rapid enrichment of beggiatoa from soil. 19761270371
sulfur metabolism in beggiatoa alba.the metabolism of sulfide, sulfur, and acetate by beggiatoa alba was investigated under oxic and anoxic conditions. b. alba oxidized acetate to carbon dioxide with the stoichiometric reduction of oxygen to water. in vivo acetate oxidation was suppressed by sulfide and by several classic respiratory inhibitors, including dibromothymoquinone, an inhibitor specific for ubiquinones. b. alba also carried out an oxygen-dependent conversion of sulfide to sulfur, a reaction that was inhibited by several ...19873316186
primary sequence of a dimeric bacterial haemoglobin from vitreoscilla.vitreoscilla, a filamentous bacterium in the beggiatoa family, synthesizes a soluble haem-protein which has two identical subunits of relative molecular mass 15,775 and two b haems per molecule. it is synthesized in relatively large quantities when the organism, a strict aerobe, is grown under hypoxic conditions. it forms a relatively stable oxygenated form which is spectrally similar to oxymyoglobin (oxyhb) and oxyhaemoglobin (oxyhb). the amino acid sequence of this protein has been determined ...19863736670
filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of thiothrix, beggiatoa, and eikelboom type 021n strains.seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. the isolates were identified as thiothrix spp., beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021n. all bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, multic ...19854004221
determination of the molecular mass of bacterial genomic dna and plasmid copy number by high-pressure liquid chromatography.relatively rapid methods for the determination of relative genome molecular mass (mr) and the estimation of plasmid copy number have been developed. these methods are based on the ability of the bio-rad high-pressure liquid chromatography hydroxylapatite column to separate and quantify single-stranded dna, double-stranded dna, and plasmid dna. genome mr values were calculated from reassociation kinetics of single-stranded dna as measured with the hydroxylapatite column. bacteriophage t4 dna was ...19854083871
[mixotrophism in beggiatoa]. 19675602463
the fine structure of thioploca ingrica and a comparison with beggiatoa. 19655861285
heterotrophic carbon metabolism by beggiatoa alba.the assimilation and metabolism of co(2) and acetate by beggiatoa alba strain b18ld was investigated. although b. alba was shown to require co(2) for growth, the addition of excess co(2) (as nahco(3)) to the medium in a closed system did not stimulate growth. approximately 24 to 31% of the methyl-labeled acetate and 38 to 46% of the carboxyl-labeled acetate were oxidized to (14)co(2) by b. alba. the apparent v(max) values for combined assimilation and oxidation of [2-(14)c]acetate by b. alba wer ...19816117547
microbiology of thiobacilli and other sulphur-oxidizing autotrophs, mixotrophs and heterotrophs.recent studies on the ecophysiology of the obligate chemolithotroph thiobacillus neapolitanus have given better insight into its specialization for an autotrophic mode of life. this appears not only from its high constitutive levels of autotrophic enzymes, but also from its possession of carboxysomes, which seem to be specialized organelles for co2 fixation and concentrating reducing power. at the same time, these organisms are metabolically versatile with respect to nitrogen assimilation pathwa ...19826127737
ecology of the bacteria of the sulphur cycle with special reference to anoxic-oxic interface environments.h2s is produced as a main end-product of anaerobic mineralization in anoxic, sulphate-rich environments by a diverse population of sulphate-reducing bacteria. the sulphate reducers can carry out an almost complete oxidation of detrital organic matter to co2. the h2s consequently becomes an important electron carrier from the anoxic to the oxic world. thiobacilli and other colourless sulphur bacteria have the potential to oxidize the h2s at the oxic-anoxic interface in sediments or stratified wat ...19826127739
unusual sulfonolipids are characteristic of the cytophaga-flexibacter group.capnocytophaga spp. contain a group of unusual sulfonolipids, called capnoids (w. godchaux iii and e. r. leadbetter, j. bacteriol. 144:592-602, 1980). one of these lipids, capnine, is 2-amino-3-hydroxy-15-methylhexadecane-1-sulfonic acid; the others are, apparently, n-acylated versions of capnine. the lipids were found, in amounts ranging from 2.5 to 16 mumol of capnoid sulfur per g of cells (wet weight), in two cytophaga spp. and also in several closely related organisms: several capnocytophaga ...19836298180
beggiatoa, thiothrix, and thioploca. 19836357055
use of reduced sulfur compounds by beggiatoa sp.a strain of beggiatoa cf. leptomitiformis (oh-75-b, clone 2a) was isolated which is unique among reported strains in its ability to deposit internal sulfur granules from thiosulfate. it also deposited these characteristic granules (as all beggiatoa species do) from sulfide. in cultures where growth was limited by exhaustion of organic substrates, these granules generally comprised about 20% of the total cell weight. with medium containing acetate and thiosulfate, no measurable utilization of thi ...19817240091
organic nutrition of beggiatoa sp.culture oh-75-b of beggiatoa sp. differed significantly from any described previously in its utilization of organic carbon and reduced sulfur compounds. it deposited internal sulfur granules characteristic of beggiatoa sp. with either sulfide or thiosulfate in the medium. this strain (oh-75-b, clone 2a) could be grown in agitated liquid cultures on mineral medium with acetate as the only source of organic carbon. the resultant growth yields and rates were comparable to those for typical heterotr ...19817240094
mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth of beggiatoa alba in continuous culture.beggiatoa alba strain b18ld was grown in continuous culture under heterotrophic conditions on acetate or acetate and asparagine and under mixotrophic conditions on acetate plus either 1 mm sodium sulfide or 1 mm sodium thiosulfate. considerable differences were observed between the yields and the cell compositions of heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures at all dilution rates tested. the dry weight yield per gram acetate utilized was approximately three times higher in the acetate-sulfide mixot ...19817283635
filamentous sulfide-oxidizing bacteria at hydrocarbon seeps of the gulf of mexico.mats consisting of the large sulfide-oxidizing bacterium, beggiatoa, were collected from the sediment/water interface at several locations in the gulf of mexico. the collection sites were associated with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons or the microbial breakdown products of the hydrocarbons. the morphologies of the mats varied with the nature of the underlying sediments, and some mats were pigmented either yellow or orange instead of the usual white. at one site, beggiatoas were found tha ...19968820662
horizontal and vertical migration patterns of phormidium corallyticum and beggiatoa spp. associated with black-band disease of coralsan in situ field study of the motility patterns exhibited by phormidium corallyticum and beggiatoa spp. in black-band disease of corals was conducted over a 5-day period. measurements were made at a spatial resolution of 50 &mgr;m to document the horizontal migration of black-band across living coral tissue, while vertical migrations within the band were documented by observation and macrophotography of the black-band surface. it was determined that horizontal migration occurred both day and nig ...19968849426
structure and composition of freshwater microbial mats from a sulfur spring ("font pudosa", ne spain).different types of microbial mats developing on the wall on a non-thermal sulfur freshwater spring have been studied. both, light and electron microscopy as well as hplc analysis of photosynthetic pigments revealed their structure and composition. prokaryotic chlorophylls and carotenoids helped in the taxonomical assignment of the main photosynthetic groups. "inverted position" mats (mat-i) were dominated by chromatiaceae; they were located closed to the water outlets (0.3 mm sulfide). "normal p ...19979106181
microbiological observations in the anoxic basin golfo dulce, costa rica.our basic microbiological studies of the water column and the sediment of golfo dulce, costa rica, were focused on aerobic and denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. we observed no increasing numbers of total bacterial counts within the water column. although no oxygen was present hydrogen sulfide was only detectable close to the sediment. the highest numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria measured by most-probable-number counts were found in or close to th ...19969393644
phylogenetic affinity of a wide, vacuolate, nitrate-accumulating beggiatoa sp. from monterey canyon, california, with thioploca spp.environmentally dominant members of the genus beggiatoa and thioploca spp. are united by unique morphological and physiological adaptations (s. c. mchatton, j. p. barry, h. w. jannasch, and d. c. nelson, appl. environ. microbiol. 62:954-958, 1996). these adaptations include the presence of very wide filaments (width, 12 to 160 microm), the presence of a central vacuole comprising roughly 80% of the cellular biovolume, and the capacity to internally concentrate nitrate at levels ranging from 150 ...19999872789
phylogenetic relationships of a large marine beggiatoa.based upon 16s rrna sequence and phenotypic similarities, a large, uncultured beggiatoa sp. from the bay of concepción (chile), is very closely related to the chilean thioploca species thioploca araucae., whose filaments grow as sheathed bundles. the formation of sheathed filament bundles, the key character to distinguish the genus thioploca from beggiatoa, places closely related filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria into two different genera, incongruent with 16s rrna-defined clades.199910188277
physiology, phylogenetic relationships, and ecology of filamentous sulfate-reducing bacteria (genus desulfonema)microscopy of organic-rich, sulfidic sediment samples of marine and freshwater origin revealed filamentous, multicellular microorganisms with gliding motility. many of these neither contained sulfur droplets such as the beggiatoa species nor exhibited the autofluorescence of the chlorophyll-containing cyanobacteria. a frequently observed morphological type of filamentous microorganism was enriched under anoxic conditions in the dark with isobutyrate plus sulfate. two strains of filamentous, glid ...199910525735
the santa barbara basin is a symbiosis is generally agreed that the origin and initial diversification of eucarya occurred in the late archaean or proterozoic eons when atmospheric oxygen levels were low and the risk of dna damage due to ultraviolet radiation was high. because deep water provides refuge against ultraviolet radiation and early eukaryotes may have been aerotolerant anaerobes, deep-water dysoxic environments are likely settings for primeval eukaryotic diversification. fossil evidence shows that deep-sea microbial mat ...200010638755
use of combined microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine carbon metabolism in mixed natural communities of uncultured bacteria from the genus achromatium.combined microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) was used to investigate carbon metabolism in uncultured bacteria from the genus achromatium. all of the achromatium species identified in a freshwater sediment from rydal water, cumbria, united kingdom, which were distinguishable only by fish, assimilated both [(14)c]bicarbonate and [(14)c]acetate. this extends previous findings that achromatium spp. present at another location could only utilize organic carbon sources. ...200011010908
[microbiological processes of the carbon and sulfur cycle in cold methane seeps in the north atlantic].functioning of microbial communities in surface sediments of the haakon mosby underwater mud volcano (lat. 72 degrees n) and in gas seepage fields of the vestnesa ridge was investigated using mir-1 and mir-2 deep-sea submersibles during the 40th expedition of the research vessel academician mstislav keldysh. large areas of sedimentary deposits of the haakon mosby mud volcano (hmmv) and pockmarks of the vestnesa ridge (vr) are covered with bacterial mats 0.1 to 0.5 cm thick. the microbial communi ...200011195584
[lithoautotrophic growth of the freshwater colorless sulfur bacterium beggiatoa "leptomitiformis" d-402].the freshwater colorless sulfur bacterium beggiatoa "leptomitiformis" d-402 was shown to be capable of lithoautotrophic growth in a batch culture under microaerobic conditions at o2 concentrations in the medium of no higher than 0.5 mg/l. the cell yield was maximum at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.15 mg/l. a high activity level of key enzymes of the calvin cycle and of enzymes involved in dissimilatory oxidation of thiosulfate was recorded in the cells. the high rate of co2 assimilation ...200111386050
pathways of carbon oxidation in continental margin sediments off central chile.rates and oxidative pathways of organic carbon mineralization were determined in sediments at six stations on the shelf and slope off concepcion bay at 36.5 degrees s. the depth distribution of c oxidation rates was determined to 10 cm from accumulation of dissolved inorganic c in 1-5-d incubations. pathways of c oxidation were inferred from the depth distributions of the potential oxidants (o2, no3-, and oxides of mn and fe) and from directly determined rates of so4(2-) reduction. the study are ...199611540503
competition for sulfide among colorless and purple sulfur bacteria in cyanobacterial mats.the vertical zonation of light, o2, h2s, ph, and sulfur bacteria was studied in two benthic cyanobacterial mats from hypersaline ponds at guerrero negro, baja california, mexico. the physical-chemical gradients were analyzed in the upper few mm at < or = 100 micrometers spatial resolution by microelectrodes and by a fiber optic microprobe. in mats, where oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffused far below the depth of the photic zone, colorless sulfur bacteria (beggiatoa sp.) were the dominan ...198611542103
lithoautotrophic growth of the freshwater strain beggiatoa d-402 and energy conservation in a homogeneous culture under microoxic conditions.the freshwater filamentous bacterium beggiatoa d-402 was shown to grow lithoautotrophically in a homogeneous culture under microoxic conditions only, the growth yield being the highest at 0.1 mg o(2) l(-1). high activities of the calvin cycle key enzymes and of the dissimilatory path thiosulfate oxidation enzymes were found in the bacterial cells. the rate of co(2) fixation above 112 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), an about 90% increase in the protein carbon at the expense of co(2) carbon and an ...200111731146
quantitative speciation of sulfur in bacterial sulfur globules: x-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals at least three different species of sulfur.x-ray absorption near edge structure (xanes) spectroscopy at the sulfur k-edge was applied to probe the speciation of sulfur of metabolically different sulfur-accumulating bacteria in situ. fitting the spectra using a least-square fitting routine xanes reveals at least three different forms of sulfur in bacterial sulfur globules. cyclooctasulfur dominates in the sulfur globules of beggiatoa alba and the very recently described giant bacterium thiomargarita namibiensis. a second type of sulfur gl ...200211782519
[dependence of the structure of malate dehydrogenase on the type of metabolism in fresh water filamentous colorless sulfur bacteria of the beggiatoa species].major pathways of carbon metabolism were studied in strains d-402 and d-405 of freshwater colorless sulfur bacteria of the genus beggiatoa grown organotrophically and mixotrophically. the bacteria were found to possess all the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (tca) and glyoxylate cycles. when organotrophic growth changed to mixotrophic one, the activity of the tca cycle enzymes decreased 2- to 3-fold, but the activity of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle increased threefold. it follows that, in t ...200212244711
purification and physicochemical properties of malate dehydrogenase from bacteria of the genus beggiatoa.homogeneous malate dehydrogenase (mdh) with a specific activity of 20-24 units per mg protein was purified from the sulfur bacterium beggiatoa leptomitiformis strain d-402 grown organotrophically and lithotrophically and from the organotrophic bacterium beggiatoa alba. mdhs from the b. leptomitiformis strain d-402 grown under organotrophic conditions and from b. alba are homodimers with the subunit molecular weight of 40 kd. tetrameric mdh is formed in b. leptomitiformis strain d-402 grown under ...200312693962
phylogeny and distribution of nitrate-storing beggiatoa spp. in coastal marine sediments.filamentous sulphide-oxidizing beggiatoa spp. often occur in large numbers in the coastal seabed without forming visible mats on the sediment surface. we studied the diversity, population structure and the nitrate-storing capability of such bacteria in the danish limfjorden and the german wadden sea. their distribution was compared to the vertical gradients of o2, no3- and h2s as measured by microsensors. the main beggiatoa spp. populations occurred in a 0.5-3 cm thick intermediate zone, below t ...200312755720
enrichment and cultivation of beggiatoa alba. 196113698371
isolation and properties of beggiatoa. 196214042344
electron micrograph of an ultrathin section of beggiatoa. 196314044966
effect of catalase and cultural conditions on growth of beggiatoa.burton, sheril d. (oregon state university, corvallis), and richard y. morita. effect of catalase and cultural conditions on growth of beggiatoa. j. bacteriol. 88:1755-1761. 1964.-the addition of catalase to culture medium increased the period of viability of beggiatoa from 1 week to 2 months. addition of catalase also produced a marked increase in cell yield and enzyme activity. cultures grown without catalase exhibited an absorption peak characteristic of peroxides. this absorption peak was re ...196414240966
phylogenetic analysis of beggiatoa spp. from organic rich sediment of tokyo bay, japan.nitrate-accumulating filamentous bacteria from organic rich sediment of tokyo bay, morphologically similar to beggiatoa species, were phylogenetically analyzed. from several sites in tokyo bay, beggiatoa-like bacteria were collected. each sample contained narrower or wider type (10 and 30 microns, respectively) of trichomes. with the nested pcr using specific primers for beggiatoa, fragments of 16s rrna gene were amplified and then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) anal ...200314509709
effect of duckweed cover on greenhouse gas emissions and odour release from waste stabilisation ponds.treatment of wastewater in stabilisation pond systems prevents the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled disposal of sewage. however, even a natural treatment system may generate secondary negative environmental impacts in terms of energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases and emission of odorous compounds. whereas natural systems have an advantage over electro-mechanical systems in that they use less hardware and less energy, it is not yet known whether secondary environmental ef ...200314510229
dynamics of nematodes in a high organic loading rotating biological contactors.nematode diversity and dynamics of a full-scale rotating biological contactor plant (rbc) has been studied. analysis of biofilm composition showed a well-established zoning of microfauna among the three rbc sections analysed. nematodes appeared to be the dominant group within the larger microfauna populations with average abundances between 200 and 300ind/mg or 8000 and 17000ind/cm(2). the most abundant nematode species were diplogasteritus nudicapitatus and paroigolaimella coprophages and, to a ...200415159160
identification of members of the metabolically active microbial populations associated with beggiatoa species mat communities from gulf of mexico cold-seep this study, the composition of the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community occurring in gulf of mexico marine sediments (water depth, 550 to 575 m) with overlying filamentous bacterial mats was determined. the mats were mainly composed of either orange- or white-pigmented beggiatoa spp. complementary 16s ribosomal dna (crdna) was obtained from rrna extracted from three different sediment depths (0 to 2, 6 to 8, and 10 to 12 cm) that had been subjected to reverse transcription ...200415345432
bacterial community associated with black band disease in band disease (bbd) is a virulent polymicrobial disease primarily affecting massive-framework-building species of scleractinian corals. while it has been well established that the bbd bacterial mat is dominated by a cyanobacterium, the quantitative composition of the bbd bacterial mat community has not described previously. terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp) analysis was used to characterize the infectious bacterial community of the bacterial mat causing bbd. these a ...200415466538
[role of malate dehydrogenase isoforms in the regulation of anabolic and catabolic processes in the colorless sulfur bacterium beggiatoa leptomitiformis d-402].the functional role of tetrameric and dimeric isoforms of malate dehydrogenase in the carbon metabolism of the colorless sulfur bacterium beggiatoa leptomitiformis, strain d-402, was studied. this strain can grow both lithotrophically and organotrophically. by using the inhibition analysis, the tetrameric isoenzyme was shown to operate in the glyoxylate cycle and the dimeric one was found to be involved in the tca cycle. the dynamics of the dimeric isoenzyme conversion to the tetrameric isoform ...200415521166
novel, attached, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at shallow hydrothermal vents possess vacuoles not involved in respiratory nitrate accumulation.novel, vacuolate sulfur bacteria occur at shallow hydrothermal vents near white point, calif. there, these filaments are attached densely to diverse biotic and abiotic substrates and extend one to several centimeters into the surrounding environment, where they are alternately exposed to sulfidic and oxygenated seawater. characterizations of native filaments collected from this location indicate that these filaments possess novel morphological and physiological properties compared to all other v ...200415574952
diversity and distribution of methanotrophic archaea at cold this study we investigated by using 16s rrna-based methods the distribution and biomass of archaea in samples from (i) sediments above outcropping methane hydrate at hydrate ridge (cascadia margin off oregon) and (ii) massive microbial mats enclosing carbonate reefs (crimea area, black sea). the archaeal diversity was low in both locations; there were only four (hydrate ridge) and five (black sea) different phylogenetic clusters of sequences, most of which belonged to the methanotrophic archa ...200515640223
lipid biomarkers and carbon isotope signatures of a microbial (beggiatoa) mat associated with gas hydrates in the gulf of mexico.white and orange mats are ubiquitous on surface sediments associated with gas hydrates and cold seeps in the gulf of mexico. the goal of this study was to determine the predominant pathways for carbon cycling within an orange mat in green canyon (gc) block gc 234 in the gulf of mexico. our approach incorporated laser-scanning confocal microscopy, lipid biomarkers, stable carbon isotopes, and 16s rrna gene sequencing. confocal microscopy showed the predominance of filamentous microorganisms (4 to ...200515812044
[regulation of metabolic and electron transport pathways in the freshwater bacterium beggiatoa leptomitiformis d-402].the biomass yield of freshwater filamentous sulfur bacteria of the genus beggiatoa, when grown lithoheterotrophically or mixotrophically, has been shown to increase 2 to 2.5 times under microaerobic conditions (0.12 mg/l oxygen) as compared to aerobic conditions (9 mg/l oxygen). the activity of the glyoxylate cycle key enzymes have been found to increase two to three times under microaerobic conditions (at an o2 concentration of 2 mg/l), and the activities of the sulfur metabolism enzymes increa ...200516211847
impact of bacterial no3(-) transport on sediment biogeochemistry.experiments demonstrated that beggiatoa could induce a h2s-depleted suboxic zone of more than 10 mm in marine sediments and cause a divergence in sediment no3(-) reduction from denitrification to dissimilatory no3(-) reduction to ammonium. ph, o2, and h2s profiles indicated that the bacteria oxidized h2s with no3(-) and transported s0 to the sediment surface for aerobic oxidation.200516269807
improved enrichment and isolation procedures for obtaining pure cultures of beggiatoa.scoring agar surfaces with alginate swabs before placing washed filaments of beggiatoa on the agar has greatly increased the rate at which single filaments move from contaminated areas. numerous morphological types of pure cultures have been grown in organic media supplemented with either catalase or reducing agents. aerated sewage was used as the enrichment source.197816345286
selective growth inhibition of sphaerotilus natans and beggiatoa sp. by nucleosides.9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-a) has been found to specifically inhibit the growth of sphaerotilus natans and beggiatoa sp. at a low concentration (0.78 mug/ml). the nucleoside had no antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms other than candida albicans at 1,000 mug/ml. 3'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, formycin, and some derivatives of ara-a also showed inhibitory activity against sphaerotilus natans. the growth of beggiatoa sp. was also inhibited by 9-beta-arabinofurano ...197816345327
enumeration, isolation, and characterization of beggiatoa from freshwater accurate most-probable-number enumeration method was developed for counting the number of beggiatoa trichomes from various freshwater sediments. the medium consisted of extracted hay, diluted soil extract, 0.05% acetate, and 15 to 35 u of catalase per ml. the same enrichment medium, but without the acetate, was the best enrichment medium from which to obtain pure cultures because it supported good growth of the beggiatoas without allowing them to be overgrown by other bacteria. a total of 32 ...197816345330
colorless sulfur bacteria, beggiatoa spp. and thiovulum spp., in o(2) and h(2)s microgradients.the interactions between colorless sulfur bacteria and the chemical microgradients at the oxygen-sulfide interface were studied in beggiatoa mats from marine sediments and in thiovulum veils developing above the sediments. the gradients of o(2), h(2)s, and ph were measured by microelectrodes at depth increments of 50 mum. an unstirred boundary layer in the water surrounding the mats and veils prevented microturbulent or convective mixing of o(2) and h(2)s. the two substrates reached the bacteria ...198316346268
oxygen responses and mat formation by beggiatoa spp.the behavioral response of single beggiatoa sp. filaments moving on a gas-permeable membrane was studied by the combined use of microscopy and oxygen microelectrodes during controlled oscillations of oxygen tension. the bacteria reacted to increasing oxygen by reversing the direction of movement. the same step-up phobic response to oxygen was observed when a filament tip or loop glided into a stable microgradient of increasing oxygen. the response was sensitive to a change in oxygen tension of < ...198516346857
microoxic-anoxic niche of beggiatoa spp.: microelectrode survey of marine and freshwater strains.beggiatoa spp. grow optimally in media containing opposed gradients of oxygen and soluble sulfide, although some strains also require an organic substrate. by using microelectrodes, we characterized oxygen and sulfide gradients during their initial development in uninoculated media and in cultures of marine and freshwater strains. in gradient media, beggiatoa strains always grew some distance below the air/agar interface as a dense "plate" of constantly gliding filaments with sharply demarcated ...198616347103
growth pattern and yield of a chemoautotrophic beggiatoa sp. in oxygen-sulfide microgradients.recently developed techniques involving opposed, gel-stabilized gradients of o(2) and h(2)s permit cultivation of a marine beggiatoa strain as a chemolithoautotroph which uses gliding motility to precisely track the interface between h(2)s and o(2). in the current study with microelectrodes, vertical profiles of h(2), o(2), and ph were measured in replicate cultures grown for various intervals. after an initial period of exponential biomass increase (doubling time, 11 h), linear growth prevailed ...198616347121
characterization of large, autotrophic beggiatoa spp. abundant at hydrothermal vents of the guaymas basin.filamentous bacteria, identified as members of the genus beggiatoa by gliding motility and internal globules of elemental sulfur, occur in massive aggregations at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the guaymas basin, gulf of california. cell aggregates covering the surface of sulfide-emanating sediments and rock chimneys were collected by ds r/v alvin and subjected to shipboard and laboratory experiments. each sample collected contained one to three discrete width classes of this organism usuall ...198916348053
diel migrations of microorganisms within a benthic, hypersaline mat community.we studied the diel migrations of several species of microorganisms in a hypersaline, layered microbial mat. the migrations were quantified by repeated coring of the mat with glass capillary tubes. the resulting minicores were microscopically analyzed by using bright-field and epifluorescence (visible and infrared) microscopy to determine depths of coherent layers and were later dissected to determine direct microscopic counts of microorganisms. microelectrode measurements of oxygen concentratio ...199416349251
dense community of hyperthermophilic sulfur-dependent heterotrophs in a geothermally heated shallow submarine biotope near kodakara-jima island, kagoshima, japan.microbial communities in marine hydrothermal sediments (0 to 30 cm deep) in an inlet of kodakara-jima island, kagoshima, japan, were studied with reference to environmental factors, especially the presence of amino acids. the study area was shallow, and the sea floor was covered with sand through which hot volcanic gas bubbled and geothermally heated water seeped out. the total bacterial density increased with depth in the sediments in parallel with a rise in the ambient temperature (80(deg)c at ...199516535029
organic carbon utilization by obligately and facultatively autotrophic beggiatoa strains in homogeneous and gradient cultures.marine beggiatoa strains ms-81-6 and ms-81-1c are filamentous gliding bacteria that use hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors for chemolithotrophic energy generation. they are known to be capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth in sulfide gradient media; here we report the first successful bulk cultivation of these strains in a defined liquid medium. to investigate their nutritional versatilities, strains ms-81-6 and ms-81-1c were grown in sulfide-oxygen gradient media supplemented ...199616535281
high nitrate concentrations in vacuolate, autotrophic marine beggiatoa spp.massive accumulations of very large beggiatoa spp. are found at a monterey canyon cold seep and at guaymas basin hydrothermal vents. both environments are characterized by high sediment concentrations of soluble sulfide and low levels of dissolved oxygen in surrounding waters. these filamentous, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria accumulate nitrate intracellularly at concentrations of 130 to 160 mm, 3,000- to 4,000-fold higher than ambient levels. average filament widths range from 24 to 122 (mu)m, and i ...199616535282
community structure of filamentous, sheath-building sulfur bacteria, thioploca spp., off the coast of chile.the filamentous sulfur bacteria thioploca spp. produce dense bacterial mats in the shelf area off the coast of chile and peru. the mat consists of common sheaths, shared by many filaments, that reach 5 to 10 cm down into the sediment. the structure of the thioploca communities off the bay of concepcion was investigated with respect to biomass, species distribution, and three-dimensional orientation of the sheaths. thioploca sheaths and filaments were found across the whole shelf area within the ...199616535327
use of reduced sulfur compounds by beggiatoa spp.: enzymology and physiology of marine and freshwater strains in homogeneous and gradient cultures.the marine beggiatoa strains ms-81-6 and ms-81-1c are filamentous, gliding, colorless sulfur bacteria. they have traditionally been cultured in very limited quantities in sulfide gradient media, where they grow as chemolithoautotrophs, forming a thin horizontal plate well below the air-agar interface. there, the facultatively chemolithoautotrophic strain ms-81-6 quantitatively harvests the flux of sulfide diffusing from below and oxidizes it to sulfate by using oxygen as the electron acceptor. o ...199716535709
cultivated beggiatoa spp. define the phylogenetic root of morphologically diverse, noncultured, vacuolate sulfur bacteria.within the last 10 years, numerous ssu rrna sequences have been collected from natural populations of conspicuous, vacuolate, colorless sulfur bacteria, which form a phylogenetically cohesive cluster (large-vacuolate sulfur bacteria clade) in the gamma-proteobacteria. currently, this clade is composed of four named or de facto genera: all known thioploca and thiomargarita strains, all vacuolate beggiatoa strains, and several strains of vacuolate, attached filaments, which bear a superficial simi ...200616788728
anaerobic sulfide oxidation with nitrate by a freshwater beggiatoa enrichment culture.a lithotrophic freshwater beggiatoa strain was enriched in o2-h2s gradient tubes to investigate its ability to oxidize sulfide with no3- as an alternative electron acceptor. the gradient tubes contained different no3- concentrations, and the chemotactic response of the beggiatoa mats was observed. the effects of the beggiatoa sp. on vertical gradients of o2, h2s, ph, and no3- were determined with microsensors. the more no3- that was added to the agar, the deeper the beggiatoa filaments glided in ...200616820468
dominant microbial populations in limestone-corroding stream biofilms, frasassi cave system, italy.waters from an extensive sulfide-rich aquifer emerge in the frasassi cave system, where they mix with oxygen-rich percolating water and cave air over a large surface area. the actively forming cave complex hosts a microbial community, including conspicuous white biofilms coating surfaces in cave streams, that is isolated from surface sources of c and n. two distinct biofilm morphologies were observed in the streams over a 4-year period. bacterial 16s rdna libraries were constructed from samples ...200616885314
[isolation, purification, and properties of malate dehydrogenases from sulfur bacteria beggiatoa leptomitiformis].malate dehydrogenase (e.c. from bacterium beggiatoa leptomitiformis was isolated and purified 123 times using a five-step purification procedure including the enzyme extraction, ammonium sulfate protein fractionation, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. the enzyme was homogenous according to the electrophoresis data; its activity was 20.43 u/mg proteins. this malate dehydrogenase is a homotetramer (mr = 172 kda). the catalytic and thermodynamic properti ...200312816061
utilization of acetate by beggiatoa.burton, sheril d. (institute of marine science, university of alaska, college), richard y. morita, and wayne miller. utilization of acetate by beggiatoa. j. bacteriol. 91:1192-1200. 1966.-a proposed system which would permit acetate incorporation into four-carbon compounds without the presence of key enzymes of the citric acid cycle or glyoxylate cycle is described. in this system, acetyl-coenzyme a (coa) is condensed with glyoxylate to form malate, which, in turn, is converted to oxaloacetate. ...19665929751
diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the haakon mosby mud volcano, barents sea.submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. they are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. in this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the haakon mosby mud volcano (hmmv) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16s rrna genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. in the active volcano center, which has a diameter of a ...200717369343
new communities of large filamentous sulfur bacteria in the eastern south complex communities of morphologically diverse and sometimes abundant large, multicellular, filamentous bacteria were discovered in the oxygen-deficient, organically laden, shelf sediments under the oxygen minimum zone off the coast of the eastern pacific, i.e., off the coasts of central and northern chile; central and northern perú; roca redonda, galápagos archipielago, ecuador; and off the pacific coasts of panamá and costa rica. similar microbial communities were also observed in the redu ...200717661287
insights into the genome of large sulfur bacteria revealed by analysis of single filaments.marine sediments are frequently covered by mats of the filamentous beggiatoa and other large nitrate-storing bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide using either oxygen or nitrate, which they store in intracellular vacuoles. despite their conspicuous metabolic properties and their biogeochemical importance, little is known about their genetic repertoire because of the lack of pure cultures. here, we present a unique approach to access the genome of single filaments of beggiatoa by combining whole ...200717760503
physiological adaptation of a nitrate-storing beggiatoa sp. to diel cycling in a phototrophic hypersaline mat.the aim of this study was to investigate the supposed vertical diel migration and the accompanying physiology of beggiatoa bacteria from hypersaline microbial mats. we combined microsensor, stable-isotope, and molecular techniques to clarify the phylogeny and physiology of the most dominant species inhabiting mats of the natural hypersaline lake chiprana, spain. the most dominant morphotype had a filament diameter of 6 to 8 microm and a length varying from 1 to >10 mm. phylogenetic analysis by 1 ...200717766448
beggiatoa: occurrence in the rice rhizosphere.a catalase-like activity surrounding the root tips of rice plants favors the presence of beggiatoa, an organism capable of oxidizing the hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to rice and is found in paddy soil conditions. beggiatoa has now been isolated from rice field soil. a mutually favorable interaction between rice and this bacterium is suggested.197217774511
swept away: resuspension of bacterial mats regulates benthic-pelagic exchange of sulfur.filaments and extracellular material from colorless sulfur bacteria (beggiatoa spp.) form extensive white sulfur mats on surface sediments of coastal, oceanic, and even deep-sea environments. these chemoautotrophic bacteria oxidize soluble reduced sulfur compounds and deposit elemental sulfur, enriching the sulfur content of surface sediment fivefold over that of deeper sediments. laboratory flume experiments with beggiatoa mats from an intertidal sandflat (nova scotia) demonstrated that even sl ...198717793235
interaction of beggiatoa and rice plant: detoxification of hydrogen sulfide in the rice rhizosphere.beggiatoa was obtained from six habitats, including four water-saturated soils from rice fields. the isolate of beggiatoa from bernard clay, when reinoculated into soil treatments from pure culture, significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide levels in soils and increased oxygen release from rice plants. rice plants significantly increased beggiatoa survival in flooded soils. some hydrogen sulfide was necessary for survival of the bernard clay isolate; high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide killed t ...197717844038
sink or swim. 200717939228
molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of the soxb gene among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - evolution of the sox sulfur oxidation enzyme system.the soxb gene encodes the soxb component of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing sox enzyme complex, which has been proposed to be widespread among the various phylogenetic groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (sob) that convert thiosulfate to sulfate with and without the formation of sulfur globules as intermediate. indeed, the comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses presented in the present study identified the soxb gene in 121 phylogenetically and physiologically divergent sob, including s ...200717991026
biological and chemical sulfide oxidation in a beggiatoa inhabited marine sediment.the ecological niche of nitrate-storing beggiatoa, and their contribution to the removal of sulfide were investigated in coastal sediment. with microsensors a clear suboxic zone of 2-10 cm thick was identified, where neither oxygen nor free sulfide was detectable. in this zone most of the beggiatoa were found, where they oxidize sulfide with internally stored nitrate. the sulfide input into the suboxic zone was dominated by an upward sulfide flux from deeper sediment, whereas the local productio ...200718043645
video-supported analysis of beggiatoa filament growth, breakage, and movement.a marine beggiatoa sp. was cultured in semi-solid agar with opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients. growth pattern, breakage of filaments for multiplication, and movement directions of beggiatoa filaments in the transparent agar were investigated by time-lapse video recording. the initial doubling time of cells was 15.7 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- sd) at room temperature. filaments grew up to an average length of 1.7 +/- 0.2 mm, but filaments of up to approximately 6 mm were also present. first breakages of ...200818335158
niche differentiation among sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations in cave waters.the sulfidic frasassi cave system affords a unique opportunity to investigate niche relationships among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, including epsilonproteobacterial clades with no cultivated representatives. oxygen and sulfide concentrations in the cave waters range over more than two orders of magnitude as a result of seasonally and spatially variable dilution of the sulfidic groundwater. a full-cycle rrna approach was used to quantify dominant populations in biofilms collected in both diluted a ...200818356823
methylotrophy in freshwater beggiatoa alba strains.two freshwater strains of the gammaproteobacterium beggiatoa alba, b18ld and oh75-2a, are able to use methanol as a sole carbon and energy source under microoxic conditions. genes encoding a methanol dehydrogenase large-subunit homolog and four enzymes of the tetrahydromethanopterin-dependent c(1) oxidation pathway were identified in b18ld. no evidence of methanotrophy was detected.200818621874
microbial structure and community of rbc biofilm removing nitrate and phosphorus from domestic wastewater.using a rotating biological contactor modified with a sequencing bath reactor system (sbrbc) designed and operated to remove phosphate and nitrogen, the microbial community structure of the biofilm from the sbrbc system was characterized based on the extracellular polymeric substance (eps) constituents, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques. protein and carbohydrate were identified as the major eps constituents at three different biofilm thicknesses, where the amount of eps and bacterial ...200818756109
spatial and temporal variability in a stratified hypersaline microbial mat community.hypersaline microbial mat communities have recently been shown to be more diverse than once thought. the variability in community composition of hypersaline mats, both in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions, is still poorly understood. because this information is essential to understanding the complex biotic and abiotic interactions within these communities, terminal restriction fragment analysis and 16s rrna gene sequencing were used to characterize the near-surface community of a hypersal ...200919175677
a method for imaging of low ph in live cells based on excited state saturation.imaging techniques that allow intracellular ph determination in ranges below ph 3 employ costly equipment and can have a long data acquisition time (minutes). here, we describe a new methodology based on excited state saturation employing the fluorophore fluorescein-iso-thio-cyanate for confocal microscopy allowing a fast data acquisition in live organisms. to develop the method a model description of the fluorophore's molecular states was developed that led to a ratio function dependant on the ...200919318056
temperature characteristics for speed of movement of thiobacteria.the speed of translatory movement of beggiatoa alba is governed by temperature in such a way that between 5 degrees and 33 degrees the temperature characteristics micro = 16,100 and micro = 8,400 respectively obtain for the temperature ranges 5 degrees to 16.5 degrees and 16.5 degrees to 33 degrees . the "break" at 16 degrees -17 degrees is emphasized by the occurrence of a wider latitude of variation in speed above this temperature. above 16 degrees the progression of thiothrix yields micro = 8 ...192619872307
spatial structure and activity of sedimentary microbial communities underlying a beggiatoa spp. mat in a gulf of mexico hydrocarbon seep.subsurface fluids from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps undergo methane- and sulfur-cycling microbial transformations near the sediment surface. hydrocarbon seep habitats are naturally patchy, with a mosaic of active seep sediments and non-seep sediments. microbial community shifts and changing activity patterns on small spatial scales from seep to non-seep sediment remain to be examined in a comprehensive habitat study.201020090951
raman microspectrometry as a powerful tool for a quick screening of thiotrophy: an application on mangrove swamp meiofauna of guadeloupe (f.w.i.).the mangrove swamp environment constitutes a sulphide rich habitat harbouring some thioautotrophic organisms. the ciliate zoothamnium niveum and the nematode eubostrichus dianae, both known to live associated with bacterial sulphide-oxidizing ectosymbionts, were analysed as positive controls by raman microspectrometry. the detection of the 3 raman bands characteristic of elemental sulphur (s(8)) allows us to define a positive model of sulphide-oxidizing symbiotic invertebrates and by extrapolati ...201020202680
comparative analysis of beggiatoa from hypersaline and marine environments.the main criterion to classify a microorganism as belonging to the genus beggiatoa is its morphology. all multicellular, colorless, gliding bacterial filaments containing sulfur globules described so far belong to this genus. at the ultrastructural level, they show also a very complex cell envelope structure. here we describe uncultured vacuolated and non-vacuolated bacteria from two different environments showing all characteristics necessary to assign a bacterium to the genus beggiatoa. we als ...201020207153
the electron and light microscopy of beggiatoa. 194720267755
temperature regulation of gliding motility in filamentous sulfur bacteria, beggiatoa spp.the response of gliding motility to changing temperatures was studied in filaments of the large sulfur bacteria beggiatoa from arctic, temperate and tropical marine environments. the general shape of the gliding speed vs. temperature curves from all three locations was similar, but differed in the maximal gliding speed of the filaments, optimum temperature and the temperature range of motility. the optimum temperature and the overall temperature range of gliding motility accorded to the climatic ...201020491925
filamentous sulfur bacteria, beggiatoa spp., in arctic marine sediments (svalbard, 79 degrees n).fjord sediments on the west coast of the arctic archipelago svalbard were surveyed to understand whether large filamentous sulfur bacteria of the genus beggiatoa thrive at seawater temperatures permanently near freezing. two sediments had abundant populations of beggiatoa, while at six sites, only sporadic occurrences were observed. we conclude that beggiatoa, although previously unnoticed, are widespread in these arctic fjord sediments. beggiatoa ranged in diameter from 2 to 52 microm and, by t ...201020608982
sulfide induces phosphate release from polyphosphate in cultures of a marine beggiatoa strain.sulfur bacteria such as beggiatoa or thiomargarita have a particularly high capacity for storage because of their large size. in addition to sulfur and nitrate, these bacteria also store phosphorus in the form of polyphosphate. thiomargarita namibiensis has been shown to release phosphate from internally stored polyphosphate in pulses creating steep peaks of phosphate in the sediment and thereby inducing the precipitation of phosphorus-rich minerals. large sulfur bacteria populate sediments at t ...201120827290
high rates of denitrification and nitrate removal in cold seep sediments.we measured denitrification and nitrate removal rates in cold seep sediments from the gulf of mexico. heterotrophic potential denitrification rates were assayed in time-series incubations. surficial sediments inhabited by beggiatoa exhibited higher heterotrophic potential denitrification rates (32 μm n reduced day(-1)) than did deeper sediments (11 μm n reduced day(-1)). nitrate removal rates were high in both sediment horizons. these nitrate removal rates translate into rapid turnover times (<1 ...201020944683
natural and engineered photoactivated nucleotidyl cyclases for optogenetic applications.cyclic nucleotides, camp and cgmp, are ubiquitous second messengers that regulate metabolic and behavioral responses in diverse organisms. we describe purification, engineering, and characterization of photoactivated nucleotidyl cyclases that can be used to manipulate camp and cgmp levels in vivo. we identified the blac gene encoding a putative photoactivated adenylyl cyclase in the beggiatoa sp. ps genome. blac contains a bluf domain involved in blue-light sensing using fad and a nucleotidyl cy ...201021030591
light modulation of cellular camp by a small bacterial photoactivated adenylyl cyclase, bpac, of the soil bacterium beggiatoa.the recent success of channelrhodopsin in optogenetics has also caused increasing interest in enzymes that are directly activated by light. we have identified in the genome of the bacterium beggiatoa a dna sequence encoding an adenylyl cyclase directly linked to a bluf (blue light receptor using fad) type light sensor domain. in escherichia coli and xenopus oocytes, this photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bpac) showed cyclase activity that is low in darkness but increased 300-fold in the light. th ...201021030594
diversity and function in microbial mats from the lucky strike hydrothermal vent field.diversity and function in microbial mats from the lucky strike hydrothermal vent field (mid-atlantic ridge) were investigated using molecular approaches. dna and rna were extracted from mat samples overlaying hydrothermal deposits and bathymodiolus azoricus mussel assemblages. we constructed and analyzed libraries of 16s rrna gene sequences and sequences of functional genes involved in autotrophic carbon fixation [forms i and ii rubisco (cbbl/m), atp-citrate lyase b (aclb)]; methane oxidation [p ...201121348883
motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, beggiatoa spp.the large sulfur bacteria, beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. as gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen-sulfide interface. we observed the chemotactic patterns of single filaments in a transparent agar medium and scored their reversals and the glided distances between reversals. filaments within the preferred microenvironment ...201121446951
a single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria.the colorless, large sulfur bacteria are well known because of their intriguing appearance, size and abundance in sulfidic settings. since their discovery in 1803 these bacteria have been classified according to their conspicuous morphology. however, in microbiology the use of morphological criteria alone to predict phylogenetic relatedness has frequently proven to be misleading. recent sequencing of a number of 16s rrna genes of large sulfur bacteria revealed frequent inconsistencies between th ...201121498017
niche differentiation among mat-forming, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria at cold seeps of the nile deep sea fan (eastern mediterranean sea).sulfidic muds of cold seeps on the nile deep sea fan (ndsf) are populated by different types of mat-forming sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. the predominant sulfide oxidizers of three different mats were identified by microscopic and phylogenetic analyses as (i) arcobacter species producing cotton-ball-like sulfur precipitates, (ii) large filamentous sulfur bacteria including beggiatoa species, and (iii) single, spherical thiomargarita species. high resolution in situ microprofiles revealed different ...201121535364
vacuolated beggiatoa-like filaments from different hypersaline environments form a novel this study, members of a specific group of thin (6-14 µm filament diameter), vacuolated beggiatoa-like filaments from six different hypersaline microbial mats were morphologically and phylogenetically characterized. therefore, enrichment cultures were established, filaments were stained with fluorochromes to show intracellular structures and 16s rrna genes were sequenced. morphological characteristics of beggiatoa-like filaments, in particular the presence of intracellular vacuoles, and the d ...201121651683
Unusual polyphosphate inclusions observed in a marine Beggiatoa strain.Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Beggiatoa are known to accumulate phosphate intracellularly as polyphosphate but little is known about the structure and properties of these inclusions. Application of different staining techniques revealed the presence of unusually large polyphosphate inclusions in the marine Beggiatoa strain 35Flor. The inclusions showed a co-occurrence of polyphosphate, calcium and magnesium when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analy ...201121909788
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