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correlation between morbidity and the level of serum antibodies and virus-neutralizing inhibitors in different influenza a/hong-kong epidemics. 197994079
segment iv of a salmonella flagellin gene specifies flagellar antigen epitopes.each of the two mutants isolated from a flic (= hag, flagellin-deficient) escherichia coli strain made motile by a plasmid carrying the flic gene of salmonella muenchen by selection for motility in the presence of anti-d (salmonella flagellar antigen) serum had both lost and gained one or more subfactors of the wild-type antigen. in one mutant codon 246 was gac (alanine) instead of gcc (asparagine); the other had a deletion of 105 base pairs, explicable by a 10bp direct repeat, starting at bases ...19911710314
growth of chlamydia trachomatis in enucleated cells.chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite of eucaryotic cells. little is known about the role of the host in supporting chlamydial replication beyond the facts that host cells provide atp and that de novo host protein synthesis is not required for bacterial growth. to further explore potential contributions of host nuclear function to chlamydial development, we questioned whether murine c. trachomatis could grow in mouse l cells that had been enucleated with cytochalasin b. fol ...19902228252
production of specific monoclonal antibodies to salmonella typhi flagellin and possible application to immunodiagnosis of typhoid fever.four murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to salmonella typhi flagellin were produced. these mabs did not react with eight other enterobacterial strains tested: salmonella enteritidis, salmonella typhimurium, salmonella paratyphi a, escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, shigella sonnei, yersinia enterocolitica, and campylobacter jejuni. all four mabs cross-reacted with salmonella muenchen flagellin indicating specificity for d antigenic flagellar epitope. one mab (c4) was selected to develop a dou ...19902295860
unique sequences in region vi of the flagellin gene of salmonella typhi.the h1 (now renamed flic; lino et al., 1988) alleles specifying antigenically different salmonella flagellins are identical at their ends but differ greatly towards the middle, where there are two hypervariable segments (regions iv and vi). the flagellar antigen, d, of salmonella typhi, is found also as phase-1 antigen in many other salmonella species. we cloned the h1-d gene of a strain of s. typhi and determined the nucleotide sequence of its two hypervariable regions. comparison with gene h1- ...19892615651
molecular epidemiology of bacterial infections: examples of methodology and of investigations of outbreaks.plasmid profile analysis, plasmid and chromosomal bacterial restriction endonuclease dna analysis, and dna hybridization are increasingly used in clinical microbiology and epidemiology. these techniques have been applied, singly and in combination, to investigations of outbreaks, including those of diarrheal diseases caused by pandemic vibrio cholerae, enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli, salmonella muenchen, and salmonella typhimurium. the techniques have been critical in the ...19863024288
[diarrhea caused by vibrio cholerae and salmonella muenchen]. 19853832366
[salmonella muenchen strains isolated from duck eggs]. 19655895719
[on a case of food poisoning caused by salmonella muenchen]. 19665996476
an outbreak of salmonella muenchen infection in a specialist paediatric hospital. 19826190865
reiter's syndrome associated with salmonella muenchen infection. 19826956299
sequence analysis of the vibrio cholerae acfd gene reveals the presence of an overlapping reading frame, orfz, which encodes a protein that shares sequence similarity to the flia and flic products of salmonella.the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the vibrio cholerae acfd gene (encoding an accessory colonization factor) has been determined. the acfd gene encompasses 254 nt that are predicted to encode an 88-amino-acid (aa) protein. additionally, an open reading frame of 184 aa, designated orfz, was detected that overlaps the 3' end of acfd by 45 nt. computer-assisted homology searches revealed that orfz possesses aa sequence similarity to the c terminus of the flic product of salmonella muenchen and s. rubi ...19948063108
comparison of aqueous commercial cleaners for effectiveness in removing escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella muenchen from the surface of apples.unpasteurized fruit juice and cider have been implicated in outbreaks of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella infections, yet various processes used to clean and sanitize fruits before producing juice have not been thoroughly studied for their effectiveness in removing pathogens. the objective of this study was to evaluate cleaners used in the apple industry for their efficacy in removing e. coli o157:h7 and salmonella from the surface of apples. e. coli o157:h7 was transformed with green flu ...200211929170
[group disease caused by salmonella muenchen]. 196113708772
interactions of salmonella enterica serovar muenchen with macrophages of the turtle trachemys scripta scripta.interactions of salmonella with macrophages have been studied in birds and, most extensively, in mammals. in these homeothermic animals, interactions between salmonella and macrophages are characterized by the following processes. after macropinocytosis, spacious phagosomes are formed within the macrophage. partial inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion and resistance to the formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen intermediates enable the bacterium to survive and even multipl ...200211755678
comparison of inflammation, organ damage, and oxidant stress induced by salmonella enterica serovar muenchen flagellin and serovar enteritidis lipopolysaccharide.gram-negative sepsis is related to the activation of interconnected inflammatory cascades in response to bacteria and their products. recent work showed that flagellin, the monomeric subunit of bacterial flagella, triggers innate immune responses mediated by toll-like receptor 5. here, we compared the effects of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (lps) and recombinant salmonella enterica serovar muenchen flagellin administered intravenously (100 microg) to mice. flagellin ...200211748182
effects of prior coinfection with different salmonella serovars on the progression of a salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection in hens undergoing induced molt.four trials were conducted to evaluate whether prior infection with salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (s. typhimurium) or salmonella enterica serovar muenchen (s. muenchen) would modify the severity or the transmission of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis) challenge in hens undergoing molt via feed withdrawal. hens were separated into two groups where one group received a prior s. typhimurium or s. muenchen infection, whereas the other group remained untreated until s ...200415077810
survival of salmonellae in pasteurized, refrigerated calcium-fortified orange juice.studies were done to determine the survival of salmonellae in orange juice as affected by fortification with calcium. four brands of commercially pasteurized orange juice fortified with calcium (350 mg/240-ml serving) and nonfortified juice were inoculated separately with three types of inocula: strains of salmonella muenchen (inoculum 1), serotypes of human and animal origin (inoculum 2), and isolates from raw produce- and juice-associated outbreaks (inoculum 3). juice inoculated with populatio ...200111563503
the fliu and fliv genes are expressed as a single orf in salmonella choleraesuis.a dna fragment carrying flagellar genes was cloned from salmonella choleraesuis. compared to the corresponding dna fragment of salmonella muenchen, this fragment contained three orfs instead of four shown in s. muenchen. the dna sequence data showed that there was an insertion of nucleotide c in the orf of the s. choleraesuis fliu gene, which resulted in the disappearance of a termination codon downstream. the recombinant plasmid pfu11 containing the coding region of the fliu gene made by pcr on ...200011142406
cloning and expression of colonization factor antigen i (cfa/i) epitopes of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) in salmonella flagellin.oligonucleotides coding for linear epitopes of the fimbrial colonization factor antigen i (cfa/i) of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) were cloned and expressed in a deleted form of the salmonella muenchen flagellin flic (h1-d) gene. four synthetic oligonucleotide pairs coding for regions corresponding to amino acids 1 to 15 (region i), amino acids 11 to 25 (region ii), amino acids 32 to 45 (region iii) and amino acids 88 to 102 (region iv) were synthesized and cloned in the salmonella fla ...19979765802
isolation and identification of salmonella species from chelonians using combined selective media, serotyping and ribotyping.thirty-two faecal samples from various pet chelonians were bacteriologically examined using various combinations of selective media for salmonella detection. strains identified as salmonella were clustered by rrna gene restriction pattern (ribotyping) analysis prior to serological typing. the combination of selenite broth and rambach or salmonella-shigella agars gave the maximum rate of salmonella recovery. of the 32 samples examined, 13 (40%), were positive for salmonella. five serovars were id ...19979467305
in a vaccine model, selected substitution of a highly stimulatory t cell epitope of hen's egg lysozyme into a salmonella flagellin does not result in a homologous, specific, cellular immune response and may alter the way in which the total antigen is processed.a 13 amino acid peptide corresponding to a potent balb/c mouse t cell epitope of hen's egg lysozyme (hel) was substituted singly at five sites in the d flagellin of salmonella muenchen. the resulting chimeric proteins were unable to expand t cells capable of being stimulated by the hel epitope and induced t cell populations which either failed to respond or responded at a low level to a normally highly stimulatory flagellin t cell epitope that was present in all chimeras. the results suggested t ...19979139493
increasing the immunogenicity of protein antigens through the genetic insertion of vqgeesndk sequence of human il-1 beta into their sequence.the immunogenicity of two recombinant protein ag containing the immunostimulatory sequence of human il-1 beta 163-171 (vqgeesndk) genetically engineered into their structure has been evaluated. the il-1 beta sequence was inserted into the loop between alpha helices d and e of recombinant human ferritin h chain and into the hypervariable region of recombinant flagellin from salmonella muenchen. the chimeric proteins were injected into mice and the level of humoral immune response developed agains ...19938345181
gc-ms based metabolomics for rapid simultaneous detection of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella typhimurium, salmonella muenchen, and salmonella hartford in ground beef and chicken.a metabolomic-based method for rapid detection of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella hartford, salmonella typhimurium, and salmonella muenchen in nonselective media was developed. all pathogenic bacteria were grown in tryptic soy broth (tsb) at 37 °c followed by metabolite quantification at 2-h intervals for 24 h. results were compared with the metabolite profiles similarly obtained with e. coli k12, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, saccharomyces cereviseae, and aspergillus oryza ...201122417363
'disabled' is not 'impaired'. 20102957522
growth control by cell to cell contact.control of cell growth by cell to cell contact is reviewed with particular emphasis on two systems--contact inhibition of growth observed with swiss 3t3 cells and the mitogenic stimulation of schwann cells by dorsal root ganglia neurites. in both cases the biological effect can be reproduced by the addition of surface membranes to the corresponding cells. in the case of contact inhibition of 3t3 cells, biological activity appears to correlate with membrane binding to the cells. an octylglucoside ...2004398429
[a report of salmonella muenchen food poisoning (author's transl)]. 19817333194
introduction of salmonellae into a centralized laboratory animal facility by infected day old chicks.fifty deliveries of day old chicks were examined for salmonellae on arrival as part of the animal laboratories' routine microbiological monitoring programme. paper floor inserts and faeces from the transport boxes were immersed in peptone water and then cultured in two different enrichment media. salmonellae were isolated in six of the 50 samples; one isolate was identified as salmonella muenchen and the other five as salmonella cerro var. siegburg. the relevance of these findings to multispecie ...19873599879
depression of lymphocyte traffic in sheep by anaesthesia and associated changes in efferent-lymph pge2 and antibody levels.general anaesthesia of sheep with ketamine and xylazine has been found to produce a profound and prolonged depression in lymphocyte traffic through primary peripheral lymph nodes, as mirrored in the output of lymphocytes into efferent lymph. in this study, the depression has been found to be associated with a marked and sustained elevation in prostaglandin e2 (pge2) levels in efferent lymph. the degree and duration of lymphocyte output depression was found to be modulated (diminished), both in d ...19883422221
further observations on periodicities of nucleotide occurrences in natural dna's.there are non-random features in the occurrences of nucleotides in the dna's of certain organisms which are detectable by statistical analyses of the entire sequence. earlier, using the bacteriophage phi-x 174 dna sequence, we had reported that the self-information values for one type of dinucleotide association showed a marked periodicity when their autocorrelation coefficients were graphed. a similar, but computationally simpler, analysis has been developed which gives a comparable indication ...19852938352
comparative phenotypic and genotypic characterization of temporally related nontyphoidal salmonella isolated from human clinical cases, pigs, and the environment in north carolina.nontyphoidal salmonella infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant (amr) strains are of great public health concern. we compared the phenotypic and genotypic relationships among temporally and spatially related amr salmonella isolates (n=1058) representing several predominant serovars, including salmonella typhimurium, salmonella typhimurium var. 5-, salmonella derby, salmonella heidelberg, salmonella muenchen, salmonella schwarzengrund, and salmonella rissen of human clinical cases (n=572), p ...201424237109
permeability and penicillin-binding protein alterations in salmonella muenchen: stepwise resistance acquired during beta-lactam therapy.a patient with salmonella muenchen sepsis was unsuccessfully treated with ampicillin. during therapy, four strains that showed stepwise ampicillin resistance and affected other beta-lactams and unrelated antibiotics were isolated sequentially. resistance was caused by decreased outer membrane permeability associated with diminished expression of porin ompf. furthermore, the most resistant isolate overproduced the pbp 3 target molecule.19892782862
prompt elevations of pge2 and thromboxane a2 metabolites in peripheral node efferent lymph of sheep following drainage area immunization.in the past decade, the main interest in the involvement of prostaglandin e2 (pge2) in the immune response has been concerned with its role in immunomodulation (suppression) both in vitro and in vivo. comparatively little attention has been devoted to its immunostimulatory role. it has been suggested that pge2, like histamine, may function as a 'double agent', initially triggering, facilitating and augmenting a stimulatory immune response and later modulating, limiting and contributing to the tu ...19892722480
in vivo influences of phorbol ester and calcium ionophore on lymphocyte traffic, lymph flow and efferent lymph levels of thromboxane b2 in sheep.in vitro systems have provided increasing evidence of significant lymphocyte transmembrane signalling by plasma membrane receptors which utilize antigen and other ligand activation of the inositol phosphate dual second messenger system of intracellular signalling. elevation of intracellular ca2+ and activation of protein kinase c are important products of these signals and appear to provide a complete set of mitogenic signals for both t and b cells. calcium inophore and phorbol ester have been f ...19911860782
epitope mapping of the d flagellar antigen of salmonella muenchen.contiguous exposed antibody-binding regions of the antigen d flagellin of salmonella muenchen were identified by using octameric peptides synthesized on polyethylene pins. identification was confirmed by the serological activity of immunoglobulins recovered from specified pin peptides. peptides equivalent to four regions of the d flagellin reacted with three different sera tested.19911715328
osteomyelitis of the spine due to salmonella muenchen. 196414251451
an angiogenic switch in macrophages involving synergy between toll-like receptors 2, 4, 7, and 9 and adenosine a(2a) receptors.adenosine a(2a) receptor (a(2a)r) agonists synergize with escherichia coli (e. coli) lps [toll-like receptor (tlr)4 agonist] to up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) expression in murine macrophages. here, we demonstrate that tlr2, tlr7, and tlr9, but not tlr3 and tlr5 agonists, also synergize with a(2a)r agonists and adenosine to up-regulate vegf, while simultaneously strongly down-regulating tnfalpha expression. in the absence of adenosine or a(2a)r agonists, porphyromonas ging ...200312875990
interactions of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen with intestinal explants of the turtle trachemys scripta scripta.salmonella infections in reptiles, in contrast to those in birds and mammals, are limited to the intestinal tract. in this study, interactions of a strain of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen (seem) with intestinal explants of the turtle trachemys scripta scripta were examined by scanning electron microscopy (sem). adhesion and invasion in the chelonian intestinal explants at 30 degrees c and 37 degrees c were evaluated quantitatively. for purposes of comparison, the invasive ...200312634088
survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella muenchen on apples as affected by application of commercial fruit waxes.survival of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella muenchen, and yeasts and molds on apples as affected by application of five commercial apple waxes was investigated. red delicious cv. apples at 21 degrees c were spot inoculated with e. coli o157:h7 and s. muenchen and spray coated with waxes. apples sprayed with water served as controls. apples were dried at either 21 or 55 degrees c for 2 min before subjecting to microbiological analysis after storage for 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks at 2 or 21 deg ...200212160082
pathogenesis of infections with salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen in the turtle trachemys scripta scripta.the pathogenesis of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen infections in the aquatic turtle trachemys scripta scripta was studied. after oral infection with 5x10(5)cfu of serovar muenchen of 10-14-month-old turtles, kept at 26 degrees c, the intestine and especially the ileum, caecum and colon was colonized. invasion of the intestinal wall, causing histopathological lesions, and colonization of internal organs were not observed. serovar muenchen was only isolated from turtles for 8 ...200212069769
identification of conserved domains in salmonella muenchen flagellin that are essential for its ability to activate tlr5 and to induce an inflammatory response in vitro.the bacterial surface protein flagellin is widely distributed and well conserved among distant bacterial species. we and other investigators have reported recently that purified flagellin from salmonella dublin or recombinant flagellin of salmonella muenchen origin binds to the eukaryotic toll receptor tlr5 and activates the nuclear translocation of nf-kappab and mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in the release of a host of pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. the amino aci ...200414634022
bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in crohn disease.chronic intestinal inflammation, as seen in inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), results from an aberrant and poorly understood mucosal immune response to the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract in genetically susceptible individuals. here we used serological expression cloning to identify commensal bacterial proteins that could contribute to the pathogenesis of ibd. the dominant antigens identified were flagellins, molecules known to activate innate immunity via toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5), a ...200415124021
multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar muenchen from pigs and humans and potential interserovar transfer of antimicrobial resistance.salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (mdr) salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [r] type akssut) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (r type axacssut). in the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans an ...200515673725
flagellin, a novel mediator of salmonella-induced epithelial activation and systemic inflammation: i kappa b alpha degradation, induction of nitric oxide synthase, induction of proinflammatory mediators, and cardiovascular dysfunction.gram-negative sepsis is mediated by the actions of proinflammatory genes induced in response to microbes and their products. we report that flagellin, the monomeric subunit of flagella, is a potent proinflammatory species released by salmonella. flagellin (1 microgram/ml) induces ikappabalpha degradation, nf-kappab nuclear translocation, and inducible no synthase expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (iec). aflagellic salmonella mutants do not induce nf-kappab activation or no produ ...200111145708
antibodies raised against n'-terminal pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin prevent mortality in lethal murine models of infection.the goal of this study was to investigate if antibodies raised against n'-terminal pseudomonas aeruginosa (pa) flagellin could afford protection in two lethal mouse models of pa infection. to that end, rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against the n'-terminal domains (amino acids 1-156) of recombinant pa01 or salmonella muenchen flagellins, termed anti-n'-fla-b and anti-n'-fla-sm, respectively. in vitro, anti-n'-fla-b but not anti-n'-fla-sm igg specifically recognized recombinant and p ...200515942694
induction of the respiratory burst in turtle peritoneal macrophages by salmonella muenchen.peritoneal macrophages were collected from juvenile turtles 72h after intraperitoneal inoculation with a 3% sephadex suspension. the macrophages were assayed for their chemiluminescent (cl) properties, reflecting their respiratory burst activity, after stimulation with zymosan a, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma), n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fmlp), and calcium ionophore a23187. except for fmlp, all triggering agents induced a marked cl response. luminol was used as the chemilumi ...200111113285
interleukin-18 secretion and th1-like cytokine responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells under the influence of the toll-like receptor-5 ligand flagellin.flagellin is the major protein component of the flagella from motile bacteria and was identified as the ligand for toll-like receptor (tlr)-5. whereas its effects on epithelial cells have been studied in detail, activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) by flagellin is characterized only partially. by using the recombinant protein of salmonella muenchen we confirm the proinflammatory nature of flagellin as detected by nuclear factor-kappab activation and interleukin (il)-8 pr ...200616441439
most-probable-number determination of salmonella levels in naturally contaminated raw almonds using two sample preparation methods.pathogens occurring in particulate foods may be unevenly distributed, which may impact interpretation of most-probable-number (mpn) values. the mpn analysis of salmonella in naturally contaminated raw almonds was conducted using two sample preparation methods. raw almond kernels (3,698 samples) and inshell almonds (455 samples) were collected from almond processors throughout california during the 2006 and 2007 harvests, and 100-g samples were enriched for salmonella. the prevalence of salmonell ...201021219709
prevalence of salmonella in fecal samples of western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus).this is the first extensive study of the prevalence of naturally acquired salmonella infection in wild-caught kangaroos in australia. given the close association between kangaroos, livestock, and humans and the growing popularity of kangaroo meat, it is important to identify epidemiologic factors associated with infection in these marsupials in order to minimize the risk of salmonella transmission. the overall prevalence of fecal salmonella in 645 western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus) sa ...201122102658
[urinary tract infections--risk-oriented diagnosis and risk-adapted therapy]. 20102945144
mapping of t-cell epitopes of flagellar antigen d of salmonella muenchen.regions of the antigen d flagellin of salmonella muenchen capable of causing the proliferation of repolymerized d flagellin-primed t cells were delineated by using dodecameric peptides. three areas causing substantial dna replication were identified, together with five areas eliciting less response. on the basis of known salmonella flagellin structure, the major areas were located in highly conserved regions of the molecule.19937679374
bacterial enteritis in ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in the western cape province, south africa.ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. this study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. bacterial isolates were typed by pcr and serotyping. escherichia coli (e. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from ...201525840967
salmonellosis associated with marijuana: a multistate outbreak traced by plasmid fingerprinting.in january and february of 1981, 85 cases of enteritis caused by salmonella muenchen were reported from ohio, michigan, georgia, and alabama. initial investigation failed to implicate a food source as a common vehicle, but in michigan 76 per cent of the patients, in contrast to 21 per cent of the control subjects, admitted personal or household exposure to marijuana (p less than 0.001, relative risk = 20). marijuana samples obtained from patients' households contained as many as 10(7) s. muenche ...19827070444
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in gaborone (botswana) retail stores.the objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in gaborone, botswana. a total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated pcr method. the pcr assay results were in full concordance with those of the c ...201222488050
detection of salmonella enterica in pigs at slaughter and comparison with human isolates in italy.in 2013-2014, 201 pigs belonging to 67 batches were tested for salmonella in their mesenteric lymph nodes (mln) in one abattoir of northern italy. for each batch, faecal material was collected at lairage by swabbing the pen floor for approximately 1600 cm(2). the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of salmonella in mln of pigs at slaughter, to assess salmonella contamination at lairage and to evaluate the effect of lairage duration on its prevalence. serotyping, xbai pfge typing ...201626606578
a case report of salmonella muenchen enteritis causing rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis in a previously healthy 26-year-old man.this case report examines an unusual presentation of a non-typhoidal salmonella serovar with limited prevalence in the literature. this is the first case report to associate specifically the salmonella muenchen serovar with rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis. this case report reviews the diagnostic criteria for myocarditis and explores the diagnostic dilemma of troponin elevation in the setting of rhabdomyolysis. it demonstrates that salmonella muenchen has the ability to present in a broad range of ...201728428924
prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases ctx-m-8 and ctx-m-2-producing salmonella serotypes from clinical and nonhuman isolates in brazil.we characterized extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbl) enzymes among salmonella strains isolated in brazil from 2009 to 2014. salmonella recovered from both clinical and nonhuman (food, poultry, and environment) sources were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. β-lactamases genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing; plasmid profiles and transferability were assessed by s1-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge). genetic diversity was evaluated by xbai-pfge. out of ...201727828759
two consecutive large outbreaks of salmonella muenchen linked to pig farming in germany, 2013 to 2014: is something missing in our regulatory framework?in 2013, raw pork was the suspected vehicle of a large outbreak (n = 203 cases) of salmonella muenchen in the german federal state of saxony. in 2014, we investigated an outbreak (n = 247 cases) caused by the same serovar affecting saxony and three further federal states in the eastern part of germany. evidence from epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations strongly implicated different raw pork products as outbreak vehicles. trace-back analysis of s. muenchen-contaminated r ...201728494842
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