in vitro susceptibility studies with josamycin and erythromycin.the in vitro activity of josamycin and erythromycin against five bacterial species was compared. in general, erythromycin was slightly more active by weight than josamycin, although both agents had a similar range of activity.19764012
in vitro activity of josamycin against aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobes.josamycin, a new macrolide antibiotic, was compared with ampicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin in vitro against 25 isolates each of pneumococci, enterococci, staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, and nonenterococcal hemolytic streptococci and against 25 anaerobes including 10 bacteroides fragilis. minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration data were obtained for the aerobic organisms, using serial twofold tube dilutions in mueller-hinton broth. minimal inhibitor ...19767189
bacterial interference by oropharynegeal and clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria.anaerobic isolates were tested for bacterial inhibitory activity. of 144 isolates, 102 were from oropharynegeal washings, and 42 were from clinical specimens. thirteen facultative bacterial species (seven members of the enterobacteriaceae and six species of gram-positive cocci) were used as indicators of inhibition. eleven anaerobic species were isolated from oral secretions. all isolates of bacteroides melaninogenicus, the most commonly recovered species, consistently inhibited several species ...197610336
susceptibility of phosphomycin as a differential character for gram negative anaerobic bacilli. 197611203
activity of spectinomycin against anaerobes.the in vitro inhibitory activity of spectinomycin was tested against various anaerobic bacteria. different results were obtained with different media and with different initial ph's of the media. the highest minimum inhibitory concentrations for bacteroides fragilis (formula: see text 128 mug/ml) were obtained with the use of wilkins-chalgren agar (ph 7.2) and brucella blood agar (ph 7.0). brucella blood agar at higher ph's (7.4 and 8.0) and mueller-hinton and diagnostic sensitivity test agars p ...197718985
antimicrobial activity of human ascitic fluid. 197719339
comparison of the ribonucleoproteins of different rabies virus serotypes by radioimmunoassay.radioimmunoassay (ria) provides a sensitive serological procedure for detecting rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (rnp) as well as its specific antibodies, ria was carried out using highly purified rnps labelled by the chloramine-t method. this paper describes optimal conditions for iodination of rnp with high specific activity. the optimal concentrations of 125i, rnp, chloramine-t, and reducing agent as well as the effect of ph on the reaction were investigated. ria proved to be extremely sensitiv ...197722569
the hydrolysis of dextran by gram negative non-sporing anaerobic bacilli. 197724035
quantitative evaluation of three commercial blood culture media for growth of anaerobic organisms.the ability of three different commercial blood culture media--brain heart infusion broth (pfizer), thiol broth (difco), and prs-peptone broth (becton, dickinson & co.)--to support the growth of five different anaerobes is described. inocula of 100 and 1,000 colony-forming units per ml were used to evaluate potential differences in survival, lag time, growth rate, and doubling times of each anaerobe in each medium. in addition, each medium was evaluated for its ability to neutralize the antibact ...197824059
pleuropulmonary lung infection by anaerobic bacteria.two patients with severe pleuropulmonary infection caused by non-sporing anaerobic bacteria are described. one had an empyema with foul-smelling pus and developed bacteraemia, and the other developed a lung abscess. both were successfully treated with antibiotics and drainage, chest surgery being avoided. the successful diagnosis and treatment of these patients involved close liaison between clinical and laboratory staff.197829654
metronidazole in the prophylaxis and treatment of anaerobic infection.the influence of prophylactic metronidazole on vaginal carriage rates of anaerobes and the development of postoperative anaerobic infection was studied in 104 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy. metronidazole prophylaxis in 54 patients led to a decrease in the anaerobe vaginal carriage rate from 65% pre-operatively to 17% and 28% on the 3rd and 7th postoperative days respectively. in the control group (50 patients) no significant decrease in anaerobe yield was noted, corresponding percen ...197833454
chromogenic cephalosporin spot test to detect beta-lactamase in clinically significant bacteria.lactamase production. reacteroides melaniongenicus, 14197934624
anaerobic isolates in chronic recurrent suppurative otitis media. treatment with carbenicillin alone and in combination with gentamicin.tympanocentesis was performed in 32 pediatric patients with chronic recurrent suppurative otitis media. the aspirate was cultured aerobically and anaerobically. aerobes were isolated from ten patients (31.2%); anaerobes from one patient; and both aerobes and anaerobes from 21 patients (65.6%). there were 46 aerobic isolates. the aerobes commonly recovered were pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 isolates) proteus sp. (5) and staphylococcus aureus (3). there were 32 anaerobes isolated including anaerobic ...197941811
fluorescent antibody test kit for rapid detection and identification of members of the bacteroides fragilis and bacteroides melaninogenicus groups in clinical specimens.the fluoretec fluorescent antibody test kit (pfizer inc., new york, n.y.), developed for the rapid detection of members of the bacteroides fragilis and b. melaninogenicus groups, was evaluated by testing 58 stock cultures and 76 clinical specimens. the test reagents detected 100% of 40 b. fragilis and b. thetaiotaomicron stock culture strains, although only 22% of 18 b. vulgatus, b. distasonis, and b. ovatus strains showed positive fluorescence. the 76 clinical specimens were evaluated by examin ...197941847
rapid diagnosis of anaerobic infections by gas-liquid was postulated that the short chain fatty acids (scfa) produced by anaerobic bacteria might serve as microbial markers in purulent material. eighteen pus specimens from various sources were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography (glc), and the scfa detected were compared with the microorganisms isolated by conventional methods. it was found that the detection of propionic, isobutyric, butyric, or isovaleric acids by direct glc of pus specimens is strong evidence for anaerobic infection but not ...197941850
virulence factors of anaerobic bacteria: summary of the symposium. 197944924
genetic determinants of microbial resistance to antibiotics.emergence of antibiotic resistance is related to the ease of mutation, to the extent of exchange of genetic information in bacteria by conjugation, transformation, and transduction, and to the large-scale use of antimicrobial agents in the biosphere. in addition to the development of resistance through chromosomal mutation and exchange of chromosomal genes among organisms, there is a more profound enlargement of the gene pool by the dissemination and amplification of plasmids. two examples of th ...197945522
letter: tk-polyagglutination in bacteroides fragilis septicaemia. 197546439
effect of bacteroides fragilis on the human erythrocyte membrane: pathogenesis of tk polyagglutination.incubation of normal human erythrocytes with the supernatant of centrifuged culture of some strains of bacteroides fragilis results in the exposure of tk polyagglutination determinants on the erythrocyte membrane. these determinants are present on non papain-labile structures and are probably exposed by an enzyme mechanism. other strains of b. fragilis were found to produce neuraminidase, haemolysins, and protease. it is suggested that early recognition of tk determinants may be an aid to the di ...197554368
biological effects of carbon monoxide vs. whole emissions from engine with catalyst. 197655426
[arthritis related to intestinal anastomoses].jejuno-colic and jejuno-ileal anastomoses may provoke arthritis. the recently recognized physiopathology is that of arthritis due to immune complexes related to pullulation of escherichia coli and of bacilus fragilis. these cases of arthritis, usually sensitive to therapy, have, in some stutborn cases, required the re-establishment of intestinal continuity, which in each case has made the joint phenomena disappear.197662379
a gram stain for smears of blood cultures, body fluids and tissues.a new gram stain method for blood cultures was adapted from a method for tissue sections. this was accomplished by comparing various modifications of the latter method on positive smears prepared from a 24-hour negative blood culture seeded with staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. a blind study was then conducted using the new method and hucker's method on 24-hour and 72-hour blood cultures as well as a limited number of other body fluids and tissues. of the 35 positive blood cultures de ...197662513
the immunochemical investigations of six bacteroides serotypes. 197665113
identification of the presence and type of biliary microflora by immediate gram stains.immediate gram stains were performed on gallbladder bile aspirated at the start of an operation for biliary disease in 191 consecutive patients undergoing elective biliary surgery. the results of the gram stains were telephoned to the operating theater within 20 minutes of collection. the over-all accuracy rate of the telephone gram stain reports compared with the subsequent bile cultures was 77 percent. the incidence of false-positive results was 12 percent, and false-negative results were reco ...197766763
bacteroides fragilis meningitis. 197769093
cross-reactivity of bacteroides fragilis o antigens.the cross-reactivity of o antigens prepared from bacteroides fragilis, other bacteroides species and from fusobacterium has been examined by indirect haemagglutination and inhibition of haemagglutination. fifteen of 20 b. fragilis ss. fragilis strains showed o-antigenic cross-reactivity with one or more of the test strains of b. fragilis ss. fragilis: nctc 9343, lille e 323 and sbl b55. the same applies also to 3 strains classified as b. coagulans, b. hypermegas and b. putredinis. the multispeci ...197765902
clavulanic acid and susceptibility of bacteroides fragilis to penicillin. 197769229
bacteroides: an unusual cause of breast abscess.three cases of breast abscess from which the non-sporing anaerobe bacteroides was isolated are described. this organism has apparently not previously been reported as a cause of abscess in a breast without underlying malignancy.197659152
inhibition of phagocytosis in vitro by obligate anaerobes.a variety of species of obligate anaerobes have been shown to interfere with the phagocytosis and killing of proteus mirabilis and other aerobic bacteria in vitro. although all the obligate anaerobes examined showed this activity, the effect was greatest with strains of bacteroides melaninogenicus and b. fragilis. in contrast, none of the 36 aerobes tested acted in this way. these observations suggest that the presence of obligate anaerobes may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of some types of ...197773952
bacteroides fragilis resistant to metronidazole after long-term therapy. 197874641
metronidazole resistance among bacteroides fragilis. 197876262
pseudomembranous colitis. 197877373
chemotherapy of brain abscess. 197882092
o-antigenic specificity of lipopolysaccharides from bacteroides fragilis ss. fragilis.lipopolysaccharides (lps) isolated from three strains of bacteroides fragilis ss. fragilis were examined by indirect haemagglutination and inhibition of haemagglutination in unabsorbed and absorbed rabbit antisera. six different antigenic specificities were detected. all serological activity was destroyed by oxidation of lps with periodate.197552280
purification and properties of beta-lactamase from bacteroides fragilis.beta-lactamase activity was detected either biologically or using the chromogenic cephalosporin 87/312 in 20 clinical isolates of bacteroides fragilis with penicillin g minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 to 100 micrograms/ml. strain am78 (minimal inhibitory concentration, greater than 1,000 micrograms/ml) was used to optimize the conditions for production, assay, and storage of the enzyme. the enzymes are cell associated, with less than 1% of activity being found in culture fluids during gr ...197845494
anaerobic subareolar breast abscess.15 non-puerperal women with breast abscess were seen during one year. in 8, anaerobes were cultured from pus obtained from the abscess, in 6, staphylococcus aureus was grown, and in 1 the pus was sterile on culture. all 7 breast abscesses in puerperal women seen during the same period were staphylococcal. the anaerobic abscesses were all subareolar; they were recurrent in 4 patients and were associated with retracted nipples in 7. the anaerobes isolated were those found as normal commensals in t ...197983476
bacteroides species in subareolar breast abscess. 197984281
diisopropylfluorophosphate-evoked inhibition of anaphylactic histamine release from human skin: decrease of the inhibition by storing the skin specimens.antigen-induced histamine release from human skin slices passively sensitized with reaginic serum in vitro was inhibited by dfp, suggesting involvement of serine esterase activation in the reaction. the magnitude of dfp-evoked inhibition of the histamine release was not the same in each skin sample and no correlationship was observed between the magnitude of the dfp-evoked inhibition of the histamine release and that of the histamine release in the absence of dfp. the magnitude of the histamine ...197984487
study of the glycolipid composition of the milk fat-globule membrane and the mouse mammary tumour virus prepared from the milk of infected swiss mice [proceedings]. 197884579
characterization of receptors mediating 5-hydroxytryptamine- and catecholamine-induced platelet aggregation, assessed by the actions of alpha- and beta-blockers, butyrophenones, 5-ht antagonists and chlorpromazine.1 blood platelets from normal human volunteers were isolated and aggregated in vitro with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht), noradrenaline (na), dopamine and n-dimethyldopamine (dmda). 2 the effects of 5-ht antagonists, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents, butyrophenones and chlorpromazine upon aggregation induced by the four amines were investigated. 3 only the the 5-ht antagonists, chlorpromazine and spiroperidol were potent inhibitors of 5-ht-induced aggregation, and only phentolamine was a ...197826445
rapid diagnosis of bacteroides infections by indirect immunofluorescence assay of clinical specimens.43 specimens from a variety of sites were directly examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (i.f.a.) with specific antisera against the capsular polysaccharide of bacteroides fragilis and pooled antisera against a number of serotypes of bacteroides sp. (all of the former b. fragilis subspecies). the findings were compared with those of routine anaerobic bacteriology and gas liquid chromatography for short chain fatty acids. examination by i.f.a. was a sensitive (100%) and specific (90.3%) m ...197984899
highly purified insulins. 197985008
relationship of intracellular 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate accumulation to parathyroid hormone release from dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. 197885548
the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin and metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria. 197825874
metronidazole-resistant bacteroides from untreated patient. 197986085
x-linked immunocompetence and epstein-barr virus oncogenesis. 197986133
[perichordal necroses. contribution to the understanding of the spinal column morphogenesis].in 12--15 days old rat embryos and 12 days old mouse embryos vitally stained by acridin orange, a perichordal necrosis appears, showing metameric intensifications at the level of the dense sclerotomites. similar aspects were detected in serially sectioned rabbit and human embryos (6--7 mm c.r. length). the authors correlate the necrotic zones mentioned with the inductive functions of the notochord.197886154
chemical and serological comparison of two antigen extracts of thermoactinomyces candidus. 197986157
effect of hypoxia on the capillarity of guinea pig skeletal muscle. 197986189
[intratypical antigenic differentiation of poliovirus strains circulating in mali by means of cross-adsorbed sera].the intratypic antigenic differentiation of poliovirus strains isolated from sick or healthy children in mali in 1975-1976 was performed. the method is based on the use of cross-adsorbed sera in the neutralization tests in which the virus is titrated by the plaque procedure or by the cytopathic effect. all the examined strains of serologic types i, ii, and iii were distinguished by the antigenic structure from the vaccine strains and were classified as "wild". quantitative differences in the ant ...197886237
the use of trypan blue for counterstaining in the sepharose bead immunofluorescence test. the application of the test for the demonstration of primate retrovirus-specific antibodies and antigens.the sepharose bead immunoflurorescence test was performed by counterstaining the beads with trypan blue. this results in a red staining of negative beads which allows an easy distinction from positive green-fluorescent beads. sepharose beads conjugated with viral proteins or antiviral antibodies were used to demonstrate mason-pfizer monkey virus (mpmw)- and simian sarcoma virus (ssv) - specific antigens or antibodies. the test shows a high sensitivity and specificity and needs a small amount of ...197886253
formation of glycosidases in batch and continuous culture of bacteroides fragilis.nine strains of bacteroides fragilis were cultivated in stirred fermentors and tested for their ability to produce glycosidases. b. fragilis subsp. vulgatus b70 was used for optimizing the production of glycosidases. the highest bacterial yield was obtained in proteose peptone-yeast extract medium. the optimum ph for maximal bacterial yield was 7.0, and the optimum temperature for growth was 37 degrees c. the formation of glycosidases was optimal between ph 6.5 and 7.5, and the optimum temperatu ...197825044
bacteroides fragilis septicemia.on the basis of eight cases of bacteroides fragilis septicaemia, the authors review recent data from the literature related to this topic. they first note the increasing prevalence, accounting for approximately 10 per cent of all septicaemias at the present time. they note that the most frequent portals of entry are sites of localised suppuration, related on the one hand to digestive or gynaecological surgery and, secondly, to the post-partum or post-abortum period. from a therapeutic standpoint ...197723026
chronotropic response of isolated atria to acid base alterations.the effect of acid-base alterations on spontaneous rate was analysed using isolated atria exposed to cumulative degrees of acidosis produced either by adding hcl or by increasing pco2 in the incubation medium. frequncy vs. ph curves were made to assess chronotropic response to acid-base changes. heart rate was increased in alkalosis and decreased when the ph of the medium was lowered. both "respiratory" and "metabolic" alterations affected the contraction rate to the same extent. decreasing ph f ...197887182
similarity of casein- and endotoxin-induced, myeloma- associated and aged sjl/j amyloid in various strains of mice.amyloidosis was induced in a number of strains of mice by repeated injections of casein and endotoxin. spontaneous amyloid was obtained from balb/c mice bearing a myeloma tumor (igg2a producing mopc 173 tumor) and from aged sjl/j mice. both the induced and spontaneous forms were similar in their size, immunological reactivity, peptide maps and in the susceptibility of histological sections to oxidizing agents with or without trypsin digestion. since case-induced murine amyloid resembles the noni ...197987374
denaturization of allergen p: effect on allergenicity, antigenicity and immunogenicity.when allergen p was denatured by 8m urea, the modified molecule still reacted with ige specific for the native allergen but not with hemagglutinating antibodies. heating at 100 degrees c abolished the reaction in both cases. the results suggested differences between allergenic and antigenic capacities which may be based on structural differences of the antigenic determinants.197988195
4th international workshop on human gene mapping. report of the committee on the genetic constitution of the x and y chromosomes. 197888299
current aspects of gas gangrene, apropos of 47 cases collected over a 3-year period (1974-1976).on the basis of 47 cases of gas gangrene collected over the three year period between 1974 and 1976, the authors review the circumstances surrounding its development, the clinical features and the prognosis of the disorder which remains grave despite a well-defined therapeutic protocol combining surgery, antibiotics and hyperbaric oxygen. there would appear to be a real resurgence of the disease at the present time. post-traumatic and surgical aetiologies predominate, giving rise to two types of ...197723023
effect of contrast media on the rate of oxidation of nadp.h and nad.h by rat liver microsomes.the effect of roentgen-contrast media on the activity of the nadp'n and nad'n-dependent electron-transport chains of the rats liver microsomes was studied. bilignost, cardiotrast, triiotrast and triombrin are shown to lower the rate of the nadp'n oxidation by the rats' liver microsomes and have no effect (except for triiotrast) upon the rate of the nad'n oxidation. it is presumed that the relative resistance of the nad'n-specific flavoproteid is due to the presence of a hydrophobic layer impervi ...197720329
alterations in distribution of sudanophilic lesions in rabbits after cessation of a cholesterol-rich diet. 197988945
the pathophysiology of asthma.because postmortem studies of humans provide little information on the initial pathophysiologic events in asthma, animal models have been developed. recently the ascaris-allergic rhesus monkey has provided an opportunity to examine the onset of pathophysiologic changes following challenge and to correlate them with airway structure. these studies have suggested that the initial interaction between antigen and mast cells may occur in the bronchial lumen or in the epithelium superficial to the tig ...197989006
chemical composition, serological reactivity and endotoxicity of lipopolysaccharides extracted in different ways from bacteroides fragilis, bacteroides melaninogenicus and bacteroides oralis.lipopolysaccharides (lps) extracted from strains of bacteroides fragilis, bacteroides melaninogenicus and bacteroides oralis with phenol-water, trichloroacetic acid, edta or liquid phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether (pcp) and isolated by ultracentrifugation, varied considerably in their quantitative chemical composition. negligible yields of lps were obtained by pcp-extraction. all preparations were more or less serologically active. all methods (except pcp) extracted the same o-antigenic determi ...197719922
mac-1: a macrophage differentiation antigen identified by monoclonal antibody. 197989034
preparative isolation of the cell receptor for immunoglobulin e. 197989114
formation of beta-lactamase in bacteroides fragilis: cell-bound and extracellular activity.nine strains of bacteroides fragilis were cultivated in stirred fermentors and tested for their ability to produce beta-lactamase. there was a correlation between formation of beta-lactamase and high values of the minimal inhibitory concentration against beta-lactam antibiotics. b. fragilis strain b70 was used for optimizing the production of beta-lactamase. the highest bacterial yield was obtained in a proteose peptone-yeast extract medium. optimal conditions for growth and beta-lactamase produ ...19767997
survival of anaerobic bacteria during transportation. 1. experimental investigations on the effect of evacuation of atmospheric air by flushing with carbon dioxide and nitrogen.the effect of evacuation of atmospheric air during transportation on recovery of anaerobic bacteria was investigated. evacuation of atmospheric air from glass tubes by flushing with pure carbon dioxide lowered the content of oxygen to about 0.4 per cent. three b. fragilis strains and one strain of fusobacterium mortiferum and of peptostreptococcus anaerobius were investigated. bacterial recovery was determined one hour and 24 hours after evacuation of atmospheric air by pure carbon dioxide and p ...19763089
the polysaccharide capsule of bacteroides fragilis subspecies fragilis: immunochemical and morphologic definition.a large-molecular-weight capsular polysaccharide was isolated from strains of bacteroides fragilis subspecies fragilis. by means of electron microscopy and staining with ruthenium red, the thick polysaccharide capsule was also visualized. with use of a radioactive antigen-binding assay, antibody to this capsular polysaccharide was demonstrated in antisera prepared in rabbits to each of eight strains of b. fragilis fragilis. antibody of similar specificity was not found in antisera prepared to ba ...19761451
prophylactic systemic antibiotics in colorectal surgery.the prophylactic value of gentamicin combined with either lincomycin or metronidazole in 52 patients undergoing colorectal surgery was investigated. the results confirmed the value of this practice. in a control group, the sepsis-rate was 48% with 1 death attributable to sepsis, compared with a sepsis-rate of 4% in the treated group. the combination of gentamicin and lincomycin was effective against sepsis but pseudomembranous colitis developed in 2 of the 14 patients treated with this combinati ...197769126
the glomerulus. 197989456
cea-like antigens in different histologic types of human lung carcinoma.comparative studies on the presence and immunological reactivity of cea and cea-like antigens in lung and digestive tract cancers were performed. specific goat and rabbit anti-cea immune sera were used. immunofluorescence studies revealed in histologically different types of the lung carcinomas the presence of the cross reacting antigen with classical cea. absorption procedures, and double diffusion tests have shown the existence of two at least antigenic determinants in cea molecule: 1. the det ...197989630
fluorescent-antibody studies on selected strains of bacteroides fragilis subspecies fragilis.antisera against seven strains of bacteroides fragilis subspecies fragilis were produced from dense suspensions of whole cells. these sera exhibited high agglutination titers with homologous antigens. reciprocal cross-reactions in agglutination tests with each immunizing strain yielded lower titers. both the indirect and direct fluorescent-antibody techniques were used to evaluate these reagents in the serological identification of 24 defined strains of b. fragilis subspecies fragilis. subspecie ...197772076
strain-specific antigens in rhizobium leguminosarum.fifty strains of rhizobium leguminosarum, isolated from five species of host plant (pisum sativum, p. arvense, vicia sativa, v. faba, and a lathyrus sp.) were examined for the presence of strain-specific somatic antigens by immune-diffusions against 13 antisera. thirty eight strains (76 per cent) were found to belong to the same sero-group and were serologically indistinguishable from each other, but four of these strains also exhibited non-reciprocal cross reactivity with other antisera. in con ...197989766
bowel preparation for surgery. 197882688
a case of atypical polyagglutinability due to tk-transformation.a case of acquired transient polyagglutinability in a group o, rh(d) positive female patient, wa, is described. an unusual finding in the preliminary serological investigation was the non-reaction of the cells with peanut (arachis hypogaea) extract. the patient's red cells were strongly agglutinated by normal human and rabbit sera from which anti-t had been removed. electrophoretic mobility studies and tests with polybrene indicated that their sialic acid content was normal. the use of a specifi ...197883151
antibodies in histoplasmosis detected by use of yeast and mycelial antigens in immunodiffusion and electroimmunodiffusion. 197989825
[alterations in pharmacokinetics during toxicity tests (author's transl)].some possible reasons are discussed which may lead to changes in the pharmacokinetics of a drug during long-term toxicity tests. since most of these alterations have toxicological consequences, their evaluation can be helpful in the interpretation of toxicity studies. furthermore, and altered pharmacokinetic profile may be a diagnostic tool for the detection of organ damage (e.g., eliminatory organs). in this paper three examples of the "radioactive test dose method" are shown. this method allow ...197889849
localization of nors in chromosomes of mouse cell lines by a combined 33258-hoechst and ag-staining technique. 197984805
a functional measure of brain activity: brain stem transmission time.surface-recorded auditory nerve and brain stem responses are being used routinely for diagnostic purposes in man. when interest is in auditory diagnosis, the electric response threshold is of primary importance. however, when used in neurological diagnosis, the wave form of the response is important. as a measure of one aspect of response wave form, this paper suggests the use of brain stem transmission time (btt), defined as the time interval between the first earlobe-negative wave (response of ...197989952
characterization of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli by using rapid slide tests for beta-lactamase production.a total of 175 isolates of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were tested for beta-lactamase production by using a slide test modification of the chromogenic cephalosporin (nitrocefin, glaxo, middlesex, england) assay and the iodometric slide test. included isolates were bacteroides melaninogenicus (46), b. fragilis (78), other bacteroides isolates (21), fusobacterium (25), and other gram-negative bacilli (5). both slide tests detected 25 b. melaninogenicus isolates that were beta-lactamase produce ...197941001
[anaerobic gram negative septicemias in digestive tract surgery and in surgical intensive care]. 197939472
antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria with special reference to bacteroides was shown that recent swedish clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria are susceptible to many antibiotics by the agar dilution method with the exception of the bacteroides group versus beta-lactam antibiotics or tetracyclines. strains of b. fragilis were inhibited by 4--greater than 128 micrograms benzylpenicillin or cephalothin/ml, 1.0--64 micrograms cefoxitin/ml, 0.064--2 micrograms clindamycin or metronidazole/ml, 2--8 micrograms chloramphenicol/ml, 2--16 micrograms fusidic acid/ml and 0.0 ...197937593
intracellular polysaccharide of bacteroides fragilis.formation of iodophilic polysaccharide (ips) from glucose was demonstrated in 27 strains of bacteroides fragilis. synthesis was dependent on the glucose concentration of the medium, the ph and the growth phase. when glucose was in short supply the cellular polysaccharide was degraded rapidly at ph 4.5 to 6.5 and fatty acids accumulated in the medium. storage of ips was not responsible for the low carbon recoveries observed in fermentation balance studies. in electron micrographs of thin sections ...197937285
[antibiotic treatment in acute peritonitis].the selection depends on several factors and in particular: -the means of transport by which the antibiotic reaches the peritoneum : the aminosides and the betalactamines attain the peritoneum easily while the polymyxins do not; -the causative agent: most often it is a gram negative aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. the entero-bacteria predominate but in the last few years bacteroides fragilis has been frequently encountered giving rise to numerous studies. the flora is most often polymicrobic. th ...197835071
the use of avidin-biotin interaction in immunoenzymatic techniques.biotin was covalently attached to antibodies, antigens and enzymes, and the effects of this labeling on the antigen and antibody binding capacity and on enzymatic activity were tested. based on avidin-biotin interaction, the labeled proteins were used in quantitative enzyme-immunoassay and enzyme-immunohistochemical staining procedures. two procedures were developed. in the first procedure, named the bridged avidin-biotin (brab) technique four steps were used sequentially in order to quantify or ...197990074
[bacteriological studies of peritonitis].bacterial infections of the peritoneum may be primary (pneumococcal peritonitis of childhood). these are rare, as are streptococcal and staphylococcal peritonitis in the neonate, following umbilical or tegumental infections. the great majority of cases of peritonitis are secondary to an adjacent inflammation, a perforation of the gastro-intestinal tract, or trauma, which may be surgical in origin. the microbial flora involved is generally mixed, with a high proportion of anaerobic organisms, ref ...197835067
rapid detection of malaria and other bloodstream parasites by fluorescence microscopy with 4'6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (dapi).dapi is a fluorescent dye which appears to complex specifically with dna. we have used this probe to detect and identify malarial infections by fluorescence microscopy. experiments were conducted using plasmodium berghei yoeli--infected mouse blood, p. lophurae--infected duck blood, and p. vivax--infected human blood. infected avian blood was used to detect parasites within nucleated erythrocytes. control blood smears from uninfected hosts revealed fluorescence only in the leukocytes of mammalia ...197990141
structure of products of the moloney murine leukemia virus endogenous dna polymerase reaction.we have investigated the process by which the single-stranded rna genome of moloney murine leukemia virus is copied into dna in vitro. dna synthesis if initiated near the 5' end of the genome, and the elongation of the growing chain occurs by a jumping mechanism whereby the dna synthesized at the 5' end of the genome is elongated along the 3' end. unique dna fragments synthesized beyond the 5' end of the genome in vitro have, at their 5' and 3' ends, copies of unique sequences from the 5' and 3' ...197990161
steroid treatment of male subfertility caused by antisperm antibodies.47 subfertile men with significant titres of antisperm antibodies were treated with one of two steroid regimens. the results were assessed by changes in sperm-counts and in serum antibody titres and by subsequent pregnancies. 15 oligozoospermic men were treated with prednisone 5 mg three times a day for 3--12 months. sperm-counts became normal in 10 men and 4 of their wives became pregnant. 14 men with normal sperm-counts received the same treatment: antibody titres fell slightly and 3 of their ...197990218
surface structure of mammalian articular cartilage viewed at low temperature. 197990268
polyribonucleotide inhibition of ribonucleic acid directed deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase of mouse mammary tumor (type b) virus and simian sarcoma (type c) virus. 197990331
the elephant man. 197990342
detection by antihapten antibodies of liver-bound compounds related to azocarcinogens or their metabolites.the localization of known azocarcinogens and metabolites such as p-aminoazobenzene and n-methyl-p-aminoazobenzene bound to components of liver cells of rats fed single or multiple doses of 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminoazobenzene has been determined with the use of antibodies raised against p'-azo-p-aminoazobenzene and p'-azo-n-monomethyl-p-aminoazobenzene in the indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. these 2 antisera reacted with liver cells of rats fed 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, p'-amin ...197990352
[pharmacological properties and antitumor activity of a preparation diiodo-benzo-tepa in experiments].experimental data on the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, antitumor activity of the antitumor drug diiodo-benzo-tepa are reported.197990429
the expression of a human b-lymphocyte antigen and surface membrane immunoglobulin by lymphoid cells from patients with lymphocytic lymphoma, multiple myeloma and benign monoclonal gammapathy. 197990449
cefoxitin sodium activity against anaerobes: effect of the inoculum size, ph variation and different culture media. 197829027
chloramphenicol acetyltransferase of bacteroides fragilis.chloramphenicol-resistant strains of bacteroides fragilis (minimum inhibitory concentration, 12.5 mug/ml) were isolated from a stool specimen which contained multiply resistant escherichia coli. the enzyme responsible for resistance, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, was produced constitutively by these strains; the specific activity was 10-fold lower than that of the e. coli enzymes. similar activity was not detected in susceptible b. fragilis strains, nor could it be induced by growth in the ...197828690
in vitro studies of the replication of moloney murine leukemia virus. 197990575
the intra-nucleolar localization of amplified rdna in xenopus laevis oocytes.a fluorescent feulgen-stain was adapted in order to demonstrate dna-containing structures inside the amplified nucleoli of xenopus laevis. at all stages of oogenesis this method reveals granules or complex structures of dna in each nucleolus. the micronucleoli which do not stain with this method and which do not reveal an internal structure in low molarity saline, unlike real nucleoli are considered as nucleolus-like bodies. the dna-containing structures in the nucleoli can be composed of one or ...197990588
beta-lactamases in bacteroides.bacteroides fragilis is responsible for most anaerobic infections in man. most isolates of b. fragilis show resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. this resistance might be due to beta-lactamase production or permeability barrier in the cell wall. b. fragilis produce beta-lactamase with mainly cephalosporinase activity. other bacteroides species such as b. clostridiformis, b. melaninogenicus and b. oralis also produce beta-lactamase but with different biochemical characteristics.197828561
[animal experimental studies on the volume expanding effect of hydroxyethyl starch 40000 in the dog acute hemorrhagic shock].after acute hemorrhagic shock in dogs the hemodynamics of hydroxyethyl starch (mw: 40,000) are studied. the experiment shows that this plasma expander has a good efficiency for 3 to 4 hours. the indications of application of this colloidal solution are discussed.197990651
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