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adhesion of biodegradative anaerobic bacteria to solid surfaces.in order to exploit the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade certain contaminants for bioremediation of polluted subsurface environments, we need to understand the mechanisms by which such bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases, as well as the environmental conditions that influence partitioning. we studied four strictly anaerobic bacteria, desulfomonile tiedjei, syntrophomonas wolfei, syntrophobacter wolinii, and desulfovibrio sp. strain g11, which theoretically together can co ...199910543826
quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-beta-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization.small-subunit rrna sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, syntrophomonas sapovorans and syntrophomonas wolfei lyb, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family syntrophomonadaceae. s. wolfei lyb was closely related to s. wolfei subsp. wolfei, but s. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus syntrophomonas. five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rrna of different groups within ...199910543784
[isolation and reassociation of acetogen and methanogen in a syntrophobic coculture degrading butyrate anaerobically].anaerobic coculture bf2 which degraded butyrate into acetate and produced methane was isolated from granular methanogenic sludge. the coculture is associated syntrophically the syntrophomonas subsp. saponavida strain cf2 with methanobacterium formicicum strain mf2 and appeared to degraded c4 approximately c18 fatty acids including isobutyrate. the optimal temperature and ph for growth was 37 degrees c and 7.7 respectively. the strain cf2 was obtained in pure culture with crotonate as substrate a ...19958745550
soil bacterial community shift correlated with change from forest to pasture vegetation in a tropical soil.the change in vegetative cover of a hawaiian soil from forest to pasture led to significant changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community. dnas were extracted from both soil habitats and compared for the abundance of guanine-plus-cytosine (g+c) content, by analysis of abundance of phylotypes of small-subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna) amplified from fractions with 63 and 35% g+c contents, and by phylogenetic analysis of the dominant rdna clones in the 63% g+c content fraction. all thr ...199910427058
localization of the enzymes involved in h2 and formate metabolism in syntrophospora bryantii.cell-free extracts of crotonate-grown cells of the syntrophic butyrate-oxidizing bacterium syntrophospora bryantii contained high hydrogenase activities (8.5-75.8 mumol.min-1mg-1 protein) and relatively low formate dehydrogenase activities (0.04-0.07 mumol.min-1 mg-1 protein). the km value and threshold value of the hydrogenase for h2 were 0.21 mm and 18 microm, respectively, whereas the km value and threshold value of the formate dehydrogenase for formate were 0.22 mm and 10 microm, respectivel ...19957574550
syntrophic association of a butyrate-degrading bacterium and methanosarcina enriched from bovine rumen fluid.an anaerobic butyrate-degrading bacterium, morphologically similar to syntrophomonas wolfei, was isolated in coculture with desulfovibrio strain g11 from an enrichment of bovine rumen fluid. a methanosarcina species was the major h2-using organism in the enrichment. the results are discussed in relationship to the absence of methanospirillum hungatei, the h2-using methanogen usually found in association with s. wolfei, and the finding of methanosarcina rather than methanobrevibacter ruminantium ...19817224635
preparation of cell-free extracts and the enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism in syntrophomonas wolfei.syntrophomonas wolfei is an anaerobic fatty acid degrader that can only be grown in coculture with h2-using bacteria such as methanospirillum hungatei. cells of s. wolfei were selectively lysed by lysozyme treatment, and unlysed cells of m. hungatei were removed by centrifugation. the cell extract of s. wolfei obtained with this method had low levels of contamination by methanogenic cofactors. however, lysozyme treatment was not efficient in releasing s. wolfei protein; only about 15% of the l-3 ...19863459726
assignment of clostridium bryantii to syntrophospora bryantii gen. nov., comb. nov. on the basis of a 16s rrna sequence analysis of its crotonate-grown pure culture.the clostridium bryantii-methanospirillum hungatei syntrophic coculture, grown on caproate, was adapted to grow on crotonate. then, c. bryantii was isolated in pure culture from crotonate bottle plates. a 16s rrna sequence analysis of the pure subculture revealed that, as a member of the gram-positive phylum, it was not closely related to any of the clostridium species with which it was compared or to any of the other clusters in the gram-positive phylum with which it was compared. however, it w ...19901699595
effects of organic acid anions on the growth and metabolism of syntrophomonas wolfei in pure culture and in defined consortia.the effects of organic acid anions on the growth of syntrophomonas wolfei was determined by varying the initial concentration of the acid anion in the medium. the addition of 15 mm acetate decreased the growth rate of a butyrate-catabolizing coculture containing methanospirillum hungatei from 0.0085 to 0.0029 per hour. higher initial acetate concentrations decreased the butyrate degradation rate and the yield of cells of s. wolfei per butyrate degraded. inhibition was not due to the counter ion ...198916347899
nutritional features of syntrophomonas wolfei.syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grew poorly in a defined medium with crotonate as the energy source in the absence of rumen fluid. thiamine, lipoic acid, biotin, cyanocobalamin, and para-aminobenzoic acid were required for growth comparable to that obtained with the rumen fluid-based medium. iron and cobalt were also required for the growth of s. wolfei in the chemically defined medium.199016348328
syntrophomonas erecta sp. nov., a novel anaerobe that syntrophically degrades short-chain fatty acids.two novel anaerobes, strains gb4-38(t) and sb9-1, were isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treating bean-curd farm wastewater and lotus field mud, respectively. the strains degraded straight-chain fatty acids with 4-8 carbon atoms in syntrophic association with methanogens and converted 1 mol butyrate into about 2 mol acetate and presumably 2 mol h(2). none of the branched-chain fatty acids tested could be degraded. benzoate was not degraded. fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfa ...200515774665
diffusion of the interspecies electron carriers h(2) and formate in methanogenic ecosystems and its implications in the measurement of k(m) for h(2) or formate uptake.we calculated the potential h(2) and formate diffusion between microbes and found that at h(2) concentrations commonly found in nature, h(2) could not diffuse rapidly enough to dispersed methanogenic cells to account for the rate of methane synthesis but formate could. our calculations were based on individual organisms dispersed in the medium, as supported by microscopic observations of butyrate-degrading cocultures. we isolated an axenic culture of syntrophomonas wolfei and cultivated it on bu ...198916347966
evaluation of support matrices for immobilization of anaerobic consortia for efficient carbon cycling in waste regeneration.efficient metabolism of fatty acids during anaerobic waste digestion requires development of consortia that include "fatty acid consuming h(2) producing bacteria" and methanogenic bacteria. the objective of this research was to optimize methanogenesis from fatty acids by evaluating a variety of support matrices for use in maintaining efficient syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. tested matrices included clays (montmorillonite and bentonite), glass beads (106 and 425-600mum), microcarriers (cytopo ...200515649428
syntrophomonas curvata sp. nov., an anaerobe that degrades fatty acids in co-culture with methanogens.a strict anaerobe (strain gb8-1(t)) that degraded straight-chain fatty acids with c(4)-c(18) in syntrophic association with methanogens was isolated from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating beer wastewater. strain gb8-1(t) degraded 1 mol butyrate into about 2 mol acetate and 1 mol (presumably) h(2) in co-culture with a methanogen. neither branched-chain fatty acids nor benzoate could be degraded. strain gb8-1(t) could grow on crotonate in pure culture and converted 1 mol crotona ...200415143051
syntrophomonas wolfei gen. nov. sp. nov., an anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid-oxidizing bacterium.an anaerobic, nonphototrophic bacterium that beta-oxidizes saturated fatty acids (butyrate through octanoate) to acetate or acetate and propionate using protons as the electron acceptor (h(2) as electron sink product) was isolated in coculture with either a non-fatty acid-degrading, h(2)-utilizing desulfovibrio sp. or methanogens. three strains of the bacterium were characterized and are described as a new genus and species, syntrophomonas wolfei. s. wolfei is a gram-negative, slightly helical r ...198116345745
pelospora glutarica gen. nov., sp. nov., a glutarate-fermenting, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium.the strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, spore-forming bacterium strain wogl3t had been enriched and isolated in mineral medium with glutarate as the sole source of energy and organic carbon. glutarate was fermented to a mixture of butyrate, isobutyrate, co2 and small amounts of acetate. strain wogl3t grew only with the dicarboxylates glutarate, methylsuccinate and succinate. 16s rdna sequence analysis revealed an affiliation of strain wogl3t to the family syntrophomonadaceae. this monophyletic gr ...200010758871
syntrophic-methanogenic associations along a nutrient gradient in the florida everglades.nutrient runoff from the everglades agricultural area resulted in a well-documented gradient of phosphorus concentrations in soil and water, with concomitant ecosystem-level changes, in the northern florida everglades. it was recently reported that sulfate-reducing prokaryote assemblage composition, numbers, and activities are dependent on position along the gradient (h. castro, k. r. reddy, and a. ogram, appl. environ. microbiol. 68:6129-6137, 2002). the present study utilized a combination of ...200415184146
enhanced selection of an anaerobic pentachlorophenol-degrading consortium.a rapid enrichment approach based on a pentachlorophenol (pcp) feeding strategy which linked the pcp loading rate to methane production was applied to an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor inoculated with anaerobic sludge. due to this strategy, over a 140-day experimental period the pcp volumetric load increased from 2 to 65 mg l(r)(-1) day(-1) with a near zero effluent concentration of pcp. dechlorination dynamics featured sequential appearance of 3,4,5-chlorophenol, 3,5-chloro- phenol, and 3- ...200111344452
evidence for h2 and formate formation during syntrophic butyrate and propionate degradation.both h2 and formate were formed during butyrate oxidation by syntrophospora bryantii with pentenoate as electron acceptor and during propionate oxidation by a mesophilic propionate oxidizing bacterium (mpob) with fumarate as electron acceptor. h2 and formate levels were affected by the bicarbonate concentration. s bryantii and mpob were also able to interconvert formate and h2+ hco3-; the apparent k(m) values for formate were of 2.9 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively. the conversion of h2+ hco3- to for ...199516887505
syntrophomonas erecta subsp. sporosyntropha subsp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium that degrades short chain fatty acids in co-culture with methanogens.two obligate anaerobic bacterial strains (5-3-z(t) and y4-1) were isolated from river sediment and rice field mud, respectively. they degraded straight-chain fatty acids with 4-8 carbon atoms in syntrophic association with methanogens, however, neither tested branch-chain fatty acids nor could benzoate be degraded. the strains formed spores when cocultured with methanogens on butyrate, or when grew on butyrate plus dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) in pure culture. the cells were slightly curved rods wi ...200616455220
reciprocal isomerization of butyrate and isobutyrate by the strictly anaerobic bacterium strain wog13 and methanogenic isobutyrate degradation by a defined triculture.isomerization of butyrate and isobutyrate was investigated with the recently isolated strictly anaerobic bacterium strain wog13 which ferments glutarate to butyrate, isobutyrate, co(2), and small amounts of acetate. dense cell suspensions converted butyrate to isobutyrate and isobutyrate to butyrate. c-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments proved that this isomerization was accomplished by migration of the carboxyl group to the adjacent carbon atom. in cell extracts, both butyrate and isobutyra ...199216348708
fatty acid-oxidizing consortia along a nutrient gradient in the florida everglades.the florida everglades is one of the largest freshwater marshes in north america and has been subject to eutrophication for decades. a gradient in p concentrations extends for several kilometers into the interior of the northern regions of the marsh, and the structure and function of soil microbial communities vary along the gradient. in this study, stable isotope probing was employed to investigate the fate of carbon from the fermentation products propionate and butyrate in soils from three sit ...200616597937
thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum.three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain jw/vs-265t; dsm 11003), were isolated from alkaline hot springs of lake bogoria (kenya). the cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. at 60 degrees c the ph range for growth determined at 25 degrees c [ph25 degrees c] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (ph60 degrees c of 7.6 and 8.1). at ...19968863447
syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov., an anaerobe that degrades long-chain fatty acids in co-culture with methanobacterium formicicum.an anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain ol-4(t), was isolated as a co-culture with methanobacterium formicicum dsm 1535(nt) from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed reactor used to treat an oleate-based effluent. strain ol-4(t) degraded oleate, a mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and straight-chain fatty acids c(4 : 0)-c(18 : 0) in syntrophic association with methanobacterium formicicum dsm 1535(nt). even-numbered fatty acids were degraded to aceta ...200717329794
effect of dilution rate on the microbial structure of a mesophilic butyrate-degrading methanogenic community during continuous cultivation.we constructed two mesophilic anaerobic chemostats that were continuously fed with synthetic wastewater containing butyrate as the sole source of carbon and energy. steady-state conditions were achieved at dilution rates between 0.025 and 0.7 day(-1). butyrate, fed into the chemostat, was almost completely mineralized to ch(4) and co(2) at dilution rates below 0.5 day(-1). the butyrate-degrading methanogenic communities in the chemostats at dilution rates between 0.025 and 0.7 day(-1) were monit ...200717221191
adhesion of anaerobic microorganisms to solid surfaces and the effect of sequential attachment on adhesion characteristics.the attachment of three anaerobic microorganisms, desulfomonile tiedjei, syntrophomonas wolfei, and desulfovibrio sp. strain g11, was investigated to determine if the presence of one species could influence the adhesion of another species to glass surfaces. the results indicated that the numbers and distribution of attached cells of one species could be influenced considerably by the presence of another species and the order in which the test species were exposed to the surface. d. tiedjei was f ...200314618685
syntrophic-archaeal associations in a nutrient-impacted freshwater marsh.evaluation of the composition, distribution and activities of syntrophic bacteria and methanogens in soils from eutrophic and low nutrient regions of a freshwater marsh, and to compare these results with those obtained from a similar study in the florida everglades.200616405687
phospholipid fatty acid composition of the syntrophic anaerobic bacterium syntrophomonas wolfei.the membrane phospholipid fatty acids (plfas) from several cocultures and a pure culture of syntrophomonas wolfei were determined by capillary column gas chromatography. cocultures of s. wolfei with a desulfovibrio sp. contained plfas from both organisms, whereas plfas from a coculture with methanospirillum hungatei contained very little biomass to analyze. the pure culture of s. wolfei grown on crotonate provided the best material for analysis of the plfas. the predominant plfas of s. wolfei we ...198816347667
syntrophomonas cellicola sp. nov., a spore-forming syntrophic bacterium isolated from a distilled-spirit-fermenting cellar, and assignment of syntrophospora bryantii to syntrophomonas bryantii comb. nov.a spore-forming, anaerobic, syntrophic fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium, strain 19j-3(t), was isolated from a distilled-spirit-fermenting cellar in hebei province, china. the cells were slightly curved rods with a spore at the end of the cell. the optimal temperature for growth was around 37 degrees c and growth occurred in the range 25-45 degrees c. the ph range for growth was 6.5-8.5 and the optimum ph was 7.0-7.5. crotonate was the only substrate that allowed the strain to grow in pure culture. ...200617012556
anaerobic microbial lcfa degradation in bioreactors.this paper reviews recent results obtained on long-chain fatty acids (lcfa) anaerobic degradation. two lcfa were used as model substrates: oleate, a mono-unsaturated lcfa, and palmitate, a saturated lcfa, both abundant in lcfa-rich wastewaters. 16s rrna gene analysis of sludge samples submitted to continuous oleate- and palmitate-feeding followed by batch degradation of the accumulated lcfa demonstrated that bacterial communities were dominated by members of the clostridiaceae and syntrophomonad ...200818309224
description of 'synergistetes' phyl. nov. and emended description of the phylum 'deferribacteres' and of the family syntrophomonadaceae, phylum 'firmicutes'.the number of bacterial phyla has greatly increased in the past decade. among them, a candidate division named 'synergistes' was proposed in a phylogenetic study on the global diversity of bacteria. we previously described the genus jonquetella and suggested that it belonged to this not yet well-delineated candidate phylum. 16s rrna gene based-phylogeny studies were conducted using four reconstruction methods and 599 sequences forming five datasets were used in an alternative treeing approach. t ...200919406787
bicarbonate is a stimulus in the inter-species induced sporulation of strict anaerobic syntrophomonas erecta subsp. sporosyntropha.previously syntrophomonas species had been described as the bacteria those did not form spores, however, in our previous studies, a newly isolated s. erecta subsp. sporosyntropha jcm13344(t) was found to form spores in the co-culture with methanogens, while not in mono-culture or in co-culture with sulfate reducer. in this study, we examined the sporulation stimulus conferred by methanogens in the co-culture. by reducing bicarbonate in mono-culture and sulfate-reducing co-culture, we could induc ...200717704894
methanoculleus hydrogenitrophicus sp. nov., a methanogenic archaeon isolated from wetland soil.an obligately anaerobic, methanogenic archaeon, strain hc(t), was isolated from soil of the zoige wetland on the tibetan plateau, china. the strain was isolated through construction of an artificial butyrate-degrading consortium in co-culture with a syntrophic bacterium, 'syntrophomonas erecta subsp. sporosyntropha' jcm 13344. cells of strain hc(t) were irregular coccoids, 0.8-2 mum in diameter, that occurred singly and utilized only h(2)/co(2) for growth and methane production. growth occurred ...201019897615
long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling.biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (lcfa) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16s rdna dgge profiling of the microbial community structure. improvement of hydrogenotrophic and acidogenic (beta-oxidation) activity rates was detected upon successive lcfa pulses, while different inhibition effects over specific anaerobic trophic gr ...201020015641
influence of calcium addition on growth of highly purified syntrophic cultures degrading long-chain fatty acids.two highly purified syntrophic associations resulting in acetogenesis from stearate (sm) and oleate (om) were obtained from the sludges of a sewage digestor. in both cases, methanospirillum hungatei together with short, motile, gram-negative, nonfluorescent rods morphologically similar to syntrophomonas wolfei were identified by microscopic examination. besides growing on volatile fatty acids (butyrate through caproate), both cultures grew on oleate (c(18:1)) and numerous even-numbered, saturate ...198516346761
the genome of syntrophomonas wolfei: new insights into syntrophic metabolism and biohydrogen production.summary syntrophomonas wolfei is a specialist, evolutionarily adapted for syntrophic growth with methanogens and other hydrogen- and/or formate-using microorganisms. this slow-growing anaerobe has three putative ribosome rna operons, each of which has 16s rrna and 23s rrna genes of different length and multiple 5s rrna genes. the genome also contains 10 rna-directed, dna polymerase genes. genomic analysis shows that s. wolfei relies solely on the reduction of protons, bicarbonate or unsaturated ...201020482737
separation of syntrophomonas wolfei from methanospirillum hungatii in syntrophic cocultures by using percoll gradients.percoll gradient centrifugation effectively separated syntrophomonas wolfei cells from methanospirillum hungatii cells, resulting in a 70- to 80-fold enrichment of s. wolfei cells relative to m. hungatii cells. the separated s. wolfei cells were viable. gram quantities of cellular protein which was enzymatically active and had low levels of contamination by the methanogenic cofactor, factor(420), were obtained.198716347346
involvement of nadh:acceptor oxidoreductase and butyryl coenzyme a dehydrogenase in reversed electron transport during syntrophic butyrate oxidation by syntrophomonas wolfei.methanogenic oxidation of butyrate to acetate requires a tight cooperation between the syntrophically fermenting syntrophomonas wolfei and the methanogen methanospirillum hungatei, and a reversed electron transport system in s. wolfei was postulated to shift electrons from butyryl coenzyme a (butyryl-coa) oxidation to the redox potential of nadh for h(2) generation. the metabolic activity of butyrate-oxidizing s. wolfei cells was measured via production of formazan and acetate from butyrate, wit ...200919648244
methane production from oleate: assessing the bioaugmentation potential of syntrophomonas zehnderi.the potential for improving long-chain fatty acids (lcfa) conversion to methane was evaluated by bioaugmenting a non-acclimated anaerobic granular sludge with syntrophomonas zehnderi. batch bioaugmentation assays were performed with and without the solid microcarrier sepiolite, using 1 mm oleate as sole carbon and energy source. when s. zehnderi was added to the anaerobic sludge methane production from oleate was faster. high methane yields, i.e. 89 ± 5% and 72 ± 1%, were observed in bioaugmente ...201020696454
anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste: main process limitations and microbial community interactions.fresh pig/cattle slaughterhouse waste mixtures, with different lipid-protein ratios, were characterized and their anaerobic biodegradability assessed in batch tests. the resultant methane potentials were high (270-300 l(ch4) kg(-1)(cod)) making them interesting substrates for the anaerobic digestion process. however, when increasing substrate concentrations in consecutive batch tests, up to 15 g(cod) kg(-1), a clear inhibitory process was monitored. despite the reported severe inhibition, relate ...201021030248
[acidification and its effect on the population distributions of microorganisms in an anaerobic baffled reactor].the changes of ph, cod, volatile fatty acids (vfa) and microbial morphology of the acidification process in an anaerobic baffled reactor (abr) were investigated. and the population succession process of the anaerobic microorganisms was quantitatively analyzed by using the fluorescent in situ hybridization technology (fish). the results show that the abr reactor is acidified gradually from the front to the back. after the reactor is entirely acidified, the cod removal efficiency is only 30.9%, an ...201020825025
characteristics of an anaerobic, syntrophic, butyrate-degrading bacterium in paddy field soil.the number of syntrophic butyrate-degrading bacteria in a flooded paddy field soil was 1.7 x 10(3) mpn/g dry soil. butyrate was degraded to acetate and methane when paddy soils were incubated anaerobically with the addition of butyrate. however, butyrate degradation was completely suppressed by the addition of the specific inhibitor of methanogenesis, 2-bromoethanesulfonate (bes) to the soil. a hydrogen-using methanogen, strain tm-8, was isolated from flooded paddy field soil. strain tm-8 was id ...200314586091
typical methanogenic inhibitors can considerably alter bacterial populations and affect the interaction between fatty acid degraders and homoacetogens.the effects of two typical methanogenic inhibitors [2-bromoethanesulfonate (bes) and chloroform (chcl(3))] on the bacterial populations were investigated using molecular ecological techniques. terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (t-rflp) in combination with clone library showed that both the toxicants not only inhibited methanogenic activity but also considerably altered the bacterial community structure. species of low % g + c gram-positive bacteria (clostridiales), high ...201020559824
functional bacterial and archaeal community structures of major trophic groups in a full-scale anaerobic sludge digester.functional bacteria and archaea community structures of a full-scale anaerobic sludge digester were investigated by using a full-cycle 16s rrna approach followed by microautoradiography (mar)-fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) technique and micromanipulation. fish analysis with a comprehensive set of 16s and 23s rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probes based on 16s rrna clone libraries revealed that the gram-positive bacteria represented by probe hgc69a-hybridized actinobacteria (8.5+/-1.4% of ...200717291558
syntrophomonas palmitatica sp. nov., an anaerobic, syntrophic, long-chain fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium isolated from methanogenic sludge.a mesophilic, syntrophic, fatty-acid-oxidizing anaerobic strain, designated mpa(t), was isolated from granular sludge in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor used to treat palm oil mill effluent. cells were slightly curved, non-motile rods. spore formation was not observed. the optimal temperature for growth was around 37 degrees c and optimal ph for growth was 7.0. strain mpa(t) was able to grow on crotonate or pentenoate plus butyrate in pure culture. in co-culture with the hyd ...200717766887
the genome of syntrophomonas wolfei: new insights into syntrophic metabolism and biohydrogen production.syntrophomonas wolfei is a specialist, evolutionarily adapted for syntrophic growth with methanogens and other hydrogen- and/or formate-using microorganisms. this slow-growing anaerobe has three putative ribosome rna operons, each of which has 16s rrna and 23s rrna genes of different length and multiple 5s rrna genes. the genome also contains 10 rna-directed, dna polymerase genes. genomic analysis shows that s. wolfei relies solely on the reduction of protons, bicarbonate or unsaturated fatty ac ...201021966920
spatial distribution of some microbial trophic groups in a plug-flow-type anaerobic bioreactor treating swine manure.anaerobic digestion of swine manure is carried out by a consortium of microbial species, including volatile fatty acid (vfa) producers, vfa-degraders and methanogens. the distribution of five phylogenetic groups within a plug-flow-type anaerobic bioreactor consisting of eight serially-connected tanks was examined through the sequential digestion of swine manure. quantification was carried out using reverse transcription real-time pcr (rt-q-pcr) assays targeting the 16s rrna of clostridium (clust ...201020220236
syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. methylbutyratica subsp. nov., and assignment of syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. saponavida to syntrophomonas saponavida sp. nov. comb. nov.a spore-forming bacterium strain 4j5(t) was isolated from rice field mud. when co-cultured with methanobacterium formicicum dsm 1535(t), strain 4j5(t) could syntrophically degrade saturated fatty acids with 4-8 carbon atoms, including 2-methylbutyrate. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene similarity showed that strain 4j5(t) was most closely related to syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei dsm 2245(t) (98.9% sequence similarity); however, it differed from the latter in the substrates utili ...200717223300
role of formate and hydrogen in the degradation of propionate and butyrate by defined suspended cocultures of acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria.the butyrate-degrading syntrophospora bryantii degrades butyrate and a propionate-degrading strain (mpob) degrades propionate in coculture with the hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanospirillum hungatii or methanobacterium formicicum. however, the substrates are not degraded in constructed cocultures with two methanobrevibacter arboriphilus strains which are only able to consume hydrogen. pure cultures of the acetogenic bacteria form both hydrogen and formate during butyrate oxidation with pe ...19958821782
Effects of solids retention time on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion of thickened mixed sludge.When a bench-scale digester fed thickened mixed sludge was operated over an SRT range of 4-20 days, removal efficiencies for total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids declined with decreasing SRT (especially <10 days), but methanogenesis was stable for SRT as low as 5 days. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that methanogens declined steadily for SRT<10 days, with the acetate-cleaving Methanosaetaceae becoming more dominant. Clone-library analyses indicated significant shifts in b ...201121967716
evolution of the syntrophic interaction between desulfovibrio vulgaris and methanosarcina barkeri: involvement of an ancient horizontal gene transfer.the sulfate reducing bacteria desulfovibrio vulgaris and the methanogenic archaea methanosarcina barkeri can grow syntrophically on lactate. in this study, a set of three closely located genes, dvu2103, dvu2104, and dvu2108 of d. vulgaris, was found to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold following the lifestyle shift from syntroph to sulfate reducer; moreover, none of the genes in this gene set were differentially regulated when comparing gene expression from various d. vulgaris pure culture experiment ...200717107661
microbial communities involved in anaerobic degradation of unsaturated or saturated long-chain fatty acids.anaerobic long-chain fatty acid (lcfa)-degrading bacteria were identified by combining selective enrichment studies with molecular approaches. two distinct enrichment cultures growing on unsaturated and saturated lcfas were obtained by successive transfers in medium containing oleate and palmitate, respectively, as the sole carbon and energy sources. changes in the microbial composition during enrichment were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) profiling of pcr-amplified 1 ...200717158619
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