the arrangement of subunits in cholera toxin.cholera toxin consists of five similar b subunits of apparent molecular weight about 10 600 and one a subunit (29 000) consisting of two peptides (a1 23 000-24 000 and a2 about 5500) linked by a single disulfide bond. each b subunit also contains one internal disulfide bond which is readily reduced but is protected from carboxymethylation unless the reduced subunits are heated in urea. tyrosine residues in a1 and in b subunits are readily iodinated, but the intact b assembly does not react with ...19763214
properties of cholera toxin- and naf-stimulated adenylate cyclase from mouse thymocytes.kinetic parameters of mouse thymocyte adenylate cyclase activity were determined. naf and cholera toxin stimulated adenylate cyclase. stimulation by either agent did not change the ph or mg2+ optima relative to control (unstimulated cyclase). the km value for atp of adenylate cyclase stimulated by naf was significantly reduced from control. by contrast, cholera toxin treatment did not change the km relative to control. adenylate cyclase, when stimulated by naf, had an optimum for mn2+ alone, or ...19763217
analysis of the data in the literature on the sensitivity of cholera vibrios to tetracycline.variation diagrams were proposed to be used for the analysis of the published data on the study of vibrio cholerae sensitivity to tetracycline. the diagrams provided systematization of dissimilar data of the experimental studies and a unique system of estimation was created. the analysis of the systematized data provided dividing of the vibrio cholerae strains tested into 4 groups differing in the levels of their sensitivity to tetracycline. the groups were independent of the vibrio cholerae bio ...19755050
interaction of cholera toxin and toxin derivatives with lymphocytes. ii. modulating effects of cholera toxin on in vivo humoral and cellular immune responses.the in vivo effects of cholera toxin on lymphoid organ structure and function in mice were investigated. it was found that within a day following intravenous injection of 1 mug of toxin, thymus as well as spleen weight decreased but the animals remained healthy. histological studies suggested that the involution of lymphoid organs was due to cell death. injection of cholera toxin into adrenalectomized mice was lethal within 36 h. in these animals no decrease in lymphoid organ weight was noted. t ...19765378
comparative study of the proteinograms of vibrios and of closely related microorganisms by means of polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis.proteinograms of 112 strains of vibrios and closely affiliated microorganisms were studied by disc electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. up to 25 protein peaks with definite mobility coefficients were revealed. the influence of the culture medium on the protein spectrum of the microbes was found. the frequency of peak formation was of great significance for the differentiation of the microbes under study. the quantitative characteristics of the peak area could not be used for differentiation.19767908
molecular weight analysis of the polypeptides of cholera phage pl 163/10 by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.cholera phage pl 163/10, belonging to mukerjee's group i, was purified by alternate cycles of low and high speed centrifugation. gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of four polypeptide chains of respective molecular weights of 10,370+/-515 (a), 30,000+/-1,303 (b), 40,000+/-1,049(c) and 64,000+/-2,433 (d) daltons. electrophoresis of the sample alkylated with iodoacetic acid resolved the presence of only one polypeptide chain of an average molecular weight of 10,310+/-565 daltons. the polype ...19769816
use of thyrotropin and cholera toxin to probe the mechanism by which interferon initiates its antiviral activity.thyrotropin (10 mum) inhibited the antiviral activity of interferon. when added after interferon, thyrotropin (tsh) had no effect on antiviral activity. there was also no inhibition of interferon action in cells washed with medium between incubations with tsh and interferon. 125i-labeled tsh and 125i-labeled cholera toxin could bind to preparations of mouse l-cell plasma membranes. the binding was specific in that it was prevented by unlabeled thyrotropin or cholera toxin, but not by insulin, gl ...197610573
antibacterial activity of ambodryl and benadryl. 197611202
effect of caffeine on the motility, viability, oxygen consumption and glycolytic rate of ejaculated human normokinetic and hypokinetic this report the effect of caffeine, ibmx and cholera toxin on ejaculated human spermatozoa was tested. it was found that caffeine was the most effective drug, and that cholera toxin was ineffective. caffeine stimulated motility, preserved viability and increased the glucose, fructose utilization and lactate production of sperm in whole semen and washed sperm. oxygen consumption however was decreased. these results of the normokinetic ejaculates were defined as a basis for comparison with the ...197612119
effect of gangliosides and substrate analogues on the hydrolysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by choleragen.choleragen and its a protomer catalyzed the hydrolysis of nad to adp-ribose and nicotinamide. nadase activity was inhibited by gangliosides gm1 (galactosyl-n-acetylgalactosaminyl-n-acetylneuraminyl-galactosylglucosylceramide), gm2 (n-acetylgalactosaminyl-n-acetylneuraminyl-galactosylglucosylceramide), gm3 (n-acetylneuraminyl-galactosylglucosylceramide), and gd1a (n-acetylneuraminylgalactosyl-n-acetylgalactosaminyl-e1n-acetylneuraminyl-galactosylglucosylceramide). these gangliosides also increase ...197713371
effect of cholera enterotoxin preparations on cutaneous response in rabbit under varied conditions.enterotoxic activity of two preparations obtained from vibrio cholerae, b-53-6 inaba and b-53-10 ogawa was tested in ligated ileal loops of rabbit. the biologically active enterotoxic preparations were further used to study the permeability reaction in rabbit skin. cutaneous response tended to be linear only with higher concentrations of the toxin and showed maximum blueing intensity between 16 and 24 hrs of intracutaneous inoculation. exposure of enterotoxin preparations to elevated temperature ...197613591
light-activated calcium release from sonicated bovine retinal rod outer segment disks.calcium trapped within sonicated and resealed bovine rod outer segment disks is released upon light exposure with a stoichiometry of 0.75 +/- 0.05 calcium for each rhodopsin bleached. the amount of calcium liberated is proportional to the amount of bleaching in the range of 20 to 100% bleaching and is relatively insensitive to the internal trapped calcium concentration. the results are obtained using a flow system in which the disk membrane vesicles are adsorbed on glass particle supported by a ...197714680
possible subdivisions among alpha-adrenoreceptors in various isolated tissues.the ratio (expressed in log10 units) of the equieffective concentrations of (+)- and (-)-noradrenaline has been measured in a variety of isolated tissues in the presence of cocaine (1 x 10(-5) m), tropolone (3 x 10(-5) m) and (+/-)-propranolol (5 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-5) m). the values obtained fall into 3 distinct and statistically different groups. firstly, a high group comprising (mean +/- s.e.) mouse vasdeferens (2-78 +/- 0-04), rabbit duodenum (2-91 +/- 0-07) and ileum (2-86 +/- 0-05). second ...197715074
ph measurements in the vascular wall of dogs with electrically induced thrombosis of the femoral artery.electrically induced thrombosis is often used for pathophysiologic and therapeutic experiments. the ph value of the vascular wall was measured to approach the features of this thrombosis. after inducing thrombosis by direct current, ph value of the intima of femoral artery was found decreased. the anode was inserted in the lumen. as to the behavior of the ph value, electric thrombosis and clinical thrombosis are similar. electric thrombosis therefore seems to be valuable for comparing investigat ...197715352
gas levels and biochemical changes in cerebrospinal fluid after experimental brain injury: its effect on cerebral circulation and cerebral metabolism as well as its management.1. after brain damage experimentally induced by balloon compression, liquor of the cistern shows a metabolic acidosis with significantly increased lactate level and l/p quotient, and statistically distinct decrease of ph, oxygen tension, and bicarbonate level. 2. there is a considerable disproportion between the changes of acid-base metabolism, gas tension, and metabolic products in cerebrospinal fluid compared with much less expressed disturbances in the blood. 3. the advanced edematous phase s ...197615353
purification and properties of the methane mono-oxygenase enzyme system from methylosinus trichosporium ob3b.1. a three-component enzyme system that catalyses the oxidation of methane to methanol has been highly purified from methylosinus trichosporium. 2. the components are (i) a soluble co-binding cytochrome c, (ii) a copper-containing protein and (iii) a small protein; the mol. wts. are 13 000, 47 000 and 9400 respectively. the cytochrome component cannot be replaced by similar cytochrome purified from pseudomonas extorquens or by horse heart cytochrome c. 3. the stoicheiometry suggests a mono-oxyge ...197715544
hormonal control of zinc uptake and binding in the rat dorsolateral prostate.the zinc uptake in the dorsolateral prostate of rats was studied after different hormonal manipulations. orchiectomy reduced the uptake of 65zn. administration of estradiol benzoate to orchiectomized rats doubled the 65zn uptake, a phenomenon which was not observed in orchiectomized-adrenalectomized rats. adrenalectomy in orchiectomized rats had no effect on the concentration of radioactivity beyond the castration-induced decrease. a prolactin release inhibitor, 6-methyl-8-erogelenylacetamide, r ...197715955
alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from alcaligenes eutrophus h 16 i. purification and general properties.alpha-isopropylmalate (ipm) synthase, the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of l-leucine, was purified to a specific activity of 12 micronmole/min x mg protein from the valine-isoleucine double auxotrophic mutant a-81 of the hydrogen bacterium alcaligenes eutrophus h16. the activity in crude extracts of derepressed cells was 0.106 micronmoles of isopropylmalate formed per min and per mg protein. gel electrophoresis and regel electrophoresis of the isolated main band resulted in several distinct b ...197716576
purification and properties of a membrane-associated, folate-binding protein from lactobacillus casei.a folate-binding protein has been solubilized from lactobacillus casei by treatment of membrane preparations with triton x-100 in the presence of 3hfolate. the protein-folate complex was purified 100-fold and recovered in a 22% yield by adsorption and elution from microgranular silica (quso g-32), followed by passage through sephadex g-150. when subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified preparations showed only a single, protein-staining band whose mole ...197716917
adenylate cyclase permanently uncoupled from hormone receptors in a novel variant of s49 mouse lymphoma cells.a novel variant of the s49 mouse lymphoma has been selected from wild-type cells by growth in medium containing the beta-adrenergic agonist terbutaline and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. in contrast to the situation in the wild-type clone, synthesis of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic amp) is not stimulated by beta-adrenergic agonists or by prostaglandin e1 either in intact variant cells or in membrane preparations of such clones. however, basal and naf-stimulated activi ...197717119
studies in acid-base balance. i. effect of alkali therapy in newborn dogs with mechanically fixed ventilation.the effect of rapid or slow infusion of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate on acid-base balance and serum osmolality was studied in 36 acidotic newborn dogs. respiratory acidosis and hypoxia were produced by mechanically fixed hypoventilation. one group of animals breathed 100% o2 to prevent hypoxemia. rapid infusion of hco3- in acidotic and hypoxic animals resulted in only a transient (1 minute) and small (0.05 ph units) elevation of arterial ph followed by a continuous fall, resulting in a lower ph ...197717663
cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate--mediator of the action of the hormaone erythropoietin. 197718327
value of sputum culture in diagnosis of pneumococcal our laboratory, culture of sputum was extremely useful in diagnosing the etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia. of 31 consecutive patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, 29 (94%) had streptococcus pneumoniae cultured from sputum. recovery of pneumococci in culture was enhanced by anaerobic incubation as well as by a plate bile test and an optochin disk on a primary blood agar plate.197718489
pyruvate kinase from the moderate halophile, vibrio costicola. 197719142
effect of prolonged gestation on placental and maternal liver enzyme activities in the rat. 197719310
the identification of lipid acceptor and the biosynthesis of lipid-linked glucose in bacillus stearothermophilus. 197720047
simple method for preparation of immune sera to envelope and nucleocapsid antigens of semliki forest virus.immune sera to the envelope and nucleocapsid components of zaisan 260 and r 16225 strains of semliki forest virus (sfv) were prepared with the use of disrupted, partially purified virus.197720771
narcotic cueing properties of intraventricularly administered sufentanil, fentanyl, morphine and met-enkephalin.the narcotic cueing activity of sufentanil, fentanyl, morphine and met-enkephalin was studied upon their injection into the lateral brain ventricle of the rat. comparative studies on the analgesic activity of the three narcotics support a close correlation between the narcotic cueing and the analgesic activity of narcotic drugs.197822444
calf liver nuclear n-acetyltransferases. purification and properties of two enzymes with both spermidine acetyltransferase and histone acetyltransferase activities.calf liver contains two nuclear n-acetyltransferases which are separated by chromatography on hydroxylapatite. both acetyltransferase a and acetyltransferase b will transfer acetate from acetyl-coa to either histone or spermidine. the same protein catalyzes the reaction with both substrates; this is shown by a constant ratio of spermidine to histone activity over a 5,000-fold purification and identical heat denaturation kinetics for both spermidine and histone acetyltransferase activity with eac ...197822543
antigenicity of a spontaneous murine mammary adenocarcinoma during in vitro cultivation. 197723597
evaluation of the effectiveness of receptor destroying enzyme preparations.a procedure has been developed for testing receptor destroying enzyme (rde) preparations used to remove nonspecific inhibitors before carrying out haemagglutination inhibition tests with influenza virus. four criteria should be taken into account: (1) titre of rde, usually used to indicate the activity of the preparation; (2) neuraminidase activity of the preparation, determined biochemically, which partially corresponds to the rde titre; (3) direct demonstration of the complete removal of nonsp ...197723666
modification of the immunologic properties of the cell cf1 mouse-transplantable spontaneous mammary adenocarcinoma cells were modified with glutaraldehyde, formalin, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylate, vibrio cholerae neurominidase, iodoacetate, heparin, histamine and adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (camp), then used to immunize syngeneic cf1 mice. animals immunized with the fixed (formalinized or glutaraldehyde fixed) neuraminidase-treated cells or the membrane of these cells, rejected two challenging doses of 10(8) viable unmodified adenocarcinoma cells. ...197824583
studies on aronson's media with special reference to its utility in laboratory diagnosis of vibrio cholera. 197724589
a galactose specific agglutinin, a blood-group h active polysaccharide, and a trypsin inhibitor in albumin glands and eggs of arianta arbustorum (helicidae). 197824667
capacity for postradiation recovery in bacteria of the genus vibrio when gamma-irradiated cells are incubated in phosphate buffer (ph 8.6) and inoculated on different nutrient media. 197824863
direct evidence of two types of beta adrenoceptor binding site in lung tissue. 197825391
recurrent genital candidosis in women and the effect of intermittent prophylactic treatment. 197826452
neurochemical and operant behavioral studies of a strain of alcohol-preferring rats.the levels of serotonin (5-ht), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, tyrosine (tyr), norepinephrine (ne), acetylcholine, gaba, glutamate (glu), aspartate (asp), alanine, glycine (gly) and taurine were measured in the cns of adult male rats selectively inbred to the f8 generation for alcohol preference (p) and non-preference (np). with respect to the values found in the np group, higher levels of 5-ht, gaba, glu and gly and lower levels of asp were found in the diencephalon-mesencephalon (d-m) and higher ...197827820
influence of tonicity and ph on lacrimation and ocular drug bioavailability. 197829087
effects of psychotropic drugs on the spinal ventral root reflexes in cats. a comparison of the depressant actions in intact and spinal preparations (author's transl).effects of the typical psychotropic drugs such as neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines on the monosynaptic reflex (msr) and polysynaptic reflex (psr) were investigated using intact and spinal cats. drugs used were chlorpromazine, levomepromazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, droperidol, haloperidol, amitriptyline, imipramine, diazepam and flurazepam. neuroleptics depressed the ventral root reflexes markedly to slightly in both preparations. the inhibitory effects of the ...197829826
red cell aging. ii. anomalous electrophoretic properties of neuraminidase treated human erythrocytes.desialylation of human red blood cells (rbc) by vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (vcn) was found to produce cells with electrophoretic properties which were inconsistent with the view of simple loss of n-acetylneuraminic acid (nana) as the sole effect of vcn treatment. modification of human rbc with 50--350 u vcn/10(10) rbc for one hour at 37 degrees c releases 90-100% of the nana and produces a progressive decrease towards zero in their electrophoretic mobilities when measured in 0.15 m nacl (ph 7 ...197829906
the regulation of intracellular calcium by mitochondria. 197830378
effect of endogenous and exogenous progesterone on human endometrial enzymes.activities of 9 enzymes were determined biochemically in the endometrium. in trial i (five women) 25 mg progesterone were injected i.m. on day 9 of the cycle; and endometrial biopsy taken 24 hours later was compared with endometrium from day 10 and day 21, taken in two untreated cycles from the same volunteers. similarly, in trial ii (five women) 50 mg progesterone were injected on day 9, biopsy taken on day 11 and compared with days 11 and 21 from untreated cycles. the specific activites of lac ...197830706
blockade by n-methylhydroxylamine of activation of guanylate cyclase and elevations of guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels in nervous tissues.hydroxylamine and n-methylhydroxylamine prevented the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by the endogenous activator as well as by nitroso compounds such as n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine or nitroprusside, while other derivaties of hydroxylamine were ineffective. hydroxylamine and n-methylhydroxylamine did not alter the basal guanylate cyclase activity of purified enzyme preparations. kinetics analysis indicated that n-methylhydroxylamine competes with n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguani ...197831192
(exo, exo)-2-aryltropane-3-carboxylic esters, hypoglycemic agents with accompanying analgesic activity.(exo, exo)-2-aryltropane-3-carboxylic esters of types 6, 7, and 10 lower circulating blood glucose levels by 60--80%. this activity is accompanied by an analgesic activity roughly equal to that of codeine. both of these activities reside in the 1r enantiomer and extensive structure-activity studies failed to separate them. the specific opioid antagonist nalorphine blocks the analgesic activity but does not diminish the hypoglycemic action. conformational integrity afforded by the ethylene bridge ...197831482
mechanisms of action of cholera and escherichia coli enterotoxins.current information is reviewed on the mechanism of secretion in small intestine, including how it is altered by cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate and on the structures and properties of cholera and both heat-labile and heat-stable escherichia coli enterotoxins. two separate active ion transport processes are altered by cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate: 1) coupled absorption of nacl is inhibited in villus cells and 2) active anion secretion is stimulated, probably in crypt cells. cholera ...197932766
characteristics of a cholera phage.the basic physical, chemical and physiological properties of a group ii cholera phage belonging to mukerjee's classification has been described.197832857
purification and properties of human erythrocyte inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase.inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase from human erythrocytes was purified and characterized. the enzyme is highly specific for itp and shows optimal activity in glycine buffer ph 9.6 and 50 mm mgcl2. the km of the enzyme is 1.3 x 10(-4), the vmax = 1.2 x 10(-9) and the keq = 3.8 x 10(4). human erythrocyte itp pyrophosphohydrolase does not require sh compounds for activation. the enzyme is inhibited by cd++, co++, and ca++ ions and by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.197933191
kinetic studies in isolated organs: tools to design analgesic peptides and to analyze their receptor effects.the opioid activities of peptide and non-peptide narcotics were studied in longitudinal muscle strip of guinea pig ileum (gpi) and in mouse vas deferens (mvd). the comparison of agonist activities of peptides found in gpi and mvd offered the opportunity to predict the presence but not the magnitude of potential analgesic activity. the kinetics of the antagonism between naltrexone and different types of agonists were also determined in these systems. using c-6 epimers of naltrexone, it was found ...197933396
[makeup of a population el tor vibrios according to their agglutinability by type-specific sera].the authors studied population composition of 14 strains of el tor vibrios. of 7 strains of ogava serological type the population composition was homogeneous in 2, and heterogeneous in 5. all the 7 strains of el tor vibrios of inaba serological type had homogeneous population composition. changes of the existence conditions of el tor vibrios of ogava serological type, containing in their population 5% cells of hikoshima serological tupe, led to separation of the cells of inaba serological type; ...197834303
[phenomenon of parental resistance and its genetic regulation].lymphocytes of mice f1 (cba x m523) and f1 (a x m523) transplanted to 1000 r irradiated cba or a mice responded to the test antigens--srbc or s. typhi vi-antigen--by formation of 100--1000 times less antibody forming cells than in syngeneic recipients. an intermediate result is achieved when the lymphoid cells are transplanted to the irradiated m523 mice. lymphocytes of mice f1 (a x cba), f1 (cba x c57bl/6), or f1 (a x developed a similar immune response in the irradiated syngeneic mice an ...197934452
antivibrionic activity of some glycolytic cycle enzymes of animal cells.the antivibrionic activity of crystalline preparations of five enzymes of the glycolytic cycle of animals cells was investigated. phosphorylase "a" (0.5 mg/ml), aldolase (15 mg/ml) and pyruvate kinase (0.1 mg/ml) were found to inhibit the proliferation of vibrio cholerae cells; phosphoglucomutase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml were found to be vibriocidal. a mixture of these enzymes containing 0.062 mg/ml of phosphorylase "a" and 0.125 mg/ml of each ...197834659
immobilization of neuraminidase and its potential application in the modification of cell surfaces.vibrio cholerae neuraminidase was immobilized on the inside of 1.0 mm inner diameter nylon tubing with retention of enzyme activity, when assayed at 37 degrees c and ph 5.5 with mucin as substrate. the stabilities of the immobilized and soluble enzymes were similar for up to 3 hr at 37 degrees c. preliminary data indicated that immobilized neuraminidase will release sialic acid from the surface of leukemic akr mouse thymus and spleen lymphocytes; however, the level of immobilized enzyme activity ...197935566
[fractionation of vibrio cholerae enterotoxin by isoelectric focusing in an ampholin gradient]. 197936726
the stimulatory effect of 5ht and the role of the paraventricular nucleus on pms induced ovulation in the immature rat.immature rats can be induced to ovulate with pregnant mare serum (pms) as long as they weigh over 60 g. in the rats weighing less than 60 g 5-hydroxytryptamine (5ht)-60 micrograms/rat intraventricularly or 2 micrograms/rat in the paraventricular nucleus (pvn)-stimulated ovulation. injections into several other hypothalamic nuclei were ineffective. in rats weighing greater than 60 g, lesions of the pvn or injection of 10 micrograms/rat p-chlorophenylalanine into the pvn inhibited ovulation. the h ...197937456
sickled erythrocytes, hyphema, and secondary glaucoma: vi. the relationship between intracameral blood cells and aqueous humor ph, po2, and pco2.injection of hgb sc blood into rabbit anterior chambers resulted in lowering of aqueous humor ph and po2 and elevation of aqueous humor pco2. these effects appear to contribute to the sickling of erythrocytes that occurs in aqueous humor.197937471
cyclobarbital as a test substance for oxidative drug metabolism in man. findings in neuropsychiatric patients. 197940799
the effect of oral pancreatic extract on jejunal bactericidal activity in protein-deficient vervet monkeys challenged with vibrio cholerae.eleven vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) were fed with an "o" protein diet. after the serum albumin level fell below 2.5 g/100 ml the animals and 4 controls, which received regular monkey chow, were orally infected with a monkey-adapted strain of vibrio cholerae. the total bactericidal activity of the jejunal fluid decreased during feeding with "o" protein diet, but increased after challenge with v. cholerae in all groups. the non-immunoglobulin-bound bactericidal activity, which also decr ...197941422
effect of intra-arterial injection of crude cholera enterotoxin on canine small bowel.injection of a crude preparation of cholera enterotoxin into the superior mesenteric artery caused isotonic fluid secretion by the canine small bowel. in dogs previously exposed to cellular antigens of vibrio cholerae, the time course of the intestinal response to intra-arterial injection of crude enterotoxin was similar to that observed after intraluminal exterotoxin challenge.197941424
biochemical mechanism of nitrofurantoin resistance in vibrio el tor.vibrio el tor cells contain a constitutive reductase enzyme which converts nitrofurantoin to an active principle that is responsible for the observed antibacterial activity of the drug. acquisition of resistance of this strain towards nitrofurantoin is associated with the loss of this reductase. this enzyme is located in the periplasmic region of the nitrofurantoin-sensitive cells, and seems to play an important role in transporting the drug into the cells.197941800
survival of el tor cholera vibrio in local water sources and beverages in tanzania. 197942524
phospholipase a activity in the skin. modulators of arachidonic acid release from phosphatidylcholine.the distribution of the hydrolysis of 1-acyl-2-[1-14c]arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and the simultaneous biosynthesis of prostaglandins by subcellular fractions from human and rat skin membrane preparations were determined. the phospholipase a2 activity was distributed among the subcellular particulate preparations with the highest specific activity in the 105000g particulate fraction. the activity was optimal at ph 7.5 in the presence of 1.0 mm-cacl2 and was inhibited by edta. the hy ...197943142
stability in newcastle disease virus-infected cells of hn protein which lost its functional activity under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition by cycloheximide.chick embryo cell cultures were infected with newcastle disease virus (strains italia, beaudette and b1), labelled with 14c-amino acids from 5 to 6 hr post infection (p.i.), incubated in chase conditions from 6 to 10 hr p.i. in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (100 microgram/ml) and analyzed by slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. in chase experiments the hn protein was stable in all three strains. the haemagglutinating activity of cell homogenates was greatly red ...197944662
letter: halophilic non-cholera vibrio infections. 197546095
immunofluorescent studies on antibodies directed to a buried membrane structure present in lymphocytes and erythrocytes.brief digestion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by vibrio cholera neuraminidase (vcn) revealed hidden components of the membrane. autologous human serums contained antibodies directed to these components that were readily demonstrated by immunofluorescence. antibodies of similar specificity were found in all normal serums. the antibodies were principally of the igm variety with lesser amounts of the igg class present. they were equally active at 4 degrees c and 37 degrees c. the vcn reveal ...197546880
neuraminidase sensitive antigenic determinants of plasma cell tumor membrane glycoproteins. 197547298
augmented uptake of neuraminidase-treated sheep red blood cells: participation of opsonic factors.neuraminidase from vibrio cholerae (vcn) was used to treat sheep red blood cells (srbc) which were then incubated in vitro with murine peritoneal macrophages. the uptake of vcn-treated srbc by macrophages was greater than the uptake of srbc not treated with vcn. srbc opsonized with normal mouse serum (nms) were taken up to a greater extent than untreated srbc. srbc treated with vcn and opsonized with nms were phagocytosed to a greater extent than untreated srbc, vcn-treated srbc, or opsonized sr ...197548553
[method of preparation of erythrocytic diagnostic agents for detection of antitoxic and antibacterial antibodies in el tor cholera]. 197548596
the binding of cationized ferritin at the surfaces of ehrlich ascites tumor cells: the effect of ph and glutaraldehyde fixation.the densities of cationized ferritin (cf) particles binding to the surfaces of cultured ehrlich ascites tumor cells were determined at ph 7.4, where the ferritin stain was applied either prior to or following glutaraldehyde fixation. the densities were also determined with cf adjusted to ph 1.9 and applied after fixation. for all fixed samples there was a higher density of particles bound to microvilli than to the spaces between them. treatment with neuraminidase removed more particles from mic ...197549356
a comparison of "influenza c" with prototype myxoviruses: receptor-destroycing activity (neuraminidase) and structural polypeptides. 197549979
immunological study of anthranilate immunological study of anthranilate synthetase (asase) has been initiated using quantitative precipitation, enzyme neutralization, and immunodiffusion methods. cross-reactivity of anthranilate synthetase-anthranilate-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (asase-prtase) from escherichia coli, klebsiella aerogenes, and salmonella typhimurium and asase from serratia marcescens and pseudomonas putida was detected with antibodies to ?e. coli trypsin-treated asase. cross-reactivit ...197550316
[use of the immune tolerance induction in the production of an antilymphocyte serum (als) free of antibodies against serum proteins].the possibility has been investigated of a direct gain of als free of undesirable antibodies against serum proteins by inducing immunologic tolerance in productive animals (pigs). preliminary experiments made with tolerogenic amounts of 10 and 50 ml of sera and with immunization by the serum alone proved applicability of this method. electrophoresis showed antibodies against 6 to 7 and 2 to 3 fractions in animals tolerated with 10 and 50 ml respectively, compared to 18 to 20 fractions in the con ...197550969
vibriolytic igg immunocyte response of mice after primary and secondary immunization with cholera somatic antigens.antibody plaque-forming cells (fc) to the somatic antigens of vibrio cholerae were enumerated in the spleen of mice after primary and secondary immunization with a heat-killed vaccine prepared from the vibrios. immunocytes releasing both high efficiency igm and low efficiency igg antibody were readily detected using a direct and facilitated plaque procedure in agar gel. whereas the peak numbers of igm-pfc after primary immunization occurred on days 12 to 14, the peak igg-pfc response developed s ...197551000
glycoprotein enzymes secreted by aspergillus fumigatus: purification and properties of a second beta-glucosidase.a second extracellular beta-glucosidase (betalarge) of aspergillus fumigatus was purified to homogeneity and shown to be a glycoprotein, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining for protein and for carbohydrate. its molecular weight was approximately 340,000 by gel filtration, while sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave an apparent molecular weight of 170,000, suggesting that the enzyme has two subunits. the glucosidase contained covalentl ...197551848
molecular restriction of anti-dnp antibodies induced by (dnp)2-gramicidin s.the molecular properties of anti-dnp antibodies were studied in 80 rabbits hyperimmunized with (dnp)2-gramicidin s. unimmunized animals or those previously skin-painted with dnfb were subjected to biweekly injections of (dnp)2-gramicidin s. isoelectric focusing revealed that the spectrotypes of the anti-dnp antibodies fell into three classifications; monoclonal, 18 to 21%; biclonal, 21 to 30%; and restricted, 14 to 26%. in each immunization protocol 35% of the rabbits did not respond. longer tim ...197551881
enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and idiopathic diarrhoea in bangladesh.faecal escherichia coli from bangalee patients with idiopathic diarrhoea were tested in the chinese hamster ovary cell (c.h.o.) assay to detect production of thermolabile enterotoxin (l.t.). c.h.o-positive e. coli produce both l.t. and a thermostable toxin (s.t.). c.h.o.-positive strains were found in 19.2% of all cases and in 70% of the most severely ill patients with non-vibrio cholera. e. coli which produce s.t. alone were identified in a third of the c.h.o.-negative cases. enterotoxigenic e. ...197553601
lack of effect of cholera enterotoxin on electrical resistance of lipid bilayer membranes. 197554067
antitoxic immunity in experimental cholera: protection, and serum and local antibody responses in rabbits after enteral and parenteral immunization.the protective effect of enternal and parenteral immunization with cholera toxin antigen against experimental cholera in rabbits was studied by using the small-bowel loop technique. subcutaneous injection of crude toxin as well as purified toxin or toxoids gave rise to significant protection against toxin challenge. the enhanced resistance to toxin was found to correspond to a many-fold higher magnitude of protection against challenge with live vibrios. in the primary response the protection inc ...197554337
[comparative data for the determination of the quality of the nutrient media for the diagnosis of cholera by means of cultures of vibrio cholerae of various ages]. 197554498
[ultrastructural analysis of preparations impregnated with silver salts].the work was devoted to the ultrastructural analysis of the neurohistological preparations. sections of the tissue from the precardial parts of the pulmonary and caval dog veins were impregnated with silver salts after campos and embedded in the araldite by a special method. electronmicroscopi studies showed reduced silver adsorbed by the tissue of the impregnated preparations to exhibit a granular structure (the granules were 30-400 a in size). the largest of them were revealed in the axoplasm ...197655281
cell-mediated immune response in mice treated with steroidal contraceptives.the splenomegaly assay (simonsen, 1962) was standardized using different strains of rats and mice. male wistar rat (donor)-female swiss mouse (host) was found to be the suitable combination that could be employed in subsequent experiments to study the potential of contraceptive steroids to alter cmir. the index of splenomegaly appeared to increase in case of mice treated with combination oral contraceptives (ovulen, ovral or enovid). the differences observed, however, neared significance only in ...197555327
vibrio cholerae flagellar antigens: a serodiagnostic test, functional implications of h-reactivity and taxonomic importance of cross-reactions within the vibrio genus.serodiagnostic tests for all serotypes of vibrio cholerae using h-antisera were investigated. activity motile cell lines of 155 stock and international reference cultures of human, animal, fish, and halophilic vibrios, aeromonas, comomonas, pseudomonas, salmonella, and escherichia were investigated. without exception, all cholera vibrios (including the nag serotypes) reacted with h sera. positive reactions were obtained specifically (a) within 2 hrs at 52 degrees c in the tube test using thick f ...197555952
fetal syphilis in the first trimester.evidenc of first-trimester fetal syphilis was sought in the products of conception in a therapeutic abortion clinic. during two collection periods of one week, five patients with serologic and clinical data consistent with recent syphilitic infection were identified. their conceptuses were carefully examined by silver and immunofluorescent stains for the presence of treponema pallidum. two of these five conceptuses (9 and 10 weeks' gestation) were found to contain t. pallidum by these methods. t ...197656895
[detection of specific o-antigen in atypical cultures of vibrio cholerae with the aid of immunochemical methods of study]. 197557271
[improvement of the method of the h-agglutination reaction with vibrios on glass]. 197557276
a serial study of pregnancy proteins in primigravidae.the plasma concentrations from four 'pregnancy proteins' and three steroid hormones have been measured throughout pregnancy in 15 primigravidae. two of the proteins, human placental lactogen (hpl) and pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein (psbetag), are specific for pregnancy and correlate well with the stage of gestation. it is suggested that measurement of psbetag may be useful in assessing feto-placental wellbeing. neither of the pregnancy-associated proteins, steriod-binding beta-globulin (s ...197657799
transplantation of tendons sterilized in formalin vapours and preserved in paraffin oil. 197558509
differential mechanisms of increased alpha 1-fetoprotein production in rats following carbon tetrachloride injury and partial hepatectomy.possible differences in the mechanisms of increased alpha1-fetoprotein (afp) production following carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) intoxication and partial hepatectomy were studied with 5-week-old rats at the time of sacrifice. the maximum level of serum afp reached in 4 days after a single dose of ccl4 was much higher than that after partial hepatectomy, although the incorporation of [3h]thymidine into liver dna increased nearly to the same extent by either of these treatments. in the remnant after ...197658715
induction of tryptophanase in nitrofurantoin resistant vibrio el tor. 197659523
amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis in streptomycin resistant vibrio el tor.metabolic activities in relation to protein synthesis and amino acid utilization are altered in vibrio el tor after development of resistance towards streptomycin. efficiency of in vivo and in vitro protein synthesis is markedly reduced in streptomycin resistant vibrio el tor. the rate of incorporation of 14c-amino acids into protein, uptake of 14c-valine and oxidation of certain amino acids are also altered.197659524
small fragments from the a subunit of cholera toxin capable of activating adenylate cyclase.exposure of cholera toxin to membrane particles prepared from sarcoma 180 cells gives rise to a variety of fragments which are capable of activating adenylate cyclase [atp:pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), ec]. a major component of these fragments has an apparent molecular weight in the 8,000-10,000 range. the smallest stimulatory fragment has a molecular weight of approximately 1400. the small size of the fragments is confirmed by sephadex gel filtration, in the presence of either sodium ...197660760
[production and use of a cholera antigenic erythrocyte diagnostic agent]. 197660852
macrophage plasminogen activator: modulation of enzyme production by anti-inflammatory steroids, mitotic inhibitors, and cyclic nucleotides.plasminogen activator production by cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages can be modulated in vitro by low concentrations of various pharmacologically active molecules. glucocorticoid hormones and their synthetic derivatives, as well as cholera toxin, colchicine, and vinblastine markedly inhibit production of this enzyme without affecting other important macrophage functions. the effect of glucocorticoids is of particular interest, both because their relative in vivo anti-inflammatory potencies ...197661067
reverse plaque formation by hog cholera virus of the gpe-strain inducing heterologous interference.a simple and rapid plaque procedure was developed for the assay of hog cholera virus (hcv) of a particular strain, gpe-, based on its intrinsic interference with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) on the primary swine testicle cells and on an established swine kidney cell line; the procedure is called the reverse plaque formation (rpf) method. the plaques were produced as colonies of hcv-infected cells which were vsv-sensitive, disintegrated cell sheet. these plaques became visible after 15 to 20 ...197661176
[rapid method of determination of sensitivity of vibrio cholerae to antibiotics]. 197661330
is cholera primarily water-borne. 197662178
cholera, copepods, and chitinase. 197662179
[antigenic and serologic properties of yersinia enterocolitica]. 197662475
cholera is primarily waterborne in bangladesh. 197663781
[the effect of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid hemorrhage on the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve activity (author's transl)]. 197664942
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