effect of cell length on gliding motility of flexibacter.short flexibacter fs-1 cells, generated during logarithmic growth in glucose-salts medium or by filament fragmentation during the transition from log to stationary phase in rich medium, are unable to glide. motility returns when cells elongate. this strain also dissociates stable, short, nongliding variants.1978641016
enumeration of flexibacter canadensis in environmental samples by using a bacteriophage isolated from soil.the denitrifier flexibacter canadensis, in the presence of sulfide, can reduce n2o in the presence of concentrations of c2h2 which normally inhibit n2o reduction. most-probable-number estimates of naturally occurring f. canadensis populations in various soils and sediments were made with a bacteriophage which is active against and specific for a strain of denitrifying f. canadensis (is-11). our survey suggests that f. canadensis is common in the natural environment.19911746962
health status of salmonids in river systems in natal. iii. isolation and identification of bacteria.both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria were isolated from fish, both salmonid and non-salmonid, from selected river systems in natal. pasteurella pisicida was isolated for the first time from fish in south africa. the isolation of yersinia ruckeri, aeromonas salmonicida, and edwardsiella tarda were recorded for the first time from fish in natal. a. hydrophila and flexibacter columnaris were found to be widespread throughout the river systems in natal. the streptococcus species which caused ...19911881658
flexibacter ovolyticus sp. nov., a pathogen of eggs and larvae of atlantic halibut, hippoglossus hippoglossus l.a psychrotrophic flexibacter sp., flexibacter ovolyticus sp. nov., was isolated from the adherent bacterial epiflora of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.) eggs and was shown to be an opportunistic pathogen for halibut eggs and larvae. the strains which we isolated had the enzymatic capacity to dissolve both the chorion and the zona radiata of the egg shells. a total of 35 isolates were characterized by using morphological and biochemical tests. these strains were rod shaped, gram ne ...19921503974
the bacterial flora of non-carbonated, natural mineral water from the springs to reservoir and glass and plastic bottles.quantitative and qualitative determinations of the bacterial flora of non-carbonated natural mineral water at the most important steps during bottling at a large water source yielded the following results: (i) colony counts (on 1:10 diluted plate count agar, incubated at 20 degrees c for 14 days) for water of the five springs and the mixed water were less than 1 to 4 cfu ml-1. the gram-negative bacterial flora (n = 50 isolates) showed a very different but constant spring specific species distrib ...19902223521
columnaris infection among cultured nile tilapia oreochromis niloticus.flexibacter columnaris was isolated from 13 cultured oreochromis niloticus showing respiratory disorders. the isolates developed typical swarming rhizoid colonies on cytophaga agar medium. antibiotic sensitivity test revealed the susceptibility of f. columnaris isolated to oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin. a marked difference in the pathogenicity of seven tested isolates was observed: two were highly virulent, one was moderately virulent and four were avirulent. no experimental ...19883232970
5s rrna sequences of representatives of the genera chlorobium, prosthecochloris, thermomicrobium, cytophaga, flavobacterium, flexibacter and saprospira and a discussion of the evolution of eubacteria in general.5s rrna sequences were determined for the green sulphur bacteria chlorobium limicola, chlorobium phaeobacteroides and prosthecochloris aestuarii, for thermomicrobium roseum, which is a relative of the green non-sulphur bacteria, and for cytophaga aquatilis, cytophaga heparina, cytophaga johnsonae, flavobacterium breve, flexibacter sp. and saprospira grandis, organisms allotted to the phylum 'bacteroides-cytophaga-flavobacterium' and relatives as determined by 16s rrna analyses. by using a cluste ...19901693658
carotenoid pigments of facultatively anaerobic spirochetes.carotenoid pigments were purified from a previously undescribed, red, halophilic spirochete (spirochete rs1), and from spirochaeta aurantia strain j1. both spirochetes are facultative anaerobes and produce pigments when growing aerobically. the major pigments of the two spirochetes were identified by means of chromatographic analysis, absorption spectroscopy, hydride reduction, acetylation and silylation experiments, and mass spectrometry. it was concluded that the major pigment from spirochete ...19751158846
the pigments of flexibacter elegans: novel and chemosystematically useful compounds. 19744217145
the fine structure of herpetosiphon, and a note on the taxonomy of the genus.the fine structure of the gram-negative filamentous gliding bacterium, herpetosiphon is described. the outer membrane of the cell envelope could not be resolved as a separate structure, probably because it is fused with the underlying dense (peptidoglycan) layer. there was an additional wall layer outside this membrane-peptidoglycan complex, but a sheath in the classical sense, as postulated in the definition of the genus, was lacking. on the cell surface a loose network of fibrils could be seen ...19751098600
ultrastructural characterization of goblet-shaped particles from the cell wall of flexibacter polymorphus.the ultrastructure of submicroscopic goblet-shaped particles ("goblets') from the cell wall of the marine-gliding microbe flexibacter polymorphus was investigated. the goblets, which were partially purified by cscl density-gradient centrifugation, were rich in protein, exhibiting a single absorption maximum in the ultraviolet at about 276 nm; they also contained a small amount of carbohydrate. as determined by electron microscopy, goblets negatively contrasted with ammonium molybdate were about ...1977907917
[vertical distribution and the characteristics of the species composition of the microorganisms of some stratified lakes in estonia].the total number, vertical distribution, and special composition of microorganisms from three stratified lakes in the south-eastern estonia containing hydrogen sulfide and ferrous iron were studied in march, 1976. the number of bacteria was lowest in surface water samples (1.2-1.9 x 10(6) cells/ml). it increased first in the zone where oxygen disappeared (2.4-7.6 x 10(6) cells/ml), then slightly decreased, and again increased near the bottom where it became maximal (3.7-14.0 x 10(6) cells/ml). t ...1979440169
source of energy for gliding motility in flexibacter polymorphus: effects of metabolic and respiratory inhibitors on gliding movement.the effects of selected metabolic and respiratory inhibitors on the gliding motility of flexibacter polymorphus were examined. motility and oxygen consumption were quantitatively inhibited in a reversible manner by specific respiratory poisons, suggesting that gliding velocity was linked to electron transport activity. arsenate had little influence on the number or rate of gliding filaments, despite a 95% decrease in the concentration of intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (atp). at concentr ...1977885839
association of flexing and gliding in flexibacter.nongliding mutants of flexibacter fs-1 are unable to flex; revertants regain both forms of movement. a variety of conditions and treatments reversibly inhibit both gliding and flexing.1979438123
investigations of the pigments from cytophaga johnsonae cy jl. new flexirubin-type pigments.besides carotenoids a complex of flexirubin-type pigments was isolated from the gliding bacterium cytophaga johnsonae cy jl and separated into 6 components, which partly containe chlorine. in spite of the fact that these components still consist of pigment mixtures, the gross structures of 18 new flexirubin-type pigments could be deduced by spectroscopic and chemical investigations. the results open insights into biosynthesis and structural variety of the flexirubins, the novel non-isoprenoid pi ...1978697500
iso-branched 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids as characteristic lipid constituents of some gliding bacteria.the fatty acids present in the total hydrolysates of several gliding bacteria (myxococcus fulvus, stigmatella aurantiaca, cytophaga johnsonae, cytophaga sp. strain samoa and flexibacter elegans) were analyzed by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. in addition to 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid, 15-methyl-hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and hexadecenoic acid, 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids comprised up to 50% of the total fatty acids. the majority was odd-numbered and iso-b ...1979118159
intracellular location of flexirubins in flexibacter elegans (cytophagales).the inner and outer membranes of 2 strains of gram-negative flexibacter elegans, fx e1 and fx 3/4, could be separated on sucrose density gradients after the cells had been converted into spheroplasts, and the spheroplasts had been lysed in presence of edta and the detergent brij 58. the light fraction (rho = 1.14 g . cm-3) contained the components of the respiratory chain in high concentrations, but only low amounts of the lipopolysaccharide component, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid, and was thus ma ...1978667028
presence of antigen sensitized leukocytes in carp (cyprinus carpio l) following bath immunization against flexibacter columnaris.bath immunization of carp (cyprinus carpio l) resulted in protection of fish at natural challenge. stimulation of leukocytes derived from thymus, spleen, anterior kidney and mid-kidney of fish immunized with flexibacter columnaris bacterin revealed the presence of antigen sensitized cells in all lymphoid tissues except the anterior kidney. after 28 days a response was obtained in thymus and spleen leukocyte cultures.19826817508
the history, biology, and taxonomy of the cytophaga group.the first section of this review covers the important characteristics of the genera cytophaga and sporocytophaga. the topics discussed include vegetative cell structure, the spreading habit, and degradation of macromolecules. a historical account of these two genera follows, together with a discussion on the definition of, and species differentiation with the genus cytophaga, and on the taxonomy of sporocytophaga. the third section deals with the relationships of the cytophagas with the flavobac ...1977413616
bacterial community structures of phosphate-removing and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges from sequencing batch reactors.the bacterial community structures of phosphate- and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges were compared. sludge samples were obtained from two sequencing batch reactors (sbrs), and 16s rdna clone libraries of the bacterial sludge populations were established. community structures were determined by phylogenetic analyses of 97 and 92 partial clone sequences from sbr1 (phosphate-removing sludge) and sbr2 (non-phosphate-removing sludge), respectively. for both sludges, the predominant bacterial ...19957544094
fr901451, a novel inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase from flexibacter sp. ii. pharmacological effect of fr901451.intratracheal (i.t.) or intravenous (i.v.) administration of fr901451, a potent inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase (hle) prevented hle-induced lung hemorrhage in hamsters with ed50 values of 10.5 micrograms/site and 8.1 mg/kg, respectively. alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-at) also showed inhibitory effect in this model. however, the ed50 value by i.t. injection of fr901451 was 20-fold lower than that of alpha 1-at. moreover, fr901451 i.t. significantly modulated porcine pancreas elastase (ppe)-i ...19947844030
cell wall and lipid composition of isosphaera pallida, a budding eubacterium from hot springs.isosphaera pallida is an unusual gliding, budding eubacterium recently isolated from north american hot springs. electron micrographs of ultrathin sections revealed a cell wall atypical of eubacteria: two electrondense layers separated by an electron-transparent layer, with no evident peptidoglycan layer. growth was not inhibited by penicillin. cell walls were isolated from sheared cells by velocity sedimentation. the rigid-layer fraction, prepared from cell walls by treatment with boiling 10% s ...19873584067
induction of chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance in flexibacter sp. strain fs-1.the gliding bacterium flexibacter sp. strain fs-1 exhibits inducible resistance to chloramphenicol (cmr) and tetracycline (tcr). either chloramphenicol or tetracycline alone induced a cmr tcr phenotype. the resistance is apparently not plasmid encoded.19853855409
formadicins, new monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics of bacterial origin. ii. isolation, characterization and monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics, formadicins a, b, c and d, were isolated from the culture filtrate of flexibacter alginoliquefaciens sp. nov. yk-49 by various types of column chromatography and preparative reverse-phase hplc. their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and degradation studies. they have a nocardicin-type skeleton and a formylamino group at the 3- or 12-position. formadicins a and b each have a d-glucuronide moiety and give formadicins c and d, respectively ...19853877714
[bacterial regrowth in drinking water. iv. bacterial flora in fresh and stagnant water in drinking water purification and in the drinking water distribution system].six dead end water pipes were installed inside a zurich drinking water plant and five others over a distance of 12 km along the distribution system and the water was left stagnating in there for 2 weeks. a total of 1508 bacteria from fresh and stagnating water were isolated and identified. of these, 241 bacterial isolates from the distribution system were examined using the nutrient-tolerance test, i.e. testing the ability to grow in tap water and in media with low and very high nutrient content ...19902261054
isolation and characterization of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from natural spring waters in the lanjaron area (spain).aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from nine natural mineral water springs in the lanjaron area of spain over the period july 1980 to may 1981. the mineral waters contained few bacteria (mean counts 26-5275 cfu per 100 ml) and the bacterial flora of all nine springs was very similar. most of the isolates were gram-negative rods (90%), and among these pseudomonas spp. and members of the flavobacterium-cytophaga-flexibacter group were numerically dominant. aeromonas-vibrio and enterobac ...19863781942
[bacteria of the flexibacter/sporocytophaga group and violet-pigmented bacteria as indicators for hygienically doubtful drinking water].bacteria of the flexibacter/sporocytophaga group indicate, that drinking water is deficiently protected by the soil covering or may be infiltrated by surface waters. in south bavaria those germs could be demonstrated in 1225 of 3743 samples from central water supplies and in 951 of 1714 samples from decentralized water supplies. f/sp-bacteria could be isolated to a much greater extend from samples which were likewise polluted with escherichia coli, coliforms and colony counts in excess. over the ...19892510750
characterization of gliding motility in flexibacter polymorphus.motility of the marine gliding bacterium flexibacter polymorphus was studied by using microcinematographic techniques. following adhesion to a glass surface, multicellular filaments and individual cells usually began to glide within a few seconds at a speed of approximately 12 micron per second (at 23 degrees c). adhesion to the glass surface was evidently mediated by multitudes of extremely fine extracellular fibrils. gliding velocity was independent of filament length but directly related to e ...19882905209
topostin, a novel inhibitor of mammalian dna topoisomerase i from flexibacter topostinus sp. nov. ii. purification and some properties of topostin.we describe the isolation of inhibitors of mammalian dna topoisomerase i, named topostins, from a culture broth of flexibacter topostinus sp. nov. and some properties of the inhibitors. topostins a1, a2 and b were isolated by differential solubility in solvents, adsorption chromatography on silica gel and gel filtration on a sephadex lh-20 column. topostins a1, a2 and b had specific activities of 4,700, 16,000 and 22,000 u/mg, respectively. the most active metabolite topostin b comprised two com ...19902155897
ym-47141 and ym-47142, new elastase inhibitors produced by flexibacter sp. q17897. ii. structure elucidation.ym-47141 and ym-47142 are new elastase inhibitor produced by flexibacter sp. q17897. these structures were elucidated by ms and nmr spectral analysis. ym-47141 and ym-47142 were the cyclic peptides containing tricarbonyl moiety hydrated on the center carbonyl carbon in dmso-d6.19958557599
distribution of multicopy single-stranded dna among myxobacteria and related species.multicopy single-stranded dna (msdna) is a short single-stranded linear dna originally discovered in myxococcus xanthus and subsequently found in stigmatella aurantiaca. it exists at an estimated 500 to 700 copies per chromosome (t. yee, t. furuichi, s. inouye, and m. inouye, cell 38:203-209, 1984). we found msdna in other myxobacteria, including myxococcus coralloides, cystobacter violaceus, cystobacter ferrugineus (cbfe17), nannocystis exedens, and nine independently isolated strains of m. xan ...19853932332
formadicins, new monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics of bacterial origin. i. taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.a gram-negative bacterium produces new monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics with a formylamino substituent, named formadicins a, b, c and d. the producing bacterium was taxonomically characterized and designated as flexibacter alginoliquefaciens sp. nov. yk-49. formadicins have narrow antibacterial spectra. they are highly active against some species of pseudomonas, proteus and alcaligenes. of the four, formadicin c shows the most potent antibacterial activity. several amino acids such as glycine, ...19853934120
flexibacter elegans and myxococcus fulvus: aerobic gram-negative bacteria containing menaquinones as the only isoprenoid quinones. 19744216336
growth and morphological characteristics of a species of flexibacter. 19714106210
topostin, a novel inhibitor of mammalian dna topoisomerase i from flexibacter topostinus sp. nov. i. taxonomy, and fermentation of producing strain.we found a new inhibitor of mammalian dna topoisomerase i, named topostin, from a bacterial culture. the bacteria was identified as flexibacter topostinus sp. nov., b-572. morphological and physiological characteristics, and utilization of sugars were examined. comparison of the strain with known species of the genus flexibacter was made and indicates that the strain is a new species of the genus flexibacter. the bacteria produced the inhibitor in parallel with their growth up to 72 hours.19902155896
sulfonolipids of gliding bacteria. structure of the n-acylaminosulfonates.earlier (godchaux, w., and leadbetter, e. r. (1980) j. bacteriol. 144, 592-602; (1983) j. bacteriol. 153, 1238-1246) we demonstrated that an unusual class of sulfonolipids are major components of the cell envelope of gliding bacteria of the genus cytophaga and of closely related genera. one of these lipids, to which we have assigned the trivial name capnine, was purified and was shown to be 2-amino-3-hydroxy-15-methylhexadecane-1-sulfonic acid (which might also be named as 1-deoxy-15-methylhexad ...19846321489
fine structure of the cell envelope layers of flexibacter polymorphus.electron microscopy of the filamentous gliding marine bacterium flexibacter polymorphus demonstrated that the cell envelope consists of an electron-dense intermediate layer located between two unit-type membranes: an outer membrane, presumably of lipopolysaccharide, and an inner cytoplasmic membrane. separation of living filaments into single cells by lysozyme suggests that a peptidoglycan moiety, possibly corresponding to the intermediate layer, might be situated between the two membranes. cell ...19751201515
isolation and characterization of a new cytophaga species implicated in a work-related lung disease.a yellow-pigmented, gram-negative, gliding bacterium isolated from an industrial water spray air humidification system was implicated as a causative agent in several occurrences of lung disease with hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like symptoms. the bacterium, designated wf-164, lacked microcysts or fruiting bodies and had a dna base composition of 34.8 mol% of guanine plus cytosine. gliding, flexing, nonflagellated cells measuring 0.3 by 3.5 to 8.9 micron were observed by using light and electron ...19846508308
growth, cell division, and fragmentation in a species of flexibacter.flexibacter fs-1, a gram-negative gliding bacterium was grown in liquid culture as long (over 100-mum) filaments. the filaments possessed a triple-track wall which resembled that found in other gram-negative bacteria. although phase-contrast microscopy indicated that the long filaments were nonseptate, electron microscopy revealed three or four septa along the length of each filament. the septa contained lysozyme-sensitive, electron-opaque material, presumed to be peptidoglycan, sandwiched betwe ...19724118297
the sequence of the single 16s rrna gene of the thermophilic eubacterium rhodothermus marinus reveals a distant relationship to the group containing flexibacter, bacteroides, and cytophaga species.rhodothermus marinus, a gram-negative heterotrophic marine thermophile, has been the subject of several recent studies. isolation, sequencing, and analyses of a 16s rrna gene have shown that r. marinus diverges sharply from major bacterial phyla and is most closely allied to the flexibacter-cytophaga-bacteroides group. further analyses revealed that the r. marinus chromosome contains a single rrna operon with a 16s-23s intergenic region coding for trna(ile) and trna(ala).19947928984
cultivation of cilia-associated respiratory bacillus in artificial medium and determination of the 16s rrna gene sequence.cilia-associated respiratory (car) bacillus, an unclassified gliding bacterium associated with respiratory disease in rats, mice, and rabbits, has previously been cultivated only in embryonated chicken eggs, cell culture, or cell culture medium supplemented with conditioned medium from cultured tracheas. a reference strain of car bacillus, originally isolated in eggs, grew in cell culture flasks as adherent individual bacilli and ropy, whorled fascicles in cell culture media supplemented only wi ...19937504686
two new monobactam antibiotics produced by a flexibacter sp. i. taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties.two new beta-lactam antibiotics, namely sq 28,502 and sq 28,503, have been isolated from fermentations of a flexibacter sp. they are demethoxy monobactams with oligopeptide side chains and have molecular weights of 1,462 and 1,446, respectively. these beta-lactams show a high degree of stability to a variety of beta-lactamases and act as potent irreversible inactivators of p99 beta-lactamase from enterobacter cloacae. they exhibit weak antibacterial activity.19836643274
lysis of cyanobacteria with flexibacter spp isolated from domestic sewage.five species of filamentous cyanobacteria and two species of flexibacter were isolated from domestic sewage. cells and filtrates of f. flexilis and f. sancti lysed the cyanobacterium oscillatoria williamsii. inhibition of the photosynthetic electron transport reactions, and glycolate dehydrogenase and nitrogenase activity of o. williamsii due to its incubation with f. flexilis, were observed. scanning electron micrographs revealed the attachment of f. flexilis to the sheaths of o. williamsii whi ...19948159127
riemerella anatipestifer gen. nov., comb. nov., the causative agent of septicemia anserum exsudativa, and its phylogenetic affiliation within the flavobacterium-cytophaga rrna homology group.the phylogenetic position of the causative agent of septicemia anserum exsudativa, now most often referred to as [moraxella] anatipestifer (brackets indicate a generically misnamed taxon) or "[pasteurella] anatipestifer," was established by performing rrna cistron similarity studies. [moraxella] anatipestifer belongs to rrna superfamily v, together with the genera flavobacterium, cytophaga, flexibacter, weeksella, capnocytophaga, and sphingobacterium. the detailed structure of rrna superfamily v ...19938240957
evidence for contractile flexing of the gliding bacterium flexibacter fs-1. 19827099262
ym-47141 and 47142, new elastase inhibitors produced by flexibacter sp. q17897. i. taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological the course of our screening for elastase inhibitors from microorganism, we have found two new cyclic-depsipeptides designated ym-47141 and 47142. in this paper, we described the taxonomy of the producing organism and isolation, physico-chemical properties, and biological activities of ym-47141 and 47142.19958557598
sq 28,332, a new monobactam produced by a flexibacter sp. taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structure determination and biological properties.a new monobactam sq 28,332 has been isolated from fermentations of a flexibacter sp. and the structure 3 was deduced from its spectroscopic properties. sq 28,332 exhibits weak antibacterial activity.19836643273
[distribution of alpha-n-acetylgalactosaminidases in marine and freshwater microorganisms].the distribution of the alpha-n-acetylgalactosidases producers among 856 marine bacteria isolated from sea water, sediments and associated with sponges, mollusks, echinoderms inhabited in different area of the pacific ocean and 423 baikalian microorganisms from fresh water and sponges have been studied. about 24% as marine as baikalian strains produced this enzyme. the most number of alpha-n-ac-galactosidase producers were found for marine bacteria genera aeromonas, alteromonas and vibrio (71% a ...19947898396
taxonomic status of car bacillus based on the small subunit ribosomal rna an attempt to identify the taxonomic relationship between car bacillus and other bacteria, the ssu rrna gene sequences of two car bacillus strains, cbm and cbr isolated from mice and rats respectively were used in the present studies. the ssu rrna gene sequences, approximately 1.5 kb in size amplified from genomic dnas from both strains, were determined and 96.8% homologies were found to exist between them. those sequences were aligned to most eubacteria with a computer search showing high ho ...19958745577
subunit composition of goblet-shaped particles from the cell wall of flexibacter polymorphus.submicroscopic goblet-shaped particles ( goblets ) were released from the cell envelope of the marine gliding bacterium flexibacter polymorphus when treated with the nonionic detergent triton x-100 followed by sonication. the goblets were purified by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation and exhibited an equilibrium buoyant density of 1.30 g/ml at 23 degrees c. they were composed of protein and a small amount of carbohydrate (approximately 3.4% by weight). aqueous suspensions exhibited ...19836673821
tan-1057 a-d, new antibiotics with potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. taxonomy, fermentation and biological activity.two gram-negative bacteria were found to produce the new antibacterial antibiotics tan-1057 a, b, c and d. the producing bacteria were characterized and designated as flexibacter sp. pk-74 and pk-176. these antibiotics were active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. tan-1057 a inhibited protein biosynthesis in escherichia coli and s. aureus. it showed excellent protective effects against an experimental methicillin-resistant s. ...19938501003
cellular regulation of nitrate uptake in denitrifying flexibacter canadensis.nitrate uptake and its regulation were investigated using an ion-specific nitrate electrode for denitrifying flexibacter canadensis under anaerobic conditions. glucose supported a greater rate of nitrate uptake than did glycerol, glutamate, lactose, cellobiose, or ethanol. nitrate uptake closely approximated michaelis--menten kinetics; the estimated ks(glucose) and apparent km(nitrate) for nitrate uptake were 21 and 44 microm, respectively. nitrate disappearance was correlated with nitrite accum ...19948076252
development of techniques to genetically manipulate members of the genera cytophaga, flavobacterium, flexibacter, and sporocytophaga.the bacteroides-cytophaga-flavobacterium branch of the eubacterial phylogenetic tree contains a diverse group of bacterial species. techniques for the genetic manipulation of bacteroides spp. are well developed (a. a. salyers, n. b. shoemaker, and e. p. guthrie, crit. rev. microbiol. 14:49-71, 1987). recently we developed techniques to genetically manipulate the gliding bacterium cytophaga johnsonae (m. j. mcbride and m. j. kempf, j. bacteriol. 178:583-590, 1996). we now demonstrate that some of ...19968702294
shieh medium supplemented with tobramycin for selective isolation of flavobacterium columnare (flexibacter columnaris) from diseased fish.tobramycin was found to be less inhibitory to flavobacterium columnare (formerly flexibacter columnaris) than to other fish-associated bacteria. the selective capacity of shieh medium, an isolation medium described for this species, was markedly enhanced by adding tobramycin at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml.19978968939
molecular microbial diversity of an anaerobic digestor as determined by small-subunit rdna sequence analysis.the bacterial community structure of a fluidized-bed reactor fed by vinasses (wine distillation waste) was analyzed. after pcr amplification, four small-subunit (ssu) rdna clone libraries of bacteria, archaea, procarya, and eucarya populations were established. the community structure was determined by operational taxonomic unit (otu) phylogenetic analyses of 579 partial rdna sequences (about 500 bp long). a total of 146 otus were found, comprising 133, 6, and 7 from the bacteria, archaea, and e ...19979212428
the filamentous morphotype eikelboom type 1863 is not a single genetic entity.five isolates of a filamentous bacterial morphotype with the distinctive diagnostic microscopic features of eikelboom type 1863 were obtained from activated sludge sewage treatment plants in victoria, australia. on the basis of phenotypic evidence and 16s rdna sequence data, these isolates proved to be polyphyletic. two (ben 06 and ben 06c) are from the chryseobacterium subgroup which is in the cytophaga group, subdivision i of the flexibacter-cytophaga-bacteroides phylum. two (ben 56 and ben 59 ...19979134715
flexibacter japonensis sp. nov., a new species that produces a novel inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase isolated from soil.this strain 758 of a new member of flexibacter species isolated from a soil is a gram-negative, nonflagellated, gliding, long rod or filamentous. the gc contents of the deoxyribonucleic acid of this strain is 49.8 mol %gc. the isolate can be distinguished from other flexibacter species on the basis of physiological and biochemical properties and dna relatedness data. therefore, we propose a new species, flexibacter japonensis, for this strain. the strain 758 is deposited to the japan collection ...19968662178
diversity and association of psychrophilic bacteria in antarctic sea ice.the bacterial populations associated with sea ice sampled from antarctic coastal areas were investigated by use of a phenotypic approach and a phylogenetic approach based on genes encoding 16s rrna (16s rdna). the diversity of bacteria associated with sea ice was also compared with the bacterial diversity of seawater underlying sea ice. psychrophilic (optimal growth temperature, < or = 15 degrees c; no growth occurring at 20 degrees c) bacterial diversity was found to be significantly enriched i ...19979251193
sequence of 16s rrna gene of rat-origin cilia-associated respiratory (car) bacillus smr strain.the 16s rrna gene of the smr strain of cilia-associated respiratory (car) bacillus, which was isolated from a spontaneously infected rat at our institute, was sequenced. its 1,521 nucleotides were determined. on the basis of the results of the sequence analysis, the smr strain was found to be most closely related to members of the flavobacter/flexibacter group. this sequence was compared with the previously determined 16s rrna gene sequences (rat-origin: three; mouse-origin: one; rabbit-origin: ...200010945305
psychroserpens burtonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., and gelidibacter algens gen. nov., sp. nov., psychrophilic bacteria isolated from antarctic lacustrine and sea ice habitats.psychrophilic, yellow-pigmented, seawater-requiring bacteria isolated from the pycnocline of meromictic burton lake and from sea ice cores obtained in the vestfold hills (68 degrees s, 78 degrees e) in eastern antarctica were characterized. phenotypic analysis showed that the strains isolated formed two distinct taxa. the first taxon included nonmotile, nutritionally fastidious strains that were isolated from the pycnocline of burton lake. the cells of these strains were morphologically variant, ...19979226898
fr901451, a novel inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase from flexibacter sp. i. producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.a novel human leukocyte elastase (hle) inhibitor, fr901451 was discovered in the fermentation broth of a bacteria. the bacteria was identified as flexibacter sp. no. 758. fr901451 has a molecular weight of 1269 and a molecular formula of c60h79n13o18. the mode of inhibition against hle is competitive, with a ki value of 9.8 x 10(-9) m.19947844029
immunization with bacterial antigens: flavobacterium and flexibacter bacterial species belonging to the flavobacterium-cytophaga group are currently considered to be pathogenic for fish. because they were only recently described and/or because the disease they provoke has little economic significance, no study has been performed concerning immunization against chryseobacterium scophthalmum, flavobacterium johnsoniae and flexibacter ovolyticus. immunization with flexibacter maritimus has not been investigated, and fish surviving a natural infection appear to ...19979270847
the phylogenetic relationships of chlorobium tepidum and chloroflexus aurantiacus based upon their reca sequences.using reca as the phylogenetic marker, the relationships of the green sulfur bacterium chlorobium tepidum and the green non-sulfur bacterium chloroflexus aurantiacus to other eubacteria were investigated. the reca genes of the two organisms were cloned, and the resulting protein sequences aligned with 86 other eubacterial reca sequences. cb. tepidum was placed as the nearest relative to the cytophaga/flexibacter/bacteriodes group, a relationship supported by results obtained with several phyloge ...19989595663
psychroflexus torquis gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic species from antarctic sea ice, and reclassification of flavobacterium gondwanense (dobson et al. 1993) as psychroflexus gondwanense gen. nov., comb. nov.a group of sea-ice-derived psychrophilic bacterial strains possessing the unusual ability to synthesize the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6) belong to the family flavobacteriaceae (flexibacter-bacteroides-flavobacterium phylum), according to 16s rrna sequence analysis. surprisingly, the isolates were also found to cluster closely to the moderately halophilic and psychrotrophic species [flavobacterium] gondwanense (sequence simil ...19989639931
phylogeny and lipid composition of thermonema lapsum, a thermophilic gliding bacterium.1,490 nucleotides of the 16s rrna gene of a gram-negative, thermophilic and gliding bacterium, thermonema lapsum, have been sequenced. phylogenetic analysis indicates that t. lapsum is related to cytophaga-flavobacteria-bacteroides (cfb) and is confirmed by the identification signature nucleotides that define this group. further phylogenetic analysis indicates that t. lapsum forms the deepest branch in the cfb group; this observation was confirmed by the identification of unique nucleotide and n ...19948138143
molecular microbial diversity of an agricultural soil in wisconsin.a culture-independent survey of the soil microbial diversity in a clover-grass pasture in southern wisconsin was conducted by sequence analysis of a universal clone library of genes coding for small-subunit rrna (rdna). a rapid and efficient method for extraction of dna from soils which resulted in highly purified dna with minimal shearing was developed. universal small-subunit-rrna primers were used to amplify dna extracted from the pasture soil. the pcr products were cloned into pgem-t, and ei ...19968787391
dominant marine bacterioplankton species found among colony-forming bacteria.the density of specific aquatic bacteria was determined by use of whole-genome dna hybridization towards community dna. from a coastal marine environment (northern baltic sea), 48 specific bacteria were isolated on solid media over a 1-year period. based on the presented hybridization protocol, the total density of the isolates ranged between 7 and 69% of the bacteria determined by acridine orange direct counts. when compared to the number of nucleoid-containing cells, the range increased to 29 ...19979292985
molecular characterization of epiphytic bacterial communities on charophycean green algaeepiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, desmidium grevillii, hyalotheca dissiliens, and spondylosium pulchrum (class charophyceae, order zygnematales), collected from a sphagnum bog were characterized by pcr amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16s ribosomal dna. a total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. by phyloge ...19989797295
diversity of chlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated boreal groundwater.chlorophenol-degrading bacteria from a long-term polluted groundwater aquifer were characterized. all isolates degraded 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol at concentrations detected in the contaminated groundwater (< 10 mg 1(-1)). pentachlorophenol was degraded by three isolates when present alone. in two gram-positive isolates, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol was required as an inducer for the degradation of pentachlorophenol. the gram-positive isolates were sensitive to pentachlorop ...199910201097
phylogenetic position of chitinophaga pinensis in the flexibacter-bacteroides-cytophaga phylum.comparison of the 16s rrna gene sequence determined for chitinophaga pinensis showed that this species is most closely related to flexibacter filiformis in the flexibacter-bacteroides-cytophaga phylum. these two chitinolytic bacteria, which are characterized by transformation into spherical bodies on ageing, belong to a strongly supported lineage that also includes cytophaga arvensicola, flavobacterium ferrugineum and flexibacter sancti. the lineage is distinct from the microcyst-forming species ...199910319467
synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of tan-1057a/b analogs.tan-1057a-d, dipeptides isolated from bacteria flexibacter sp. pk-74 and pk-176, are new antibiotics with potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). we describe, in detail, the synthesis of several tan-1057a/b analogs by a convergent route featuring a new method to construct the cyclic amidinourea functional group. the biological activity of these substances against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) is reported.19989544941
microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill.three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. in situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (plfa) analysis and 16s rdna pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontamination ...199910427050
characterization of four flavobacterium columnare (flexibacter columnaris) strains isolated from tropical fish.four flavobacterium columnare strains (ajs 1-4) were isolated from black mollies (poecilia sphenops) and platies (xiphophorus maculatus), showing white spots on the back, head and skin ulcers. the isolates developed characteristic rhizoid yellow pigmented colonies on shieh agar and typical growth in shieh broth. they were gram-negative, filamentous bacteria exhibiting flexing movements. when compared to f. columnare strains isolated from temperate fish, it was noted that the four strains origina ...19989659690
gliding motility in bacteria: insights from studies of myxococcus xanthus.gliding motility is observed in a large variety of phylogenetically unrelated bacteria. gliding provides a means for microbes to travel in environments with a low water content, such as might be found in biofilms, microbial mats, and soil. gliding is defined as the movement of a cell on a surface in the direction of the long axis of the cell. because this definition is operational and not mechanistic, the underlying molecular motor(s) may be quite different in diverse microbes. in fact, studies ...199910477310
characterization of the bacterial community of a zinc-polluted soil.the bacterial community of a zinc-contaminated soil (maatheide soil in lommel, belgium) was studied using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. colony-forming units (cfu) were determined by plating on media with or without metals. dominant isolates were characterized by fatty acid methyl ester analysis (fame analysis) and pcr fingerprinting using repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences as primers. dna was directly extracted from soil samples and used as a template for th ...199910420584
increase in bacterial community diversity in subsurface aquifers receiving livestock wastewater input.despite intensive studies of microbial-community diversity, the questions of which kinds of microbial populations are associated with changes in community diversity have not yet been fully solved by molecular approaches. in this study, to investigate the impact of livestock wastewater on changes in the bacterial communities in groundwater, bacterial communities in subsurface aquifers were analyzed by characterizing their 16s rdna sequences. the similarity coefficients of restriction fragment len ...200010698758
phylogenetic heterogeneity within the genus herpetosiphon: transfer of the marine species herpetosiphon cohaerens, herpetosiphon nigricans and herpetosiphon persicus to the genus lewinella gen. nov. in the flexibacter-bacteroides-cytophaga phylum.analysis of the 16s rdna sequences of species currently assigned to the genus herpetosiphon revealed intrageneric phylogenetic heterogeneity. the thermotolerant freshwater species herpetosiphon geysericola is most closely related to the type species herpetosiphon aurantiacus in the chloroflexus subdivision of the green non-sulfur bacteria. the marine species herpetosiphon cohaerens, herpetosiphon nigricans and herpetosiphon persicus, on the other hand, were found to form a cluster with sheathed ...19989734027
unravelling the genetic diversity of ruminal bacteria belonging to the cfb phylum.molecular biology approaches were employed to examine the genetic diversity of bacteria from the cytophaga/flexibacter/bacteroides (cfb) phylum in the rumen of cattle. by this means we were able to identify cultured strains that represent some of the larger cfb clusters previously identified only by pcr amplification and sequencing. complete 16s rdna sequences were obtained for 16 previously isolated rumen strains, including the type strains of prevotella ruminicola, p. bryantii, p. brevis and p ...200010922505
unusual sulfonolipids are characteristic of the cytophaga-flexibacter group.capnocytophaga spp. contain a group of unusual sulfonolipids, called capnoids (w. godchaux iii and e. r. leadbetter, j. bacteriol. 144:592-602, 1980). one of these lipids, capnine, is 2-amino-3-hydroxy-15-methylhexadecane-1-sulfonic acid; the others are, apparently, n-acylated versions of capnine. the lipids were found, in amounts ranging from 2.5 to 16 mumol of capnoid sulfur per g of cells (wet weight), in two cytophaga spp. and also in several closely related organisms: several capnocytophaga ...19836298180
mixed infection in columnaris disease of addition to flexibacter columnaris, corynebacterium sp was recovered from lesions associated with columnaris disease in catfish. catfish exposed to pure cultures of the corynebacterium sp developed circumscribed lesions, which regressed without further adverse effects. disease signs were not demonstrable in catfish exposed to pure cultures of f columnaris; however, when catfish were exposed to mixed cultures of th corynebacterium sp and f columnaris, signs of columnaris appeared and the fish ...19807192703
the association of flavobacterium columnare strains of high and low virulence with gill tissue of black mollies (poecilia sphenops).the ability of a high virulence strain (ajs 1) and a low virulence strain (ajs 4) of flavobacterium columnare (flexibacter columnaris) to attach to the gills of black mollies (poecilia sphenops) was investigated. for that purpose, two groups of 25 black mollies each were immersed in a bath containing 10(6) cfu/ml of f. columnare ajs 1 or ajs 4. at regular intervals from 1 to 12 h after the contact infection, fish were sacrificed and gills, skin, spleen and heart were sampled for bacteriology. sa ...199910466504
molecular analysis of microbial communities in mobile deltaic muds of southeastern papua new guinea.a culture-independent examination of microbial diversity in mobile deltaic sediments from the gulf of papua, papua new guinea, was conducted by sequence analysis of 16s rdna clone library. universal small subunit primers were used to amplify dna extracted from the sediment. of 91 clones randomly selected from the library, 33 contained unique non-chimeric sequences. analysis of these unique sequences showed that the majority of them belonged to bacteria (94.5%), with proteobacteria being the domi ...200010967214
microbiological contamination of araucanian and north patagonian lakes. 10th region. chile.the microbiological distribution in two lakes from the xth region of chile is studied. in the lake ranco (araucanian), the viable counts were high and ranged from 20 to 1050 cfu/ml. the numbers of total coliforms were high, with densities between 9 and 842 cfu/100 ml. the predominant bacterial flora in the water were enterobacteriaceae (34.0%). in the sediment the bacterial densities were always higher. sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in the sediments. the lake yelcho (nordpatagonic), p ...199910979836
genetic diversity of the biofilm covering montacuta ferruginosa (mollusca, bivalvia) as evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and cloning of pcr-amplified gene fragments coding for 16s rrna.the shell of the bivalve montacuta ferruginosa, a symbiont living in the burrow of an echinoid, is covered with a rust-colored biofilm. this biofilm includes different morphotypes of bacteria that are encrusted with a mineral rich in ferric ion and phosphate. the aim of this research was to determine the genetic diversity and phylogenetic affiliation of the biofilm bacteria. also, the possible roles of the microorganisms in the processes of mineral deposition within the biofilm, as well as their ...19989726898
classification of heparinolytic bacteria into a new genus, pedobacter, comprising four species: pedobacter heparinus comb. nov., pedobacter piscium comb. nov., pedobacter africanus sp. nov. and pedobacter saltans sp. nov. proposal of the family sphingobacteriaceae fam. nov.sixteen heparinase-producing isolates, related to sphingobacterium heparinum, were grouped into three major clusters by sds-page and dna-rrna hybridizations. based on a polyphasic approach, it was shown that isolates of two of these clusters and s. heparinum species belong to a new genus for which the name pedobacter is proposed. the genus consists of pedobacter heparinus comb. nov. (formerly sphingobacterium heparinum), which is the type species, pedobacter piscium comb. nov. (formerly sphingob ...19989542086
gene descent, duplication, and horizontal transfer in the evolution of glutamyl- and glutaminyl-trna translation, separate aminoacyl-trna synthetases attach the 20 different amino acids to their cognate trnas, with the exception of glutamine. eukaryotes and some bacteria employ a specific glutaminyl-trna synthetase (glnrs) which other bacteria, the archaea (archaebacteria), and organelles apparently lack. instead, trna(gln) is initially acylated with glutamate by glutamyl-trna synthetase (glurs), then the glutamate moiety is transamidated to glutamine. lamour et al. [(1994) proc natl acad sc ...199910486006
use of length heterogeneity pcr and fatty acid methyl ester profiles to characterize microbial communities in length heterogeneity pcr (lh-pcr) a fluorescently labeled primer is used to determine the relative amounts of amplified sequences originating from different microorganisms. labeled fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis and detected by laser-induced fluorescence with an automated gene sequencer. we used lh-pcr to evaluate the composition of the soil microbial community. four soils, which differed in terms of soil type and/or crop management practice, were studied. previous data for mi ...200010742258
comparison of whole-cell antigens of pressure- and formalin-killed flexibacter columnaris from channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus).to identify and compare immunodominant antigens in whole-cell lysates of pressure- and formalin-killed flexibacter columnaris.19979285002
phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the subsurface microbial culture collection.the subsurface microbial culture collection (smcc) was established by the u.s. dept. of energy (doe) and contains nearly 10,000 strains of microorganisms (mostly bacteria) isolated from terrestrial subsurface environments. selected groups of bacterial isolates from three sample sites situated above geochemically and hydrologically different subsurface environments have been characterized by phylogenetic analysis of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene nucleotide sequences. among these isolates were mem ...19979299704
in situ identification of polyphosphate- and polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating traits for microbial populations in a biological phosphorus removal process.polyphosphate- and polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha)-accumulating traits of predominant microorganisms in an efficient enhanced biological phosphorus removal (ebpr) process were investigated systematically using a suite of non-culture-dependent methods. results of 16s rdna clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) with rrna-targeted, group-specific oligonucleotide probes indicated that the microbial community consisted mostly of the alpha- (9.5% of total cells), beta- (41.3%) and gamm ...200111321541
flavobacterium columnare (flexibacter columnaris) associated with severe gill necrosis in koi carp (cyprinus carpio l). 200212074240
phylogenetic diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the anoxic zone of the cariaco basin.microbial community samples were collected from the anoxic zone of the cariaco basin at depths of 320, 500, and 1,310 m on a november 1996 cruise and were used to construct 16s ribosomal dna libraries. of 60 nonchimeric sequences in the 320-m library, 56 belonged to the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria (epsilon-proteobacteria) and 53 were closely related to ectosymbionts of rimicaris exoculata and alvinella pompejana, which are referred to here as epsilon symbiont relatives (esr). the 5 ...200111282619
phylogenetic characterization and in situ detection of a cytophaga-flexibacter-bacteroides phylogroup bacterium in tuber borchii vittad. ectomycorrhizal mycelium.mycorrhizal ascomycetous fungi are obligate ectosymbionts that colonize the roots of gymnosperms and angiosperms. in this paper we describe a straightforward approach in which a combination of morphological and molecular methods was used to survey the presence of potentially endo- and epiphytic bacteria associated with the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus tuber borchii vittad. universal eubacterial primers specific for the 5' and 3' ends of the 16s rrna gene (16s rdna) were used for pcr ampli ...200011055961
phylogenetic analyses of caulerpa taxifolia (chlorophyta) and of its associated bacterial microflora provide clues to the origin of the mediterranean introduction.the accidental introduction of caulerpa taxifolia into the mediterranean is no longer under dispute. what has eluded researchers until now, is definitive evidence for the original, biogeographical source population. here we present two independent lines of evidence that support an australian origin for the mediterranean populations of c. taxifolia. first, we reanalysed algal rdna-internal transcribed spacer (rdna-its) sequences, combining previously published sequences from different studies wit ...200111348502
polyamine distribution profiles in the eighteen genera phylogenetically located within the flavobacterium-flexibacter-cytophaga complex.cellular polyamines of eighteen genera belonging to the flavobacterium-flexibacter-cytophaga complex were analysed by ion exchange liquid chromatography. homospermidine was the major polyamine in the genera bergeyella, riemerella, ornithobacterium, weeksella, capnocytophaga, polaribacter and psychroflexus belonging to the family flavobacteriaceae. in the family spirosomaceae, runella, spirosoma and flectobacillus species contained spermidine whereas cyclobacterium species contained homospermidin ...200111491527
flavobacterium frigidarium sp. nov., an aerobic, psychrophilic, xylanolytic and laminarinolytic bacterium from antarctica.a psychrophilic, aerobic bacterium designated a2it was isolated from marine sediment recovered from shallow waters surrounding adelaide island, antarctica (67 degrees 34' s, 68 degrees 07' w). the organism exhibited xylanolytic and laminarinolytic activity and was halotolerant. basic characterization showed that it was gram-negative, non-motile, yellow-pigmented (beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and positive for oxidase and catalase synthesis. analysis of the 16s rdna sequence suggests that the org ...200111491319
microbial populations associated with treatment of an industrial dye effluent in an anaerobic baffled reactor.fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) using 16s and 23s rrna-targeted probes together with construction of an archaeal 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) clone library was used to characterize the microbial populations of an anaerobic baffled reactor successfully treating industrial dye waste. wastewater produced during the manufacture of food dyes containing several different azo and other dye compounds was decolorized and degraded under sulfidogenic and methanogenic conditions. use of molecular metho ...200111425746
systematics and evolution of ruminal species of the genus prevotella.bacterial species of the genus prevotella represent a numerically dominant microbial population in the rumen of cattle. they belong to the phylogenetic division cytophaga-flexibacter-bacteroides (cfb) which is a large group of ecologically diverse bacteria with only a few shared traits. the phylogenetic descent from a common ancestor seems to be unquestionable, however, as judged from the small subunit ribosomal rna analysis. only 4 ruminal prevotella species have been described to date, even th ...200111501474
phylogeny and in situ identification of a morphologically conspicuous bacterium, candidatus magnospira bakii, present at very low frequency in activated sludge.a morphologically conspicuous bacterium that constituted a very small fraction (< 0.01%) of the total microbial community of activated sludge was enriched and analysed phylogenetically by a combination of cultivation-independent molecular and physical methods. the large, corkscrew-shaped, filamentous bacteria were first detected in municipal activated sludge by light microscopy owing to their unusual rotating gliding motility. various attempts at microbiological enrichment and pure culture isola ...199911207728
phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic study of marine cytophaga-like bacteria: proposal for tenacibaculum gen. nov. with tenacibaculum maritimum comb. nov. and tenacibaculum ovolyticum comb. nov., and description of tenacibaculum mesophilum sp. nov. and tenacibaculum amylolyticum sp. nov.bacterial strains were isolated from sponge and green algae which were collected on the coast of japan and palau. the phylogenetic relationships of these isolates among marine species of the cytophaga-flavobacterium-bacteroides complex were analysed by using their gyrb nucleotide sequences and translated peptide sequences (gyrb) in addition to 16s rdna sequences. these isolates were closely related to the previously characterized marine flexibacter species, [flexibacter] maritimus and [flexibact ...200111594591
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