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diversity and geographic distribution of secondary endosymbiotic bacteria in natural populations of the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum.in addition to the essential intracellular symbiotic bacterium buchnera, several facultative endosymbiotic bacteria called collectively secondary symbionts (s-symbionts) have been identified from the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum. we conducted an extensive and systematic survey of s-symbionts in japanese local populations of a. pisum using a specific pcr detection technique. five s-symbionts of a. pisum, pass, paus, pabs, rickettsia and spiroplasma, and two facultative endosymbionts universally ...200212296954
biotype-dependent secondary symbiont communities in sympatric populations of bemisia tabaci.the sweet potato whitefly, bemisia tabaci, harbors portiera aleyrodidarum, an obligatory symbiotic bacterium, as well as several secondary symbionts including rickettsia, hamiltonella, wolbachia, arsenophonus, cardinium and fritschea, the function of which is unknown. bemisia tabaci is a species complex composed of numerous biotypes, which may differ from each other both genetically and biologically. only the b and q biotypes have been reported from israel. secondary symbiont infection frequenci ...200717645822
two species of symbiotic bacteria present in the soybean aphid (hemiptera: aphididae).aphids, which feed solely on plant phloem sap, have developed symbiotic associations with bacteria that provide them with the amino acids that are lacking in phloem. three soybean aphid (aphis glycines mat samura) populations were screened for the presence of buchnera aphidicola and three common species of secondary aphid symbionts (serratia symbiotica, hamiltonella defensa, and regiella insecticola). diagnostic polymerase chain reaction and subsequent dna sequencing showed the presence of two s ...200919791603
the draft genome sequence of arsenophonus nasoniae, son-killer bacterium of nasonia vitripennis, reveals genes associated with virulence and symbiosis.four percent of female nasonia vitripennis carry the son-killer bacterium arsenophonus nasoniae, a microbe with notably different biology from other inherited parasites and symbionts. in this paper, we examine a draft genome sequence of the bacterium for open reading frames (orfs), structures and pathways involved in interactions with its insect host. the genome data suggest that a. nasoniae carries multiple type iii secretion systems, and an array of toxin and virulence genes found in photorhab ...201020167018
characteristics of the genome of arsenophonus nasoniae, son-killer bacterium of the wasp nasonia.we report the properties of a draft genome sequence of the bacterium arsenophonus nasoniae, son-killer bacterium of nasonia vitripennis. the genome sequence data from this study are the first for a male-killing bacterium, and represent a microorganism that is unusual compared with other sequenced symbionts, in having routine vertical and horizontal transmission, two alternating hosts, and being culturable on cell-free media. the resulting sequence totals c. 3.5 mbp and is annotated to contain 33 ...201020167019
detection of a new arsenophonus-type bacterium in canadian populations of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni.ticks of the genus dermacentor are important vectors of human and animal pathogens in north america. they also carry a variety of endosymbiotic (i.e. non-pathogenic) bacteria. the american dog tick, d. variabilis, is known to be infected with gammaproteobacteria of the genus arsenophonus. however, there have been no previous reports of arsenophonus-type bacteria in the rocky mountain wood tick, d. andersoni, a species that is sympatric with d. variabilis in the western parts of its distributiona ...201020186465
prevalence of endosymbionts in bemisia tabaci populations and their in vivo sensitivity to antibiotics.bemisia tabaci can harbor both primary and secondary endosymbionts, and the specific endosymbionts can differ among different b. tabaci biotypes. this study determined (1) the prevalence of the primary endosymbiont portiera aleyrodidarum and secondary endosymbionts arsenophonus and wolbachia in two invasive biotypes (b and q) and one indigenous biotype (cv) in china and (2) the in vivo effect of three antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin trihydrate, and rifampicin) against the endosymbionts; if ...201020217091
identification and localization of a rickettsia sp. in bemisia tabaci (homoptera: aleyrodidae).whiteflies (homoptera: aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insects that harbor "candidatus portiera aleyrodidarum," an obligatory symbiotic bacterium which is housed in a special organ called the bacteriome. these insects are also home for a diverse facultative microbial community which may include hamiltonella, arsenophonus, fritchea, wolbachia, and cardinium spp. in this study, the bacteria associated with a b biotype of the sweet potato whitefly bemisia tabaci were characterized using molecular fing ...200616672513
co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species.whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. the sweetpotato whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. to complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium portiera aleyrodidarum. b. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbio ...201020462452
further insights into the strange role of bacterial endosymbionts in whitefly, bemisia tabaci: comparison of secondary symbionts from biotypes b and q in china.the percentage infection of secondary symbionts (ss) (wolbachia, arsenophonus, rickettsia, hamiltonella, fritschea and cardinium) in the exotic bemisia tabaci (genn.) invaders, commonly known as biotypes b and q from china, were determined by pcr. in total, 373 biotype b and 1830 biotype q individuals were screened for the presence of ss. biotype b was more abundant than biotype q from 2005 to 2006, and biotype q was more abundant from 2007 to 2009. each of the ss, with the exception of fritsche ...201121329550
molecular characterization of bemisia tabaci populations in tunisia: genetic structure and evidence for multiple acquisition of secondary symbionts.a survey was conducted during 2009-2010 seasons to identify the distribution of bemisia tabaci (gennadius) biotypes in tunisia. the genetic affiliation of collected populations was determined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (taqi) of the mitochondrial cytochrom oxidase i (mtcoi) gene. results, validated by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, allowed the clustering of sampled sweetpotato whiteflies into b and q biotypes. as b. tabaci harbors the obli ...201122251681
reductive genome evolution, host-symbiont co-speciation and uterine transmission of endosymbiotic bacteria in bat flies.bat flies of the family nycteribiidae are known for their extreme morphological and physiological traits specialized for ectoparasitic blood-feeding lifestyle on bats, including lack of wings, reduced head and eyes, adenotrophic viviparity with a highly developed uterus and milk glands, as well as association with endosymbiotic bacteria. we investigated japanese nycteribiid bat flies representing 4 genera, 8 species and 27 populations for their bacterial endosymbionts. from all the nycteribiid s ...201121938025
identification of arsenophonus-type bacteria from the dog tick dermacentor variabilis. 200312877836
microbial communities and interactions in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.to quantify microbial composition and interactions, we identified prokaryotic communities in the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) based on 16s rrna gene sequences and direct probing. the lone star tick is the vector of emerging diseases and host to additional symbionts of unknown activity, and is representative of other blood-sucking arthropods. we evaluated the potential for vertical (transovarial) transmission by molecular analysis of microbial symbionts from egg and larval clutches. dire ...200819378409
symbiont diversity and non-random hybridization among indigenous (ms) and invasive (b) biotypes of bemisia tabaci.the whitefly bemisia tabaci (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) is a worldwide pest and a vector of numerous plant viruses. b. tabaci is composed of dozens of morphologically indistinguishable biotypes and its taxonomic status is still controversial. this phloem-feeder harbours the primary symbiont portiera aleyrodidarum and potentially six secondary symbionts: cardinium, arsenophonus, hamiltonella, rickettsia, wolbachia and fritschea. in the southwest indian ocean, la réunion hosts two biotypes of this sp ...201121476990
the host range of the male-killing symbiont arsenophonus nasoniae in filth fly parasitioids.the son-killer bacterium, arsenophonus nasoniae, infects nasonia vitripennis (hymenoptera: pteromalidae), a parasitic wasp that attacks filth flies. this gammaproteobacterium kills a substantial amount of male embryos produced by an infected female. aside from male death, the bacterium does not measurably affect the host, and how it is maintained in the host population is unknown. interestingly, this bacterial symbiont can be transmitted both vertically (from mother to offspring) and horizontall ...201021147118
susceptibility to insecticides in the q biotype of bemisia tabaci is correlated with bacterial symbiont densities.the presence of symbiotic microorganisms may influence an insect's ability to tolerate natural and artificial stress agents such as insecticides. the authors have previously shown that rickettsia in the b biotype of the whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) increases this insect's susceptibility to several insecticidal compounds. this communication reports a comparison of the susceptibilities of three isofemale strains of the q biotype of b. tabaci harbouring different bac ...200919479746
vector transmission of a plant-pathogenic bacterium in the arsenophonus clade sharing ecological traits with facultative insect endosymbionts.the planthopper pentastiridius leporinus (hemiptera: cixiidae) is the major vector of a nonculturable plant-pathogenic gamma-3 proteobacterium associated with a disease of sugar beet called syndrome "basses richesses" (sbr). the bacterium, here called sbr bacterium, belongs to the arsenophonous clade, which includes mostly insect-associated facultative symbionts. assays using field-collected planthopper nymphs and adults were carried out to investigate the interaction of sbr bacterium with the i ...200919821733
inherited intracellular ecosystem: symbiotic bacteria share bacteriocytes in whiteflies.symbiotic relationships with bacteria are common within the arthropoda, with interactions that substantially influence the biology of both partners. the symbionts' spatial distribution is essential for understanding key aspects of this relationship, such as bacterial transmission, phenotype, and dynamics. in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to localize five secondary symbionts from various populations and biotypes of the sweet potato whitefly bemisia tabaci: hamiltonella, ...200818285399
the diversity of reproductive parasites among arthropods: wolbachia do not walk alone.inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. in addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive parasites or as secondary symbionts. whilst the incidence of the alpha-proteobacterium wolbachia is relatively well established, the current knowledge of other inherited bacteria is much weaker. here, we tested 136 arthropod species for a range of inherited bacteria known to demonstrate reprod ...200818577218
an effect of 16s rrna intercistronic variability on coevolutionary analysis in symbiotic bacteria: molecular phylogeny of arsenophonus triatominarum.the genes of ribosomal rna are the most popular and frequently used markers for bacterial phylogeny and reconstruction of insect-symbiont coevolution. in primary symbionts, such as buchnera and wigglesworthia, genome economization leads to the establishment of a single copy of these sequences. in phylogenetic studies, they provide sufficient information and yield phylogenetic trees congruent with host evolution. in contrast, other symbiotic lineages (e.g., the genus arsenophonus) carry a higher ...200818485654
the transmission efficiency of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by the whitefly bemisia tabaci is correlated with the presence of a specific symbiotic bacterium species.tomato yellow leaf curl virus (tylcv) (geminiviridae: begomovirus) is exclusively vectored by the whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae). tylcv transmission depends upon a 63-kda groel protein produced by the vector's endosymbiotic bacteria. b. tabaci is a species complex comprising several genetically distinct biotypes that show different secondary-symbiont fauna. in israel, the b biotype harbors hamiltonella, and the q biotype harbors wolbachia and arsenophonus. both biot ...201020631135
a bacterium targets maternally inherited centrosomes to kill males in nasonia.male killing is caused by diverse microbial taxa in a wide range of arthropods. this phenomenon poses important challenges to understanding the dynamics of sex ratios and host-pathogen interactions. however, the mechanisms of male killing are largely unknown. evidence from one case in drosophila suggests that bacteria can target components of the male-specific sex-determination pathway. here, we investigated male killing by the bacterium arsenophonus nasoniae in the haplo-diploid wasp nasonia vi ...200818804376
the prevalence of 'candidatus arsenophonus phytopathogenicus' infecting the planthopper pentastiridius leporinus (hemiptera: cixiidae) increase nonlinearly with the population abundance in sugar beet fields.the planthopper pentastiridius leporinus (l.) (hemiptera: cixiidae) has been identified as the main vector of 'candidatus arsenophonus phytopathogenicus', a plant pathogenic bacterium associated to a sugar beet disease in eastern france called syndrome 'basses richesses'. in a 2-yr survey (2006-07), we quantified the abundance of p. leporinus populations migrating into 29 sugar beet fields in eastern france. sticky traps posted in these fields were monitored on a twice-weekly (2006) or weekly ( ...201122217748
identification and phylogenetic analysis of arsenophonus- and photorhabdus-type bacteria from adult hippoboscidae and streblidae (hippoboscoidea).this is the first report of arsenophonus- and photorhabdus-type bacteria from streblidae (bat flies) and hippoboscidae (louse flies, keds). strains were detected by means of polymerase chain reaction of 16s rdna, and phylogenetic analysis determined the relationship of the obtained sequences to previously reported sequences in genbank. phylogenetic analysis by means of maximum parsimony revealed that all isolated arsenophonus spp. 16s rdna sequences formed a monophyletic sub-clade within other i ...200616289111
evolutionary relationships of "candidatus riesia spp.," endosymbiotic enterobacteriaceae living within hematophagous primate lice.the primary endosymbiotic bacteria from three species of parasitic primate lice were characterized molecularly. we have confirmed the characterization of the primary endosymbiont (p-endosymbiont) of the human head/body louse pediculus humanus and provide new characterizations of the p-endosymbionts from pediculus schaeffi from chimpanzees and pthirus pubis, the pubic louse of humans. the endosymbionts show an average percent sequence divergence of 11 to 15% from the most closely related known ba ...200717220259
independent origins of vectored plant pathogenic bacteria from arthropod-associated arsenophonus endosymbionts.the genus arsenophonus (gammaproteobacteria) is comprised of intracellular symbiotic bacteria that are widespread across the arthropods. these bacteria can significantly influence the ecology and life history of their hosts. for instance, arsenophonus nasoniae causes an excess of females in the progeny of parasitoid wasps by selectively killing the male embryos. other arsenophonus bacteria have been suspected to protect insect hosts from parasitoid wasps or to expand the host plant range of phyt ...201121892672
multiple origins of endosymbiosis within the enterobacteriaceae (gamma-proteobacteria): convergence of complex phylogenetic approaches.abstract: background: the bacterial family enterobacteriaceae gave rise to a variety of symbiotic forms, from the loosely associated commensals, often designated as secondary (s) symbionts, to obligate mutualists, called primary (p) symbionts. determination of the evolutionary processes behind this phenomenon has long been hampered by the unreliability of phylogenetic reconstructions within this group of bacteria. the main reasons have been the absence of sufficient data, the highly derived nat ...201122201529
thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a kenyan population of adult anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are not known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria. here we show, using nucleic acid-based methods, that 16s rrna gene sequences specific to a recently described mosquito midgut bacterium, thorsellia anophelis, is predominant in the midgut of adult an. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes captured in residences in central kenya, and also occurs in the aquatic rice paddy environment nearby. pcr consistently detected t. anophelis in the surface microlayer of rice paddies, which is also ...200818180748
host-symbiont interactions of the primary endosymbiont of human head and body lice.the first mycetome was discovered more than 340 yr ago in the human louse. despite the remarkable biology and medical and social importance of human lice, its primary endosymbiont has eluded identification and characterization. here, we report the host-symbiont interaction of the mycetomic bacterium of the head louse pediculus humanus capitis and the body louse p. h. humanus. the endosymbiont represents a new bacterial lineage in the gamma-proteobacteria. its closest sequenced relative is arseno ...200717227954
phylogenetic relationships of entomopathogenic nematophilic bacteria: xenorhabdus spp. and photorhabdus sp.phylogenetic relationships of xenorhabdus spp. and photorhabdus sp. were investigated on the basis of 16s rrna gene sequences. xenorhabdus spp. and photorhabdus sp. were grouped together with proteus vulgaris and arsenophonus nasoniae. this group was distant from other members of the family enterobacteriaceae. xenorhabdus japonicus, previously proposed as a new species, was nearly located to xenorhabdus nematophilus. signature nucleotides of x. japonicus were identified that distinguish it other ...19968914266
in vitro culture and phylogenetic analysis of "candidatus arsenophonus triatominarum," an intracellular bacterium from the triatomine bug, triatoma infestans.an intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the hemolymph of triatoma infestans and cultured in an aedes albopictus cell line. 16s ribosomal dna sequence analysis revealed that the bacterium was a member of the gamma-3 subgroup of the class proteobacteria, having 96.2% sequence identity with the most closely related bacterium, arsenophonus nasoniae, the causative agent of the son-killer trait in the parasitoid wasp nasonia vitripennis. these bacteria share morphological features and a ...19979336921
isolation, pure culture, and characterization of "candidatus arsenophonus arthropodicus," an intracellular secondary endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly pseudolynchia canariensis.members of the genus arsenophonus comprise a large group of bacterial endosymbionts that are widely distributed in arthropods of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. at present, little is known about the role of these bacteria in arthropods, because few representatives have been isolated and cultured in the laboratory. in the current study, we describe the isolation and pure culture of an arsenophonus endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly pseudolynchia canariensis. we propose ...200616598007
arsenophonus, an emerging clade of intracellular symbionts with a broad host distribution.the genus arsenophonus is a group of symbiotic, mainly insect-associated bacteria with rapidly increasing number of records. it is known from a broad spectrum of hosts and symbiotic relationships varying from parasitic son-killers to coevolving mutualists.the present study extends the currently known diversity with 34 samples retrieved mainly from hippoboscid (diptera: hippoboscidae) and nycteribiid (diptera: nycteribiidae) hosts, and investigates phylogenetic relationships within the genus.200919619300
phylogenetic characterization of the bacterium-like organism associated with marginal chlorosis of strawberry and proposition of a candidatus taxon for the organism, 'candidatus phlomobacter fragariae'.marginal chlorosis is a new disease of strawberry which was first seen in france in 1988. a phloem-restricted bacterium-like organism was found associated with the disease. even though the organism could not be cultured and resembles in this way most other phloem-restricted pathogens, characterization was achieved from the sequence of its pcr-generated 16s rdna, and comparison with other organisms. from these studies, the strawberry agent was found to be a new bacterium within group 3 of the gam ...19989542095
genetic signature of reproductive manipulation in the phylogeography of the bat fly, trichobius major.the bat fly (trichobius major) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of the cave myotis (myotis velifer). a recent mitochondrial dna (mtdna) study examining population structure of t. major in the south central united states detected a single haplotype from all individuals examined (n = 48 from 12 different caves), representing one of only a few known examples of such widespread mtdna uniformity. we examined nuclear genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism and detected high level ...201121890840
evidence for multiple acquisition of arsenophonus by whitefly species (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae).whiteflies contain primary prokaryotic endosymbionts located within specialized host cells. this endosymbiotic association is the result of a single infection of the host followed by vertical transmission of the endosymbiont to the progeny. whiteflies may also be associated with other bacteria called secondary (s-) endosymbionts. the nucleotide sequence of the 16s-23s ribosomal dna from s-endosymbionts of 13 whitefly species was determined. a phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated th ...200415057483
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