)s was investigated by the rrna approach. two 16s rrna gene clone libraries were established 42 and 189 d after reactor startup, while fluorescent in-situ hybridization (fish) with dna probes was performed throughout 260d of reactor operation. diversity, community structure and metamorphosis were studied from reactor startup to fully-established pseudo-steady state operation at near neutral ph and at an ...201020554311
presence of alternating glucosaminoglucan in the sheath of thiothrix nivea.a sheath-forming sulfa oxidizer, thiothrix nivea, was mixotrophically cultured in a medium supplemented with acetic acid and sodium disulfide. its sheath, a microtube-like extracellular supermolecule, was prepared by selectively removing the cells with lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium hydroxide. the sheath was not visibly affected by hydrazine treatment, suggesting that it is not a proteinous supermolecule. from the acid hydrolysate of the sheath, glucose and glucosamine were detecte ...201222085752
Dynamics of microbial community structure of and enhanced biological phosphorus removal by aerobic granules cultivated on propionate or acetate.Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, ...201121926195
a novel symbiosis between chemoautotrophic bacteria and a freshwater cave amphipod.symbioses involving animals and chemoautotrophic bacteria form the foundation of entire ecosystems at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, but have so far not been reported in terrestrial or freshwater environments. a rare example of a terrestrial ecosystem sustained by chemoautotrophy is found within the sulfide-rich frasassi limestone cave complex of central italy. in this study, we report the discovery of abundant filamentous bacteria on the exoskeleton of niphargus ictus, a macroinver ...200919360027
application of image analysis in activated sludge to evaluate correlations between settleability and features of flocs and filamentous image analysis is a useful tool to estimate some morphological parameters of flocs and filamentous species in activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. in this work we found the correlation between some morphological parameters and sludge volume index (svi). the sludge was taken from a pilot-scale activated sludge plant, owned by enea, located side stream to the trebbo di reno (bologna, italy) municipal wwtp and fed by domestic wastewater. in order to use image analysis, we develo ...200919474498
thiothrix caldifontis sp. nov. and thiothrix lacustris sp. nov., gammaproteobacteria isolated from sulfide springs.five strains of filamentous, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from sulfur mats of different sulfide springs from various regions of the northern caucasus, russia. a phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequence comparison showed that all of the isolates are affiliated with the filamentous, colourless, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus thiothrix within the gammaproteobacteria and are closely related to thiothrix fructosivorans. all strains are capable of growing heterotrophica ...200919643883
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