[serologic differentiation between t. brucei-, t.-congolense- and t-. vivax-infection (author's transl)]. 197994474
ultrastructural localization of calcium around the membrane of the surface connected system in the human platelet.the localization of calcium in the membrane system of human platelets was determined by ultrahistochemical methods equipped with an electron probe x-ray microanalyzer. after potassium oxalate-glutaraldehyde treatment large amounts of electron opaque precipitates were observed around the membrane of the surface connected system. electron probe x-ray microanalysis clearly defined that the precipitates were composed of calcium oxalate. the localization of calcium on the membrane of the surface conn ...197896043
3'-terminal nucleotide sequence of alfalfa mosaic virus rna 4.the sequence of the 3'-terminal 91 nucleotides of alfalfa mosaic virus rna 4, the messenger for the viral coat protein, has been elucidated. a fragment containing the 3' terminus of the rna was obtained by mild digestion with rnase t1. the primary structure of the fragment was deduced by labeling it in vitro at its 5' terminus and application of rna sequencing techniques. the sequence is completely extracistronic and is believed to contain the binding sites for the viral coat protein and replica ...1979108677
pharmacological modification of experimental tardive dyskinesia.cebus apella monkeys subjected to chronic haloperidol administration develop neurologic disturbances very similar to neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia human beings. after varying lengths of time, certain monkeys develop a prolonged dyskinetic syndrome resembling tardive dyskinesia (td), as seen clinically. two monkeys with signs of td were given single intramuscular injections of various compounds with known effects on the catecholaminergic, cholinergic, serotoninergic and gaba-ergic neurotrans ...1979115227
morphology, surface markers, and in vitro responses of a human leukemic t cell. 1975127678
[persistence of latex-agglutination inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus in the healthy population (author's transl)].sera of 122 persons were examined by the neutralization and latex-agglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against polio type i, coxsackie virus type a 9 and b 4, as well as echo virus type 9. with increasing age there was a titre difference between latex-agglutination inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies, due to the earlier fall in the former. these antibodies, contrary to neutralizing ones, were in the lower titre region. the results confirmed the usefulness of the latex-agglutination i ...1975169112
effect of intestinal microflora on 2,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-induced carcinogenesis in f344 rats.the effect of intestinal microflora on colon and breast carcinogenesis induced by 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (dmab) was studied with the use of germfree and conventional f344 rats of both sexes. at 7 weeks of age, all animals except controls were given 20 weekly sc injections of dmab in corn oil (100 mg/kg body wt/wk). male animals were autopsied 15 weeks after the last injection, whereas female animals were autopsied 10 weeks after the last injection. tumors were induced in the colons, duode ...1978280712
epidemiology and control of anaplasmosis in australia.anaplasmosis occurs in those areas of northern and eastern australia infested by the cattle tick boophilus microplus but it has been studied intensively only in queensland. anaplasmosis is predominantly a disease of autumn and winter and of cattle greater than 1 year of age. the complement fixation test has been used in serological surveys of the tick-infested areas of the state. both clinical and subclinical infections occur only in tick-infested areas and they are both more frequent in bos tau ...1979553977
vaccination with babesia argentina in 5 beef herds in south-eastern queensland.observations on the use of a vaccine containing babesia argentina in 5 partly susceptible beef herds in south-eastern queensland were made on 1,029 female breeding cattle over a period of 4 years. groups averaging about 20 heifers were given 0, 1, 2 or 3 vaccinations. incidence derived from groups experiencing clinical attacks were 17.9% for unvaccinated cattle and 1.2% for vaccinates. increasing the number of vaccinations did not appear to increase protection. the one clinical manifestation of ...19761016135
[increase in the immune response in old mice with immunologic insufficiency]. 19751081214
duration of carrier state following vaccination with live anaplasma centrale. 19921305342
sequence of a putative glutathione synthetase ii gene and flanking regions from anaplasma centrale.the complete nucleotide sequence of a putative glutathione synthetase gene (gsh ii) has been determined from anaplasma centrale. the predicted 308 amino acid protein has a molecular weight of 34,222 and is 32% identical to the enzyme, glutathione synthetase (ec, encoded by escherichia coli gsh ii. the previously proposed atp-binding site is not highly conserved. the putative glutathione synthetase gene (gsh ii) is preceded by an unassigned open reading frame. downstream of gsh ii is the ...19921540152
the effect of oxytetracycline treatment on immunity induced by anaplasma centrale.calves vaccinated with anaplasma centrale were treated with 20 mg/kg of long-acting oxytetracycline (otc/la) before or simultaneously with vaccination or up to seven months later. of 40 animals given one or two of otc/la from 3 to 13 days before vaccination, 23 become patent after vaccination, with an average prepatent period almost twice as long as that in non-treated vaccinated controls. upon challenge with 2 x 10(8) a. centrale per dose all 17 previously non-patent calves showed average maxim ...19921615637
analysis of protein compositions and surface protein epitopes of anaplasma centrale and anaplasma marginale.protein composition was compared and epitopes were analyzed among the isolates of anaplasma centrale and a. marginale by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting using bovine antisera and monoclonal antibodies, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. common and unique proteins were found among the isolates. all isolates tested had a major surface protein with an apparent molecular weight of 38 to 40 kilodalton which had slight molecular size variations between spe ...19911713792
an anaplasma centrale dna probe that differentiates between anaplasma ovis and anaplasma marginale anaplasma centrale genomic library was constructed in puc13. two clones pac5 and pac137 hybridising to a. centrale and a. marginale dna were isolated from this library. one of these, pac5, also hybridised to dna from a. ovis. the total insert of pac5 was subcloned into pbr322. this subclone, pac5-12, could detect 1 ng a. centrale, 0.5 ng a. marginale and 3.9 ng a. ovis dna. the hybridisation pattern obtained with pac5-12 on digests of a. centrale, a. marginale and a. ovis dna suggests that th ...19911897134
identification of immunodominant polypeptides common between anaplasma centrale and anaplasma marginale.high titered antibody from rabbits immunized with anaplasma centrale or from cattle recovered from a. centrale infection bound predominantly to several 33-36 kda polypeptides present in both a. centrale and the israel-nt isolate of anaplasma marginale. high titered bovine antibody against the israel-nt isolate of a. marginale also reacted predominantly with a. centrale polypeptides in this size range. the immunodominance of the 33-36 kda polypeptides and their cross-reactivity indicate that thes ...19911949581
frozen and fresh anaplasma centrale vaccines in the protection of cattle against anaplasma marginale infection.the immunity induced by frozen and fresh anaplasma centrale vaccines against anaplasmosis caused by a. marginale was tested in 12-month old friesian steers. a. centrale parasitaemia occurred in all cattle inoculated with both types of vaccine. the average maximal decrease in pcv for the frozen and fresh vaccines was 41.0 and 40.3% respectively. all cattle recovered spontaneously. vaccinated and control steers of the same age were challenged six months later with doses of 10(6), 10(7) or 10(8) a. ...19902092348
tick-borne diseases of cattle in paraguay. ii. immunisation against anaplasmosis and babesiosis.a total of 102 susceptible adult holstein friesian cattle imported into an area of paraguay where anaplasmosis and babesiosis are endemic were immunised by infection with anaplasma centrale and attenuated forms of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis obtained from uruguay. the results indicated that the attenuated forms of both babesia species protected cattle against heterologous field challenge whereas a. centrale did not invariably confer sufficient protection against a field challenge of a. ma ...19902196724
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies to anaplasma centrale and anaplasma enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) was applied to detect antibodies to a. centrale and a. marginale using homologous and heterologous antigens. the assay was compared with the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test, and although a similar degree of sensitivity was obtained, the elisa test had several advantages. partially purified anaplasma initial bodies used for antigen preparations contained negligible amounts of residual erythrocytic material, and did not interfere with the specificity o ...19902247936
concurrent infection with theileria buffeli caused depression of parasitaemia in babesia bovis and anaplasma centrale infections in splenectomised calves but not in b bigemina five experiments undertaken in splenectomised calves it was found that theileria buffeli infections depressed the parasitaemias of superimposed babesia bovis and anaplasma centrale infections, but not b bigemina infections. the course of a centrale infections did not appear to be affected by a concurrent eperythrozoon teganodes infection.19902267426
post-thawing viability of vaccines for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis cryopreserved with frozen vaccines containing babesia bovis, babesia bigemina or anaplasma centrale were prepared using glycerol as cryoprotectant and stored in liquid nitrogen. the viability of the vaccines was tested inoculating calves 1 h (n = 12), 2 h (n = 12), 12 h (n = 6) and 24 h (n = 6) after thawing. babesia bovis and a. centrale were detected in thin and/or thick blood smears in all vaccinated calves; however, 1 of 12 calves inoculated 1 h after thawing and 3 of 6 calves inoculated 24 h after thawin ...19902267730
recognition of conserved surface protein epitopes on anaplasma centrale and anaplasma marginale isolates from israel, kenya and the united states. 19882452797
cloned dna probes identify anaplasma ovis in goats and reveal a high prevalence of infection.anaplasma organisms are observed in erythrocytes from goats with anemia and weight loss in kenya. three anaplasmas have been isolated in nature, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma marginale, and anaplasma centrale. the two recognized species, a. ovis and a. marginale, are known to infect goats. since only a. ovis causes clinical disease in goats, the anaplasma species in goats in kenya were identified. to detect a. ovis, a 9.6-kilobase-pair section of genomic dna was cloned into pbr322 (pao12a) and was u ...19892592538
heterologous antibody responses of calves to anaplasma centrale and a. marginale.antigens of anaplasma centrale, onderstepoort isolate, and a. marginale, wacol isolate, were analysed by a western blotting technique. sera from a. centrale-infected calves reacted to 41- and 38-kda antigens in a. centrale and a 41-kda antigen in a. marginale. serum collected during the primary reaction from an a. marginale-infected calf reacted only to the 41-kda antigen of a. marginale; heterologous antibody response to the 41-kda antigen of a. centrale did occur later during the infection, bu ...19892728329
infectivity of cryopreserved babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale for cattle after thawing, dilution and incubation at 30 degrees c.blood containing either babesia bovis, babesia bigemina or anaplasma centrale was mixed with an equal volume of 3 m glycerol in phosphate-buffered saline with or without glucose and then stored in liquid nitrogen for 2-30 days. after being thawed, the parasitized blood was subjected to various procedures, including dilution up to 1000-fold followed by incubation at 30 or 4 degrees c for 8 h, before infectivity of the parasites was tested in a total of 70 cattle. the results showed that the blood ...19892763444
dna probes for the detection of anaplasma centrale and anaplasma marginale.anaplasmosis can be diagnosed either by immunological techniques or by direct microscopic examination of blood smears. both methods are time-consuming and labour intensive. the use of dna probes in an hybridization assay may simplify the diagnosis of anaplasmosis in cattle and sheep. a genomic dna library of anaplasma centrale was constructed in an expression vector and screened to detect clones containing a. centrale dna. four probes which hybridized to a. centrale and anaplasma marginale dna w ...19872832800
bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (blv) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (ebl) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. the failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (ag ...19882847702
prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in thai blood donors.antibodies to cytomegalovirus (cmv) were determined in thai blood donors using the complement fixation (cf) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). a total of 203 voluntary blood donors, 181 males and 22 females, who came to the blood bank at siriraj hospital during february 1985, were investigated. their ages ranged from 17 to 53 years (mean 24.3 +/- 6.9). seventy-three out of 156 (46.8%) and 171 out of 203 (84.2%) sera were positive for cmv antibodies as detected by the cf test and ...19853000401
diabetic embryopathy and fuel-mediated organ teratogenesis: lessons from animal models.the growing recognition that faulty maternal metabolism during early organogenesis may be implicated in the increased incidence of birth defects in pregnancies complicated by diabetes has prompted worldwide efforts to institute improved preconceptional metabolic regulation. however, the failure to identify the periods of greatest risk for diabetic embryopathy, the mediating teratogen(s), and the underlying mechanisms have complicated attempts to establish precise therapeutic guidelines and targe ...19883053387
epidemiological patterns and incidence of bio-, sero- and phage types of vibrio cholerae in hyderabad, india, during 1971-1984.during 1971-1984 out of 44,762 gastroenteritis cases bacteriologically examined, 4240 (9.5%) vibrio cholerae were isolated in hyderabad, india. out of them 1329 (31.3%) were classical and 2911 (68.7%) were el-tor biotypes. the changeover from classical to el-tor cholera was observed in hyderabad during 1975 and persisted. during this 14 year period four major outbreaks with v. cholerae serogroup o1 ogawa, v. cholerae biotype el-tor serogroup o1 ogawa were observed. phage types 1, 2 and 4 were pr ...19883067503
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to anaplasma centrale. 19883172604
hybridization of dna probes to a. marginale isolates from different sources and detection in dermacentor andersoni ticks.dna from the washington, south-idaho, virginia and florida isolates of anaplasma marginale was hybridized to probes specific for anaplasma centrale and a. marginale. the a. centrale probes ac-2 and ac-4 hybridized to identical bands on all of these isolates. the hybridization patterns suggests that the virginia, florida and the south african isolates are similar. a number of bands were obtained with the washington isolate which differed from those obtained with the other isolates. probe ac-2 cou ...19883217095
cytotoxic escherichia coli. 19873305326
audiological management in the recovery phase of bacterial meningitis.during a specified 12-month period, a prospective study of all children admitted to a 139-bed city children's hospital with confirmed bacterial meningitis enabled assessment audiologically at 48 h, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-admission using a test battery approach including auditory brainstem evoked responses and tympanometry. results suggested conductive dysfunction to be a major cause of fluctuating hearing loss within the group. the incidence of sensori-neural loss was 16.6% of ears tested at ...19883372144
the persistence of colostral anaplasma antibodies and incidence of in utero transmission of anaplasma infections in calves under laboratory conditions.twenty-six calves, born from 25 anaplasma-infected, intact and splenectomized cows, from a herd kept under strict tick-free laboratory conditions, were monitored for the presence of anaplasma antibodies, using the rapid card agglutination test. serum was collected at birth, weekly for 12 weeks, and then monthly for approximately 6 months. specific antibodies passively acquired could be detected in calf sera for an average period of 8 weeks after birth. calves that remained positive for longer th ...19873444609
tick transmission of anaplasma centrale.anaplasma centrale was isolated from a field collection of rhipicephalus simus. transstadial transmission of a. centrale with adult ticks was demonstrated, but the infection was not carried transovarially. ticks from this collection were subsequently reared as a non-infected, laboratory strain. it was proved that the onderstepoort live blood vaccine strain of a. centrale, isolated by theiler in 1911, is still tick transmissible after more than 75 years of needle passage through cattle in the lab ...19873587927
the genome of anaplasma: dna base composition and dna/dna hybridization.the tm value of dna from anaplasma centrale and anaplasma marginale was found to be 87.1 degrees c and 89.3 degrees c, respectively. the g + c content, calculated from the tm, was 45.1% for a. centrale and 48.5% for a. marginale. identical hybridization patterns were obtained when the dna from one species was hybridized to restriction endonuclease-digested dna from the other species.19873587929
frozen anaplasma centrale vaccine against anaplasmosis in cattle. 19863594187
vaccination with anaplasma centrale: response after an experimental challenge with anaplasma marginale.the haematological and clinical responses to vaccination with anaplasma centrale and to subsequent challenge with anaplasma marginale were evaluated. twenty holstein steers 14 to 16 months of age were divided into two groups of 12 and eight animals respectively (groups i and ii). group i was inoculated on day zero with 10(7) a. centrale-infected erythrocytes and group ii was kept as a control. on day 125 both groups were challenged with 5 x 10(7) a. marginale-infected erythrocytes. a. centrale i ...19873629722
epizootiology and control of anaplasmosis in south africa.the history of bovine anaplasmosis, or tick-born gallsickness, since the discovery of anaplasma marginale by sir arnold theiler is briefly reviewed. the development of the anaplasma centrale vaccine by theiler, up to the composition of the present vaccine issued by onderstepoort in which the original isolate is still passaged, is discussed in detail. recent transmission studies at onderstepoort have shown that 5 tick species are capable of transmitting anaplasmosis intrastadially, and intrastadi ...1979399978
endorectal pull-through with conservation of the rectal mucosa: experimental study.the present experimental work was designed to study an abdominoanal pull-through technique, with conservation of rectal mucosa. continence was evaluated from clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic standpoints. the animals defecated normally. a good retention of barium was seen in the radiologic enema. on the reexploration of the animals, we found a distal dehiscence with elevation of the intussuscepted stump towards the rectum in all. a reepithelization process of serosa of the intussuscepted ...19873681633
origin of ascending auditory projections to the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis in the chicken.ascending auditory projections to the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (mld) were studied in white leghorn chickens by means of unilateral injections of horseradish peroxidase into the mld and by injections of tritiated leucine into nucleus angularis or the combined nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris. the experiments showed that nucleus angularis sends an extensive projection to the contralateral mld and a smaller projection to the rostral pole of the ipsilateral mld; t ...19863697720
capillary permeability in rat hindquarters as determined by estimations of capillary reflection coefficients.osmotic reflection coefficients (sigma) for a variety of solutes ranging from nacl to albumin were determined in perfused maximally vasodilated rat hindquarters employing the osmotic transient method (vargas & johnson 1964). measurements were performed at high flows and using short tubings with small volumes. intracapillary solute concentrations of the osmotic transients were measured or estimated for solutes of the size of inulin or smaller. the ps for cr-edta and cyanocobalamine were determine ...19863751629
a comparison of the effects of climbing fiber deafferentation in adult and weanling rats.the climbing fiber input to the cerebellar cortex was destroyed using both electrolytic and chemical (3-acetylpyridine) lesions. the long-term effects of climbing fiber deafferentation on the ansiform lobule of weanling and adult rats were examined at both the light and electron microscopic levels. image analysis of golgi-impregnated purkinje cells indicated a significantly lower number of smooth branches and spiny branchlets following climbing fiber deafferentation of both adult and weanling ra ...19863768690
hydatid disease: research and control in turkana. ii. the role of immunological techniques for the diagnosis of hydatid disease.immunological studies have been applied to the immunodiagnosis of human hydatidosis in turkana and for the specific identification of echinococcus eggs, particularly in regard to their potential for the assessment of a hydatid control programme in the north-west of the district. a high rate of false negatives has been obtained with sensitive antibody tests for proven hydatid patients in turkana and presents problems for prevalence estimation in the population. a seroepidemiological study using s ...19863787677
the effects of colchicine and vinblastine on the biliary excretion of carcinoembryonic antigen.the biliary output of carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) in bile fistula rats following treatment with the microtubule poisons vinblastine and colchicine increased 3-fold over a 4-hr period. cytochalasin b and the inactive colchicine derivative lumicolchicine had no effect. these treatments did not effect the rate of cea clearance from the circulation. biliary output of low molecular weight fragments from cea degradation was decreased in the presence of colchicine and vinblastine. mechanical obstruc ...19853979951
comparative response of friesian milking cows and calves to anaplasma centrale vaccine. 19853995254
the chemistry of allergens. xxi. eight new antigens generated by successive pepsin hydrolyses of bovine -lactoglobulin. 19724114295
[enhancement of the antimycetic effictiveness of griseofulvin by dimethylsulfoxide in vitro]. 19684235699
separation and quantitative determination of 32p-labelled lipids from brain particulates by thin-layer chromatography. 19664290960
separation and quantitative determination of 32p-labelled lipids from brain particulates by thin-layer chromatography. 19664290960
accommodation of monosynaptic transmission in spinal motoneurone. 19664307133
alkaline phosphatase activity associated with the nuclear pore in normal and neoplastic salivary gland tissue. 19744443554
[anaplasmosis in taiwan. ii. import of exotic cattle and premunition with anaplasma centrale]. 19685693575
clinical and hematologic comparison of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale infections in cattle. 19665967335
serological relationship of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale as measured by the complement-fixation and capillary tube agglutination tests. 19676040643
a study of the immunological relationship of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale. 19676070725
infectivity virulence and immunogenicity of anaplasma centrale live blood vaccine.cross-bred bos taurus calves, aged between 6 and 8 months, were inoculated with the onderstepoort anaplasma centrale live blood vaccine. one group of 15 calves were inoculated once only, while a 2nd group of 15 were revaccinated 6 months later. all the animals were challenged with approximately 1 x 10(10) anaplasma marginale parasites of a known virulent strain 8 months after the first vaccination. the results of blood smear examination and the card agglutination test indicated that only 20 out ...19836348636
comparison of blood smear and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques in detection of haemoparasite infections in trade cattle in nigeria.the incidence of blood parasites in trade cattle was surveyed with emphasis on tick-borne parasites, using blood smears and immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) techniques. with the blood smear method, about 9 and 8.9% of cattle examined were found positive for babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale, respectively. percentage infections with other parasites were 3.33, 1.92, 0.75, 0.75 and 0.58, respectively, for babesia bovis, trypanosoma brucei, anaplasma centrale, eperythrozoon and theileria spec ...19846369761
preparation and laboratory testing of a frozen vaccine containing babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale.procedures used to prepare and test frozen vaccine against bovine tick fever are described. blood from splenectomised calves infected separately with babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale was diluted in the ratio of 3:1 with 8 m dimethyl sulphoxide in phosphate buffered saline and cooled at rates between 5 degrees c and 110 degrees c per minute to -196 degrees c. after varying periods of storage up to 369 days, blood was thawed by immersing containers in a 40 degrees c water bat ...19827079601
live vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases in vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases in livestock are based on parasites derived from culture (theileria annulata), from blood of infected animals (babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, anaplasma centrale, (attenuated) anaplasma marginale and cowdria ruminantium), and from ticks (theileria parva). the t. annulata attenuated cultured schizont vaccine is safe for all varieties of cattle. blood derived vaccines are recommended mainly for young cattle, the age limit varying with the different vac ...19957597786
protein analysis of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.protein compositions of anaplasma marginale and a. centrale were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. both species had a major protein which was composed of 3-4 spots. the molecular weights of these two proteins were approximately 39 kda. however, the position of these proteins in the gels were slightly different when 2 gel maps were superimposed. five other protein spots were shared by a. marginale and a. centrale, whereas all the other protein spots were appeared to be unique to ea ...19947865577
detection of theileria sergenti infection in cattle by polymerase chain reaction amplification of parasite-specific dna.a pair of synthetic oligonucleotide primers, designed from the gene encoding a 32-kda intraerythrocytic piroplasm surface protein of theileria sergenti, were used to amplify parasite dna from the blood of t. sergenti-infected cattle by means of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). pcr-amplified dna was examined by electrophoresis and by dot blot or microplate hybridization using a parasite-specific cdna probe. pcr was specific for t. sergenti, since no amplification was detected with dna from an ...19938253950
detection of theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by pcr.we report the detection of theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, by pcr in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle. the assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kda major merozoite surface antigen of t. annulata. a 721-bp fragment was amplified from blood samples taken monthly from calves experimentally infected with one of four different stocks of t. annulata originating in either mauritania, portugal, spain, or turkey. at the end of the experim ...19958567902
field observations on the duration of immunity in cattle after vaccination against anaplasma and babesia an outbreak of babesia bovis in a large herd of friesian x malawi zebu cattle, which occurred after an interruption of intensive dipping, clinical or fatal babesiosis occurred in 54/299 (18.1%) animals which had never been vaccinated, as compared to 9/153 (5.9%) vaccinated animals. eight of the nine affected vaccinates had been vaccinated more than 27 months previously. sera were collected every 3-4 months from 33 friesian x malawi zebu heifers maintained with intensive dipping and vaccinated ...19968848296
improving the specificity of indirect immunofluorescence for the serological diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis.fluorescing inclusion appendages were detected consistently in preparations of anaplasma centrale and anaplasma marginale when they were used as antigen in indirect immunofluorescence serological tests for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis in cattle. the presence of the inclusion appendages made it possible to confirm the specificity of the immunofluorescent reaction and to determine end-points with accuracy.19968848303
comparison of the infectivity of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale for cattle after cryopreservation in either dimethylsulphoxide (dmso) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp). 19979034504
babesial antibody dynamics after cattle immunisation with live vaccines, measured with an indirect immunofluorescence test.the efficacy of vaccination of argentinean cattle against babesiosis and anaplasmosis using live immunogens was tested to detect specific antibodies in samples obtained about 60 days after vaccination. under these conditions a higher than expected proportion of cattle failed to show antibodies against babesia bigemina. therefore, a study was designed to evaluate if this failure was due to insensitivity of the routine test to detect antibodies to b. bigemina or to lack of infectivity of the live ...19979195707
vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases in israel with special reference to quality assurance.four vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases (anaplasmosis, babesiosis and theileriosis) and a vaccine against besnoitiosis are currently used in israel. these vaccines contain live attenuated parasites derived from cell culture (theileria annulata and besnoitia besnoiti) or from blood of infected, splenectomized calves (babesia bigemina, b. bovis and anaplasma centrale). cryopreserved master seed is used to initiate production of the vaccines. quality control performed during the preproduction ...19979512751
observations on the use of anaplasma centrale for immunization of cattle against anaplasmosis in zimbabwe.a total of 93 bos taurus cattle was used in pen trials to compare vaccine stocks of anaplasma centrale from south africa and australia (which stock came from south africa in 1934) in protecting against three virulent field isolates from clinical anaplasma marginale infections. in addition, field observations were made on the use of a vaccine, prepared from the australian stock, in over 9553 cattle of mixed age and breeds on 16 co-operator farms and at one communal dip. the results of the pen tri ...19989741051
comparison of a competitive inhibition elisa and the card agglutination test for detection of antibodies to anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale in compare a recently developed recombinant msp-5 competitive inhibition elisa with a card agglutination test for detection of antibodies to anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale in australian cattle.199910330556
evaluation of a commercially available elisa kit for detection of antibodies to anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale in cattle in australia and zimbabwe.a newly available competitive inhibition elisa kit for the serological diagnosis of anaplasmosis was evaluated in australia and zimbabwe. in australia the performance of the test was compared with the card agglutination test (cat). the assay was evaluated using negative sera collected from anaplasma-free herds, positive sera from experimentally infected cattle and sera from anaplasma marginale-endemic herds. the sensitivity and specificity of the elisa in australia were 100 % and 83,3 %, respect ...200011028743
anaplasmosis control and diagnosis in south africa.anaplasmosis is widespread in south africa with more than 99% of the total cattle population at risk. five tick species have been experimentally shown to be capable of transmitting anaplasma in south africa. mechanical transmission through blood contaminated instruments and biting flies also occurs. vaccination against anaplasma marginale by administration of an anaplasma centrale live-blood vaccine has been practiced in this country since 1912. although generally a mild pathogen, anaplasma cent ...200011193662
analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence of anaplasma centrale and its phylogenetic relatedness to other ehrlichiae.the nucleotide sequence of the anaplasma centrale 16s rrna gene was determined and compared with the sequences of ehrlichial bacteria. the sequence of a. centrale was closely related to anaplasma marginale by both level-of-similarity (98.08% identical) and distance analysis. a species-specific pcr was developed based upon the alignment data. the pcr can detect a. centrale dna extracted from 10 infected bovine red blood cells in a reaction mixture. a. centrale dna was amplified in the reaction, b ...200111238202
identification of antigenic differences that discriminate between cattle vaccinated with anaplasma centrale and cattle naturally infected with anaplasma marginale.monoclonal antibodies were raised against the vaccine strain of anaplasma centrale used in australia. a monoclonal antibody that reacted with an 80 kda antigen was used to develop an a. centrale-specific fluorescent antibody test that will be useful for confirming species identity in patent infections. another monoclonal antibody that reacted with a 116 kda antigen was used to develop an a. centrale-specific competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the serological ide ...200111239938
use of repetitive dna elements to define genetic relationships among anaplasma marginale isolates.anaplasma marginale genomic dna was tested for the presence of repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (eric)-like sequences in order to evaluate the genetic diversity of multiple a. marginale isolates. a. marginale isolates were obtained from cattle of six different states of brazil, from the us and an anaplasma centrale strain was obtained from uruguay. patterns obtained from a. marginale isolates varied from 14 to 17 fragments by rep-polymer ...200111313126
citrate synthase gene sequence: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis and identification of ehrlichia.the sequence of the citrate synthase gene (glta) of 13 ehrlichial species (ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia muris, an ehrlichia species recently detected from ixodes ovatus, cowdria ruminantium, ehrlichia phagocytophila, ehrlichia equi, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [hge] agent, anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale, ehrlichia sennetsu, ehrlichia risticii, and neorickettsia helminthoeca) have been determined by degenerate pcr and the genome walker method. the ehrlichial ...200111526124
expression of major surface protein 2 variants with conserved t-cell epitopes in anaplasma centrale vaccinates.major surface protein 2 (msp-2), identified as a protection-inducing immunogen against anaplasma marginale challenge, is an immunodominant outer membrane protein with orthologues in all examined anaplasma species. although immunization with live anaplasma centrale has long been used to induce protection against acute disease upon challenge with virulent a. marginale, its msp-2 structure and whether msp-2 variants are generated during persistence of the vaccine strain was unknown. in this study, ...200211796593
detection of the anaplasma centralevaccine strain and specific differentiation from anaplasma marginale in vaccinated and infected cattle.bovine anaplasmosis caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne disease of cattle worldwide. the most efficient method to control anaplasmosis is by vaccination using live anaplasma centrale, a closely related species or subspecies of low pathogenicity that is capable of inducing significant protection against the more virulent a. marginale. in the present study, we applied pcr assays to detect and discriminate field infection with a. marginale ...200212107477
humoral immune response and hematologic evaluation of pregnant jersey cows after vaccination with anaplasma centrale.the main objective of this work was to evaluate the safety of an anaplasma centrale vaccine in pregnant pure bred jersey cows selected from a herd located at miranda state, venezuela. ten cows of 3-5 months of gestation were chosen and previous vaccination all cows were tested for anaplasma antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa), so only seronegative cows were included in the group, and for blood parameters, rectal temperature, and pregnancy. selected cows were vaccinated intr ...200312829387
overcoming constraints to meeting increased demand for babesia bigemina vaccine in australia.demand for live trivalent tick fever vaccine containing babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale produced by the department of primary industries, queensland, has increased from less than 10,000 doses in 1988 to 500,000 doses in 2001. this paper describes a series of trials aimed at overcoming certain constraints to obtain b. bigemina parasitised erythrocytes (pes) on a large enough scale from infected splenectomised calves to meet the demand. passage through a series of splenectom ...200312935736
assessment of a low virulence australian isolate of anaplasma marginale for pathogenicity, immunogenicity and transmissibility by boophilus microplus.a 14-year-old cow (dawn) born and kept in a boophilus microplus-free region gave birth to a calf, which showed the presence of an anaplasma marginale infection after splenectomy. the calf's grand dam was from a b. microplus infected area and we assume the infection originated via the transplacental route over two generations. an isolate, prepared from the calf, had similar or lower pathogenicity as anaplasma centrale, and previously exposed steers were resistant to challenge by four a. marginale ...200314651881
a novel antigen from anaplasma marginale: characterization, expression and preliminary evaluation of the recombinant protein.through a process of protein fractionation and vaccination we previously identified four native antigens that confer a degree of protection against challenge with anaplasma marginale. one of these, ana 29 has been successfully cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers designed to n-terminal and internal peptide sequences. the full-length gene codes for a protein with a theoretical molecular weight of 27 kda and pi 8.6. the sequence is highly conserved, showing 99% identity between two austra ...200414670322
molecular conservation of msp4 and msp5 in anaplasma marginale and a. centrale vaccine strain.anaplasma centrale msp4 and msp5 genes were cloned and sequenced, and the recombinant proteins were expressed. the identity between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale msp4 was 83% in the nucleotide sequences and 91.7% in the encoded protein sequences. a. centrale msp5 nucleotide sequences shared 86.8% identity with a. marginale msp5, and there was 92.9% homology between a. centrale and a. marginale encoded amino acids of the msp5 protein. southern blots hybridized with probes derived from the m ...200415135513
amplification of 16s rrna genes of anaplasma species in china for phylogenetic this study, a phylogenetic tree was inferred through comparing five 16s rrna gene sequences of four isolates of anaplasma ovis and one of anaplasma marginale in china with all nineteen 16s rrna gene sequences deposited in genbank (12 a. marginale, 3 a. ovis and 4 anaplasma centrale derived from america, uruguay, south africa, zimbabwe, australia, isreal and japan). the analysis showed that all a. ovis isolated in china were separated into an a. ovis cluster, while the a. marginale in china wa ...200515795086
comparative study of anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.a comparative study on the prevalence of anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during february, march and april. thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively ...200516252338
molecular and serological detection of a. centrale- and a. marginale-infected cattle grazing within an endemic area.a reverse line blot hybridization (rlb) one-stage nested pcr (npcr) for anaplasma centrale and a nested pcr for anaplasma marginale were used to detect infected cattle grazing within an endemic region in israel. a novel set of pcr primers and oligonucleotide probes based on a 16s ribosomal rna gene was designed for rlb detection of both anaplasma species, and the performance of the molecular assays compared. the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifa) was used to detect antibodies to both anaplasm ...200616300909
novel genetic variants of anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma bovis, anaplasma centrale, and a novel ehrlichia sp. in wild deer and ticks on two major islands in japan.wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of ehrlichia and anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the united states and europe. the primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of ehrlichia and anaplasma naturally infect deer in japan. blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major japanese islands, hokkaido and honshu, were tested for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma by pcr assays and sequencing of ...200616461655
prevalence and genetic diversity of anaplasma marginale strains in cattle in south africa.bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-borne rickettsia anaplasma marginale, is endemic in south africa and results in considerable economic loss to the cattle industry. this study was designed to characterize strains of a. marginale at the molecular level from cattle raised in communal and commercial farms in the north-eastern and south-western regions of the free state province, south africa, that varied in rainfall and vegetation. seroprevalence to a. marginale was determined in 755 cattle b ...200717359443
detection and quantification of anaplasma marginale dna in blood samples of cattle by real-time pcr.a taqman-based real-time pcr assay was developed for the diagnosis of anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. the established assay was proven to be highly specific, since no cross-reactions were observed with other anaplasma species of ruminants, including the closely related anaplasma centrale, or other haemoparasites of ruminants (anaplasma bovis, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata and theileria buffeli). the detection limit was equ ...200717466470
concomitant infection of cattle with the vaccine strain anaplasma marginale ss centrale and field strains of a. marginale.bovine anaplasmosis, caused by anaplasma marginale, the intraerythrocytic rickettsia, is controlled by vaccination with live anaplasma marginale ss centrale (a. centrale), a subspecies of relatively low pathogenicity. we have experimentally demonstrated that an animal primarily infected with a. marginale, or with the related vaccine subspecies a. centrale can be infected with the heterologous subspecies, and carries both bacteria. the co-infection was detected in experimentally cross-infected ca ...200818387757
first report of bovine anaplasmosis by anaplasma centrale in europe, molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. 200818696245
duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection and quantification of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale.anaplasma marginale and anaplasma centrale are rickettsial pathogens responsible for acute disease and mild infections, respectively, in cattle herds. a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay with probes labeled with different fluorophores was developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of a. marginale and a. centrale dna in bovine blood samples. the assay was able to detect as few as 10(1) and 10(2) dna copies for a. marginale and a. centrale, respectively, with opti ...200818776093
experimental transmission of field anaplasma marginale and the a. centrale vaccine strain by hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks.the cattle rickettsia anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only rhipicephalus simus, a strictly african tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of a. centrale. the aim of the present study was to examine transmission of field strains of a. marginale and of the vaccine strain of a. centrale by three tick species -hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus - to susceptible calves. ...200918823724
first report of bovine anaplasmosis caused by anaplasma centrale in europe.anaplasma centrale (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) is used as a live vaccine for cattle against the pathogenic anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas. herein we report a clinical case of bovine anaplasmosis associated with a. centrale infection in italy, together with the first molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of this anaplasma species or subspecies in europe.200819120185
independence of anaplasma marginale strains with high and low transmission efficiencies in the tick vector following simultaneous acquisition by feeding on a superinfected mammalian reservoir host.strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already carrying a primary strain. anaplasma marginale superinfection occurs when the second strain carries a variant repertoire different from that of the primary strain, and the epidemiologic consequences depend on the relative efficiencies of tick-borne transmission of the two strains. following strain superinfection in the reservoir host, we tested whether the presence of two a. marginale (sensu lato) strains that diff ...200919188360
viability assays of intra-erythrocytic organisms using fluorescent dyes.three intra-erythrocytic tick fever organisms of cattle (babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale) were subjected to a range of stressors, including heat, storage over time, specific chemotherapy and cryopreservation. various stains, both alone and in combination, were used in an attempt to assess viability of these organisms before and after the stressors were applied. carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (cfse) stained live babesia spp. very well while fluorescein diac ...200919380205
complete genome sequence of anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale.anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. we sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto a. marginale strains. the comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein candidates for development of a safer inactivated vaccine and provides insight into the diversity among strains of senso lato a. marginale.201019854912
sir arnold theiler and the discovery of anaplasmosis: a centennial perspective.sir arnold theiler's research in 1908/09 led to the discovery of the first rickettsial pathogen, anaplasma marginale, and set the stage for his development and implementation of an effective live vaccine based on a less virulent strain, a. marginale ss. centrale. his 1910 report, describing a. marginale, is among the classic monographs in infectious disease research, presenting not only observations in exacting detail but also highlighting the deductive reasoning leading to association of a new ...200919967931
identification of anaplasma centrale major surface protein-2 pseudogenes.the present study was aimed to identify msp2 pseudogenes and msp2 variants in the vaccine anaplama centrale strain. five msp2 pseudogenes were identified in the a. centrale genome, and multiple msp2 variants that emerged during both acute and persistent infection were detected. the pseudogene copies of msp2 were truncated; they contained a central hypervariable region flanked by short portions of the 5' and 3' conserved regions. alignment of the hypervariable region sequence of the expression si ...201020036077
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 165