medium for selective isolation of fusobacterium nucleatum from human periodontal pockets.a selective medium, cve agar, was developed for the isolation of fusobacterium nucleatum from subgingival plaque of periodontally diseased patients. the medium contained 1.0% trypticase (bbl microbiology systems), 0.5% yeast extract, 0.5% nacl, 0.2% glucose, 0.02% l-tryptophan, 1.5% agar, and 5% defibrinated whole sheep blood. erythromycin and crystal violet were added as the selective inhibitory agents at concentrations of 4 and 5 micrograms/ml, respectively. the medium permitted almost total r ...1979521483
isolation of selenomonas spp. from lesions and non-digestive organs of cows, pigs and man.selenomonas spp. were isolated for the first time from lesions and non-digestive organs which were apparently normal in 2 cows, 6 pigs, and 1 human being. identification as selenomonas was based firstly on electron microscopical observation and secondly on fermentation products. they were divided into 3 major groups by biological properties, as well as by the patterns of these products. it has been confirmed that the habitats of organisms of the genus selenomonas are generally digestive organs, ...1979537651
h2 production by selenomonas ruminantium in the absence and presence of methanogenic bacteria.selenomonas ruminantium is a nonsporeforming anaerobe that ferments carbohydrates primarily to lactate, propionate, acetate and co2. h2 production by this species has not been previously reported. we found, however, that some strains produce trace amounts of h2 which can be detected by sensitive gas chromatographic procedures. h2 production is increased markedly, in some cases almost 100-fold, when the selenomonads are co-cultured with methane-producing bacteria. growth of the methane-producing ...1975804850
complete nucleotide sequence of a selenomonas ruminantium plasmid and definition of a region necessary for its replication in escherichia coli.a plasmid from selenomonas ruminantium subspecies lactilytica has been subcloned in escherichia coli k-12 and completely sequenced. three open reading frames (orfs) of 909, 801, and 549 bp were identified and the complete sequence was analyzed by comparison with dna and protein databases. no significant deoxynucleotide or amino acid sequence homology with other published genes or proteins was detected. the plasmid was shown to replicate independently in e. coli k-12 by a dna polymerase i-depende ...19921409969
associations between microbial species in dental root canal infections.the existence of commensal or antagonistic relationships between microorganisms in the root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis was investigated. samples were taken from 65 infected human root canals and were analysed according to species, frequency of occurrence and proportion of the total isolated flora. the most frequent species were fusobacterium nucleatum, prevotella intermedia, peptostreptococcus micros, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, eubacterium alactolyticum, eubacterium lentum and ...19921494447
effect of direct-fed microbials on rumen microbial fermentation.nonbacterial, direct-fed microbials added to ruminant diets generally consist of aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract, or saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, or both. results from in vivo research have been variable regarding effects of direct-fed microbials on ruminant feedstuff utilization and performance. some research has shown increased weight gains, milk production, and total tract digestibility of feed components, but others have shown little influence of direct-fed microbials on these ...19921500571
production of branched-chain volatile fatty acids by certain anaerobic production of isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and 2-methylbutyric acid by cultures of bacteroides ruminicola and megasphaera elsdenii on media that contained trypticase or casein hydrolysate continued (up to 5 days) after growth had ceased. only trace quantities of these acids were produced in a medium that contained a mixture of amino acids that did not include the branched-chain amino acids. m. elsdenii produced increased quantities of the branched-chain fatty acids in a medium that cont ...1978566082
effects of heavy metals and other trace elements on the fermentative activity of the rumen microflora and growth of functionally important rumen bacteria.the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of essential and non-essential trace elements were tested on the rumen microflora using the rate of fermentation in vitro as the assay. the elements (and the concentration causing 50% inhibition) in decreasing order of toxicity were hg2+ (20 microgram/ml), cu2+ (21 microgram/ml), cr6+ (70 microgram/ml), se4+ (73 microgram/ml), ni2+ (160 microgram/ml), cd2+ (175 microgram/ml), as3+ (304 microgram/ml) and as5+ (1610 microgram/ml). the elements tested t ...1978565671
alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (apase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. the apase of the cells of the three strains of bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of selenomonas ruminantium and succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. ...1977563216
enzymes associated with metabolism of xylose and other pentoses by prevotella (bacteroides) ruminicola strains, selenomonas ruminantium d, and fibrobacter succinogenes s85.prevotella (bacteroides) ruminicola strains b(1)4 and s23 and selenomonas ruminantium strain d used xylose as the sole source of carbohydrate for growth, whereas fibrobacter succinogenes was unable to metabolize xylose. prevotella ruminicola strain b(1)4 exhibited transport activity for xylose. in contrast, f. succinogenes lacked typical xylose uptake activity but did exhibit low binding potential for the sugar. prevotella ruminicola strains b(1)4 and s23 as well as s. ruminantium d showed low x ...19921643581
bacteria beneath composite restorations--a culturing and histobacteriological study.the occurrence, viability and identification of the microbial flora under composite fillings using an anaerobic technique were studied. class v cavities were prepared on clinically healthy buccal surfaces of 7 contralateral pairs of premolars in children 11--15 years of age. after preparation, rubber dam was applied and one cavity in each pair of teeth was washed with water blasted dry with air and filled with adaptic. the other cavity was washed with a cavity cleaner (tubulicid) and a cavity li ...1979393051
microbiota of gingivitis in man.a study on the predominant cultivable microorganisms inhabiting gingival crevices affected with a chronic gingivitis was carried out using the roll tube culture technique. samples were obtained from nine individuals 25--42 years of age. gram-positive rods make up 29.1% of the isolates and included mainly actinomyces naeslundii, actinomyces israelii, and actinomyces viscosus. streptococcus mitis and streptococcus sanguis together made up 26.8% of the cultivable organisms. peptostreptococcus avera ...1978276916
effect of a saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on lactate utilization by the ruminal bacterium selenomonas ruminantium.the objective of this study was to examine the effects of a saccharomyces cerevisiae culture (yea-sacc) on lactate utilization by the predominant ruminal bacterium selenomonas ruminantium. lactate uptake was stimulated by yea-sacc concentrations between 2.5 and 10 g/liter, and the 5-g/liter level increased uptake 3.8-fold. when yea-sacc concentrations were increased above the 5-g/liter level lactate uptake was decreased, but 10 g/liter still stimulated uptake more than threefold. a filter-steril ...19911752834
susceptibility of various microorganisms to chlorhexidine.the susceptibility to chlorhexidine of bacteria in aerobic, facultatively anaerobic and anaerobic isolates from clinical specimens of wounds, urine, saliva, and dental plaque was studied. agar diffusion tests using 50 microng chlorhexidine discs and agar dilution tests were performed and the mic values correlated with inhibition zone diameters. anaerobic plaque strains were isolated and tested by the agar dilution method in an anaerobic glove box. regression lines obtained for five agar media de ...1977266752
relationship of lactate dehydrogenase specificity and growth rate to lactate metabolism by selenomonas ruminantium.a lactate-fermenting strain of selenomonas ruminantium (hd4) and a lactatenonfermenting strain (ga192) were examined with respect to the stereoisomers of lactate formed during glucose fermentation, the stereoisomers of lactate fermented by hd4, and the characteristics of the lactate dehydrogenases of the strains. ga192 formed l-lactate and hd4 formed l-lactate and small amounts of d-lactate from glucose. hd4 fermended l- but not d-lactate. both strains contain nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( ...1975174490
total viable count and differential count of vibrio (campylobacter) sputorum, fusobacterium nucleatum, selenomonas sputigena, bacteroides ochraceus and veillonella in the inflamed and non inflamed human gingival crevice. 1975129552
elective medium for the direct count of vibrio (campylobacter) fusobacteria, bacteroides, selenomonas and veillonella in the gingival crevice flora. 1975127034
influence of hydrogen-consuming bacteria on cellulose degradation by anaerobic fungi.the presence of methanogens methanobacterium arboriphilus, methanobacterium bryantii, or methanobrevibacter smithii increased the level of cellulose fermentation by 5 to 10% in cultures of several genera of anaerobic fungi. when neocallimastix sp. strain l2 was grown in coculture with methanogens the rate of cellulose fermentation also increased relative to that for pure cultures of the fungus. methanogens caused a shift in the fermentation products to more acetate and less lactate, succinate, a ...19902082826
control of lactate production by selenomonas ruminantium: homotropic activation of lactate dehydrogenase by pyruvate.selenomonas ruminantium produced one mole of d(-)-lactate per mole of glucose used at all dilution rates in ammonia-limited continuous culture. in contrast, lactate production varied according to the dilution rate when glucose was the limiting nutrient. at dilution rates of less than 0.2 h-1, acetate and propionate were the main fermentation products and lactate production was low. at dilution rates above 0.2 h-1, the pattern changed to one of high lactate production similar to that under ammoni ...1978103995
the role of bacteroides melaninogenicus and other anaerobes in periodontal infections.recent taxonomic and anatomical studies of dental plaque associated with periodontal health and disease have demonstrated that differences in the microbial populations in plaque may be responsible for the initiation and progression of disease. the consistent isolation of large numbers of anaerobic and capnophilic bacteria from the depths of periodontal lesions has suggested an important role for these organisms. bacteria that have been isolated include capnocytophaga (bacteroides ochraceus), oth ...197944923
identification of selenomonas species by whole-genomic dna probes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, biochemical tests and cellular fatty acid analysis.nonisotopic, whole-genomic dna probes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), biochemical tests in microtiter trays and cellular fatty acid (cfa) analysis were compared for the identification of 5 oral selenomonas species. dna probes were prepared by biotin-labeling dna extracted from the type strains of selenomonas noxia, selenomonas flueggei, selenomonas artemidis, selenomonas infelix and selenomonas sputigena. the probes were hybridized with dna from 21 referenc ...19921528628
susceptibility of anaerobic microorganisms to hypothiocyanite produced by lactoperoxidase.the susceptibility of capnocytophaga ochracea, eikenella corrodens, eubacterium yurii, fusobacterium nucleatum, peptostreptococcus micros, prevotella intermedia, selenomonas sputigena, wolinella recta to hypothiocyanite (oscn-) produced by the lactoperoxidase system was tested. results showed a decrease of bacterial survival rate after oscn- exposure, with an intra- and inter-species variability from 0 to 95% for c. ochracea, 34-100% for e. corrodens, 0-83% for e. yurii, 1-15% for f. nucleatum, ...19921481764
phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterization of acidaminococcus fermentans.the phylogenetic position of acidaminococcus fermentans was determined by comparative sequence analysis of the 16s rrna. this gram-negative bacterium is a member of the sporomusa cluster that is defined by other gram-negative bacteria, i.e. sporomusa, megasphaera, selenomonas, butyrivibrio, pectinatus, and zymophilus. the branching point of this group within the radiation of gram-positive bacteria of the clostridium/bacillus subphylum and adjacent to peptococcus niger could be confirmed. chemota ...19921385264
putative periodontopathogens in "diseased" and "non-diseased" persons exhibiting poor oral hygiene.the aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of some putative periodonto-pathogens in "test" and "control" sites in "diseased" and "non-diseased" persons, respectively, from an adult rural kenyan population exhibiting poor oral hygiene and widespread loss of attachment (la). 14 persons (less than 35 years) were assigned to a "diseased" category on the basis of at least 4 sites with la greater than or equal to 4 mm; at least 5 mm la and a pocket greater than or equal to 4 mm interproximally ...19921346265
comparative in-vitro activity of azithromycin, macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin and spiramycin) and streptogramin rp 59500 against oral organisms.the in-vitro activities of azithromycin, clarithromycin, spiramycin and rp 59500 were compared with erythromycin against a wide range of oral organisms which have been implicated in oral infections and/or endocarditis (clindamycin was included for oral streptococci). all compounds tested showed good activity against many of these organisms, although some variation was observed with different species. clarithromycin was the most active of the antibiotics tested against gram-positive anaerobes, in ...19921331019
dap-decarboxylase activity and lysine production by rumen bacteria.the last step of pathway of lysine biosynthesis by rumen bacteria was tested. the first measurements of dap-decarboxylase activity and of lysine production by megasphera elsdenii, selenomonas ruminantium, clostridium spp., butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and bacteroides succinogenes as well as the first attempts to increase the lysine production by ruminal streptococci by mutation are described. the highest values were measured in selenomonas ruminantium (dap-decarboxylase activity = 146 micrograms da ...19921295484
bacteremias caused by selenomonas artemidis and selenomonas infelix.we report two different cases of bacteremia caused by two recently described selenomonas species, selenomonas artemidis and selenomonas infelix. both species are normally found in human buccal flora. s. artemidis bacteremia appeared in a patient (number 1) who presented with an air-fluid pulmonary cavity and clinical conditions consistent with an anaerobic lung abscess. while the patient improved with antibiotic therapy, cultures of respiratory secretions yielded mycobacterium tuberculosis. this ...19902405009
lactic acid-utilizing bacteria in ruminal fluid of a steer adapted from hay feeding to a high-grain ration.a mature, rumen-cannulated steer fed coastal bermuda grass hay for 8 weeks was adapted to a high-grain ration by stepwise increases in grain over a period of 4 weeks. the grain rations had concentrate-to-roughage ratios of 40:60, 70:30, and 85:15 and were fed for 10, 7, and 11 days, respectively. numerical estimates of lactate-utilizing bacteria in ruminal fluid of the steer the last 3 days each ration was fed were made by colony counts. lactate-utilizing bacteria were identified as megasphaera ...19761275348
effect of ruminal lactic acid-utilizing bacteria on adaptation of cattle to high-energy rations.heifers, unadapted to a concentrate ration, were intraruminally inoculated (1 dose) with cultures of ruminal lactic acid-utilizing bacteria or with ruminal fluid from a steer adapted to a concentrate ration. inoculation with cultures (1 l) of selenomonas ruminantium or megasphaera elsdenii did not produce better average daily weight gains or feed efficiency of heifers fed a high-energy ration for 21 days, if these values were compared with the performance of noninoculated heifers. average daily ...1977883707
newly delineated periodontal pathogens with special reference to selenomonas species.many new species have been isolated from subgingival periodontal pockets, for example wolinella recta and bacteroides forsythus, reflecting better basic microbiological techniques. other species were created from existing species as a result of better characterization methods, i.e. bacteroides buccae and bacteroides oris. we can recognize different types of periodontal disease and can find differences relating to the progressive compared to inactive lesions. data illustrated in this presentation ...19892661440
glucose-1-phosphate as a selective substrate for enumeration of bacteroides species in the rumen.when glucose-1-phosphate was used as the only added energy source in a selective roll tube medium, colony counts for rumen contents ranged from 17.8 to 84.8% of the total culturable count. percentages were highest in rumen contents from sheep fed high-concentrate rations. from a total of 73 cultures isolated from glucose-1-phosphate roll rubes, only 15.1% were presumptively identified as bacteroides species. strains presumptively identified as butyrivibrio, selenomonas, treponema, streptococcus ...1977869544
compact liquid nitrogen storage system yielding high recoveries of gram-negative anaerobes.a simple and compact system suitable for the preservation of fragile gram negative anaerobes and other bacteria in liquid n2 has been developed. polypropylene straws used as specimen containers can be used easily within glove bags of anaerobic chambers, and their small size greatly increases the number of cultures which can be stored. ancillary equipment and methods developed are described. the overall system was tested, using streptococcus mutans, fusobacterium nucleatum, and selenomonas sputig ...1978623475
influence of ch4 production by methanobacterium ruminantium on the fermentation of glucose and lactate by selenomonas ruminantium.a method is described for increasing the production of h2 from glucose or lactate by selenomonas ruminantium by sequential transfers in media containing pregrown methanobacterium ruminantium. the methanogen uses the h2 formed by the selenomonad to reduce co2 to ch4. analysis of fermentation products from glucose showed that lactate was the major product formed from glucose by s. ruminantium alone. several sequential transfers in the presence of the methanogen caused a marked decrease in lactate ...1977596874
predominant obligate anaerobes in human periodontal pockets.this study was carried out to investigate the predominant anaerobic bacteria of periodontal pockets in patients with advanced periodontitis, who had no previous treatment other than supragingival scaling, no history of recent or chronic systemic illness, nor any intake of antibiotics within 6 weeks prior to bacteriological sampling. care was taken not to ignore tiny-colony-forming anaerobes, by means of a stereoscope and an anaerobic glove box system. out of 422 (100%) isolates, 380 (90%) were o ...19921531505
transformation of mercuric chloride and methylmercury by the rumen microflora.the microflora in strained rumen fluid did not methylate or volatilize 203hg2+ at detectable rates. however, there was an exponential decay in the concentration of added ch3hg+, which was attributed to demethylation. the major product of demethylation was metallic mercury (hg0), and it was released as a volatile product from the reaction mixture. demethylation occurred under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. the rate of demethylation was proportional to the concentration of added ch3hg+-hg ...1979539820
interaction of ruminal bacteria in the production and utilization of maltooligosaccharides from starch.the degradation and utilization of starch by three amylolytic and one nonamylolytic species of ruminal bacteria were studied. pure cultures of streptococcus bovis jb1, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49, and bacteroides ruminicola d31d rapidly hydrolyzed starch and maltooligosaccharides accumulated. the major starch hydrolytic products detected in s. bovis cultures were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose. in addition to these oligosaccharides, b. fibrisolvens cultures produced maltopenta ...19921539992
taxonomic study of anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria from breweries: emended description of pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and description of pectinatus frisingensis sp. nov., selenomonas lacticifex sp. nov., zymophilus raffinosivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., and zymophilus paucivorans sp. nov.a collection of 47 strains of obligately anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated mainly from spoiled beer and pitching yeast was studied to learn more about their taxonomic positions. a new species of the genus pectinatus, pectinatus frisingensis, a new species of the genus selenomonas, selenomonas lacticifex, and a new genus comprising two species, zymophilus raffinosivorans and zymophilus paucivorans, are described. all of the strains contained directly cross-linked me ...19901699594
isolation and characterization of a temperate bacteriophage from the ruminal anaerobe selenomonas ruminantium.a temperate bacteriophage was obtained from an isolate of the ruminal anaerobe selenomonas ruminantium. clear plaques that became turbid on further incubation occurred on a lawn of host bacteria. cells picked from a turbid plaque produced healthy liquid cultures, but these often lysed on storage. mid-log-phase liquid cultures incubated with the bacteriophage lysed and released infectious particles with a titer of up to 3 x 10(7) pfu/ml. a laboratory strain of s. ruminantium, hd-4, was also sensi ...19882843096
synthesis of alpha-ketoglutarate by reductive carboxylation of succinate in veillonella, selenomonas, and bacteriodes species.evidence for reductive carboxylation of succinate to synthesize alpha-ketoglutarate was sought in anaerobic heterotrophs from the rumen and from other anaerobic habitats. cultures were grown in media containing unlabeled energy substrates plus [14c]succinate, and synthesis of cellular glutamate with a much higher specific activity than that of cellular asparate was taken as evidence for alpha-ketoglutarate synthase activity. our results indicate alpha-ketoglutarate synthase functions in selenomo ...1979533772
susceptibility and resistance of ruminal bacteria to antimicrobial feed additives.susceptibility and resistance of ruminal bacterial species to avoparcin, narasin, salinomycin, thiopeptin, tylosin, virginiamycin, and two new ionophore antibiotics, ro22-6924/004 and ro21-6447/009, were determined. generally, antimicrobial compounds were inhibitory to gram-positive bacteria and those bacteria that have gram-positive-like cell wall structure. mics ranged from 0.09 to 24.0 micrograms/ml. gram-negative bacteria were resistant at the highest concentration tested (48.0 micrograms/ml ...19873116929
some effects of uncouplers and inhibitors on growth and electron transport in rumen bacteria.uncouplers and inhibitors of electron transport affected growth and electron transport of rumen bacteria in various ways. selenomonas ruminantium was not affected by inhibitor and uncoupler concentrations which affected growth and electron transport of bacteroides ruminicola, b. succinogenes, and butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. inhibitors, when active, led to accumulation of reduced electron carriers before the site of action, but differences were found among organisms in the site of action of these ...1979457609
utilization of nucleic acids by selenomonas ruminantium and other ruminal bacteria.species of ruminal bacteria were screened for the ability to grow in media containing rna or dna as the energy source. bacteroides ruminicola d31d and selenomonas ruminantium hd4, ga192, and d effectively used rna for growth, but not dna. b. ruminicola d31d was able grow on nucleosides but not on bases or ribose. the s. ruminantium strains were able to grow when provided with either nucleosides or ribose but not bases. strains of s. ruminantium, but not b. ruminicola d31d, were also able to use ...19901707252
[the occurrence and properties of selenomonas ruminantium bacteria in calves during the time of milk feedings].the occurrence, morphological properties, urease and alpha-amylase activities of selenomonas ruminantium were investigated in calves in the period of milk nutrition. the average number of the organisms was found to range between 10(7) and 10(8) per 1 millilitre of rumen contents. the alpha-amylase activity of the selenomonas strains ranged from 0.1 to 8.8 whereas their urease activity ranged from 6.3 to 261 of nutrient medium. the presence of morphologically typical selenomon ...19883129854
pathway and sites for energy conservation in the metabolism of glucose by selenomonas ruminantium.on the basis of enzyme activities detected in extracts of selenomonas ruminantium hd4 grown in glucose-limited continuous culture, at a slow (0.11 h-1) and a fast (0.52 h-1) dilution rate, a pathway of glucose catabolism to lactate, acetate, succinate, and propionate was constructed. glucose was catabolized to phosphoenol pyruvate (pep) via the emden-meyerhoff-parnas pathway. pep was converted to either pyruvate (via pyruvate kinase) or oxalacetate (via pep carboxykinase). pyruvate was reduced t ...19883141385
esterase activities in butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains.thirty strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolated in diverse geographical locations were examined for esterase activity by using naphthyl esters of acetate, butyrate, caprylate, laurate, and palmitate. all strains possessed some esterase activity, and high levels of activity were observed with strains 49, h17c, s2, actf2, and lm8/1b. esterase activity also was detected in other ruminal bacteria (bacteroides ruminicola, selenomonas ruminantium, ruminobacter amylophilus, and streptococcus bovis ...19883178205
similarities in the microfloras of root canals and deep periodontal pockets.although not universally accepted, retrospective histological, roentgenological and microbiological studies have indicated that cross-infection can occur between infected pulps and deep periodontal pockets. this review provides examples of similarities in the microfloras of these adjacent oral sites, supporting the idea that infection spreads from one site to the other. the organisms most often involved are probably bacteroides, fusobacteria, eubacteria, spirochetes, wolinellas, selenomonas, cam ...19902202588
localization of bacterial antigens in calves inoculated orally with ruminal bacteroides succinogenes and selenomonas ruminantium.localization of bacteria and bacterial materials was investigated in calves inoculated orally with live organisms of both bacteroides succinogenes and selenomonas ruminantium by a immunohistological method using rabbit antiserum against the outer membrane of those organisms and by a scanning electron microscope. the intact organisms of both inoculated bacterial species were detected on the rumen wall and in the lamina propria of the forestomach, and s. ruminantium also in the lymph nodes associa ...19902202844
detection of bovine antibodies to the outer membrane of ruminal bacteroides succinogenes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to detect bovine serum antibodies directed to the outer membrane antigen of a ruminal bacteria, bacteroides succinogenes. the outer membrane antigen of b. succinogenes was highly reactive against homologous antiserum, compared with rabbit sera raised against b. ruminicola subsp. ruminicola, b. ruminicola subsp. brevis and selenomonas ruminantium. the titers of sera from colostrum-deprived calves were negligible level, while those of sera fro ...19902313950
xylose uptake by the ruminal bacterium selenomonas ruminantium.selenomonas ruminantium hd4 does not use the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system to transport xylose (s. a. martin and j. b. russell, j. gen. microbiol. 134:819-827, 1988). xylose uptake by whole cells of s. ruminantium hd4 was inducible. uptake was unaffected by monensin or lasalocid, while oxygen, o-phenanthroline, and hgcl2 were potent inhibitors. menadione, antimycin a, and kcn had little effect on uptake, and acriflavine inhibited uptake by 23%. sodium fluoride decreased xylose up ...19902383009
selenomonas bacteraemia--case report and review of the literature.selenomonas species are crescent shaped gram-negative bacilli with a characteristic tuft of flagella located on the concave surface. they are normally found in human gingiva or the rumen of herbivores. the first case of selenomonas bacteraemia to be reported in a patient immunocompromised by malignant disease is described and the two previously reported cases of selenomonas bacteraemia as reviewed. the importance of careful anaerobic culturing to recover the organism and special diagnostic techn ...19873320212
uncommonly encountered, motile, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli associated with infection.motile, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli belonging to the genera butyrivibrio, succinimonas, succinivibrio, anaerovibrio, wolinella, campylobacter, desulfovibrio, selenomonas, and anaerobiospirillum are being recognized in clinical specimens with increasing frequency. over a 12.5-year period at the va wadsworth medical center, 13 clinical specimens yielded one of these organisms. six isolates were recovered from infected wounds, five from respiratory tract specimens obtained from patients with an ...19873321364
mechanism of action of d-galacturonan digalacturonohydrolase of selenomonas ruminantium on oligogalactosiduronic acids.the mechanism of action of the specific d-galacturonan digalacturonohydrolase [poly-(1----4)-alpha-d-galactosiduronate digalacturonohydrolase, ec] of selenomonas ruminantium was investigated by using reducing-end [1-3h]-labeled oligogalactosiduronates having degree of polymerization 3-5 as the substrates. the reaction products, incorporation and distribution of radioactivity in products, and the frequency of oligogalactosiduronate bond-cleavage were quantitatively estimated as functions ...19921473108
effects of potassium ion concentrations on the antimicrobial activities of ionophores against ruminal anaerobes.the antimicrobial activities of monensin and lasalocid against representative strains of ruminal bacteria were evaluated in medium containing three different concentrations of potassium (1.3, 7.9, or 23.3 mm). the growth of eubacterium ruminantium was inhibited by low concentrations of ionophores (less than or equal to 0.16 mg/liter), while the strain of streptococcus bovis tested was resistant to high concentrations of ionophores (40 mg/liter) at all potassium concentrations tested. the mics of ...19873426214
biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from oral selenomonas.lipopolysaccharides (lpss) were extracted by phenol-water from three oral strains of selenomonas. the preparations were tested for the ability to induce a blastogenic response in cultures of spleen cells from normal and nude balb/c mice, to activate guinea pig complement and the clotting enzyme system of limulus polyphemus amoebocytes, and to kill actinomycin-d treated mice. the capacity of the three lpss was comparable to that of enterobacterial lps.19863468599
the survival of subgingival plaque bacteria in an amine fluoride-containing gel.subgingival plaque samples from 20 patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease were exposed to a commercial gel formulation containing 2 amine fluorides. the mic of the gel for these samples ranged from 33 to 260 micrograms/ml with a modal value of 260 micrograms/ml. in each sample, the most resistant organisms (i.e., those organisms surviving at one doubling dilution below the mic) were identified. 33 such organisms were isolated, of which 22 (67%) were strict anaerobes, and 25 (75%) ...19902387913
monoclonal antibodies against the ruminal bacterium selenomonas ruminantium.monoclonal antibodies were raised against whole cells of two different strains of selenomonas ruminantium and tested for specificity and sensitivity in immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures. species-specific and strain-specific antibodies were identified, and reactive antigens were demonstrated in solubilized cell wall extracts of s. ruminantium. a monoclonal antibody-based solid-phase immunoassay was established to quantify s. ruminantium in cultures or samples fro ...19902389936
distribution of immunoglobulin-containing cells in calves inoculated orally with ruminal bacteroides succinogenes and selenomonas ruminantium.distribution of immunoglobulin(ig)-containing cells was investigated in calves inoculated orally with live organisms of both bacteroides succinogenes and selenomonas ruminantium. pathological changes and many ig-containing cells were observed in calves which inoculated three times at 2, 3 and 26 days of age. follicular germinal center was increased in number and size of the lymph nodes associated with the forestomach, suggesting activation of lymph apparatus. in the associated lymph nodes, igg-c ...19902391773
current taxonomy of medically important nonsporing anaerobes.this review deals mainly with the taxonomy of the genera and species in the family bacteroidaceae. it has been proposed that the genus bacteroides should be restricted to include the "bacteroides fragilis group" and that the asaccharolytic black-pigmented bacteroides species be transferred to a new genus, porphyromonas. new bacteroides, fusobacterium, and selenomonas species have been described. a high degree of heterogeneity is apparently present among peptostreptococcus species. mobiluncus is ...19902406865
the characterization and ultrastructure of two new strains of butyrivibrio.strains b-385-1 and 2-33 are numerically important components rumen bacterial populations , but they have remained (taxonomically) undefined. in spite of some resemblance to selenomonas ruminantium in their cell size and in their formation of tufts of flagella, they more closely resemble butyrivibrio fibrisolvens in the subpolar location of their flagella, in their guanine + cytosine content, and in most biochemical characteristics, including butyrate formation. cells of these strains stain gram ...19892743214
effects of methanol on the growth of gastrointestinal anaerobes.the effects of methanol on the growth of representative, predominant, anaerobic gut bacteria were studied. growth yields and rates were determined in a base medium to which methanol was added to produce media with methanol concentrations varying, in twofold steps, over a concentration range of 0.01 to 25%, by volume. the growth of many of the organisms was completely inhibited by a methanol concentration equal to, or less than, 6.2%. isolates representing cellulolytic species were completely inh ...19892743215
coaggregation of fusobacterium nucleatum, selenomonas flueggei, selenomonas infelix, selenomonas noxia, and selenomonas sputigena with strains from 11 genera of oral bacteria.twenty-eight strains of fusobacterium nucleatum and 41 selenomonas strains, including s. sputigena (24 strains), s. flueggei (10 strains), s. infelix (5 strains), and s. noxia (2 strains), were tested for their ability to coaggregate with each other and with 49 other strains of oral bacteria representing actinobacillus, actinomyces, bacteroides, capnocytophaga, gemella, peptostreptococcus, porphyromonas, propionibacterium, rothia, streptococcus, and veillonella species. selenomonads coaggregated ...19892777378
use of antibiotic resistance mutations to track strains of obligately anaerobic bacteria introduced into the rumen of sheep.selective plating procedures were used to follow the fate of rifampicin-resistant mutant strains of the obligately anaerobic species bacteroides multiacidus and selenomonas ruminantium after their introduction at numbers around 10(7)/ml into the rumen of sheep. bacteroides multiacidus strain f100 showed an initially rapid rate of loss (49%/h) but subsequently numbers declined more gradually approaching the limits of detection (less than 10(3)/ml) after 100 h. viable cell numbers also decreased i ...19892808185
intracellular ph of acid-tolerant ruminal bacteria.acid-tolerant ruminal bacteria (bacteroides ruminicola b1(4), selenomonas ruminantium hd4, streptococcus bovis jb1, megasphaera elsdenii b159, and strain f) allowed their intracellular ph to decline as a function of extracellular ph and did not generate a large ph gradient across the cell membrane until the extracellular ph was low (less than 5.2). this decline in intracellular ph prevented an accumulation of volatile fatty acid anions inside the cells.19911781695
fatal septicaemia with selenomonas sputigena and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. a case report.a 38-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse developed rapidly fulminating septicaemia and died. selenomonas sputigena and acinetobacter calcoaceticus were isolated from a blood culture. selenomonas sputigena is a motile anaerobic gram-negative rod rarely associated with systemic disease. difficulties in isolation and taxonomic identification are discussed.19911993118
api zym and api an-ident reactions of fastidious oral gram-negative species.api zym and api an-ident enzymatic substrate tests were done on six oral species which are difficult to characterize with conventional biochemical tests. "bacteroides forsythus, the "fusiform" bacteroides species (a. c. r. tanner, m. a. listgarten, m. n. strzempko, and j. l. ebersole, manuscript in preparation), is difficult to cultivate in broth media, yet it gave 15 positive tests in these series. the tests were able to separate this new species from species of capnocytophaga and fusobacterium ...19853930558
succinate transport by a ruminal selenomonad and its regulation by carbohydrate availability and osmotic strength.washed cells of strain h18, a newly isolated ruminal selenomonad, decarboxylated succinate 25-fold faster than selenomonas ruminantium hd4 (130 versus 5 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively). batch cultures of strain h18 which were fermenting glucose did not utilize succinate, and glucose-limited continuous cultures were only able to decarboxylate significant amounts of succinate at slow (less than 0.1 h-1) dilution rates. strain h18 grew more slowly on lactate than glucose (0.2 versus 0.4 h ...19912036012
the formation of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan by oral bacteria.the capacity to form volatile sulfur compounds was tested in bacteria isolated from subgingival microbiotas and in a representative number of reference strains. a majority of the 75 tested oral bacterial species and 7 unnamed bacterial taxa formed significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide from l-cysteine. the most active bacteria were found in the genera peptostreptococcus, eubacterium, selenomonas, centipeda, bacteroides and fusobacterium. methyl mercaptan from l-methionine was formed by some mem ...19902082242
generation of a membrane potential by sodium-dependent succinate efflux in selenomonas ruminantium.when selenomonas ruminantium hd4 was grown in a chemostat, maximal succinate production and the highest molar growth yield values were both observed at a dilution rate of roughly 0.2 h-1. to determine the possible relationship between succinate efflux and high molar growth yields, the generation of a membrane potential by succinate efflux was studied in whole cells and vesicles (inside-out and right-side-out) prepared from s. ruminantium. washed whole cells took up succinate in the absence of an ...19902307654
the rumen microbiology of seaweed digestion in orkney sheep.the microbial populations of the rumens of seaweed-fed and pasture-fed orkney sheep were examined. the populations in the pasture-fed sheep were similar to those of other domestic ruminants fed on land plants, but those of the seaweed-fed animals showed major differences in the dominant species. total ciliate populations were quantitatively similar, but in the seaweed-fed animals dasytricha ruminantium was one of the most dominant species. no phycomycete fungi or cellulolytic bacteria were found ...19854030526
differentiation of ruminal bacterial species by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using egg yolk antibodies from immunized chicken hens.cross-reactivity among four species of ruminal bacteria was examined by using egg yolk antibodies from immunized leghorn laying hens and an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. the effects of the four species on the hens were compared on various days postimmunization. hens injected with the same bacterial species had similar apparent antibody levels over the entire postimmunization period, but only bacteroides ruminicola b1(4) and selenomonas ruminantium d antigens elicited early increases in appa ...19883355145
biological and chemical characterization of lipopolysaccharide from selenomonas spp. in human periodontal pockets.pure lipopolysaccharide extracted from selenomonas spp. isolated from human periodontal pockets was composed of 23.7% carbohydrate, 16.5% hexosamine, 1.2% 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, 0.7% heptose, 26.0% lipid, 1.8% protein, and 1.3% phosphorus. it was shown to be quite lethal, to have very active pyrogenicity, to give a typical biphasic-fever response, and to produce a positive local shwartzman reaction.19863512446
isolation and characteristics of a ureolytic strain of selenomonas ruminatium. 19744213200
isolation of ureolytic peptostreptococcus productus from feces using defined medium; failure of common urease tests.colony counts of fecal samples from three persons, obtained by using a chemically defined anaerobic roll-tube medium (containing glucose, maltose, glycerol, minerals, hemin, b-vitamins, methionine, volatile fatty acids, sulfide, bicarbonate, agar, carbon dioxide (gas phase), and 1 mm nh(4) (+) as main nitrogen source), averaged 60% of the 8.8 x 10(10) bacteria per g obtained when 0.2% trypticase and 0.05% yeast extract were added to the otherwise identical medium. when 0.2% vitamin-free casitone ...19744213672
t-2 toxin metabolism by ruminal bacteria and its effect on their growth.the effect of t-2 toxin on the growth rates of different bacteria was used as a measure of its toxicity. toxin levels of 10 micrograms/ml did not decrease the growth rate of selenomonas ruminantium and anaerovibrio lipolytica, whereas the growth rate of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was uninhibited at toxin levels as high as 1 mg/ml. there was, however, a noticeable increase in the growth rate of b. fibrisolvens ce46 and ce51 and s. ruminantium in the presence of low concentrations (10 micrograms/ml ...19873579272
the presence and function of cytochromes in selenomonas ruminantium, anaerovibrio lipolytica and veillonella alcalescens. 19744362619
purification of a nickel-containing urease from the rumen anaerobe selenomonas ruminantium.urease was purified 592-fold to homogeneity from the anaerobic rumen bacterium selenomonas ruminantium. the urease isolation procedure included a heat step and ion-exchange, hydrophobic, gel filtration, and fast protein liquid chromatography. the purified enzyme exhibited a km for urea of 2.2 +/- 0.5 mm and a vmax of 1100 mumol of urea min-1 mg-1. the molecular mass estimated for the native enzyme was 360,000 +/- 50,000 daltons, whereas a subunit value of 70,000 +/- 2,000 daltons was determined. ...19863711113
characterization of a plasmid from the ruminal bacterium selenomonas ruminantium.a 4.8-kilobase-pair plasmid was isolated from the ruminal bacterium selenomonas ruminantium hd4 by using a sodium carbonate-edta washing buffer to improve cell lysis (r.g. dean, s.a. martin, and c. carver, lett. appl. microbiol. 8:45-48, 1989). this plasmid, designated psr1, appears to be quite stable. no evidence of plasmid dna was detected in s. ruminantium d or ga192. all three strains were tested for antibiotic resistance, and all were kanamycin resistant (mic, 25 to 50 micrograms/ml). only ...19892619301
the pectinolytic enzyme of selenomonas ruminantium.a cell-bound pectinolytic enzyme was isolated from cells of selenomonas ruminantium and purified about 360-fold. the optimum ph and temperature for enzyme activity was 7.0 and 40 degrees c. the enzyme degraded polymeric substrates by hydrolysis of digalacturonic acid units from the non-reducing end; the best substrate was nonagalacturonic acid. unsaturated trigalacturonate was also degraded, but 30% slower than the saturated analogue. the enzyme was classified as a poly (1,4-alpha-d-galactosidur ...19892708171
[selenomonas in the vagina]. 19684891229
effect of dietary copper sulfate, aureo sp250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.the predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, aureo sp250, or clinoptilolite. fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. copper sulfate and aureo sp250 reduced the number of ure ...19872823707
cadaverine covalently linked to a peptidoglycan is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan necessary for the normal growth in selenomonas ruminantium.cadaverine links covalently to the d-glutamic acid residue of the peptidoglycan in selenomonas ruminantium, a strictly anaerobic gram-negative bacterium (kamio, y., itoh, y., and terawaki, y. (1981) j. bacteriol. 146, 49-53). this report clarifies a physiological function of cadaverine in this organism by using dl-alpha-difluoromethyllysine, which had previously been shown to be a selective irreversible inhibitor of lysine decarboxylase of mycoplasma dispar (pösö, h., macann, p.p., tanskanen, r. ...19863084485
factors affecting the rate of breakdown of bacterial protein in rumen fluid.1. the cellular proteins of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, lactobacillus casei, megasphaera elsdenii, selenomonas ruminantium and streptococcus bovis were labelled by growth in the presence of l-[14c]leucine, and the breakdown of labelled protein was measured in incubations of these bacteria with rumen fluid to which unlabelled 5 mm-l-leucine was added. the rate of protein breakdown was estimated from the rate of release of radioactivity into acid-soluble material. 2. protein breakdown occurred at d ...19873118940
fermentation of xylans by butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and other ruminal bacteria.the ability of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and other ruminal bacteria (6 species, 18 strains) to ferment a crude xylan from wheat straw or to ferment xylans from larchwood or oat spelts was studied. liquid cultures were monitored for carbohydrate utilization, cell growth (protein), and fermentation acid production. b. fibrisolvens 49, h17c, actf2, and d1 grew almost as well on one or more of the xylans as they did on cellobiose-maltose. b. fibrisolvens 12, r28, a38, x10c34, ard22a, and x6c61 exhib ...19873124741
regulation of carbon flow in selenomonas ruminantium grown in glucose-limited continuous culture.we have applied a model that permits the estimation of the sensitivity of flux through branch point enzymes (d. c. laporte, k. walsh, and d. e. koshland, j. biol. chem. 259:14068-14075, 1984) in order to analyze the control of flux through the lactate-acetate branch point of selenomonas ruminantium grown in glucose-limited continuous culture. at this branch point, pyruvate is the substrate of both the nad-dependent l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (pfo ...19883182729
role of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria in the acidogenesis of glucose: changes induced by discontinuous or low-rate feed supply.a mineral salts medium containing 1% (w/v) glucose providing carbon-limited growth conditions was subjected to anaerobic acidogenesis by mixed populations of bacteria in chemostat cultures. the formation of butyrate was shown to be dependent on the presence of saccharolytic anaerobic sporeformers in the acid-forming population. by the use of pasteurized activated sludge as an inoculum a culture was obtained consisting solely of anaerobic sporeformers that gave rise to the formation of butyrate, ...19853929685
effects of the ionophores monensin and tetronasin on simulated development of ruminal lactic acidosis in vitro.a continuous coculture of four ruminal bacteria, megasphaera elsdenii, selenomonas ruminantium, streptococcus bovis, and lactobacillus sp. strain lb17, was used to study the effects of the ionophores monensin and tetronasin on the changes in ruminal microbial ecology that occur during the onset of lactic acidosis. in control incubations, the system simulated the development of lactic acidosis in vivo, with an initial overgrowth of s. bovis when an excess of glucose was added to the fermentor. la ...19883223764
rumen microbial changes in calves fed on alpha amylase diet.fifty-six calves in the period of a milk nutrition, randomly assigned to two groups (control and alpha amylase fed) were used to monitor the changes in the rumen microbial populations and total volatile fatty acids (vfa) concentrations associated with feeding amylosubtilin g10x (0.6 statistically significant increase was observed for amylolytic counts in experimental calves on 20th or 30th days. the counts of rumen cellulolytic bacteria and selenomonas tended to have increase in the va ...19883259418
quin's oval and other microbiota in the rumens of molasses-fed sheep.two rumen-cannulated wether sheep were fed a diet containing 1 kg of a liquid-molasses mixture, 80 g of soybean oil meal, and 100 g of chopped wheat straw once a day. in 6 weeks and thereafter, the microbiota adapted such that quin's oval, a very large bacterium, was present in huge numbers (11.3 x 10(10) and 1.3 x 10(10) ml-1 after 73 days). direct microscopic counts were also done on small bacteria, moderate-sized selenomonas spp., and small entodinium spp., which were the only protozoa seen. ...19873300549
[selenomonas in the caecum of rats]. 19724144943
isolation, culture, and fermentation characteristics of selenomonas ruminantium var. bryantivar. n. from the rumen of sheep.large forms of selenomonas sp. were isolated from the sheep rumen on a rumen fluid-glucose-agar medium by using a differential centrifugation technique to purify the inoculum. the cells from the six isolated strains were curved, gram-negative, strictly anaerobic crescents, and rapidly motile by flagella attached to the concave side of the cell. one or more of the volatile fatty acids were essential for growth. none of the strains produced indole or reduced nitrate. all strains grew on fructose, ...19714323298
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. a review of diagnosis, etiology and treatment.vincent's original description of the fusiform-spirochete nature of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (anug) still remains true today, although much additional insight has been gained regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of the disease. in addition to the historic association of fusiform and spirochete microbes with anug, recent findings have also implicated bacteroides and selenomonas species. possible abnormalities in immunological function, such as altered pmn and lymphocy ...19863514841
enzymatic studies of pure cultures of rumen microorganisms.joyner, a. e., jr. (university of california, davis), and r. l. baldwin. enzymatic studies of pure cultures of rumen microorganisms. j. bacteriol. 92:1321-1330. 1966.-the activities of enzymes representing the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism and anaerobic electron transport in cell-free extracts of whole rumen contents have been reported. the effects of diet upon the activities of several enzymes suggested that enzymatic measurements might prove useful for the study of rumen metabolism ...19664380801
structural specificity of diamines covalently linked to peptidoglycan for cell growth of veillonella alcalescens and selenomonas ruminantium.putrescine and cadaverine are essential constituents of the peptidoglycan of veillonella alcalescens, veillonella parvula, and selenomonas ruminantium and are necessary for the growth of these organisms (y. kamio and k. nakamura, j. bacteriol. 169:2881-2884, 1987, and y. kamio, h. pösö, y. terawaki, and l. paulin, j. biol. chem. 261:6585-6589, 1986). in this study, the structural specificity of the diamine requirement for normal cell growth of these bacteria was examined by using a series of dia ...19873654585
ultrastructural studies on selenomonas ruminantium from the sheep rumen. 19734773919
anaerobes as normal oral flora.the human mouth provides a suitable habitat for numerous bacterial genera. anaerobic genera or genera that include anaerobic members found in the oral cavity are actinomyces, arachnia, bacteroides, bifidobacterium, eubacterium, fusobacterium, lactobacillus, leptotrichia, peptococcus, peptostreptococcus, propionibacterium, selenomonas, treponema, and veillonella. the incidence of anaerobes varies with age of the individual and with specific sites sampled. in edentulous infants, the incidence of a ...19846372039
propionate formation from cellulose and soluble sugars by combined cultures of bacteroides succinogenes and selenomonas ruminantium.succinate is formed as an intermediate but not as a normal end product of the bovine rumen fermentation. however, numerous rumen bacteria are present, e.g., bacteroides succinogenes, which produce succinate as a major product of carbohydrate fermentation. selenomonas ruminantium, another rumen species, produces propionate via the succinate or randomizing pathway. these two organisms were co-cultured to determine if s. ruminantium could decarboxylate succinate produced by b. succinogenes. when en ...19734796955
morphological studies on selenomonas sputigena with reference to its flagellation. 19685247278
stoichiometry of glucose and starch splitting by strains of amylolytic bacteria from the rumen and anaerobic digester.the stoichiometry of glucose and starch splitting by the amylolytic bacteria streptococcus bovis, selenomonas ruminantium, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, eubacterium ruminantium and clostridium sp. was followed. there were many differences in the ratios of metabolites and in growth yields, as well as in the cell composition, between the growth on glucose and starch. the bacteria employ different nutritional strategies with respect to both energy sources.19863759723
heat production by ruminal bacteria in continuous culture and its relationship to maintenance energy.selenomonas ruminantium hd4 and bacteroides ruminicola b(1)4 were grown in continuous culture with glucose as the energy source, and heat production was measured continuously with a microcalorimeter. because the bacteria were grown under steady-state conditions, it was possible to calculate complete energy balances for substrate utilization and product formation (cells, fermentation acids, and heat). as the dilution rate increased from 0.04 to 0.60 per h, the heat of fermentation declined from 1 ...19863782021
selenite uptake and incorporation by selenomonas ruminantium.selenite uptake and incorporation in selenomonas ruminantium was constitutive with an inducible component. it was distinct from sulphate or selenate transport, since sulphate and selenate did not inhibit uptake, nor could sulphate or selenate uptake be demonstrated. selenite uptake had an apparent km of 1.28 mm and a vmax of 148 ng se min-1 mg-1 protein. uptake was sensitive to inhibition by 2,4-dinitrophenol (dnp), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (cccp), azide, iodoacetic acid (iaa) a ...19846442129
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