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restriction endonuclease from haemophilus gallinarum (hgai) cleaves polyoma dna at four locations.a restriction endonuclease obtained from haemophilus gallinarum (hgai) cleaves polyoma dna at four specific sites. using the ecori, hindiii, and hpaii endonuclease restriction sites as reference, the four hgai cleavage sites were mapped at 0.02, 0.14, 0.27, and 0.48 fractional lengths, clockwise, from the single ecori cleavage site.1976178910
the use of haemophilus gallinarum dna-relaxing enzyme to investigate the relationship between the number of superhelical turns and the molecular weight in a negatively twisted dna.covalently closed-circular, superhelical dnas, including viral dnas, bacterial plasmid dnas, and bacteriophage replicative-form dna, were treated with a small amount of haemophilus gallinarum dna-relaxing enzyme to generate incompletely relaxed dna molecules. each sample consisted of a set of closed-circular dna molecules differing by one turn in their number of superhelical turns. the dna samples were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis under conditions such that the electrophoretic mobilit ...1979229100
psychological, physiological, and pharmacological management of pain.it has been the intent of the authors to impress upon the clinician the multifaceted nature of the human pain experience. we have sought to create an understanding of the emotional nature of pain. the treatment of pain as a pure sensation without directing attention to its behavioral and psychological aspects will generally lead to failure in understanding and ultimately in treating this ubiquitous problem in our profession. the use of drugs alone will have only a minor effect on the treatment o ...1977267605
cleavage specificity of the restriction endonuclease isolated from haemophilus gallinarum (hga i).the nucleotide sequences in the replicative form (duplex) of phix174 dna around six sites cut by hga i, a restriction endonuclease from haemophilus gallinarum, have been compared. the enzyme produces a staggered cleavage resulting in a pentanucleotide 5'-terminal extension. the sequences within and immediately surrounding the pentanucleotide cleavage site have no obvious relationship. however, the sequence 5'-g-a-c-g-c-3' 3'-c-t-g-c-g-5' occurs five nucleotide pairs to the left of the cut in th ...1977269384
separation with trypsin of hemagglutinin of haemophilus paragallinarum. 1979430932
the activity of levamisole against benzimidazole resistant haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis. 1979516343
haemophilus infections in chickens. i. characterization of haemophilus paragallinarum isolated from chickens affected with coryza. 1978565424
recognition sequence of a restriction endonuclease from haemophilus gallinarum.from comparison of the sequences in and around the cleavage sites of restriction endonuclease hgai isolated from haemophilus gallinarum, the recognition sequence and cleavage site of this enzyme was deduced as below: (formula: see text) this enzyme recognizes a specific but asymmetric penta-nucleotide sequence, gcgtc, and introduces staggered cleavages at appointed positions away from the recognition sequence, generating protruding 5'-ends of five nucleotides. the sequences surrounding the cleav ...1978631561
infectious coryza: preventing complicated coryza with haemophilus gallinarum and mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterins.three types of infectious coryza were produced in unvaccinated chickens by challenge inoculums containing different combinations of haemophilus gallinarum (hg) and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg). monovalent and combination bacterins of hg and mg were tested to determine their efficacy against chronic complicated infectious coryza. challenge exposure of vaccinates with mg and hg showed protection against the hg component to be immunotype-specific. some protection against complicated coryza resulte ...1978646755
haemophilus infections in chickens. 2. types of haemophilus paragallinarum isolates from chickens with infectious coryza, in relation to haemophilus gallinarum strain no. 221. 1978723100
slide-agglutination test of haemophilus gallinarum antigen treated by trypsin to inhibit spontaneous agglutination.spontaneous agglutination of haemophilus gallinarum (hg) cells cultured in kato's broth was inhibited by trypsin treatment. the treated cell had the same antigenicity as the common antigen prepared from chicken meat infusion broth. trypsinized antigen could be used in the slide-agglutination test to detect hg antibody in chicken serum.1978749897
production and properties of hemagglutinin of haemophilus gallinarum.production of hemagglutinin (ha) of haemophilus gallinarum was compared in some media, and its properties were studied. ha was produced in kato's media, brain heart infusion (bhi) broth containing beta-diphosphopyridine nucleotide, and chicken meat infusion (cmi) broth. the ha in cmi broth different according to the concentration of the chicken serum; no ha titer was found in 0.5% or more chicken serum, but ha was activated by storage in a refrigerator. cells of h. gallinarum cultured for a long ...1977843302
experimental coryza in broiler chickens. i. effects of vaccination with haemophilus gallinarum bacterin and its components on weight gains and resistance to infection.effects of a haemophilus gallinarum bacterin and its components were studied in young broiler chickens. when the bacterin was administered subcutaneously in the dorsal neck region at 2 weeks of age, no significant differences in weight gains of vaccinated and control birds were detected at eight weeks of age. in four groups vaccinated at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks of age and challenged with virulent haemophilus organisms 3 weeks later, the incidence of clinical signs was 30% in the vaccinates and 60% i ...1977907579
further observations on the use of a bivalent bacterin against haemophilus gallinarum.chickens vaccinated with two doses of a bivalent haemophilus gallinarum bacterin were protected against seven strains of the organism. vaccinated and unvaccinated birds with antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum had increased hi titers when challenged with h. gallinarum. birds positive for antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum which were not challenged showed no increase in hi titer.1976962761
enhancement of hemagglutinating activity of haemophilus gallinarum by trypsin.it is shown that hemagglutination (ha) activity of haemophilus gallinarum is enhanced by trypsin. ha activation was more effective at 37 c than at room temperature.1976962767
a growth medium for the production of a bacterin for immunization against infectious coryza.a serum-free modified casman broth medium was developed to grow haemophilus gallinarum to titers of 10-8 organisms per ml. formalin-inactivated bacterins prepared form the broth culture were used to immunize chickens. a single dose of bacterin containing adjuvant protected 6 of 7 chickens against a homologous challenge 4 weeks postvaccination. a second dose given 3 weeks after the first offered no better protection than a single dose.19751156259
the effect of atmospheric conditions on the growth of haemophilus gallinarum in a defined medium. 19761255134
an evaluation of inactivated infectious coryza vaccines containing a double-emulsion adjuvant system.the efficacy of experimental inactivated infectious coryza vaccines produced by a commercial vaccine manufacturer was evaluated. the vaccines, containing as the adjuvant phase either a double-emulsion mineral oil system or aluminum-hydroxide gel, were administered to 6-week-old chickens as a single dose. some vaccines were a monovalent product containing a page serovar c haemophilus paragallinarum strain, and others were a bivalent product containing both page serovar a and serovar c strains. af ...19921417593
correlation between the ability of haemophilus paragallinarum to acquire ovotransferrin-bound iron and the expression of ovotransferrin-specific receptors.to investigate the mechanisms of iron acquisition in avian haemophili, strains of haemophilus paragallinarum and h. avium were tested for siderophore production and utilization of transferrin iron for growth. no evidence of siderophore production was detected in either of these species using a functional screening assay. h. paragallinarum, but not strains of h. avium, was able to acquire iron from 30% saturated chicken and turkey transferrins but not from human, porcine, or bovine transferrins. ...19921417595
efficacy of a trivalent haemophilus paragallinarum vaccine compared to bivalent vaccines.the efficacy of a trivalent oil-adjuvant coryza vaccine containing serotypes a, b and c of haemophilus paragallinarum has been compared with that of a bivalent oil-adjuvant coryza vaccine containing serotypes a and c and that of a commercially available, bivalent a1(oh)3-potentiated vaccine, containing types a and c. the trivalent vaccine, given at 10 and 17 weeks of age, provided the best protection. even at 55 weeks after booster vaccination, chickens were still significantly protected, follow ...19921514236
preparation and use of an autogenous bacterin against infectious coryza in chickens.an experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of an autogenous bacterin against infectious coryza from a local strain of haemophilus paragallinarum in morocco compared with a commercial vaccine. hens were vaccinated with a single dose or two doses of the bacterin at 15 and 18 weeks of age. both the autogenous and the commercial vaccine conferred significant protection against experimental challenge (94% and 88%, respectively). a single dose was less protective with both vaccines.19911803720
an evaluation of the cross-protection afforded by inactivated infectious coryza vaccines.the cross-protection afforded by three inactivated infectious coryza vaccines was evaluated. each vaccine contained one of the following strains of haemophilus paragallinarum, hp31, hp60 and hp14. strain hp31 belongs to kume serovar c-2, strain hp60 belongs to kume serovar c-4 while strain hp14 belongs to kume serovar a-4. four groups of twenty six-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were either given a single dose of an aluminium-hydroxide based vaccine (three groups) or left as unvaccinat ...19911835373
expression of hemagglutinin of haemophilus paragallinarum serotype a in escherichia coli.the genomic dna of haemophilus paragallinarum (hpg) serotype a strain 221 was cloned into vector plasmid pbr322. the recombinant plasmids were introduced into escherichia coli (e. coli) strain c600. subsequently, a total of 277 transformants were obtained. one, designated strain no. 6, expressed hemagglutination activity against chicken erythrocytes. strain no. 6 contained the recombinant plasmid pnv102, and dna of about 2.57 kb was inserted into pnv102. when strain no. 6 was cured of pnv102, th ...19911836382
immunogenicity of haemophilus paragallinarum serovar b strains.immunogenicity of three haemophilus paragallinarum serovar b strains was investigated in cross-protection tests using monovalent vaccines prepared from the b strains, as well as one strain each of serovars a and c. a bivalent vaccine composed of the serovar a and c strains also was used. in the studies with the monovalent vaccines, the immunogenicity of serovar b strains was different from that of serovar a and c strains, although only partial serovar b-specific protection with the three strains ...19911838478
pathogenicity and serovar-specific hemagglutinating antigens of haemophilus paragallinarum serovar b strains.the pathogenicity and presence of serovar-specific hemagglutinating (ha) antigens of haemophilus paragallinarum serovar b reference strains 0222 and spross and field isolates 24268 and 24317 were investigated. chickens challenged with all strains except strain 0222 showed clinical signs of infectious coryza. for all four strains, challenged chickens had intrasinus lesions and were colonized by the challenge organism. before and after hyaluronidase treatment, strains 0222, 24268, and 24317 showed ...19902149263
evaluation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies in the subtyping of haemophilus paragallinarum.a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was evaluated, using a hemagglutination-inhibition test, for its ability to subtype 76 isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum. the results of the mab reactions were compared with the results of both the page and kume serotyping schemes (the serovars of the page scheme correspond to the serogroups of the kume scheme). one mab (e5c12d10) was raised against a page serovar a strain and the remaining mabs (f2e6, d6d8d5, and b3e6f9) against a page serovar c ...19911786026
epidemiologic studies on infectious coryza outbreaks in northern new south wales, australia, using serotyping, biotyping, and chromosomal dna restriction endonuclease analysis.the epidemiology of 16 cases of infectious coryza, an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens caused by haemophilus paragallinarum, was investigated in a retrospective study. the cases occurred over a 14-month period on 10 farms in northern new south wales. the available field data indicated that the cases formed six unrelated outbreaks. the 16 isolates of h. paragallinarum were subjected to serotyping by the page and kume schemes and biotyping based on carbohydrate fermentation and antimicr ...19902196042
occurrence of v-factor (nad) independent strains of haemophilus paragallinarum.strains of bisgaard taxon 31, isolated from chickens in south africa suffering from a respiratory disease with clinical symptoms and gross lesions similar to infectious coryza, showed great phenotypical similarities with haemophilus paragallinarum infection except for nad requirement, beta-galactosidase activity and maltose fermentation. deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization confirmed a high level of genetic relatedness (dna binding value, 89%) with haemophilus paragallinarum ...19921496809
serotyping of haemophilus paragallinarum by the page scheme: comparison of the use of agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests.seventy-two isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum were serotyped according to the page scheme, using a new hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test. the results were compared with the plate agglutination method conventionally used in the page scheme. the hi test used washed cells of h. paragallinarum, glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken erythrocytes, and rabbit antisera originally produced for the agglutination method. for 49 of the isolates, there was complete correlation between the results of the hi s ...19902241694
serologic response to haemophilus gallinarum in artifically infected and vaccinated chickens.serologic responses to haemophilus gallinarum (hg) were compared in chickens artifically inoculated with living hg and vaccinated with hg bacterin, using tube agglutination (agg), hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), and agar-gel precipitation (agp) tests. infected and vaccinated chickens differed markedly, as did infection routes early after treatment. hi response was delayed and lower in chickens infected intranasally than in vaccinated chickens. both agg and agp responses peaked sooner than hi. ...1977402906
purification and characterization of dna-relaxing enzyme from haemophilus gallinarium.a dna-relaxing enzyme capable of concerted nicking and closing of dna backbone bonds has been purified from haemophilus gallinarum by two chromatographic steps and gel filtration. the enzyme efficiently catalyzes the removal of superhelical turns from a negatively twisted dna and requires mg2+ for this activity. slight removal of superhelical turns from a positively twisted dna generated by binding of ethidium bromide is found, but only at high enzyme concentrations. the dna-relaxing activity is ...1979227461
evaluation of two monoclonal antibodies for serotyping haemophilus paragallinarum.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were evaluated for their ability to serotype 108 isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum. one mab (e5c12d10) was raised against a page serovar a strain and the other (f2e6) against a page serovar c strain. in both dot blot and hemagglutination-inhibition tests, mab e5c12d10 recognized the type strains of page serovar a and kume serovars a-1, a-2, a-3, and a-4. mab f2e6 recognized the type strains of page serovar c and kume serovars c-1, c-2, and c-3. neither antib ...19902282016
outer-membrane proteins of haemophilus paragallinarum.the outer-membrane protein (omp) profiles of four isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum (0083, 0222, modesto, and hp31) were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. omps were isolated by sonic disruption followed by differential centrifugation and selective solubilization in triton x-100. although the isolates had similar profiles overall, two distinct omp profile types, based on the variable molecular weight of a protein termed omp c (39,000 or 38,000), were foun ...19902282017
characterization of two new monoclonal antibodies against haemophilus paragallinarum serovar c hemagglutinating antigen.two new monoclonal antibodies (mabs), d6d8d5 and b3e6f9, both directed against haemophilus paragallinarum serovar c hemagglutinating (ha) antigen, were produced, and characteristics of the mabs were compared with those of the previously described mab f2e6 in dot-blot and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests using two representative h. paragallinarum strains each of serovars a, b, and c strains and 55 japanese serovar c field isolates. mab d6d8d5 and mab f2e6 reacted with all serovar c strains ...19902282021
serological classification of japanese isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum using two serovar-specific monoclonal antibodies.a serological classification of 106 japanese isolates of haemophilus paragalinarum recovered from 1960 to 1984 was performed by dot-blotting and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests using two serovar-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs), e5c12d10 and f2e6. by the dot-blotting test, 49 of the isolates were serovar a and 55 isolates were serovar c, and the two remaining isolates did not react with either mab. these two nontypable strains had no hemagglutinating activity against chicken erythroc ...19902369375
the effect of lymphoma and other neoplasms on hepatic and plasma enzymes of the host rat.considerable thymidine kinase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activities were found in the plasma of rats bearing a transplanted lymphoma; neither activity was detected in plasma of hosts carrying hepatic, renal, mammary, or submaxillary gland tumors. all host livers exhibited signs of biochemical immaturity as indicated by the appropriate increases or decreases in the concentrations of the nine enzymes measured. the extent and time schedule of the changes in host liver varied with the enz ...1977187334
[implantation of porous hydroxyapatite into periodontal bony defects].the purpose of the present report was to evaluate on a clinical and histological level the effect of hydroxylapatite (ha)--interpore 200--implanted into various types of periodontal defects. additionally in-vitro studies with enzymatically released calvarial cells from fetal rats were performed in the organoid culture system. the clinical data 12 months after surgery revealed a greater reduction of probing depths (pd) and gain of attachment level in the implanted sites (59 sites) when compared t ...19892562020
experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult macaca fascicularis.the experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing macaca fascicularis monkeys. force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. the active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. pos ...1979107807
septo-epithalamo-habenular lrf-reactive neurons in monkeys. 197898207
monoclonal antibody characterization of two field strains of haemophilus paragallinarum isolated from vaccinated layer hens.an oil-based bacterin, containing strains 083 and 0222 of haemophilus paragallinarum, is commonly used in south africa to vaccinate laying flocks against infectious coryza. two strains of h. paragallinarum, designated m85 and sb86, were isolated from infected but vaccinated commercial laying flocks in two incidental outbreaks of coryza in 1985 and 1986. a panel of five monoclonal antibodies was established which clearly distinguished the vaccine strains from the field isolates. one of these reac ...19892751552
synthetic antigens iii. antigen-binding cells to interpolymer of styrene and maleic acid psm and sheep red blood cells in mice immunized with psm.studies on the immune response in mice to a new synthetic antigen interpolymer of styrene and maleic acid (psm) are described. the immune response was measured by determination of antigen binding cells by means of rosette test with psm-coated srbc, an unexpected effect was observed--besides rosette-forming cells for psm, rosette-forming cells and agglutinating antibodies for sheep red cells were found. the results presented in this paper suggest that psm is acting both as an immunogen and a poly ...197994989
antigenic structure and relationship between serotypes 1 and 2 of haemophilus paragallinarum.antigenic structure and relationship between serotypes 1 and 2 of haemophilus paragallinarum were analyzed by the rapid plate agglutination and cross-absorption tests. encapsulated strain forming iridescent colony type of both serotypes 1 and 2 had at least three antigens: heat-labile and trypsin-sensitive (l), heat-labile and trypsin-resistant (hl), and heat-stable and trypsin-resistant (hs). the l was a major antigen located in a surface and divided serologically into three parts: l1, l2, and ...197993424
our understanding of the pasteurellaceae.with the exception of a few consistent pathogens--pasteurella multocida strains of bovine hemorrhagic septicemia and fowl cholera, actinobacillus (haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae, haemophilus aegyptius and haemophilus paragallinarum--members of the family pasteurellaceae are commensal parasites on mucous membranes of vertebrate animals. many have pathogenic potential, which becomes manifest under conditions of immunodeficiency and stress. pathogenesis (except in porcine atrophic rhinitis) depends ...19902193710
further efficacy studies on inactivated, aluminum-hydroxide-adsorbed vaccines against infectious coryza.specific-pathogen-free chickens were given infectious coryza vaccines containing inactivated cells of haemophilus paragallinarum adsorbed onto an aluminum-hydroxide gel. the vaccines were protective when given subcutaneously or intramuscularly but not when given intranasally. vaccines prepared with two different commercial brands of aluminum-hydroxide gel gave similar protection. vaccines in which the inactivating agent was thimerosal were more protective than similar vaccines in which the inact ...19872960312
the hgai restriction-modification system contains two cytosine methylase genes responsible for modification of different dna strands.a dna fragment of about 3.4 kilobase pairs that expressed the hgai modification activity was cloned from the chromosomal dna of haemophilus gallinarum, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. two open reading frames (orf) which could code for structurally similar proteins were identified in the upstream and middle regions and a truncated orf in the downstream region in the same orientation. when the respective orfs were separately cloned, the clones carrying the upstream and middle orfs both ...19911856224
mixed infection with chlamydia psittaci, fowlpox virus and haemophilus gallinarum in broiler breeder chicks. 19873037759
proposal of a new serovar and altered nomenclature for haemophilus paragallinarum in the kume hemagglutinin scheme.by using the kume hemagglutinin serotyping scheme, 13 australian isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum were shown to constitute a new serovar within the presently termed serogroup ii. because of the likelihood that new serovars will continue to be established, we propose a rationalization of the nomenclature of the kume scheme. under this altered scheme, the three recognized serogroups i, ii, and iii are renamed a, c, and b, respectively. within each of the serogroups, the serovars are numbered ...19902199492
production, characterization and protective effect of monoclonal antibodies to haemophilus paragallinarum serotype a.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to haemophilus paragallinarum serotype a were obtained by fusion of murine myeloma cells (p3-x63-ag8-u1) and spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with whole cells of strain 221. enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with whole cells was used to show that the monoclonal antibodies are specific for serotype a of h. paragallinarum. four monoclonal antibodies indicated hemagglutination-inhibition (hai) activity against serotype a; their titers were 10(4)-10(5). by western ...19911715621
antimicrobial drug resistance and the occurrence of plasmids in haemophilus paragallinarum.a broth microdilution method was used to examine the sensitivity of 75 haemophilus paragallinarum isolates to six antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, neomycin, penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline). a total of 55 of the isolates (73%) were sensitive to all six drugs. the remaining 20 isolates were resistant to streptomycin, with one of these isolates also being resistant to tetracycline and another also resistant to neomycin. no isolate showing antimicrobial drug resistance belo ...19883202771
further comparison of adjuvants for an inactivated infectious coryza vaccine.inactivated infectious coryza vaccines containing different adjuvants were administered to 6-week-old chickens as a single dose containing 10(8) colony-forming units of haemophilus paragallinarum hp31. after 3 weeks, all chickens were challenged by intrasinus inoculation of hp31. two vaccines, one containing an aluminum-hydroxide adjuvant and the other a combined aluminum-hydroxide + avridine (a lipoidal amine) adjuvant, were effective. the three remaining vaccines--containing mineral-oil double ...19883202776
serological classification of australian and south african isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum. 19883214375
[the antibacterial in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of enrofloxacin against haemophilus paragallinarum]. 19883219117
serological response of chickens either vaccinated or artificially infected with haemophilus paragallinarum.the serological response of chickens either vaccinated or artificially infected with haemophilus paragallinarum (hpg) serovar a or c was investigated using both a specific hemagglutinin (ha) antigen and a common ha antigen. with hpg serovar a, both vaccinated and artificially infected chickens produced hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibodies to hpg serovar-specific and hpg common ha antigens. most chickens vaccinated with hpg serovar c had detectable hi antibodies to both types of ha antigen ...19883401174
comparison of adjuvants for an inactivated infectious coryza vaccine.differently formulated inactivated infectious coryza vaccines were administered to 6-week-old chickens as a single dose of 10(8) colony-forming units of haemophilus paragallinarum hp31. after 3 weeks, all chickens were challenged by intrasinus inoculation of hp31. two vaccines, one containing an aluminum-hydroxide adjuvant and the other a combined aluminum-hydroxide + mineral-oil adjuvant, gave the best protection (means of 80% and 90%, respectively). two vaccines that contained mineral oil as t ...19873579795
efficacy studies on haemophilus gallinarum bacterin preparations.broth cultures inactivated and potentiated by selected methods were tested in chickens for efficacy against homologous and heterologous challenge inoculation, using 2 serotype a strains of haemophilus gallinarum. although the 2 strains were within the same serotype, they failed to cross protect. one dose of thimerosal-inactivated bacterin was protective against homologous challenge, but 2 doses of formalin-inactivated bacterin were required. a bivalent bacterin protected chickens well against 1 ...19761259216
infectious coryza: in vivo growth of haemophilus gallinarum as a determinant for cross protection.four strains of haemophilus gallinarum representing 3 immunotypes were used in exposure and challenge exposure studies to determine if in vivo growth of the organism would induce cross protection in chickens. birds which recovered from infection to 1 immunotype were refractory to reinfection with the heterologous immunotype. in contrast, in vitro-produced bacterins produced immunotype-specific protection.1977931141
infectious coryza: cross-protection studies, using seven strains of haemophilus gallinarum.bacterins prepared from 7 strains of haemophilus gallinarum were used to immunized chickens for cross-protection studies. three distinct immunotypes were distinguished. slight protection between immunotypes was evident for some strains. airsacculitis could be prevented by use of these bacterins; however, prevention was related to immunotype specificity. hyaluronic acid found in 2 strains rendered them inagglutinable in homologous antiserums. treatment with hyaluronidase rendered them agglutinabl ...1977931140
[the occurrence of neuraminidase and n-acylneuraminate pyruvate lyase in haemophilus paragallinarum and haemophilus paravium n.sp (author's transl)].14 strains of h. paragallinarum, isolated from fowls suffering from infectious coryza or received from other investigators for comparison, and a collective consisting of 9 strains of the new species h. paravium nova species, also isolated from fowls, were shown to possess both enzymes, neuraminidase (ec 3.2.1.18) and n-acylneuraminate-pyruvate lyase (ec 4.1.3.3). the detection of the enzymes was made initially by paper chromatography using n-acetyl-neuraminyllactose as substrate and secondly by ...1977842179
genetic and phenotypic comparison of three new avian haemophilus-like taxa and of haemophilus paragallinarum biberstein and white 1969 with other members of the family pasteurellaceae pohl 1981.in the course of post-mortem bacteriological examinations, several previously unreported bacterial strains were isolated from budgerigars, pigeons, kestrels, and a goose. they have been separated into three distinct collectives according to their cultural, morphological, and biochemical characteristics. since they require v factors, they were tentatively assigned to the genus haemophilus winslow et al. 1917. this preliminary classification was checked by determination of guanine + cytosine conte ...19854074234
production of extracellular antigen in culture supernate by haemophilus gallinarum. 1978670439
antibody deficiency syndrome and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a boy with isolated igm deficiency dysimmunoglobulinaemia type 5. 19694188208
antibacterial activities of new nitrofuran derivatives on mycoplasm gallisepticum and haemophilus gallinarum. 19704191833
[response of the recipient's tissue bed and features of reparative osteogenesis in retransplantation of bone tissue]. 19724553209
production of a chicken meat infusion broth suitable for the mass production of a haemophilus gallinarum bacterin.a chicken meat infusion broth was prepared by various formulations and tested in 200 l volumes for their suitability to support the growth of haemophilus gallinarum. the best yield (0,1% packed cells, or 10(9) colony-forming units/ml) was obtained with a medium prepared from whole flayed carcasses with a ratio of 1 kg of meat to 1,2 l of water.1978572951
identification of haemophilus gallinarum in artificially infected chickens. 19684868834
the field trial: some thoughts on the indispensable ordeal. 19684875751
difference of chicken red blood cells in susceptibility to haemophilus paragallinarum hemagglutinin. 1979480772
nucleic acid homologies of selected bacteria, l forms, mycoplasma species.rogul, m. (walter reed army institute of research, washington, d.c.), z. a. mcgee, r. g. wittler, and stanley falkow. nucleic acid homologies of selected bacteria, l forms, and mycoplasma species. j. bacteriol. 90:1200-1204. 1965.-the molar per cent of guanine plus cytosine (g + c) in the deoxyribonucleic acids (dna) of proteus mirabilis, strain 9, and its stable l form was determined by thermal denaturation and found to be approximately 39.5% g + c. the dna homologies of this bacterium and its ...19655848325
application of the agar gel precipitation test to serological studies of chickens inoculated with haemophilus gallinarum. 19655855815
the avian haemophili.there are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: haemophilus paragallinarum, pasteurella avium, pasteurella volantium, and pasteurella species a (the last three being formerly united as haemophilus avium). a range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. all of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring v factor, but not x factor, for in vitro growth. several recen ...19892670190
haemophilus infections in chickens. iv. results of laboratory and fieldtrials of formalinized bacterins for the prevention of disease caused by haemophilus gallinarum. 19635888520
partial purification and characterization of type i dna topoisomerase from bacillus stearothermophilus.type i dna topoisomerase was partially purified from bacillus stearothermophilus by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies on phosphocellulose, deae-cellulose and heparin-agarose. on heparin-agarose chromatography, topoisomerase i activity was separated into three fractions (designated fractions a, b, and c). each fraction was further subjected to gel filtration on sephacryl s-200. from electrophoretic analysis on polyacrylamide gel, fraction a was found to contain two enzyme ...19852991208
heat-stable antigenic determinants of haemophilus paragallinarum. 19806162301
evaluation of the specificity and sensitivity of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, the serum plate agglutination test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test for antibodies formed in response to mycoplasma gallisepticum.two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, seven serum plate agglutination (spa) antigens, and the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared for sensitivity and specificity using known mg-positive and mg-negative sera from leghorn chickens. all spa antigens proved to be highly sensitive when testing mg-positive sera. laboratory-prepared spa antigens yielded fewer positive reactions when testing mg-negative sera than co ...19883041957
survey of infectious coryza of chickens in indonesia.a survey of infectious coryza of chickens was performed in west jawa of indonesia between 1987 to 1988 by the detection of hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibody against haemophilus paragallinarum (hpg) in non-vaccinated healthy laying (12 farms, 196 chickens) and native (8 farms, 197 chickens) chickens. hi antibodies against hpg were detected not only in the native chickens but also in the laying chickens, regardless of the district, and were observed in 70% (14/20) of farms and 19% (73/393) ...19911834206
pathogenicity of australian isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum and haemophilus avium in chickens.twenty-seven australian avian haemophilus isolates were tested for their ability to cause infectious coryza in specific pathogen-free chickens. all 15 isolates, identified as h. paragallinarum, produced infectious coryza, whereas all 12 h. avium isolates were nonpathogenic, but spread to in-contact chickens.19846232754
performance of 3 successive generations of specified-pathogenfree chickens maintained as a closed flock.no antibodies against salmonella pullorum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, haemophilus gallinarum, fowl pox virus, marek's disease virus, herpes virus of turkey, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian adenovirus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian leukosis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus and newcastle disease virus were detectable in the sera obtained from these chickens in 3 generations at various ages. antibodies against i ...19806253742
correlation of enzyme-induced cleavage sites on negatively superhelical dna between prokaryotic topoisomerase i and s1 nuclease.negatively superhelical pns1 dna with a molecular weight of 2.55 mda (4 kbp) was found to contain 13 specific, unbasepaired sites that are sensitive to a single-strand-specific s1 nuclease cleavage. the s1-cleavage occurred once at these sites. in the absence of added mg2+, the topoisomerase i purified from haemophilus gallinarum formed a complex with the superhelical pns1 dna which has a hidden strand cleavage. extensive proteinase k digestion of the complex led to cleavage of the dna chain. th ...19836303425
the effect of oil-emulsion vaccines on the occurrence of nonspecific plate agglutination reactions for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae.six groups of ten 18-week-old mycoplasma-free white leghorn pullets were vaccinated with one of the following: mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) bacterin. haemophilus gallinarum bacterin, pasteurella multocida bacterin, combined infectious bursal disease (ibd)-newcastle (ndv) chicken-embryo-origin (ceo) vaccine. ibd-ndv tissue-culture-origin (tc) vaccine, or saline emulsified in oil; one group received no vaccine. plate agglutination tests for m. synoviae (ms) and mg were done for 10 weeks after vac ...19846331364
alteration of lung structure and function by pseudomonas aeruginosa. 19873122195
the resistance to anti-microbial agents of bacteria isolated from pathological conditions of birds in victoria, 1978 to 1983.the resistance to anti-microbial agents of bacteria isolated from pathological conditions of birds in victoria, 1978 to 1983, was determined for isolates of escherichia coli, salmonella species, staphylococcus aureus, pasteurella multocida, p. anatipestifer, yersinia pseudotuberculosis and haemophilus paragallinarum. the isolates of e. coli had a high prevalence of resistance to tetracycline and sulphonamides, and a lower prevalence of resistance to furazolidone and sulphamethoxazole-trimethopri ...19853914884
spontaneous hybridoma formation induced by immunization with haemophilus paragallinarum: evidence for a lipopolysaccharide fusion inducer.the phenomenon of spontaneous fusion between myeloma cells and splenocytes from mice immunized with formalin-inactivated haemophilus paragallinarum cells, has been reported on recently (1). the identity and properties of the bacterial inducer of fusogenicity of splenocytes have been further investigated with the aid of a monoclonal antibody vf3 against h. paragallinarum (2), which has a bacterial strain specificity correlating with the ability of the strains to induce spontaneous fusion between ...19921607214
susceptibility of haemophilus paragallinarum to bactericidal activity of normal and immune chicken sera. 19846521142
clearance of the challenge organisms from the upper respiratory tract of chickens injected with an inactivated haemophilus paragallinarum vaccine. 19846521144
serologic typing of haemophilus paragallinarum based on serum bactericidal reactions. 19846521153
serotyping of haemophilus paragallinarum isolated in malaysia. 19921606267
spontaneous fusion between splenocytes and myeloma cells induced by bacterial immunization.spontaneous fusion between lymphoid and carcinoma cells in vivo has been described previously. splenocytes from mice treated with lps or mitogen have been reported to fuse better with myeloma cells using peg as fusion agent than splenocytes from untreated mice. we report a phenomenon where immunization of mice with formalin treated, whole haemophilus paragallinarum bacteria induced spontaneous fusion of splenocytes with myeloma cells in vitro, without the aid of any fusion agent. co-immunization ...19902258187
further characterization of haemophilus paragallinarum and haemophilus avium.a total of 60 isolates of haemophilus spp. from chickens, including four reference strains of h. paragallinarum and one of h. avium, were examined for their physiological and biochemical properties. the isolates could be placed into two groups. one group was identified as h. paragallinarum and consisted of 43 isolates including the four reference strains of h. paragallinarum. the other group was identified as h. avium and consisted of 17 isolates including the reference strain of h. avium. h. av ...19826758314
effect of non-narcotic analgesics on anticoagulant-induced hypoprothrombinemia in rats. 19724120193
serological classification of haemophilus paragallinarum with a hemagglutinin system.antigens, prepared from 17 strains of haemophilus paragallinarum by treatment with potassium thiocyanate followed by sonication, uniformly agglutinated glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken erythrocytes and formed specific hemagglutination inhibition antibodies in rabbits. attempts were made to classify the strains into serotypes by a combination of cross-hemagglutination inhibition and cross-absorption tests, using the hemagglutinating antigens, designated as ha-l hemagglutinin, and their antisera. the ...19836874914
relationships between virulence and morphological or serological properties of variants dissociated from serotype 1 haemophilus paragallinarum strains.relationships between morphological or serological properties and virulence were investigated in seven haemophilus paragallinarum variants. the variants, originated from five serotype 1 strains, were classified into seven types on the basis of colony morphology and iridescence and the presence of variant-specific antigens. smooth (s) and encapsulated organisms having variant-specific antigens and forming highly iridescent (ir+) colonies were highly virulent in vivo; slightly encapsulated organis ...19836885991
use of gonococcal agar medium for preparation of antigen of haemophilus paragallinarum hemagglutinin.some solid media for antigen preparation of haemophilus paragallinarum (hpg) hemagglutinin (ha) were studied. when ha activities of hpg strain 221 cultivated on chicken meat infusion (cmi) and gonococcal (gc) agar media were compared, the titer of the gc agar medium appeared faster and was higher than the titer on the cmi agar medium. for both agar media, the ha titer and growth increased with the concentration of the chicken serum added. in addition, ha activity on gc agar medium showed a highe ...19827092740
suppression of immunoresponses to haemophilus gallinarum with nonviable mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.the suppressive effect of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) on haemophilus gallinarum (hg) immune response was shown. antibody response to hg was highly suppressed when chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with hg-mg combined bacterin. findings were similar in chickens injected intramuscularly with hg and mg bacterin separately at adjacent sites. no immunosuppressive effect was recognized when injections with hg and mg bacterins were in the left and right thigh muscles, respectively, or from int ...1978749885
[spinal and spino-bulbo-spinal neuronal mechanisms of transmitting somato- and viscero-motor influences in the thoracic region of the spinal cord]. 19734777797
synergism between avian infectious bronchitis virus and haemophilus gallinarum. 19674962423
infectious coryza in meat chickens in the san joaquin valley of california.two cases of infectious coryza in meat chickens are reported. the first case involved 6-week-old broiler chickens in which only haemophilus paragallinarum was isolated. the second case involved 11-week-old roaster chickens in which h. paragallinarum and mycoplasma synoviae were isolated. both farms were in close proximity to layer-chicken farms where infectious coryza had been previously diagnosed. in both cases, only certain houses on the farm were affected, and mortality in these houses increa ...19902282006
sensitivity and specificity of mycoplasma gallisepticum agglutination antigens prepared from medium with artificial liposomes substituting for serum.three batches of strain a5969 mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) serum-plate-agglutination (spa) antigen grown in regular frey's medium with 12% swine serum, three batches grown in frey's medium containing artificial liposomes instead of serum, and one commercial spa antigen were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. sensitivity was measured using chickens exposed to mg by intraocular and intranasal inoculation. specificity was measured in uninoculated controls and in groups inoculated with the ...19882461697
biotyping of haemophilus paragallinarum isolates using hemagglutinin serotyping, carbohydrate fermentation patterns, and antimicrobial drug resistance patterns.three techniques, a hemagglutinin (ha) serotyping scheme, carbohydrate fermentation patterns, and antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, were used to examine 92 isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum. the results were used to create biotyping schemes. the carbohydrate fermentation and antimicrobial drug resistance patterns each resulted in the identification of five biovars. with both of these techniques, a large majority of the isolates fell into one biovar: 81% were biochemical biovar i and 7 ...19892673189
comparison of hemagglutinin and agglutinin schemes for the serological classification of haemophilus paragallinarum and proposal of a new hemagglutinin serovar.ninety-five isolates of haemophilus paragallinarum were classified serologically by a hemagglutinin serotyping scheme, and the results were compared with results from agglutinin serotyping of the same isolates. of the isolates, 65 were from australia, 5 were from japan, 6 were from the federal republic of germany, 7 were from the united states, and 12 were from south africa. seven hemagglutinin serovars, ha-1 to ha-7, corresponding to agglutinin serovars a (ha-1, ha-2, and ha-3), c (ha-4, ha-5, ...19892768440
characterization and use of monoclonal antibodies to identify haemophilus paragallinarum serovars.two serovar-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to haemophilus paragallinarum serovars a/1 and c/2 strains, respectively, were developed and characterized by hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) and dot-blotting tests using representative h. paragallinarum serovars a/1, b, and c/2 strains. in both the hi and dot-blotting tests, one mab (e5c12d10), raised against strain 221, serovar a/1, reacted only with serovar a/1 strains, while the other mab (f2e6), raised against strain s1 of serovar c/2, reac ...19902138887
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