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polychlorinated biphenyl-induced morphologic changes in the gastric mucosa of the rhesus monkey.the early morphologic events in polychlorinated biphenyl-induced lesions of the gastric mucosa of immature male rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) were studied in serial biopsies taken during consumption of diets containing 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg. per kg. (p.p.m.) of aroclor 1242. the severity of the lesions correlated directly with both the duration and the level of exposure. the first changes were seen after ingestion of 30 and 100 mg. per kg. for 2 weeks; changes were not seen until 10 weeks at 3 ...1979106183
isoleucyl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. competitive inhibition with respect to transfer ribonucleic acid by blue dextran.the inhibitory effects of blue dextran and a small dye molecule derived from it (f3ga-oh) on the steady-state reaction catalyzed by escherichia coli isoleucy-trna synthetase have been studied. blue dextran gave uncompetitive inhibition with respect to mg.atp, mixed inhibition with respect to l-isoleucine, and competitive inhibition with respect to trna. the small dye molecule (f3ga-oh) was also competitive with respect to trna. these inhibition patterns were not consistent with the bi-uni-uni-bi ...1979383141
towards a phylogeny of the genus vibrio based on 16s rrna sequences.the inter- and intrageneric relationships of the genus vibrio were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the 16s rrnas of 10 species, including four pathogenic representatives. the results of immunological and 5s rrna studies were confirmed in that the genus is a neighboring taxon of the family enterobacteriaceae. with regard to the intrageneric structure, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio campbellii, vibrio natriegens, vibrio harveyi, vibrio proteolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and ...19921371064
complexity and sequence identification of 24 rat v beta genes.twenty-four tcr v beta genes were cloned by anchored pcr from the lewis rat strain and identified by nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons to known mouse v beta genes. rat v beta genes exist in 17 single-member and 3 multimember subfamilies and exhibit 86 to 94 and 72 to 92% nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities, respectively, to their mouse counterparts. a single rat gene, designated v beta 20, having no previously known mouse counterpart was identified; a closely related gen ...19911828824
[study of carrier rate and immunity to group b streptococcus (gbs) in unmarried women].in order to study the carrier rate and immunity to group b streptococcus (gbs) of unmarried women, an urinary culture was taken and blood serum was assayed by elisa for type-specific antibody in female students. heretofore there have been very few reports about gbs in unmarried women in japan. the validity of urinary culture as a substitute for vaginal culture was initially studied. the carriage of gbs was evaluated by vaginal, anal and urinary cultures in 90 pregnant women. carrier detection we ...19911932783
biotin uptake in cultured hepatocytes from normal and biotin-deficient rats.biotin uptake was studied in isolated cultured hepatocytes of normal and biotin-deficient rats. biotin uptake was temperature-dependent with respect to physical, but not to chemical, processes, proportional to the exogenous biotin concentration in the medium, independent of ph and sodium ion concentrations of the medium, and uneffected by the presence of structural analogues of biotin or metabolic inhibitors in both normal and biotin-deficient hepatocytes. these results suggest that biotin uptak ...19902288769
in-vivo effects of (e)-2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine (mdl 72145) on amine oxidase activities in the rat. selective inhibition of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in vascular and brown adipose tissues.one hour after mdl 72145 ((e)-2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine) (2.5 mg kg-1) was given by intraperitoneal injection, the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (ssao) activity of rat aorta and brown adipose tissue measured in-vitro was reduced by more than 95% of its control value, whereas the monoamine oxidase (mao-a) activity remained virtually unaffected. the action of this drug on amine oxidases in the liver at this dose was less selective. the in-vitro effect of mdl 72145 on the ...19892565962
effect of a phospho-oligosaccharidic putative insulin messenger on insulin release in rats.the phospho-oligosaccharide extracted from rat liver and supposed to act as the insulin second messenger inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release. in the present study, this phospho-oligosaccharide was found not to affect d-[u-14c]glucose oxidation and 45ca net uptake, but to inhibit insulin release evoked by either d-glucose or 2-ketoisocaproate in isolated rat islets. the relative extent of the latter inhibition was unaffected by either the concentration of d-glucose or the presence of dibu ...19892666215
importance of pulmonary blood volume and aortic blood pressure in regulation of left ventricular function. 19882900297
action of epsilon-aminocaproic acid on the proteolysis system during experimental influenza in mice.proteolysis system was examined in influenza-virus-infected mice after a 5-day course of therapeutic or preventive treatments with the proteolysis inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (e-aca). the mice were infected with nonadapted influenza virus a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2). e-aca was shown to exert a pathogenetic action expressed by a marked tendency to normalization of elevated alkaline protease activity in damaged lung tissue and in the blood of infected animals. e-aca induced a long-lasting high ...19882906223
supplemented schneider's drosophila medium for isolation of leishmania donovani promastigotes. 19883252764
the distribution of potassium, sodium and chloride across the apical membrane of renal tubular cells: effect of acute metabolic alkalosis.studies were undertaken to define the effect of acute metabolic alkalosis (hypertonic sodium bicarbonate i.v.) on the chemical gradients for potassium, sodium and chloride across the apical membrane of individual renal tubule cells. electron microprobe analysis was used on freeze-dried cryosections of the rat renal cortex to measure electrolyte concentrations in proximal tubule cells and in the various cell types of the superficial distal tubule. analyses were also performed in fluid samples obt ...19883380642
ingestive behavior of rats with ibotenic acid lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus.rats with electrolytic or kainic acid (ka) lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus area (dmha-l) are hypophagic, hypodipsic, and have a reduced body weight (bw) compared with controls. in the present study, male sprague-dawley rats received bilateral ibotenic acid (ibo) lesions of the dmha (3 micrograms in 0.3 microliter) or sham (s) operations. during the next 32 days the ibo dmha-l rats showed reduced (p less than 0.01) food and water intake, bw, and linear growth (p less than 0.03), a ...19873578558
[bacteriologic status of the muscle tissue of broilers in the fattening phase and following meat removal]. 19873632600
single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content in horses.a safe, non-invasive method for the accurate measurement of bone mineral content in the third metacarpal bone of the horse is described. the technique involves scanning the bone with a single photon beam from an americium-241 source. data were obtained from the excised metacarpal bones from both forelimbs of 50 normal and seven lame horses. measurements were made in vivo on eight normal and seven lame horses and on one experimental horse with osteopenia induced by partial weightlessness in a flo ...19863716134
influence of ototoxic drugs on acetylcholine-induced depression of the cochlear n1 potential. 19704195594
acetylcholine. 19694319513
virus infections of horses at newmarket, 1972 and 1973. 19744375339
synergistic action of an anti-5-hydroxytryptamine, anti-histamines and cortisone in experimental anaphylaxis. 19654378509
an inverse relationship between the pressor response to noradrenaline and the resting blood pressure. 19684384149
the response of t cells to histocompatibility-2 antigens. dose-response kinetics.the dna synthetic response of a wide variety of parental thymocyte doses was studied in the lymphoid tissues of lethally irradiated f(1) mice. the response curves of the thymocytes were strikingly similar in shape to those of t cells responding to antigens, such as sheep red cells, which are more labile than the histocompatibility antigens of the f(1) host. the response was characterized by a dose-dependent latent period of 1-3 days, followed by a sharp increase in activity and a significant sub ...19724402392
toxicology of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and other phthalic acid ester plasticizers. 19734574364
evaluation and standardization of an agglutination test for human listeriosis.human sera from patients with culturally confirmed listeriosis were tested for immunoglobulin m (igm) and immunoglobulin g (igg) agglutinating antibodies with trypsinized antigens of listeria monocytogenes, streptococcus faecalis, and staphylococcus aureus. the response of humans to listeria infections is mainly igm rather than igg as found in animals. the antigens prepared from l. monocytogenes serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 4b, and 4d were evaluated for specificity with normal sera, sera from patients w ...19724626902
in vitro studies on the control of trophoblast outgrowth in the mouse. 19734729947
the field trial: some thoughts on the indispensable ordeal. 19684875751
on the stereochemical basis of enzyme action: lessons from lysozyme. 19714949243
an immunochemical study of monkey (macaca mulatta) brain cortex grey matter soluble proteins. 19694976104
anti-adhesive activity of sulphated exopolysaccharides of microalgae on attachment of red sore disease-associated bacteria and helicobacter pylori to tissue culture cells.because of the affinity of certain bacterial species for sulphated glycoconjugates exposed on the epithelial cells of susceptible hosts, we hypothesized that sulphated exopolysaccharides of microalgae can be used in anti-adhesive therapies against bacterial infections, both in cold- and warm-blooded animals. in this study we found that adhesion of the human pathogen helicobacter pylori to the hela s3 cell line, and adhesion of the fish pathogens vibrio campbellii, v. ordalii, streptococcus sapro ...200010849279
structures of ribonuclease p rnas of vibrio core species.the structures of an rna component of ribonuclease p (rnase p rna) were examined for vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio carchariae, vibrio natriegens, vibrio campbellii, vibrio proteolyticus, vibrio pelagius and vibrio harveyi to clearly determine their genetic differences. the rnase p rnas ranged from 382 to 454 nucleotides (nt) in size, and were remarkably different from each other in the structure of two helices, p3 and p12. the p3 helices were comprised of tandem repeats o ...200111430405
vibrio rotiferianus sp. nov., isolated from cultures of the rotifer brachionus plicatilis.five gram-negative bacterial strains, oxidase-positive, motile by means of more than one polar flagella, facultative anaerobe, arginine dihydrolase-negative, lysine- and omithine decarboxylase-positive, sensitive to the vibriostatic agent o/129, were isolated from a flow-through rotifer culture system in gent, belgium, and previously characterized by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. comparison of the 16s rdna sequence of strain lmg 21460t indicated close relationships (approxi ...200312656179
vibrio hispanicus sp. nov., isolated from artemia sp. and sea water in spain.three gram-negative, small, motile, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from artemia sp. and sea water in barcelona, spain, during 1990 and 1991. they were fermentative, oxidase-positive, sensitive to vibriostatic agent o/129, arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase-negative and grew in the absence of nacl. they differed from phenotypically related species by their ability to grow at 4 degrees c and utilize l-rhamnose. cloning of the 16s rrna gene of the type strain produ ...200414742490
molecular identification of vibrio harveyi-related isolates associated with diseased aquatic organisms.fifty strains belonging to vibrio harveyi, vibrio campbellii, and the recently described vibrio rotiferianus, were analysed using phenotypic and genomic techniques with the aim of analysing the usefulness of the different techniques for the identification of v. harveyi-related species. the species v. harveyi and v. campbellii were phenotypically indistinguishable by more than 100 phenotypic features. thirty-nine experimental strains were phenotypically identified as v. harveyi, but faflp, rep-pc ...200415184563
effects of hypercapnic hypoxia on the clearance of vibrio campbellii in the atlantic blue crab, callinectes sapidus rathbun.callinectes sapidus, the atlantic blue crab, encounters hypoxia, hypercapnia (elevated co(2)), and bacterial pathogens in its natural environment. we tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to hypercapnic hypoxia (hh) alters the crab's ability to clear a pathogenic bacterium, vibrio campbellii 90-69b3, from the hemolymph. adult male crabs were held in normoxia (well-aerated seawater) or hh (seawater with po(2) = 4 kpa; pco(2) = 1.8 kpa; and ph = 6.7-7.1) and were injected with 2.5 x 10(4) vibr ...200415198944
application of sliding-window discretization and minimization of stochastic complexity for the analysis of faflp genotyping fingerprint patterns of vibrionaceae.minimization of stochastic complexity (sc) was used as a method for classification of genotypic fingerprints. the method was applied to fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (faflp) fingerprint patterns of 507 vibrionaceae representatives. as the current binclass implementation of the optimization algorithm for classification only works on binary vectors, the original fingerprints were discretized in a preliminary step using the sliding-window band-matching method, in order to maxim ...200515653853
localization and bacteriostasis of vibrio introduced into the pacific white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.although numerous mechanisms of immune defense have been described in crustaceans, the tissue distribution and fate of live bacteria introduced into the host remain unclear. in the present study, litopenaeus vannamei were injected with a sub-lethal dose of kanamycin-resistant vibrio campbellii expressing green fluorescent protein. accumulation of intact bacteria was quantified by real-time pcr, while bacteriostasis was quantified as the percentage of intact bacteria that could not be recovered b ...200515854680
[identification of vibrio campbellii isolated from cultured pacific oyster].four bacterial strains were isolated from cultured pacific oyster (crassostrea gigia) in september 2003 at coast of fujian province. their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16s rrna sequence were analyzed. and the relationship between reproduction of the bacterium and nacl concentrations, ph and temperature were also determined. the results showed that four strains were gram-negative rods with a single polar flagellum, glucose fermented without gas production, oxid ...200515989255
pathogenicity of vibrios to rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) and artemia nauplii.the taxonomy of marine vibrios has changed rapidly over the last two decades, and a wealth of new species have been identified. many vibrio species are pathogenic to fish and crustaceans; however, little is known about the virulence of many of the novel species. the purpose of this study was to determine the ability of various recent isolates of vibrios to cause disease in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) and crustacea, i.e. artemia nauplii. of 56 isolates, representing 26 species of ...200516104871
immunostimulatory nature of beta-glucans and baker's yeast in gnotobiotic artemia challenge tests.the use of new preventive approaches such as immunostimulants to reduce stress and mortalities, to maintain good health of cultured organisms and to stimulate the non-specific defence mechanism, is becoming increasingly important in aquaculture. yet detailed analysis reveals that in most experiments the validity of some conclusions with respect to the benefit of immunostimulation is still doubtful, especially in invertebrates. the use of standardized trials under controlled rearing conditions, c ...200616257233
shrimps survive white spot syndrome virus challenge following treatment with vibrio bacterin.taking an innovative approach, a vaccination study using five bacterial strains viz. vibrio campbelli (b60), v. alginolyticus (b73), v. parahaemolyticus-like (b79), v. parahaemolyticus (r8) and v. harveyi (rg203) was conducted in penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection, considered as one of the serious pathogens of shrimps. oral challenge with shrimps infected with wssv showed a relative percentage survival of 5 and 47% in the p. monodon juveniles vaccinated with v. pa ...200616430093
lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of pacific white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with vibrio.the purpose of this study was to quantify the gene expression of lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of litopenaeus vannamei boone in response to a pathogen challenge. we quantified lysozyme transcripts with a real-time pcr method and used these data, along with total hemocyte counts, to infer patterns of hemocyte trafficking during the immune response. transcript expression was detected by in situ hybridization of mrna in circulating hemocyt ...200716916613
impact of exposure to bacteria on metabolism in the penaeid shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.we hypothesized that aggregation of bacteria and hemocytes at the gill, which occurs as part of the shrimp's antibacterial immune defenses, would impair normal respiratory function and thereby disrupt aerobic metabolism. changes in oxygen uptake and lactate accumulation were determined in litopenaeus vannamei, the pacific white shrimp, following injection with either saline (control) or a strain of the gram-negative bacterium vibrio campbellii that is pathogenic in crustaceans. the rate of oxyge ...200616946240
immune defense reduces respiratory fitness in callinectes sapidus, the atlantic blue crab.crustacean gills function in gas exchange, ion transport, and immune defense against microbial pathogens. hemocyte aggregates that form in response to microbial pathogens become trapped in the fine vasculature of the gill, leading to the suggestion by others that respiration and ion regulation might by impaired during the course of an immune response. in the present study, injection of the pathogenic bacterium vibrio campbellii into callinectes sapidus, the atlantic blue crab, caused a dramatic ...200616946241
quorum sensing-disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp artemia franciscana from pathogenic vibrio harveyi, vibrio campbellii, and vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.autoinducer 2 (ai-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp artemia franciscana. in this study, several different pathogenic v. harveyi, vibrio campbellii, and vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce ai-2. furthermore, disruption of ai-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.200616957276
non-lethal heat shock protects gnotobiotic artemia franciscana larvae against virulent vibrios.brine shrimp artemia were exposed under gnotobiotic conditions to a non-lethal heat shock (nlhs) from 28 to 32, 37 and 40 degrees c. different recovery periods (2, 6, 12 and 24h) and different heat-exposure times (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) were tested. after these nlhs, artemia was subsequently challenged with vibrio. challenge tests were performed in stressed and unstressed nauplii at concentrations of 10(7) cells ml(-1) of pathogenic bacteria, vibrio campbellii and vibrio proteolyticus. a nlhs wi ...200717123831
influence of different yeast cell-wall mutants on performance and protection against pathogenic bacteria (vibrio campbellii) in gnotobiotically-grown artemia.a selection of isogenic yeast strains (with deletion for genes involved in cell-wall synthesis) was used to evaluate their nutritional and immunostimulatory characteristics for gnotobiotically-grown artemia. in the first set of experiments the nutritional value of isogenic yeast strains (effected in mannoproteins, glucan, chitin and cell-wall bound protein synthesis) for gnotobiotically-grown artemia was studied. yeast cell-wall mutants were always better feed for artemia than the isogenic wild ...200717240162
differential detection of vibrios pathogenic to shrimp by multiplex pcr.the research was focused on the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) differential detection of shrimp pathogens vibrio harveyi, vibrio campbellii and isolates from a variant strain of vibrio (referred to as philippine vibrio isolates in this study) exhibiting characteristics distinct from these two species. sequence alignment of the hemolysin gene from type strains vibrio harveyi (nbrc 15634) and vibrio campbellii (nbrc 15631), as well as 10 variant philippine vibrio isolates, was performed ...200617310070
analysis of a gene (vch) encoding hemolysin isolated and sequenced from vibrio campbellii.this study describes the amplification, localization, and sequence analysis of a hemolysin gene from type strain v. campbellii nbrc 15631--the first report of a full-length hemolysin gene for the species. an amplicon ( approximately 600 bp) of polymerase chain reaction performed using v. campbellii dna template and primers previously designed to target a fragment of v. harveyi hemolysin gene (vhh) was shotgun-cloned and sequenced, generating 576 bp nucleotide sequences of the v. campbellii hemol ...200617325443
isolation and characterization of marine luminous bacteria from shallow coastal waters of taiwan.marine luminous bacteria were isolated and identified from samples in shallow coastal waters of taiwan during the relatively warm seasons.200717332902
poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic artemia franciscana from pathogenic vibrio campbellii.a poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (phb)-accumulating enrichment culture was obtained using activated sludge from a polyphosphate-accumulating reactor as inoculum. phb accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen vibrio campbellii lmg 21363. a strain was isolated from the enrichment culture, based on its ability to accumulate phb, and 16s rrna gene sequencing of the isolate revealed 99% sequence similarity to brachymon ...200717391334
vibrios of the spotted rose snapper lutjanus guttatus steindachner, 1869 from northwestern mexico.to characterize and identify vibrios present in wild and cultured juvenile snappers (lutjanus guttatus) in northwestern mexico.200717578416
luciferase from vibrio campbellii is more thermostable and binds reduced fmn better than its homologues.a new luciferase from v. campbellii (lux_vc) was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. although the amino acid sequences and the catalytic reactions of lux_vc are highly similar to those of the luciferase from v. harveyi (lux_vh), the two enzymes have different affinities toward reduced fmn (fmnh(-)). the catalytic reactions of lux_vc and lux vh were monitored by stopped-flow absorbance and luminescence spectroscopy at 4 degrees c and ph 8. the measured kd at 4 de ...200717761697
enhanced disease resistance in artemia by application of commercial beta-glucans sources and chitin in a gnotobiotic artemia challenge test.the anti-infectious potential of a selection of putative immunostimulants including six commercial beta-glucans (all extracted from baker's yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae except for laminarin) and chitin particles were verified in artemia nauplii by challenging them under gnotobiotic conditions with the pathogen vibrio campbellii. under the described experimental conditions, no differential macroscopic nutritional effect (e.g. growth) was observed among the products. significant increased surviv ...200717825581
the protective effect against vibrio campbellii in artemia nauplii by pure beta-glucan and isogenic yeast cells differing in beta-glucan and chitin content operated with a source-dependent time lag.in invertebrates the defence system to fight infectious diseases depends mainly on a non-specific or innate immune response, contrary to the vertebrate immune system. the use of natural immunostimulants that enhance the defence mechanism or the immune response of target organisms may be an excellent preventive tool against pathogens. several strains of baker's yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae have been found to be good immune enhancers. previously, it was shown that small quantities of the mnn9 ye ...200717827034
anti-infectious potential of beta-mercapto-ethanol treated baker's yeast in gnotobiotic artemia challenge test.to evaluate nutritional and anti-infectious characteristics of the chemically treated baker's yeast with 2-mercapto-ethanol (2me) for gnotobiotically grown artemia.200818042188
luminescence, virulence and quorum sensing signal production by pathogenic vibrio campbellii and vibrio harveyi isolates.to study the relationship between luminescence, autoinducer production and virulence of pathogenic vibrios.200818070032
luxg is a functioning flavin reductase for bacterial luminescence.the luxg gene is part of the lux operon of marine luminous bacteria. luxg has been proposed to be a flavin reductase that supplies reduced flavin mononucleotide (fmn) for bacterial luminescence. however, this role has never been established because the gene product has not been successfully expressed and characterized. in this study, luxg from photobacterium leiognathi th1 was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli in both native and c-terminal his6-tagged forms. sequence analysis indicates th ...200818156264
sequence analysis of the vibrio harveyi ornithine decarboxylase (odc) gene and detection of a gene homologue in vibrio campbellii. 200718187891
defences against oxidative stress in vibrios associated with corals.bacteria colonizing healthy coral tissue may produce enzymes capable of overcoming the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase. significant differences in the activities of these enzymes were observed in cultures of vibrio campbellii, vibrio coralliilyticus, vibrio harveyi, vibrio mediterranei, vibrio pelagius, vibrio rotiferanus, vibrio tasmaniensis, and photobacterium eurosenbergii isolated from healthy, bleached or necrotic tropical and cold ...200818279336
exposure of gnotobiotic artemia franciscana larvae to abiotic stress promotes heat shock protein 70 synthesis and enhances resistance to pathogenic vibrio campbellii.larvae of the brine shrimp artemia franciscana serve as important feed in fish and shellfish larviculture; however, they are subject to bacterial diseases that devastate entire populations and consequently hinder their use in aquaculture. exposure to abiotic stress was shown previously to shield artemia larvae against infection by pathogenic vibrio, with the results suggesting a mechanistic role for heat shock protein 70. in the current report, combined hypothermic/hyperthermic shock followed by ...200818347942
increased susceptibility of white spot syndrome virus-infected litopenaeus vannamei to vibrio campbellii.the concept of polymicrobial disease is well accepted in human and veterinary medicine but has received very little attention in the field of aquaculture. this study was conducted to investigate the synergistic effect of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) and vibrio campbellii on development of disease in specific pathogen-free (spf) shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. the juvenile shrimp were first injected with wssv at a dose of 30 sid(50) shrimp(-1) (sid(50) = shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) ...200818616551
effects of hypercapnic hypoxia on inactivation and elimination of vibrio campbellii in the eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica.the eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica, inhabits shallow coastal waters that frequently experience periods of low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) and elevated co(2) (hypercapnia) levels. bacteria are extremely abundant in these environments and accumulate in large numbers in filter-feeding oysters, which can act as passive carriers of human pathogens. although hypercapnic hypoxia (hh) can affect certain specific immune mechanisms, its direct effect on the inactivation, degradation and elimination ...200818676695
clearance of vibrio campbellii injected into the hemolymph of callinectes sapidus, the atlantic blue crab: the effects of prior exposure to bacteria and environmental hypoxia.the atlantic blue crab, callinectes sapidus (rathbun), lives in a bacteria-rich environment that experiences daily fluctuations in water quality. in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that crustaceans with prior or ongoing exposure to bacteria in their hemolymph have an increased susceptibility to subsequent infections, and that acute exposure to low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) and elevated carbon dioxide levels (hypercapnia) may further confound the ability of blue crabs to counter a su ...200818964085
differential localization and bacteriostasis of vibrio campbellii among tissues of the eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica.in bivalve mollusks the roles of individual tissues in antimicrobial defense remain unclear. in this study, crassostrea virginica were injected in the adductor muscle with 10(5) live vibrio campbellii. major tissues were dissected at 10, 30, 60 or 120 min postinjection (pi); in each tissue undegraded (intact) bacteria were quantified by real-time pcr and culturable bacteria were enumerated by selective plating. at 10 min pi, accumulation of bacteria varied among tissues from approximately 2.4 x ...200919022286
virulence of luminescent and non-luminescent isogenic vibrios towards gnotobiotic artemia franciscana larvae and specific pathogen-free litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.this study was conducted to test the virulence of luminescent (l) and non-luminescent (nl) isogenic strains of vibrio campbellii lmg21363, vibrio harveyi bb120 (wild type) and quorum-sensing mutant strains derived from the wild type such as vibrio harveyi bb152, bb170, mm30 and bb886.200919187135
genomic diversity of vibrios associated with the brazilian coral mussismilia hispida and its sympatric zoanthids (palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus solanderi).a taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the brazilian endemic coral mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus solanderi).200919291243
ingestion of bacteria overproducing dnak attenuates vibrio infection of artemia franciscana larvae.feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (hsps) to invertebrates is a novel way to limit vibrio infection. as an example, ingestion of escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic hsps significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured artemia larvae upon challenge with pathogenic vibrio campbellii. the relationship between hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to infection may involve dnak, the prokaryotic equivalent to hsp70, a major molecular chaperone in eukaryotic c ...200919373565
time-course analysis of peroxinectin mrna in the shrimp litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with vibrio campbellii.peroxinectin (pox), which promotes cell adhesion and encapsulation of bacteria in crustaceans, is synthesized in granular and semigranular hemocytes. in this study, real-time pcr was used to quantify pox transcripts in individual tissues of the pacific white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, over 48 h following injection of a sublethal dose of the shrimp pathogen vibrio campbellii. the resulting data were used to infer the movements of hemocytes among the tissues in response to bacterial challenge. ...200919490940
feeding artemia franciscana (kellogg) larvae with bacterial heat shock protein, protects from vibrio campbellii infection.among their numerous physiological effects, heat shock proteins (hsps) are potent immunomodulators, a characteristic reflecting their potential as therapeutic agents and which led to their application in combating infection. as an example, the up-regulation of endogenous hsp70 in the branchiopod crustacean artemia franciscana (kellogg) is concurrent with shielding against bacterial infection. to better understand this protective mechanism, gnotobiotic artemia were fed with escherichia coli treat ...200919515074
vibrio hangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment of the east china sea.strain cn83t, a gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from sediment of the east china sea. the isolate was catalase- and oxidase-positive and cells were motile by means of polar flagella. the dna g+c content was 44.9 mol%. the major fatty acids were c16:1omega7c and/or iso-c15:0 2-oh, c16:0, c18:1omega7c, c14:0 and c12:0. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis showed that strain cn83t belonged to the genus vibrio and had the highest sequence similarity to vibrio agarivorans (98.4%) ...200919605706
energy metabolism and metabolic depression during exercise in callinectes sapidus, the atlantic blue crab: effects of the bacterial pathogen vibrio campbellii.callinectes sapidus (rathbun), the atlantic blue crab, commonly harbors low to moderate amounts of bacteria in hemolymph and other tissues. these bacteria are typically dominated by vibrio spp., which are known to cause mortality in the blue crab. the dose-dependent lethality of an isolate of vibrio campbellii was determined in crabs; the mean 48 h ld(50) (half-maximal lethal dose) was 6.2 x 10(5) colony forming units g(-1) crab. injection of a sublethal dose of v. campbellii into the hemolymph ...200919837884
isolation of lytic bacteriophage against vibrio harveyi.the isolation of lytic bacteriophage of vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster panulirus ornatus.201019886890
development of a haemolysin gene-based multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of vibrio campbellii, vibrio harveyi and vibrio parahaemolyticus.to develop a haemolysin (hly) gene-based species-specific multiplex pcr for simple and rapid detection of vibrio campbellii, v. harveyi and v. parahaemolyticus.201019943887
vibrio owensii sp. nov., isolated from cultured crustaceans in australia.two bacterial strains (dy05(t) and 47666-1) were isolated in queensland, australia, from diseased cultured crustaceans panulirus ornatus and penaeus monodon, respectively. on the basis of 16s rrna gene sequence identity, the strains were shown to belong to the harveyi clade of the genus vibrio. multilocus sequence analysis using five housekeeping genes (rpoa, pyrh, topa, ftsz and mreb) showed that the strains form a monophyletic group with 94.4% concatenated sequence identity to the closest spec ...201020002183
presence of typical and atypical virulence genes in vibrio isolates belonging to the harveyi clade.the study was aimed at investigating the presence of typical and atypical virulence genes in isolates belonging to the harveyi clade (vibrio harveyi and vibrio campbellii).201020345385
identification of non-coding rnas in environmental vibrios.the discovery of non-coding rna (ncrna) has been mainly limited to laboratory model systems and human pathogenic bacteria. in this study, we begin to explore the ncrna diversity in four recently sequenced environmental vibrio species (vibrio alginolyticus 40b, vibrio communis 1da3, vibrio mimicus vm573 and vibrio campbellii baa-1116) by performing in silico searches using infernal and rfam for the identification of putative ncrna-encoding genes. this search method resulted in the identification ...201020447992
phb-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis.the use of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (phb) was shown to be successful in increasing the resistance of brine shrimp against pathogenic infections. in this study, we isolated for the first time phb-degrading bacteria from a gastrointestinal environment. pure strains of phb-degrading bacteria were isolated from siberian sturgeon, european sea bass and giant river prawn. the capability of selected isolates to degrade phb was confirmed in at least two of three setups: (1) growth in minimal medium contai ...201020597982
the bacterial storage compound poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate protects artemia franciscana from pathogenic vibrio campbellii.infections caused by antibiotic-resistant luminescent vibrios can cause dramatic losses in aquaculture. in this study, the short-chain fatty acid beta-hydroxybutyrate and its polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate were investigated as possible new biocontrol agents. beta-hydroxybutyrate was shown to completely inhibit the growth of pathogenic vibrio campbelli at 100 mm. moreover, the addition of 100 mm of this fatty acid to the culture water of artemia nauplii infected with the v. campbelli strain si ...200717222142
effects of hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia on the localization and the elimination of vibrio campbellii in litopenaeus vannamei, the pacific white shrimp.low oxygen (hypoxia) and elevated co2 (hypercapnia, are characteristic of estuarine environments. although hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia decrease the resistance of shrimp to bacterial pathogens, their direct effects on the immune system are unknown. here we present evidence demonstrating in the penaeid shrimp litopenaeus vannamei that both hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia affect the localization of bacteria, their conversion from culturable to non-culturable status (bacteriostasis), and their e ...200515965121
effects of bacteria on the growth of an amoeba infecting the gills of turbot.we analysed the influence of various bacteria on the in vitro growth of trophozoites of a platyamoeba strain isolated from diseased gill tissues of cultured turbot. little or no growth was shown by amoebae cultured in the presence of (1) the turbot-pathogenic bacteria vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida or streptococcus sp., (2) pasteurella piscicida or vibrio vulnificus (pathogenic for some fishes but not turbot), or (3) the non-pathogenic 'environmental' bacteria vibrio campbelli, vibrio ...200111411647
peripheral retinal albinotic spots in 3 dogs. 19734753410
[children in other countries]. 19744498439
computer-based cytophotometric classification of thyroid tumors in imprints.this study of 14 follicular adenomas, 10 papillary carcinomas and 11 follicular carcinomas of the human thyroid gland demonstrates the possibility of a cytological tumor classification using digital picture processing. routinely prepared, he-stained imprints of surgical specimens were scanned under a light microscope at high resolution with a colour tv camera. the cell nuclei were segmented and analysed with an image processing system. the computer-aided cytophotometric methods detected the most ...19854008522
na+ modulates the k+ permeability and the membrane potential of alkalophilic bacillus.in the absence of na+ in the medium, the membrane potential of obligately alkalophilic bacillus cells was found to be decreased by the addition of k+ to the medium, whereas k+ addition in the presence of na+ had no effect. rb+ showed essentially the same effect as k+. the decreased membrane potential was quickly restored by lowering the k+ concentration in the medium or by adding na+ or li+ to the medium. thus, in the absence of na+, the membrane potential of alkalophilic bacillus seems to be af ...19873663674
quantitative ultrasonic characterization of the nature of atherosclerotic plaques in human aorta.to determine the feasibility of quantitative ultrasonic techniques to define the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, samples of freshly excised human aortas were sewn to a sample holder and immersed in a saline bath for ultrasonic interrogation. integrated backscatter of a 2-microsecond portion of the backscattered radiofrequency signal was measured with a 10 mhz focused transducer. integrated backscatter was calculated by normalizing the root-mean-square voltage of the gated signal to the r ...19873555884
diffusion of thyroglobulin in the follicular colloid. (minireview).methods used for estimating in vivo diffusion velocity of thyroglobulin (tgb), the factors affecting hydrodynamic properties of thyroidal colloid and the effects of changing diffusion properties on follicular function are briefly reviewed. the principal methods, besides pure in vitro techniques, are autoradiography of thyroid sections after in vivo labelling of tgb and freezing autoradiography for examining colloidal diffusion of ions or other small molecules. the main factors known to affect di ...19863516644
[histopathological changes in dental pulp in rats after irradiation of nd:yag laser]. 19873482212
effect of pre- and postnatal exposure to alcohol on perivenous and periportal neonatal rat hepatocytes.hepatocytes from 12-day-old rats, pre and postnatally exposed to alcohol and pair-fed controls, were isolated and subfractionated in six cell subpopulations on percoll density gradients. these cells were characterized using biochemical, stereological and cytofluorometric methods. our results show that the low density cells (f2) are mainly perivenous cells, whereas the heavier cells (f6) were primarily periportal cells. these results were confirmed by alanine aminotransferase (alat), and glutamat ...19873426691
t cell recognition of bovine ribonuclease. self/non-self discrimination at the level of binding to the i-ak molecule.bovine rnase a specific t-cell hybridomas were generated to study the recognition of foreign ag by t lymphocytes. one hybrid, ts12, was shown to recognize rnase in association with i-ak. this hybridoma required bovine rnase to be processed before recognition. the immunogenic determinant on the rnase molecule recognized by ts12 was localized to the tryptic fragment rnase(40-61). all of the stimulatory ability of this determinant was shown to be contained within the synthetic 14mer rnase(43-56). w ...19883264304
[cytopenia in patients with hiv infection]. 19883065854
renal metabolism of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid (dehydro-l-ascorbic acid).we evaluated whether specific transport and metabolic properties exist in rat and guinea pig kidney for handling the immediate oxidative product of ascorbic acid, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid. isolated tubules were used to measure uptake of 10 microm [14c]-dehydro-l-ascorbic acid over an 8-min incubation period. uptake did not show dependence on the bathing media electrolyte composition but was inhibited to some extent by glucose. in tubules of both animal species the majority of 14c label present in ...19892912166
characterization of a non-structural 147-kda precursor polypeptide of echovirus 33 and its immunogenicity in man.zinc chloride (0.9 mm)--an inhibitor of the processing of the initial polypeptides of picornaviridae--was used to accumulate large precursors of echovirus 33 (ev33) and notably two proteins of 147- and 97-kda. polyclonal hyperimmune sera were raised in mice against these polypeptides and assayed by immunoblotting against ev33-infected cells blocked or not with zncl2, showing that protein 147--2abc3abcd according to the l434 convention--can be considered to be the precursor of the two non-structu ...19892772414
structure of the rabbit phospholamban gene, cloning of the human cdna, and assignment of the gene to human chromosome 6.we have isolated and characterized genomic dna clones encoding rabbit phospholamban. only a single gene for phospholamban was detected in the rabbit genome. the phospholamban gene of 13.2 kilobases contains only one 10.5-kilobase intron, which separates exonic sequences located in the 5'-untranslated region. two potential transcription initiation sites were mapped to 335 and 185 nucleotides upstream from the translation initiation site in the mrna or 239 and 89 nucleotides upstream from the exon ...19911828805
[human gingival pigmentation due to electrochemical degradation. immunological study of biopsies using monoclonal antibodies]. 19863464603
efficacy of heterologous and homologous heat shock protein 70s as protective agents to artemia franciscana challenged with vibrio campbellii.the hsp70 class of heat shock proteins (hsps) has been implicated at multiple points in the immune response of both vertebrates and invertebrates. this class of chaperones is highly conserved in both sequence and structure, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. in view of their high degree of homology, it was assumed that these hsp70 proteins derived either from the prokaryotes or eukaryotes would have similar functions, especially in relation to their protective ability in a challenge assay. t ...201020643210
comparative genomic analyses identify the vibrio harveyi genome sequenced strains baa-1116 and hy01 as vibrio campbellii.three notable members of the harveyi clade, vibrio harveyi, vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahaemolyticus, are best known as marine pathogens of commercial and medical import. in spite of this fact, the discrimination of harveyi clade members remains difficult due to genetic and phenotypic similarities, and this has led to misidentifications and inaccurate estimations of a species' involvement in certain environments. to begin to understand the underlying genetics that complicate species leve ...201020686623
dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia oreochromis mossambicus.the effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (bermuda grass cynodon dactylon, h(1), beal aegle marmelos, h(2), winter cherry withania somnifera, h(3) and ginger zingiber officinale, h(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. in addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against vibrio alginolyticus, vibrioparahaemolyticus, vibri ...200920735646
identification of vibrio campbellii isolated from diseased farm-shrimps from south india and establishment of its pathogenic potential in an artemia model.shrimp diseases are frequently reported to be caused by closely related vibrios, and in many cases they are tentatively but inaccurately identified as vibrio harveyi and related vibrios. in the present study, 28 biochemically identified v. harveyi-related strains isolated from diseased shrimps were randomly selected for further characterization by molecular tools. twenty-six strains were identified as vibrio campbellii and two as v. harveyi by sequence analysis of 16s rrna and uridylate kinase g ...201120847009
usefulness of a real time pcr platform for gc content and dna-dna hybridization similarity estimations in vibrios.the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a real time pcr platform, to estimate the dna g+c mol% and the dna-dna hybridization (ddh) values in the genus vibrio. in total nine vibrio strains were used to determine the relationship between genomic dna g+c content and the tm (°c).the tm and hplc datasets fit a linear regression curve with a significant correlation coefficient, corroborating that the this methodology has a high correlation with the standard methodology based on hplc (r2 = ...201021057054
expression of virulence genes in luminescent and nonluminescent isogenic vibrios and virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (artemia franciscana).this study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of virulence gene regulators (luxr and toxr) and virulence factors (serine protease, metalloprotease and haemolysin) in luminescent and nonluminescent isogenic vibrio harveyi and vibrio campbellii.201021091862
influence of heat shock proteins induction in different yeast cell wall mutants on the protection against vibrio campbellii infection in gnotobiotically grown artemia franciscana (kellogg). 201021504084
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