age-dependent resistance of chicken of salmonella in vitro: antibacterial activity of lysed granule fraction of splenic adherent cells.lysed granule fraction was prepared from splenic adherent cells from 0-day-old to 2-month-old chickens and was examined antibacterial activity to salmonella pullorum and salmonella sentfenberg. the activity of lysed granule fraction from 2-month-old chickens was exhibited at ph 5.0 but not exhibited at ph 6.0 or 7.0 to both serotypes of salmonella. at ph 5.0, lysed granule fraction from 0-day-old chickens revealed little antibacterial activity to s. pullorum but the activity increased with incre ...197715389
[introduction of an additional h-agglutinating test antigen for the differentiation of specific positive reactions in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in poultry experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella enteritidis].explored were the possibilities to differentiate the specific positive reactions in case of pullorum disease in experimentally infected (salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella enteritidis) birds with the use of a typhoid test antigen and two h test antigens, obtained by the routinely employed method with formalin from salmonella enteritidis and salmonella adeoyo. it was demonstrated that the h-agglutinating antibodies persisted in the peripheral blood of the experimentally infected birds ...197775606
[indirect hemagglutination reaction in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid]. 197880877
[origin of a mitogrenic factor for cultivated macrophages (imf: inflammatory mitogenic factor) found in exudates of non-specific acute inflammation].the mitogenic activity of inflammatory exudate obtained from irradiated rats is reduced. after transfer of bone marrow syngeneic cells into irradiated rats this mitogenic activity is further decreased, while after transfer of thymic cells it is increased. it is postulated that the mitogenic activity of inflammatory exudate could be related to thymic cells and that t lymphocytes may be involved in non specific-inflammatory reactions.1978100246
[calcium kinetics of myocardium in experimental hypercalcemia and isoproterenol lesions--ultrastructural and roentgen microanalytical findings]. 1978106573
[economic effectiveness of antibiotics in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in poultry]. 1976139739
[immunosuppressive activity of several drugs and their effect on antibody formation in pullorum disease].furazolidon given alone or in combination with chloramphenicol, with spectinomycin, with gentamycin or with sodium arsenilate as well as chlorpyrazine, applied alone, suppress the clinical manifestation of pullorum disease in birds both in the experimental and in the spontaneous outbreak of the disease. these medicinal drugs lower the production of agglutinins in birds--mostly the combination furazolidon+chloramphenicol, followed by furazolidon+sodium arsenilate. the same combinations do not pro ...1977147557
[prevention of pullorum disease-fowl typhus in poultry]. 1979158252
immune response and the b blood group locus in chickens.chickens of three blood group genotypes, b1b1, b1b2 and b1b19, were compared in their ability to produce antibodies. the b locus is the major histocompatibility locus in this species. homozygous b1 pullets had significantly higher adult mortality than did the b1 heterozygotes. in two separate experiments the b1b1 females produced significantly fewer antibodies to salmonella pullorum than did the b1 heterozygotes. also the b1b1 pullets responded with lower antibody titers following immunization w ...1975172405
[infectious bronchitis and pullorum disease in chickens]. 1979222043
the role of the thymus for maturation of transferred bursa cells into immunocompetent b cells in chickens treated with cyclophosphamide.chickens injected with cyclophosphamide and x-ray irradiated in the newly hatched period were immunized with a mixture of sheep red blood cells, brucella abortus and salmonella pullorum at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age, and were examined for serum antibody titres, serum immunoglobulin concentration and bursal and splenic structures at 7 weeks of age. the neonatal treatments suppressed completely or almost completely antibody responses, immunoglobulin production and formation of bursal follicles and sp ...1978310807
the history of avian medicine in the u.s. ii. pullorum disease and fowl typhoid. 1977334148
inhibition by paromomycin of r-factor transfer of tetracycline resistance between escherichia coli and salmonella vitro assays showed that low concentrations (5--10 and 20 microgram/ml) of the antimicrobial paromomycin sulfate are able to block or diminish significantly the transfer of the tetracycline resistance r-factor between escherichia coli and salmonella pullorum. this observation is important because it offers the possibility of preventing the formation of tetracycline-resistant pathogens, a limiting factor of tetracycline use in both human and veterinary medicine.1978338888
[immunogenicity in salmonella gallinarum-pullorum irradiated with gamma rays].studied with the imunogenicity of salmonella gallinarum-pullorum bacteria treated with 1, 10 and 20 mr gamma rays or killed with acetone. bacterial cultures were irradiated with a lmb-gamma m device, having a 137cs source, single doses being of a 3,252 r/min power biozzi's clearance test was employed to determine the changes in the immunogenic properties of the irradiated bacteria. the results obtained with both the clearance test and the protection test spoke of a considerable drop in the immun ...1977343353
animal salmonellosis in peninsular malaysia. ii. annual and zoological distribution of salmonella serotypes over the 10-year period 1966-1975.a total of 860 salmonella isolations were made in peninsular malaysia from 15 animal species (domestic and wild), eggs, molluscs, flies, and animal feed. the isolations were distributed among 31 serotypes in eight groups. the most common serotype isolated was salmonella pullorum, followed by s. choleraesuis and s. infantis. s. typhimurium had the widest zoological distribution. the importance of controlling animal salmonellosis is emphasized.1978354419
[salmonella pullorum-infection in a laying flock of chickens (author's transl)]. 1979367748
prevalence of certain antibodies to selected disease-causing agents in wild turkeys in texas in 1976 and 1977, rio grande turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from seven counties and eastern turkeys (m. g. silvestris) from one county were tested for antibodies to selected poultry pathogens. standardized serological tests disclosed reactors to salmonella pullorum (2.4%), s. typhimurium (2.3%), and mycoplasma gallisepticum (4.8%). there were no reactors to newcastle disease virus or chlamydia psittaci. prevalence of m. gallisepticum antibody in wild turkeys was significantly ...1979384989
cross-protection aginst salmonella enteritidis infection in mice. i. immunization trials.mice were immunized subcutaneously with live and killed vaccines, with and without complete adjuvant incorporating salmonella typhi-murium m206, salmonella gallinarum 9r, salmonella pullorum sp223 as well as homologous salmonella enteritidis se795. the animals were challenged 21 days post-vaccination with 100 ld50 of virulent s. enteritidis 5694 smr subcutaneously along with unvaccinated control mice. to assess the immunity against acute and chronic infections, the percentage of absolute survivo ...1979397731
cross-protection against salmonella enteritidis infection in mice.mice were immunized subcutaneously with live vaccines and live vaccines with complete adjuvant incorporating salmonella enteritidis se 795, salmonella typhi-murium m206, salmonella gallinarum 9r or salmonella pullorum sp223. they were challenged along with unvaccinated controls with 100 ld50 of virulent s. enteritidis 5694 smr subcutaneously on the 21st day post-vaccination. the humoral immune response was studied by assessing the sequential level of agglutinins, complete and incomplete somatic ...1979397732
cross-protection against salmonella enteritidis infection in mice. iii. delayed hypersensitivity reaction and clearance of the challenge organism.mice were immunized with live vaccines and with live vaccines with complete adjuvant incorporating salmonella enteritidis, salmonella typhi-murium, salmonella gallinarum or salmonella pullorum. on the 21st day after vacination, the hypersensitivity reactions elicited by the mice to extracts of the challenge organism (s. enteritidis 5694 smr) were assessed. the degree of delayed hypersensitivity reaction was compared with the level of protection induced by the vaccine. the role in protection of d ...1979397733
synaptogenesis in the cervical cord of the human embryo: sequence of synapse formation in a spinal reflex pathway.synaptogenesis in the cervical cord was studied by light and electron microscopy in human embryos ranging from four to seven weeks of ovulation age. the stage of embryonic development was estimated on the basis of external morphology of embryos and histology of the eye ball with reference to streeter's horizon. no synapses were found in the cervical cord of the embryo at streeter's horizon xiv (8 mm; estimated ovulation age, 28-30 days). a small number of axodendritic synapses appear in the moto ...1979422753
serological response of chickens to salmonella thompson and salmonella pullorum infections.chickens were experimentally infected with salmonella thompson (serogroup c, paratyphoid) and salmonella pullorum (serogroup d). five serological methods and one cultural method were used in detecting the infections. the microantiglobulin test was superior to all other methods for detection of paratyphoid (s. thompson) infection and was followed in efficacy by the microagglutination test, rapid serum plate test, cloacal swab culture, macroscopic tube agglutination test, and rapid whole-blood tes ...1979429534
observations on salmonella infections of birds.during the period 1961 to 1976, 29 species of salmonella other than salmonella pullorum were isolated from 180 accessions of birds examined at the animal research institute, yeerongpilly. these birds were submitted to the laboratory from flocks with disease or production problems. s. typhimurium was the most frequently isolated serotype being obtained from 63% of accessions. outbreaks of systemic salmonellosis occurred most frequently in young birds and although pathological changes were most co ...1979435204
[diagnostic value of the indirect hemagglutination reaction in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid]. 1979452403
secular trends of annual morbidities of animal infectious diseases.supposing two mathematical models, additive and multiplicative, the authors estimated the secular trends of annual morbidities (1949 approximately 1975) of twelve infectious diseases of domestic animals. for each diseases ten different trend curves were fitted. it was found that five regression equations, namely, those for bovine trichomoniasis, bovine tuberculosis, equine infectious anemia, pullorum disease in chickens, and foulbrood, gave the coefficient of determination of 97.9, 92.7, 91.0, 9 ...1977604789
[diagnostic value of serological methods and of the allergy method in studying pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in poultry].it was established that the positive allergy reaction was best expressed at the forty-eighth hour following the introduction of the allergen. the diagnostic value of the allergy reaction was not shown to surpass that of the serum agglutination reaction. it proved to be close to the value of the other serologic methods of examination (the whole-serum and whole-blood agglutination tests). the allergy method of investigation could be used as a tentative method, resp., reaction test for the detectio ...1977607558
[genetic polymorphism of poultry blood serum esterases in relation to resistance to bacterial infections].the experiments were carried out on white leghorn, white rock and cornish chickens during the 1974--1975 season. the aim of the investigation was to study polymorphism of blood esterases in chickens in relation to their resistance to salmonella pullorum and s. gallinarum. the data obtained indicate the following: 1) an additional, inheritant alyesterase fraction (a1) appears in blood serum of resistant chickens after their contamination with salmonella; 2) most chickens, which are resistant to s ...1977611042
[prevention of pullorum disease in chicks]. 1978695280
the bursal origin of an immunocompetent cell for antibody formation in the chicken.surgically bursectomized and irradiated chickens were given bursal, splenic, bone marrow or thymic cells taken from syngeneic donors, together with killed brucella abortus and salmonella pullorum. blood samples were taken from those chickens 7 days later, and the serum agglutinin titres were determined. the cells of any lymphoid organ taken from 28-day-old chickens were more effective in restoring antibody response than those from 18-day-old ones. the restorative capacities of the bursa and sple ...1975808466
humoral immune responses characteristic of testosterone-propionate-treated chickens.white leghorn chickens treated with testosterone-propionate on the 3rd day of embryonation were immunized with a mixture of sheep red blood cells, brucella abortus and salmonella pullorum at various ages, and the resulting agglutinins were titrated. the production of igm antibody against sheep red blood cells was not affected significantly by testosterone-propionate. on the contrary, immune responses against the bacterial antigens were strongly suppressed by the same treatment. production of igg ...1976815175
the augmentation of antibody responses by preliminary intrabursal priming in the injection of antigen into bursal tissue of young chickens followed by subsequent intravenous immunization markedly stimulated agglutinin production against brucella abortus. in contrast, preliminary intravenous immunization did not produce stimulation. the promoting effect of intrabursal injection was antigen-specific. antigen injection into the bursa reduced the extent to which subsequent bursectomy suppresses the immune response. bursa cells from young chickens which had been injected w ...1976829231
[antibody dynamics in growing birds experimentally infected or naturally sick with white diarrhea].serologic studies were carried out with growing birds, aged 37-70 days, experimentally and spontaneously infected with salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum, respectively. more positively reacting birds were found by means of the whole-blood agglutination reaction with typhoid-pullorum test than in the study of the same birds when aged 6-7 months. the investigation of birds when young is also advantageous in that there are no losses of eggs, it is more readily carried out, and the infect ...1977929972
effects of early cyclophosphamide treatment on lymphoid organs and its immune response in ducks.cyclophosphamide treatment of newly hatched white pekin ducks significantly reduced the weight of their lymphoid organs and almost completely eliminated the formation of bursal lymphoid follicles at one week of age. there after the thymus and spleen of these ducks completely recovered in weight at 7 weeks of age. the bursa, however, retained its light weight and morphological defects, such as the absence of lymphoid follicles. the specific antibody producing-capability to salmonella pullorum was ...1976951372
[antibiotics and chemopreparations in poultry pullorum disease]. 1976960534
age-dependent resistance of chickens to salmonella in vitro: phagocytic and bactericidal activities of splenic phagocytes.the phagocytic and bactericidal activities to salmonella pullorum (strain 9-25) or salmonella senftenberg (strain 99d) were examined in chicken splenic phagocytes from 0-day-old to 2-month-old chickens. the phagocytic activity against s pullorum increased in splenic phagocytes from chickens older than 7 days, but significant changes in activity against s senftenberg were not observed during the experimental period. the bactericidal activity of splenic phagocytes against s senftenberg was higher ...1976962210
a simplified biochemical system to screen salmonella isolates from poultry for serotyping.the 24 most frequently isolated paratyphoids from poultry, along with salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum, plus strains of arizona, citrobacter, edwardsiella, escherichia, klebsiella, prteus, pseudomonas, serratia and shigella were inoculated into triple sugar iron (tsi) and lysine iron (li) slants and into six fermentation broths which were numbered: 1 (dextrose), 2 (lactose), 3 (sucrose), 4 (mannitol), 5 (maltose), 6 (dulcitol). all the salmonella cultures (except s. pullorum) gave a ...1976995819
[dynamics of the agglutinin titer in chicks with pullorum disease-fowl typhoid]. 19751114666
social interactions and antibody titres in young male chickens (gallus domesticus).the influence of social interactions on established antibody titres to a salmonella pullorum antigen was determined in several athens randombred families. in two experiments, a large-bodied, aggresive family and a small-bodied, relatively non-aggressive family were placed in three social environments: (1) four-bird control groups with no changes in membership once formed; (2) three-bird resident groups to which a new fourth bird was introduced daily; (3) the single bird that had been moved to ...19751172392
diverse effects of bursectomy on humoral immune responses in the chicken.chickens bursectomized hormonally or surgically at various ages in embryonic to postembryonic lives were immunized with a mixture of antigens, and the antibodies produced titrated. immune responses to salmonella pullorum (sp), brucella abortus (ba). staphylococcus aureus (staph) and ovalbumin (oa) were more markedly suppressed by the bursal deprivation than those to heterogenous erythrocytes, viruses and such bacteria as pasteurella multocida (pm) and escherichia coli b. the immune response to b ...19751187514
[possibilities of differentiation of the specific positive reactions for pullorum disease].studied were sera obtained from three groups of birds experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum. salmonella enteritidis, and salmonella heidelberg, resp., using the whole serum agglutination reaction, the slow test-tube reaction (at 37 degrees and 50 degrees c), and the agar gel precipitation reaction as modified by aoki as well as the spot-test of williams. it was found that with the use of a typhus antigen it is not possible to differentiate the positive coagglutination react ...19751210001
[role of ticks of the species argas persicus oken, 1818, in the epizootology of pullorum disease in birds].studies was the role played by ticks of the argas persicus species in the epizootiology of pullorum disease in birds. use was made of microbiologic, radiometric, and autoradiographic methods to follow up the period of carrying salmonella gallinarum-pullorum, the localization and routes of elimination of the causative agent as well as the possibility of transmitting the infection by ticks. the pathogen was found to persist in the alimentary tract for a long time (at least 8 months--as long as the ...19751210005
[age-related susceptibility of chickens to salmonella pullorum infection]. 19751216537
[experience in the sanation of a pedigreed poultry farm pullorum disease].a trial was carried out for the sanitation of three elite flocks of a total of 3578 chickens on a pedigree poultry farm applying the method of eliminating the infected birds. these were detected with the use of the whole-serum agglutination reaction (after huddleson) and the tube agglutination reaction (after wright). no means whatever were used to control the disease. routine microbiologic methods were employed, however, to examine the eggs, embryos, and chicks obtained from these flocks. thoro ...19751226696
cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene (citc) encoding a citrate carrier from several salmonella serovars.the nucleotide sequence of the citc coding for the citrate carrier in several salmonella serovars has been determined, and the amino acid sequence of the carrier protein was deduced. the predicted citrate carrier from salmonella pullorum and salmonella enteritidis consists of 446 amino acids with a molecular weight of 47,621, whereas that from salmonella dublin is the same 446 amino acids with the slightly different molecular weight of 47,591, because 1 amino acid residue was substituted. the pr ...19921374406
serological response of chickens to infection with salmonella gallinarum-s. pullorum detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the serological response to salmonella pullorum and s. gallinarum infection in chickens was studied with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in broiler chickens, a more virulent strain of s. pullorum produced a significantly lower serum igg titer than did a less virulent strain. in laying hens, the serum and egg-yolk igg titers were very similar. in chickens infected with s. gallinarum, high igg titers persisted for 30 weeks. in chickens reinfected with this strain, each reinf ...19921385699
epizootiological investigation of an outbreak of pullorum disease in an integrated broiler integrated broiler company experienced a major outbreak of pullorum disease during 1990. the outbreak resulted in the distribution of salmonella pullorum-infected birds to more than 150 roaster flocks in five states. twenty-two parent (multiplier) breeder flocks became infected. an epizootiological investigation uncovered a grandparent male line breeder flock as the index flock supplying males to the affected parent flocks. transmission apparently occurred vertically through the egg and horiz ...19921417613
antibacterial activity and mutagenicity studies of water-soluble phosphazene high polymers.eight water-soluble phosphazene high polymers, [npr2]n (r, organic, water-solubilizing side-group; n, approx: 15,000) and the small-molecule counterparts of the polymers were examined for antibacterial activity against six different strains of bacteria (escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium (ta 100), salmonella pullorum, streptococcus faecalis, bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa). antibacterial testing was carried out by measuring zones of inhibition and changes in solution turbidit ...19921457679
[the selection of salmonella gallinarum, salmonella pullorum and escherichia coli in chickens after chloramphenicol administration].the effect of a chloramphenicol administration was examined on the selection of e. coli of the chicken intestinal flora, and of the infectious s. gallinarum and s. pullorum strains. on the other hand, an effort was made to detect the frequency of the resistance transmission of e. coli to above mentioned sensitive salmonella strains. fourteen chicken, 12 infected and 2 negative controls were used. it was found that the enteric e. coli strains became resistant in a week's time. besides, the strain ...19921471974
pullorum disease in delaware index case of pullorum disease in 4-week-old roasters from a completely integrated poultry operation is reported from delaware. severe articular and periarticular swelling of hock and/or wing joints was observed on postmortem examination. also seen were moderate to severe hydropericardium and large white-gray nodules in the heart and gizzard that grossly could have been taken for tumors. the livers showed multiple small white foci, petechial hemorrhages, and swelling. initially, salmonella pu ...19921485862
pathogenicity of salmonella pullorum in northern bobwhite quail and mallard ducks.ten-day-old northern bobwhite quail and mallard ducks were inoculated orally and intravenously with salmonella pullorum at selected concentrations (10(3) to 10(10) colony-forming units). mortality in bobwhites ranged from 65% to 100%, whereas no mallards died or exhibited any signs of morbidity. significantly (p less than 0.05) increased values for serum calcium, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase were observed in mallards inoculated with live s. pullorum, and antibody titers were detected as ...19921627103
progeny performance when dams and chicks are fed supplemental zinc.three consecutive trials involving approximately 700 to 800 broilers (0 to 28 days) were conducted to examine effects on growth and immunity of chicks after supplementing dams with inorganic zn versus organic zn. offspring from hens fed a basal diet (72 mg zn/kg) or diets with 152 mg zn/kg supplemented with zno or organic zn-met were randomized across four battery brooders. chicks were fed a starter diet without supplemental zn containing 100 mg zn/kg or diets supplemented with 40 mg/kg zn from ...19921641384
measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity in serum with n-methyl-d-glucamine as a buffer: evaluation of the method for routine use.some aspects of the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity concentration in human serum, using n-methyl-d-glucamine as a buffer, were evaluated with a view to the possible routine use of the method. the evaluated characteristics included: the temperature-dependence of the ph of the buffer; the effect of adding the magnesium/zinc ions buffer; the effect of the serum volume fraction; the substrate-starter versus the serum-starter mode; the effect of modifying the formulation of reagents; the ...19911782284
detection of salmonella serogroup d-specific antibodies in the yolks of eggs laid by hens infected with salmonella enteritidis.eggs laid by hens experimentally infected with salmonella enteritidis were assayed for the presence of serogroup d-specific yolk antibodies. yolk antibodies were detected with s. enteritidis and salmonella pullorum antigens in the microantiglobulin test as early as 9 days after inoculation of hens with s. enteritidis. yolk antibody titers reached peak levels at 3 to 5 wk postinoculation and remained at detectable levels for at least 7 wk postinoculation in eggs from both orally inoculated and ho ...19911852702
health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial california meat-turkey flocks.a survey was conducted to characterize domestic and exotic bird populations, estimate seroprevalence to selected disease agents, and describe health management practices on 62 premises containing "backyard" flocks located within one mile of 22 commercial california meat-turkey flocks participating in national animal health monitoring system (nahms). chickens were present on 56 backyard premises and turkeys on seven. antibodies were identified against mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. mel ...19911854324
[pathologico-anatomic, bacteriologic and serologic findings in laying hens from small neighborhood flocks with salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection].two small free range flocks with 32 hens, whose salmonella enteritidis contaminated eggs caused salmonellosis in man, were investigated for localisation of the agent. salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 was isolated from 12 of 32 hens (37.5%). eight hens (25%) harbored the bacterium in the ovary and/or the oviduct. the rapid slide agglutination test with salmonella pullorum-antigen revealed 21 positive hens (66%). all eight hens with salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 in the reproductive tract ...19912047834
immunity to experimental fowl typhoid in chickens induced by a virulence plasmid-cured derivative of salmonella gallinarum.chickens were immunized by two intramuscular inoculations at 1 and 14 days of age with virulence plasmid-cured derivatives of salmonella gallinarum and were challenged 14 days later by oral inoculation of ca. 50 50% lethal doses (ld50) of fully virulent s. gallinarum 9. mortality in the nonimmunized and immunized groups were 36 and 3%, respectively. this difference was highly significant (p less than 0.01). a significant reduction in mortality was also produced following oral challenge with 5,00 ...19902194968
a survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from arkansas.wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the arkansas game and fish commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. the 45 birds were trapped at four locations in pope, scott, and montgomery counties (arkansas, usa). forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19902250323
[therapy trials with enrofloxacin (baytril) in a laying hen flock with salmonella pullorum infections].the course of a disease due to salmonella pullorum in laying chickens is described. the experimental application of enrofloxacin (baytril) at a dosage of 100 mg/l drinking water for 10 days resulted in a stop of the mortality rate, increment of egg production and reduction of salmonella excretion. a recurrence of the disease was observed in the fifth week following the end of treatment with high mortality and decreasing egg laying. the treatment lead to a short-dated success but a permanent elim ...19892651079
[salmonella gallinarum field isolates of the biovars pullorum and gallinarum].in 40 cases salmonellae of the serovar salmonella (s.) gallinarum were culturally isolated from domesticated gallinaceous birds submitted for diagnostic purposes in the period of 1979-1989. on the basis of the cultural and biochemical features found 35 of them could be assigned to the biovar pullorum and 5 to the biovar gallinarum. of 35 isolates of the biovar pullorum, 29 were isolated from pure bred chickens of small fancy-exhibition type flocks, 4 from floor-housed adult brown hybrid laying h ...19892764874
effects of aflatoxin on the immune system of the chick.a decreased antibody response to injected sheep red blood cells and weight losses to the extent of 25-38% were observed in the bursa fabricii and thymus in chicks fed an aflatoxin diet (10% w/w) for 3 weeks. the immune organs did not show any significant histopathological changes. the antibody titre decreased from day 6 of treatment onward until the 15th day, when the antibody titre had disappeared completely in the test chicks. the body weight gain was also less in test chicks (9.7-37.3%) given ...19892778263
protective role of serum antibody in immunity to chlamydial genital infection.female guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with pooled immunoglobulin derived from animals immunized to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. genital infections in animals receiving pooled immunoglobulin from immune animals were markedly decreased with regard to the number of inclusions detected compared with control animals. these data indicated that serum-derived antibody was able to provide a degree of protection against a chlamydial genital tract infection.19892909492
splenic leukocytes from chickens injected with salmonella pullorum antigen stimulate production of corticosteroids by isolated adrenal cells.corticosteroid levels in the blood serum of white rock pullets were significantly increased within 1 hr after an iv injection of heat-killed salmonella pullorum antigen (sp-ag), and reached levels 7 to 10 times that of pbs-injected controls within 2 hr after sp-ag injection. incubations with isolated adrenal cells indicated that serum from sp-ag-injected birds had the ability to stimulate the synthesis or release of corticosteroids twice that of serum pbs-injected birds. stripping the serum from ...19852984689
detection of salmonellas in confectionery products by conductance.a modified lysine decarboxylase broth has been developed which could be used with a bactometer m123 to differentiate salmonellas from other bacteria by the characteristics of the conductance detection curve. the medium was used in combination with a selenite cystine trimethylamine oxide dulcitol medium to screen 50 strains of salmonellas and 42 strains of other organisms to establish detection curve magnitude and rate values which could be used to identify curves specific to salmonellas. the com ...19883049504
the association between a large molecular mass plasmid and virulence in a strain of salmonella pullorum.eight strains of salmonella pullorum isolated from epidemiologically independent cases of pullorum disease (bacillary white diarrhoea) in young chickens possessed at least one large molecular mass plasmid in addition to smaller molecular mass plasmids. the 85 kb large plasmid, designated pbl001, of one of these strains was 'tagged' with an ampicillin resistance marker by the insertion of transposon tn3. the plasmid was eliminated by passage in nutrient broth containing acridine orange. it was re ...19883253408
effects of bumetanide on chloride transport in human eccrine sweat ducts: implications for cystic fibrosis.the effect of the loop diuretic bumetanide on cl- transport in the human reabsorptive sweat duct (rsd) was studied to determine the properties of cl- transport in this tissue with an emphasis on its role in cystic fibrosis. bumetanide (10(-4) m) in the bath decreased the nacl reabsorption rate (+/- se) from 235 +/- 72 to 77 +/- 24 pmol/min per mm (n = 10). bumetanide in the lumen decreased the rate of nacl reabsorption to a lesser extent from 132 +/- 17 to 84 +/- 16 pmol/min per mm (n = 9). at l ...19873440743
relationship between immune system and gram-negative bacteria, binding of salmonella pullorum-gallinarum to chicken lymphocytes.salmonella pullorum-gallinarum binding to chicken lymphocytes has been evaluated in individuals of different age (1-20 wks). bacterial adherence has been studied on lymphoid cells recovered from thymus, spleen, bursa and peripheral blood. binding was age-dependent and neuraminidase treatment of lymphoid cells led to an increase of adherence. in addition, by using two monoclonal antibodies, the ct-1, which defines thymocytes and the m-4 which identifies surface igm and an avian homologue of mamma ...19863542555
production, physiological, and behavioral responses of laying hens in different management environments.responses of commercial laying hens to 16 management systems were examined for 10 laying periods of 28 days each. twelve cage treatments consisted of housing three, four, or five hens in deep and shallow cages of different dimensions which provided .035 and .046 m2/hen. four floor treatments housed 35 hens or 32 hens and three roosters at densities of .094 or .373 m2/bird, in two replicated pens each. quantitative data were collected simultaneously for 23 production, physiological, and behaviora ...19873601849
fatal case of salmonellosis (salmonella pullorum) in a chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) in the jos zoo.a case of salmonellosis in a captive chimpanzee (pan troglydytes) is reported. confirmatory diagnosis was based on clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological examination, and the isolation of salmonella pullorum from the lung, liver, kidney and intestines of the animal. the source of infection was not ascertained.19873682095
genetic aspects of antibody responses in chickens to different classes of antigens.six breeding groups of chickens, each characterized by a different haplotype of the b blood group system, were challenged with different classes of antigens, namely newcastle disease vaccine (nd), infectious bronchitis vaccine (ib), infectious bursal disease viral agent (ibd), salmonella pullorum antigen (p), and sheep red blood cells (srbc). parents were challenged at 20 weeks of age, and their offspring were challenged at 3 weeks of age. blood samples were taken from the parents at 1 week afte ...19863703775
increased collateralization of the cerebellothalamic pathway following neonatal hemicerebellectomy.the postlesional reorganization of the cerebellothalamic cells was here studied using a multiple retrograde tracing technique. to this purpose, the cerebellothalamic cell population was investigated in 3 groups of adult rats: (a) cases hemicerebellectomized at birth; (b) cases hemicerebellectomized in adulthood; and (c) control unlesioned ones. in all of the groups the fluorescent tracers diamidino yellow and fast blue were injected bilaterally in the thalamus and the retrograde labeling obtaine ...19863708349
[acute pullorum disease in hawk-headed parrots (deroptyus accipitrinus fuscifrons)]. 19854023688
investigations on the antigenic composition of salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum. 19664161874
different effects of bursectomy of chickens on immune response to newcastle disease virus and salmonella pullorum antigens. 19734201880
[temperature denaturation of salmonella pullorum ribosomes in the presence of certain antibiotics and other biologically active substances]. 19744211687
[efficiency of polymyxin m in pullorum disease in chickens]. 19654288910
preincubation treatment of chicken hatching eggs infected with salmonella pullorum. 19704314008
demonstration of two cryptic plasmids in salmonella pullorum ms53.two cryptic plasmids designated po-1 and po-2 that had molecular weights of 1.5 x 10(6) and 45 x 10(6) daltons, respectively, were isolated from salmonella pullorum ms53. a 150 to 1 ratio of po-1 to po-2 plasmids was estimated to occur.19724336696
[resistance of chickens in the first days of life to pullorum disease-fowl typhus]. 19744456753
[sedimentation properties of salmonella pullorum ribosomes and the effect of antibiotics on them]. 19744463881
avian salmonella-stained microtest antigens produced on solid media.procedures are described for the preparation of salmonella pullorum and salmonella typhimurium tetrazolium-stained microagglutination and microantiglobulin antigens with solid media for culture propagation. cell suspensions were found to be more easily harvested from solid medium than from previously used liquid medium, and greater yields of antigen were obtained. liquid medium microagglutination and microantiglobulin test antigens were found to be more sensitive than those prepared on solid med ...19734580193
immunogenicity of living and heat-killed salmonella pullorum vaccines.specific pathogen-free cd-1 and c57bl mice were infected in a hind footpad with 5 x 10(4) viable salmonella enteritidis cells or 10(7) viable s. pullorum cells. the resulting bacterial growth within the footpad, the draining lymph nodes, and the liver and spleen was followed for 14 days. mice vaccinated with live s. enteritidis rapidly developed an effective antibacterial resistance to both intravenous and intragastric challenge with s. enteritidis sm(r). the viable inoculum of s. pullorum was r ...19734587521
[use of ionic silver aerosols in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid and colibacillosis in chicks]. 19734589234
disappearance of the covalently closed circular cryptic plasmid po-2 in salmonella pullorum ms35 containing f77. 19744597647
non-specific reactions to rapid whole blood salmonella pullorum antigens. 19724664365
a small oxygenator for use with an organ perfusion system. 19734737897
[allergic diagnosis of pullorum disease--fowl typhoid in chickens]. 19734756645
[reliable protection of chicks against pullorum disease]. 19734771647
[effectiveness of antibiotics in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in chicks]. 19734771648
[the effect of a series of antibiotics on nucleic acid and protein synthesis in salmonella pullorum]. 19734787727
biochemical characterization of sulfur assimilation by salmonella pullorum.the biochemical basis for a cysteine requirement in salmonella pullorum strain ms35 is presented. before determining the missing biochemical functions, it was established that the assimilatory sulfate-reducing pathway for this species is an inorganic one in which 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate (paps), sulfite, and sulfide are intermediates. a requirement for 2'- and 3'-adenosine monophosphate was found for in vitro synthesis of paps, possibly because 2'- and 3'-adenosine monophosphate inhibits endoge ...19704908669
[comparative studies on the antibiotic activity in vitro of oxytetracycline and of a new derivative of the tetracycline group (7-chloro-6-methylen-5-oxytetracycline) as used on salmonella pullorum]. 19714935886
a spectrophotometric assay for neutral protease. 19684970444
studies on the distribution of anti-salmonella pullorum agglutinins in blood sera and in milk of cattle. 19704986829
inhibition of plasmid dna replication by rifampin in salmonella pullorum. 19725018666
characterization of a thermolabile sulfite reductase from salmonella pullorum.the biochemical basis for sulfite accumulation by sulfate-using revertants of salmonella pullorum was determined. all of the sulfate-using mutants isolated from wild-type s. pullorum accumulated sulfite when grown at 37 but not at 25 c. the specific activity of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nadph)-dependent sulfite reductase (h (2)s-nadp oxidoreductase, ec and of reduced methyl viologen (mvh)-dependent sulfite reductase (h (2)s-mv oxidoreductase), in extracts prepared from ...19715122801
correlation of immunological responsiveness with lymphocyte changes in chickens infected with marek's disease.several immunological, hematological, and pathological responses associated with marek's disease were determined. four-week-old marek's disease-infected and control chickens were injected with salmonella pullorum antigen. about one-half of all infected chickens tested were unresponsive to antigenic challenge. antibody titers in responsive infected chickens were significantly depressed at 1 and 2 weeks post-inoculation when compared to controls. total white blood cell counts of control and contro ...19715292890
infection of salmonella pullorum, salmonella newington or salmonella enteritidis in laboratory rats by oral inoculation. 19655294502
amino acid composition of certain bacterial cell-wall proteins.analyses were made to determine the amino acid composition of the cell-wall proteins of salmonella pullorum, s. senftenberg 775w, s. derby, and escherichia coli. these proteins consist of the usual 18 amino acids found in most proteins with diaminopimelic acid in addition. quantitative determination of these amino acids showed that their amounts were similar.19655325933
accumulation of sulfite by a sulfate-using revertant of salmonella pullorum.sulfate-utilizing revertants of a cysteine auxotroph of salmonella pullorum have been found that cause an accumulation in growth medium of a sulfur compound more oxidized than sulfide. the sulfur compound was presumptively identified as sulfite by the formation of a colored complex in the presence of basic fuchsin and formaldehyde, oxidation to sulfate by peroxide, and acid-volatility. the acid-volatile material was identified as sulfite by formation of an s-sulfonyl derivative of 5,5'-dithio-bi ...19695344100
[salmonella pullorum in 2 arassari (pteroglossos spec.)]. 19695388253
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