phenylalanine inhibited p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the serum as an indication of intestinal cellular disruption in the horse.examination of tissues obtained from thoroughbred horses showed that the 'intestinal' phosphatase activity could be differentiated from other phosphatases by analysis at a ph of 9-5 and inhibition with 15 mm l-phenylalanine. a simple method for the measurement of 'intestinal' phosphatase in heparinised plasma or serum is described. application of the technique to serum or plasma from normal and diseased horses indicates that the increase in the activity of 'intestinal' phosphatase is associated ...197722115
salmonella gallinarum - salmonella enteritidis relationship in rabbits.the polysaccharide of s. gallinarum, sharing factors 9.12 with the salmonellae of group d. cross-reacts with one of two serological determinants, present in the polysaccharide of s. enteritidis, and is different from the determinant responsible for the cross-reaction of s. enteritidis and s. typhy polysaccharides. the absorption of anti s. gallinarum sera with proteins from s. enteritidis removed all the antibodies induced for the homologous antigens; in contrast, the absorption of the anti s. e ...197766825
[introduction of an additional h-agglutinating test antigen for the differentiation of specific positive reactions in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in poultry experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella enteritidis].explored were the possibilities to differentiate the specific positive reactions in case of pullorum disease in experimentally infected (salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella enteritidis) birds with the use of a typhoid test antigen and two h test antigens, obtained by the routinely employed method with formalin from salmonella enteritidis and salmonella adeoyo. it was demonstrated that the h-agglutinating antibodies persisted in the peripheral blood of the experimentally infected birds ...197775606
[indirect hemagglutination reaction in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid]. 197880877
effect of toyocamycin on the synthesis of the 70s rna of a murine retrovirus.the murine eveline cell line chronically infected by friend virus was treated with toyocamycin (tmc), an adenosin analog and the virions released in the presence of the drug were examined for their rna. it was found that 70s rna which was synthesized incorporated toyocamycin. however, its subunit structure and its poly (a) content were apparently preserved. this incorporation may explain loss of endogenous reverse transcriptase activity.197988041
picosecond detection of bchl-800 as an intermediate electron carrier between selectively-excited p870 and bacteriopheophytin in rhodospirillum rubrum relaction centers. 197897097
transplantation of preserved pancreatic islets into the portal vein of rats.langerhans islets were isolated from the exocrine pancreata of wistar rats by the improved collagenase-digestion method. the isolated islets were preserved in a tissue culture medium for seven days. transplantation of these preserved islets into the portal vein of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction of hyperglycemia, polyuria and glucosuria, and a restoration of weight gain. it was found that these effects could be maintained for 16 weeks. in order to normali ...197898659
bacteriophage t4-coded dihydrofolate reductase: synthesis, turnover, and location of the virion protein.dihydrofolate reductase plays a dual role in bacteriophage t4, first, as an enzyme of thymidylate metabolism, and second, as a protein component of the tail baseplate. antibody to the purified enzyme has been used to study its synthesis and intracellular turnover. the antibody specifically precipitates one protein from t4d-infected cell extracts. this has been identified as dihydrofolate reductase, although the polypeptide molecular weight (22,000) is lower than that earlier determined for this ...1979116011
[economic effectiveness of antibiotics in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in poultry]. 1976139739
production of precipitating antibodies in chickens infected with salmonella gallinarum.vaccination of 10 days old chicken with a live relatively avirulent s. gallinarum induced antibodies against the main antigens of the pathogen, namely, its proteins. precipitations in agar gel were obtained against the free proteins and the protein conjugated in the somatic antigen of s. gallinarum and against antigens from the related s. enteritidis. antipolysaccharide antibodies were induced in small quantities which were however sufficient to allow their identification with the agar-gel-diffu ...1977322427
the history of avian medicine in the u.s. ii. pullorum disease and fowl typhoid. 1977334148
[immunogenicity in salmonella gallinarum-pullorum irradiated with gamma rays].studied with the imunogenicity of salmonella gallinarum-pullorum bacteria treated with 1, 10 and 20 mr gamma rays or killed with acetone. bacterial cultures were irradiated with a lmb-gamma m device, having a 137cs source, single doses being of a 3,252 r/min power biozzi's clearance test was employed to determine the changes in the immunogenic properties of the irradiated bacteria. the results obtained with both the clearance test and the protection test spoke of a considerable drop in the immun ...1977343353
[use of an immunoadsorbent in differentiating b and d salmonelloses in poultry].an immunoadsorbent was obtained from a lipopolysaccharide of salmonella gallinarum-pullorum, employing the method of eskenazy. it was used to adsorb the o agglutinating antibodies against s. gallinarum-pullcorum, s. enteritidis, s. heidelberg in blood sera of birds. adsorption of sera was carried out at room temperature for 40 min. it was demonstrated that the product was highly specific. it fully and specifically found the o agglutinating antibodies in the sera of birds infected with s. gallina ...1977343356
[effect of protein in the feed on the resistance of poultry artificially infected with salmonella galinarum pullorum and salmonella typhimurium].studied is the effect of the low protein level in rations of birds, experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella typhimurium. birds of different ages of the leghorn and cornish breeds are included in the experiments. results obtained from the experiments indicate that the lowered level of protein in rations to young birds at the age of five months makes them more resistant to salmonella infection. this dependence is markedly demonstrated in particular in the case of ...1978380135
the effect on the virulence and infectivity of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella gallinarum of acquiring antibiotic resistance plasmids from organisms that had caused serious outbreaks of disease.antibiotic resistance plasmids from organisms that had caused serious epidemics, including those responsible for epidemics of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever and dysentery in central america, were transferred to a strain of salmonella typhimurium and of salmonella gallinarum. the virulence and infectivity of these r(+) forms were then compared with the r(-) parent forms in orally inoculated chickens.none of the r(+) forms were more virulent than their r(-) parent forms. the mortality rat ...1979385769
cross-protection aginst salmonella enteritidis infection in mice. i. immunization trials.mice were immunized subcutaneously with live and killed vaccines, with and without complete adjuvant incorporating salmonella typhi-murium m206, salmonella gallinarum 9r, salmonella pullorum sp223 as well as homologous salmonella enteritidis se795. the animals were challenged 21 days post-vaccination with 100 ld50 of virulent s. enteritidis 5694 smr subcutaneously along with unvaccinated control mice. to assess the immunity against acute and chronic infections, the percentage of absolute survivo ...1979397731
cross-protection against salmonella enteritidis infection in mice.mice were immunized subcutaneously with live vaccines and live vaccines with complete adjuvant incorporating salmonella enteritidis se 795, salmonella typhi-murium m206, salmonella gallinarum 9r or salmonella pullorum sp223. they were challenged along with unvaccinated controls with 100 ld50 of virulent s. enteritidis 5694 smr subcutaneously on the 21st day post-vaccination. the humoral immune response was studied by assessing the sequential level of agglutinins, complete and incomplete somatic ...1979397732
cross-protection against salmonella enteritidis infection in mice. iii. delayed hypersensitivity reaction and clearance of the challenge organism.mice were immunized with live vaccines and with live vaccines with complete adjuvant incorporating salmonella enteritidis, salmonella typhi-murium, salmonella gallinarum or salmonella pullorum. on the 21st day after vacination, the hypersensitivity reactions elicited by the mice to extracts of the challenge organism (s. enteritidis 5694 smr) were assessed. the degree of delayed hypersensitivity reaction was compared with the level of protection induced by the vaccine. the role in protection of d ...1979397733
studies on the ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid on mineral toxicities in the chick.the effect of dietary ascorbic acid on the toxicity of high levels of cobalt, selenium, vanadium, cadmium, copper, and mercury was determined in chicks. the vitamin reduced the growth retardation caused by cobalt, selenium, vanadium, and cadmium administration but had no such effect on copper and mercury toxicity at the levels used. the effect of ascorbic acid on growth could not be mimicked by ferrous iron administration. ascorbic acid did not alleviate the increased susceptibility of chicks to ...1979430217
dietary influences on resistance to salmonella infection in chicks.studies on the influence of nutritional factors on the resistance of chicks to salmonella gallinarum have been reviewed. increased dietary protein decreased the resistance of chicks to this infection although resistance to escherichia coli infections was not appreciably affected. the administration of high levels of iron, particularly when accompanied by a chelating agent such as edta, resulted in increased resistance to this infection. the additional iron resulted in the prevention of the trans ...1979446767
[diagnostic value of the indirect hemagglutination reaction in pullorum disease-fowl typhoid]. 1979452403
[effect of surgical bursectomy in young turkey hens on body weight and on the resistance against salmonella gallinarum-pullorum infections]. 1979486063
[serum enzymatic activity in acute injury to the renal parenchyma].studied was the activity of the serum enzymes lap, ce, aph, sph, and guanase as well as the isoenzymes of the unspecific esterases and aph in guinea pigs treated with potassium bichromate. morphologically and histopathologically, an acute injury of the kidney parenchyma was found, being in close correlation with the size of lesions and these enzymes' activity. the activity of aph, sph, and ce rose, and that of lap and guanase did not change. these enzymes proved to form an appropriate constallat ...1979516440
production and application of a live salmonella gallinarum vaccine.the production and application of a freeze-dried salmonella gallinarum vaccine are described in this report. the vaccine is stable when kept at 4 degrees c and a single injection elicits a good immunity for 2 months, though its effect gradually diminishes. immunity is neither enhanced nor depressed by repeated injections of the live vaccine, and no interference effect was observed in experimentally infected chickens. furazolidone therapy jeopardizes the immunogenicity of a live vaccine, but its ...1979551367
the influence of protein source and basal dietary component on survival in acute experimental fowl typhoid in the chick (gallus domesticus).1. the influence of diet on the survival of chicks inoculated orally at 15 d of age with salmonella gallinarum was determined, and in the first experiment the numbers of salmonellae were counted in blood 5 or 7 d after inoculation to assess their value in predicting survival. 2. significantly more chicks survived among those given beef powder as the protein supplement in a starch-based diet than among those where fish flour replaced beef powder. the number of salmonellae in blood was significant ...1977588545
[changes in the toxic, antigenic and immunogenic properties of the o-antigen of salmonella gallinarum-pullorum irradiated with gamma rays].studied was the effect of gamma-rays at rates of 1 to 20 mr on the toxic, antigenic, and immunogenic properties of the o-antigen extracted from salmonella gallinarum-pullorum by the method of boivin. it was found that the irradiation of aqueous solutions of the o-antigen lowered the toxic, antigenic, and immunogenic capacity with the increase in the dose of treatment. strongest detoxication of the endotoxin was produced through irradiation at the rate of 10 mr, and especially at 20 mr. the antig ...1977595373
increased survival from acute salmonella gallinarum infection in chicks given diets with high levels of some forms of iron.amounts exceeding 100 ppm of extra dietary iron as the ferric salts of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (fee) or nitrilotri-acetic acid (fen) produced highly significant increases in survival among chicks infected with 10(6.4) living salmonella gallinarum strain 9. additional dietary iron (400 ppm) as the sulphate or chloride salts (or as ferric fructose) lacked activity comparable with fee or fen except when 0.2 per cent of nae was also present in the diet. fee iron (600 ppm) also diminished th ...1977605293
[diagnostic value of serological methods and of the allergy method in studying pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in poultry].it was established that the positive allergy reaction was best expressed at the forty-eighth hour following the introduction of the allergen. the diagnostic value of the allergy reaction was not shown to surpass that of the serum agglutination reaction. it proved to be close to the value of the other serologic methods of examination (the whole-serum and whole-blood agglutination tests). the allergy method of investigation could be used as a tentative method, resp., reaction test for the detectio ...1977607558
experimental induction of an immunohaemolytic anaemia in the chicken with salmonella gallinarum endotoxin.the possibility that the extreme refractoriness of the chicken to injected endotoxin would permit the buildup of sufficient free endotoxin in the circulation to immunologically modify the erythrocytes in vivo and thereby cause them to be eliminated from the circulation was investigated. it was shown that a moderately severe immunohaemolytic anaemia accompanied by a mild spenomegaly could be induced in chickens by single (large) or multiple injections of salmonella gallinarum endotoxin (sge). var ...1978647450
haematological, serological and pathological effects in chicks of one or more intravenous injections of salmonella gallinarum endotoxin.abnormalities appeared a few hours after groups of 14-day-old chicks (gallus domesticus) were injected intravenously with 15 mg/kg of endotoxin (lps) from salmonella gallinarum. clinical illness without mortality was accompanied by significant (p less than 0.05) falls in body temperature, bursa weight, the main haematological parameters, serum iron (si) and transferrin saturation (ts) and a significant increase in unsaturated iron-binding capacity. all responses, apart from bursa weight, si valu ...1978653115
the anaemia in fowl typhoid: immuno-pathogenesis and associated patterns of erythrocyte destruction. 1978659679
[combined vaccines in veterinary medicine in the developing countries].it is in the interest of developing countries to have combined vaccines in veterinary medicine, not so much because they reduce production costs, but rather because they increase convenience and efficacy concerning the logistics of prophylactic projects in the field, thus lowering the cost of these projects. their drawbacks are basically due to the biological compatibility of immunogens (possible immunosuppression by some viruses) and to the interaction of the various components when mixed, or w ...1978753663
[dynamics of agglutination in birds artificially infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella typhimurium and treated with sulfaguanidine and furazolidone].canadian leghorn chickens were used to study the effect of sulfaguanidine and furazolidon on the dynamics of blood agglutinin formation. the birds were artificially infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum and salmonella typhimurium. at various intervals following infection they were treated with sulfaguanidine 1% tablets and 0.04% furazolidon. the level of agglutinins was determined by the methods of huddleson (whole blood agglutination reaction), the fast serum agglutination, the method af ...1976797104
experimental fowl typhoid in chicks impaired immunologically by treatment with cyclophosphamide.male chicks were injected intramuscularly with 6 mg of cyclophosphamide daily for three consecutive days, the initial dose being given on the day of hatching. this treatment impaired bursal development and lymphopoiesis and no circulating antibodies appeared after such chicks were injected with salmonella gallinarum antigens at 19 and again at 26 days of age. in impaired chicks which were infected orally when 15 days old with s gallinarum the level of mortality was essentially the same as that i ...1977841202
enhancement of survival in acute experimental fowl typhoid in chicks by the administration of iron dextran.chicks aged 15 days were infected orally with 10(6-4) living salmonella gallinarum. iron from iron dextran or ferric ammonium citrate (dfe and cfe respectively), in doses of 2-0 or 0-4 mg/kg given intramuscularly at the time of infection, had no effect on subsequent mortality compared with infected controls. increasing the amount of cfe to the maximum (20 mg/kg) that was non-toxic intramuscularly was also ineffective but when the dose of dfe was increased to 20 or 50 mg/kg the survival rate rose ...1977870957
altered absorption and regulation of iron in chicks with acute salmonella gallinarum infection.chicks aged 15 days were infected orally with salmonella gallinarum. during the six-day period immediately following infection the absorption of 59fe from the gut fell progressively to be eventually about half that in noninfected chicks. this reduced uptake was accompanied by a shift in the distribution of the 59fe absorbed, more occurring in the spleen and less in the liver and blood. during the eight-day period that immediately followed infection in another experiment, serum iron concentration ...1977877434
[age-related dynamics of agglutinin formation in poultry experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum].agglutinin production in birds experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum directly correlates with age. the older the birds, the earlier setting on of agglutinogenesis, and the better the immune response. along with this agglutinins persist longer in the blood serum. it is suggester to carry out the first serologic examination in infected flocks of the leghorn breed when the birds are aged 50-55 days. this term may be essential only in cases where the birds have been infected at ...1977919340
[antibody dynamics in growing birds experimentally infected or naturally sick with white diarrhea].serologic studies were carried out with growing birds, aged 37-70 days, experimentally and spontaneously infected with salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum, respectively. more positively reacting birds were found by means of the whole-blood agglutination reaction with typhoid-pullorum test than in the study of the same birds when aged 6-7 months. the investigation of birds when young is also advantageous in that there are no losses of eggs, it is more readily carried out, and the infect ...1977929972
a simplified biochemical system to screen salmonella isolates from poultry for serotyping.the 24 most frequently isolated paratyphoids from poultry, along with salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum, plus strains of arizona, citrobacter, edwardsiella, escherichia, klebsiella, prteus, pseudomonas, serratia and shigella were inoculated into triple sugar iron (tsi) and lysine iron (li) slants and into six fermentation broths which were numbered: 1 (dextrose), 2 (lactose), 3 (sucrose), 4 (mannitol), 5 (maltose), 6 (dulcitol). all the salmonella cultures (except s. pullorum) gave a ...1976995819
[studies of various peculiarities of lysogenic salmonella gallinarum-pullorum variants]. 19761007952
[studies of bilysogenic and lysogenic salmonella gallinarum-pullorum variants obtained with infectious phage nucleic acid]. 19761007953
[experimental delysogenization of lysogenic salmonella gallinarum-pullorum variants with acridine dyes]. 19761007954
[comparative electron microscopic, biochemical and biological studies of initial strains, lysogenic and delysogenized variants of salmonella gallinarum-pullorum]. 19761007966
the absorption and distribution of 59fe in chicks with acute salmonella gallinarum infection [proceedings]. 19761028055
bactericidal and opsonic activities of normal sheep serum against gram-negative bacteria.the bactericidal and opsonic activities of normal sheep serum against 9 smooth and 4 rough strains of gram-negative bacteria were measured. three smooth strains-escherichia coli 3662, salmonella typhimurium, and salmonella gallinarum-were resistant to the bactericidal action of normal sheep serum with or without complement. six smooth strains-e coli o78:k80(b), salmonella arizonae, proteus inconstans, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella stanley, and salmonella abortus-equi-were moderately sensitiv ...19751098532
[diagnostic scheme of the causes of embryonal morbidity in poultry].a diagnostic scheme has been worked out to reveal the factors causing higher embryonic morbidity and mortality rates in birds. it is based on the morphologic analysis and the bacteriologic and mycologic studies, and can be programmed and put into effect in three stages in the course of 48 hours. on the one hand, the post-mortem analysis is useful in establishing the factors of noninfectious character (overheating, insufficient heating, humidity of low or high values, poor air exchange, improper ...19751108408
[dynamics of the agglutinin titer in chicks with pullorum disease-fowl typhoid]. 19751114666
[economic damage caused by mallophaga. v. attempt at determining the role of ecomenacanthus stramineus (nitzsch) in the transmission of fowl typhoid]. 19751121883
[possibilities of differentiation of the specific positive reactions for pullorum disease].studied were sera obtained from three groups of birds experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum-pullorum. salmonella enteritidis, and salmonella heidelberg, resp., using the whole serum agglutination reaction, the slow test-tube reaction (at 37 degrees and 50 degrees c), and the agar gel precipitation reaction as modified by aoki as well as the spot-test of williams. it was found that with the use of a typhus antigen it is not possible to differentiate the positive coagglutination react ...19751210001
[role of ticks of the species argas persicus oken, 1818, in the epizootology of pullorum disease in birds].studies was the role played by ticks of the argas persicus species in the epizootiology of pullorum disease in birds. use was made of microbiologic, radiometric, and autoradiographic methods to follow up the period of carrying salmonella gallinarum-pullorum, the localization and routes of elimination of the causative agent as well as the possibility of transmitting the infection by ticks. the pathogen was found to persist in the alimentary tract for a long time (at least 8 months--as long as the ...19751210005
[veterinary genetics and selection].the article comprises the data on the genetic potentials of new-hampshire cocks determined on the basis of the resistance of their offspring to the artificial infection with salmonella gallinarum. it is shown that different cocks differ significantly from one another in their genetic potentials with respect to the resistance to salm. gallinarum. since the method of artificial infection can not be practiced always, it is proposed by the author to characterize the genetic potentials of animals by ...19751218714
study of salmonella gallinarum infection in chicks by gas liquid chromatography. 19751218915
serum, disc and egg elisa for the serodiagnosis of salmonella gallinarum and s. enteritidis infections in elisa was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of fowl typhoid and paratyphoid due to salmonella enteritidis in chickens. the hot phenol: water lipopolysaccharide (lps) extract of salmonella was used as the antigen. chicken serum, eggs and discs impregnated with chicken blood were tested for the presence of antibodies against salmonella factor 'o' 9 antigen. the substrate and chromogen used were hydrogen peroxide and orthophenylenediamine respectively. serological results from the experimentally a ...19921381107
serological response of chickens to infection with salmonella gallinarum-s. pullorum detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the serological response to salmonella pullorum and s. gallinarum infection in chickens was studied with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in broiler chickens, a more virulent strain of s. pullorum produced a significantly lower serum igg titer than did a less virulent strain. in laying hens, the serum and egg-yolk igg titers were very similar. in chickens infected with s. gallinarum, high igg titers persisted for 30 weeks. in chickens reinfected with this strain, each reinf ...19921385699
is icrf-187 [(+)-1,2-bis(3,5-dioxopiperazinyl-1-yl)propane] unusually reactive for an imide?the hydrolysis of icrf-187 and two model compounds, 4-methylpiperazine-2,6-dione (4-mp) and 3-methylglutarimide (3-mg), was investigated over the neutral to alkaline ph range at 25 degrees c and an ionic strength of 0.5 (sodium chloride). the purpose of the study was to correlate the influence of molecular changes to the reactivity of these imides. additionally, an improved chromatographic resolution of all the components of the degradation and nmr confirmation of the identity of the degradation ...19921409381
identification of mutations in the pigment cell-specific gene located at the brown locus in mouse.the pigment cell-specific gene, located at the brown (b)-locus in mouse, encodes the protein that determines the type of melanin synthesized. this protein is known as tyrosinase-related protein, but here we tentatively term it b-locus protein to avoid confusions with the related sequence cross-hybridizing to the tyrosinase gene. in order to identify the mutation at the b-locus, we have cloned and characterized the b-locus protein gene of balb/c mouse (b/b, c/c). the gene is about 18 kb long and ...19921409444
interleukin 6: a fibroblast-derived growth inhibitor of human melanoma cells from early but not advanced stages of tumor progression.recently we reported that human dermal fibroblasts, or conditioned media obtained from such cells, affect the growth of human melanoma cells as a direct function of tumor progression: melanoma cells obtained from early-stage (metastatically incompetent) primary lesions were growth inhibited, whereas cells obtained from more advanced (metastatically competent) primary lesions, or metastases, were growth stimulated. ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography of fibroblast conditioned medium re ...19921409627
[the selection of salmonella gallinarum, salmonella pullorum and escherichia coli in chickens after chloramphenicol administration].the effect of a chloramphenicol administration was examined on the selection of e. coli of the chicken intestinal flora, and of the infectious s. gallinarum and s. pullorum strains. on the other hand, an effort was made to detect the frequency of the resistance transmission of e. coli to above mentioned sensitive salmonella strains. fourteen chicken, 12 infected and 2 negative controls were used. it was found that the enteric e. coli strains became resistant in a week's time. besides, the strain ...19921471974
[natural and experimental infection of rodents (rattus norvegicus) with salmonella gallinarum].thirty five (35) rats (rattus norvegicus) were trapped in the area of four egg producing poultry farms and were examined for salmonella spp., micro-biologically. the samples were taken from liver, spleen and intestinal content. cultures were made directly in macconkey agar, in selenite broth and rappaport vassiliadis at 37 degrees c and 43 degrees c. five strains of s. gallinarum and one strain of salmonella subgroup ii were isolated from the intestinal content of six rats. an experimental study ...19921524579
a fowl typhoid outbreak in a chicken breeder flock.fowl typhoid was diagnosed in a 1-year-old light-breed brown-egg-laying chicken breeder flock and in a 16-week-old progeny pullet flock on the same farm. salmonella gallinarum was cultured from chickens in both flocks. signs and lesions were typical. the disease was confined to the one farm. the source was suspected to have been a grossly contaminated well.1977606229
in-vitro and in-vivo characteristics of tnphoa mutant strains of salmonella serotype gallinarum not invasive for tissue culture cells.insertion mutants of a strain of salmonella serotype gallinarum, the cause of fowl typhoid, were produced with transposon tnphoa. eight mutants were identified as being less invasive in cell culture than the parent strain. neither the parent strain nor the mutants showed mannose-sensitive haemagglutination of various red blood cell species. although two mutants gave mannose-resistant (mr) haemagglutination of red cells of different animal species these mr activities could not be correlated with ...19921613777
a disc elisa for the detection of salmonella group d antibodies in elisa using lipopolysaccharide antigens prepared from salmonella gallinarum and s enteritidis was developed for the serological diagnosis of fowl typhoid and s enteritidis infection in poultry. there was good agreement between the results of the elisa and conventional serological tests when samples from naturally infected birds and s enteritidis immunised birds were tested. some cross reactions were observed when serum samples from s typhimurium infected birds were tested by elisa. subsequent ...19921620974
cloning and dna sequence analysis of the serc-aroa operon from salmonella gallinarum; evolutionary relationships between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic aroa-encoded enzymes.the serc-aroa operon of salmonella gallinarum was isolated from a gene library using a labelled oligonucleotide probe and by complementation of an aroa escherichia coli strain. the nucleotide sequence of a 2.6 kbp fragment was determined. the predicted amino acid sequence of the aroa gene product was compared to the equivalent sequence from ten other organisms. computer-generated evolutionary trees clearly divide the eleven sequences into four different groups: gram-negative bacteria, gram-posit ...19912045774
immunity to experimental fowl typhoid in chickens induced by a virulence plasmid-cured derivative of salmonella gallinarum.chickens were immunized by two intramuscular inoculations at 1 and 14 days of age with virulence plasmid-cured derivatives of salmonella gallinarum and were challenged 14 days later by oral inoculation of ca. 50 50% lethal doses (ld50) of fully virulent s. gallinarum 9. mortality in the nonimmunized and immunized groups were 36 and 3%, respectively. this difference was highly significant (p less than 0.01). a significant reduction in mortality was also produced following oral challenge with 5,00 ...19902194968
pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of kitasamycin in healthy and diseased broilers.the pharmacokinetics of kitasamycin after intravenous and oral administration in a dose of 300 mg/kg b.wt. was studied in 18 healthy and 18 salmonella gallinarum naturally infected chickens. the tissue residue of the studied antibiotic was estimated in 36 normal chickens when it was given orally for 7 successive days. therapeutic level of kitasamycin was achieved after 15 minutes and persisted for 20-22 hours after its oral administration. higher serum kitasamycin concentrations were recorded in ...19902209453
a survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from arkansas.wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the arkansas game and fish commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. the 45 birds were trapped at four locations in pope, scott, and montgomery counties (arkansas, usa). forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19902250323
diploidization of bovine oocytes matured in vitro and parthenogenetically activated by electric shock.bovine in vitro matured oocytes were parthenogenetically activated by a single pulse of direct current. suppression of second polar body extrusion by 60 v dc-pulse followed by cytochalasin b treatment or 240 v dc-pulse were used to diploidize parthenogenones. analysis of the cytological events 20 h postactivation clearly documented high efficiency of both diploidization techniques. all oocytes exposed to a single 60 v dc-pulse and then to cytochalasin b for 3 to 6 h were activated and 70% to 88% ...19902257933
proposed revisions to the serological typing system for treponema hyodysenteriae.antisera were prepared in rabbits against seven well-characterized strains of treponema hyodysenteriae of known serotype, and reacted in agarose gel double immunodiffusion tests (agdp) with lipopolysaccharide (lps) extracted from 18 western australian isolates of the organism. eight isolates were provisionally typed by this method, but sera raised against one 'typed' and two 'untypable' local isolates reacted in an unexpected fashion with lps from other local and type strains. serum raised again ...19892492944
neomycin induces high-affinity agonist binding of g-protein-coupled receptors.neomycin, an inositol-phospholipid-binding aminoglycoside antibiotic, is known to interfere with signal transduction mechanisms involving phospholipase c as effector enzyme. in this study, we report that neomycin can also markedly influence agonist binding of g-protein-coupled receptors. in membranes of differentiated human leukemia cells (hl 60 cells), neomycin (0.1-10 mm) was found to induce high-affinity binding of the chemotactic tripeptide, n-formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine (fmet-leu-ph ...19892556274
distribution, oxygenation, and clonogenicity of macrophages in a murine tumor.transplantable murine tumors, such as the squamous cell carcinoma growing in c3h mice, include a significant proportion of normal cells. the nature of these cells, their locations relative to the blood supply, their oxygenation status, and ability to incorporate 3h-thymidine were examined by sorting cells staining positive or negative with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat antimouse igg. of the cells that were recovered from this tumor, 39% +/- 19 (n = 25) were igg+ cells, and this perc ...19892639726
functional homology of virulence plasmids in salmonella gallinarum, s. pullorum, and s. typhimurium.the virulence-associated plasmids of strains of salmonella gallinarum and s. pullorum were transferred separately by mobilization with the f plasmid into virulence plasmid-cured derivatives of s. gallinarum, s. pullorum, and s. typhimurium and into a prototrophic escherichia coli k-12 strain. the transconjugants were tested for virulence in chickens of different ages and in mice. the s. gallinarum and s. pullorum plasmids were able to restore full virulence in the three salmonella strains, thus ...19892674016
effect of salmonella gallinarum infection on zinc metabolism in chicks.the effect of salmonella gallinarum infection in chicks on serum, liver, and kidney zinc concentrations was studied. within 48 h after intraperitoneal administration of the organism, serum zinc declined to approximately one-half the control value. in one experiment, the serum zinc concentration remained low for the 12 days of the experiment, whereas in a second experiment, the concentration gradually increased after 6 days postinoculation but never returned to the control value. feeding as much ...19892704684
[salmonella gallinarum field isolates of the biovars pullorum and gallinarum].in 40 cases salmonellae of the serovar salmonella (s.) gallinarum were culturally isolated from domesticated gallinaceous birds submitted for diagnostic purposes in the period of 1979-1989. on the basis of the cultural and biochemical features found 35 of them could be assigned to the biovar pullorum and 5 to the biovar gallinarum. of 35 isolates of the biovar pullorum, 29 were isolated from pure bred chickens of small fancy-exhibition type flocks, 4 from floor-housed adult brown hybrid laying h ...19892764874
feasibility of using proteins from salmonella gallinarum vs. 9r live vaccine for the prevention of fowl typhoid in chickens.proteins from a field strain of salmonella gallinarum msg1 were compared with 9r live vaccine strain for their protection against experimental fowl typhoid in chickens. proteins from s. gallinarum gave better protection than the 9r live vaccine as measured by clearance of challenge organism from internal organs. proteins given twice with an adjuvant at 200 micrograms/100 g body weight resulted in 95% protection, compared with 60% protection with 9r given orally. the 9r live vaccine produced more ...19892775089
[salmonella gallinarum biovar gallinarum as the cause of a highly acute septicemic disease in adult laying hens kept in battery cages].early in the summer of 1988 two flocks each of them consisted of about 7500 brown laying hens of a heavy hybrid line were affected by fowl typhoid. the birds have been bought at the age of 20 weeks and housed in two buildings placed close together in one farm. the disease started in flock i at the age of 26 weeks and in flock ii at the age of 36 weeks. in repeated trials amoxicillin was effective in the treatment of fowl typhoid when given in the drinking water for ad libitum consumption over a ...19892791912
effects of intra- and extracellularly applied phospholipases c on excitability of squid giant axons.the effects of phospholipases c on the membrane excitability of the squid giant axon were investigated using phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase c and sphingomyelinase c of bacillus cereus, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c of bacillus thuringiensis. when the squid axon was perfused internally with phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase c in kf or k-glutamate solution, the action potential was blocked in 4-7 min and membrane resistance decreased with time to a le ...19862877512
amino acid sequence of up1, an hnrnp-derived single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein from calf thymus.the up1 single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein from calf thymus (herrick, g. & alberts, b.m. (1976) j. biol. chem. 251, 2124-2132) has recently been shown to be a proteolytic fragment derived from the a1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnrnp) (pandolfo et al. (1985) nucleic acids res. 13, 6577-6590). the nh2-terminus of the 22,162 dalton up1 protein appears to be blocked, which suggests that up1 represents the nh2-terminal two thirds of this 32,000 dalton hnrnp protein. the comple ...19873032834
amino acid sequence of up1, an hnrnp-derived single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein from calf thymus.the up1 single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein from calf thymus (herrick, g. & alberts, b.m. (1976) j. biol. chem. 251, 2124-2132) has recently been shown to be a proteolytic fragment derived from the a1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnrnp) (pandolfo et al. (1985) nucleic acids res. 13, 6577-6590). the nh2-terminus of the 22,162 dalton up1 protein appears to be blocked, which suggests that up1 represents the nh2-terminal two thirds of this 32,000 dalton hnrnp protein. the comple ...19873032834
internal pars plana sclerotomy with the contact nd:yag laser: an experimental study.transvitreal pars plana sclerotomy using the contact nd:yag laser with a sapphire probe was performed on a group of rabbit eyes and compared with a similar procedure performed with a ziegler knife. although the intraocular pressure (iop) was lowered in both groups of animals, the reduction was greater and more lasting in the group on which the nd:yag laser with sapphire probe was used. this technique may have application in cases with extensive peripheral anterior synechiae or where a vitrectomy ...19883417390
protein, lactose and fat concentration of breast milk of mothers of term and premature neonates.the protein, lactose and fat concentrations in the milk of seven mothers giving birth at term and six mothers giving birth prematurely were determined. samples were obtained during the first 31 days of lactation. the protein, lactose and fat concentrations of preterm milk were found to be similar to those of fullterm milk over this period. for both term and preterm groups, protein concentration decreased with increasing age, while lactose concentration increased. fat concentration did not show a ...19873439943
use of membrane proteins from salmonella gallinarum for prevention of fowl typhoid infection in chickens.outer membrane protein isolated from salmonella gallinarum was examined at different concentrations with or without a mineral-oil adjuvant for its immunogenicity and protection against live challenge. a formalin-killed whole-cell bacterin of the same organism was used for comparison. the results suggested that membrane proteins from s. gallinarum give better protection than formalin-killed whole-cell bacterin. addition of an oil adjuvant to the protein appeared to increase the efficiency of the ...19873442522
the aging ovary.aging of the human ovary is a continuous process that begins intra utero with the demise of the first crop of oocytes. the process continues throughout life with the relentless attrition of the oocyte's capital through three fundamental events: follicle degeneration or atresia, corpus luteum formation, and transformation of varying cell populations from atretic and luteal complexes into stromal cells. the ultimate consequence of ovarian aging is the modulation of this organ from a follicle-rich, ...19873543537
[potential manifestation of fowl typhoid in chicks fed salmonella gallinarum-contaminated feed].the possibility was checked to infect young birds with fowl typhoid through feeding them with s. gallinarum--contaminated forage. the three test groups of birds were kept on the floor of one and same premise, and a fourth group was kept separately in isolation. the feed offered to the first and second test group was contaminated at the rate of 5.10(8) and 1.2.10(8) microbial cells, respectively. with the first group, where feed contamination was at the rate of 6.10(6) s. gallinarum cells per bir ...19873629960
[changes in the iron content, erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood of poultry with acute experimental fowl typhoid].the dynamic was followed up of the concentration of iron in the blood serum and the liver, of the erythrocyte count, of the haematocrit value of blood, and of the haemoglobin level in chickens of the new hampshire breed at the age of 300 days, with experimentally induced acute typhoid. it was found that blood serum iron dropped abruptly as early as the second day of infection, whereas the level of iron in the liver rose. the erythrocyte count dropped almost twice as early as the second day follo ...19873629966
[antibacterial activity of chlorquinaldol esters and 2-styryl-substituted derivatives].studied was the bacteriostatic activity of a total of 17 new esters and replaced 2-styryl derivatives of chlorquinaldol. determined were also the lowest concentrations that suppressed the growth of organisms. some of the compounds showed higher activity and broader spectrum of antibacterial qualities, mainly against escherichia coli, salmonella gallinarum, and salmonella cholerae suis as compared to the initial therapeutic preparation chlorquinaldol. it was found that the presence of chlorine at ...19873672924
increased collateralization of the cerebellothalamic pathway following neonatal hemicerebellectomy.the postlesional reorganization of the cerebellothalamic cells was here studied using a multiple retrograde tracing technique. to this purpose, the cerebellothalamic cell population was investigated in 3 groups of adult rats: (a) cases hemicerebellectomized at birth; (b) cases hemicerebellectomized in adulthood; and (c) control unlesioned ones. in all of the groups the fluorescent tracers diamidino yellow and fast blue were injected bilaterally in the thalamus and the retrograde labeling obtaine ...19863708349
screening of medicinal plants of rwanda (central africa) for antimicrobial activity.a series of 100 medicinal plants of rwanda (282 plant samples) has been screened for antimicrobial activity against bacillus subtilis, candida albicans, mycobacterium smegmatis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella gallinarum and staphylococcus aureus. thirty percent of the plants tested showed activity against one or more microorganisms.19863747558
[biochemical characteristics of the causative agent of fowl typhoid].studied were the biochemical properties of a total of 563 salmonella strains divided into two biotypes--s. gallinarum (542) and s. pullorum (21). the first ones were isolated from typhoid foci of chickens, poults, turkeys, pheasants, guinea fowls, pigeons, and starlings that had died of septicaemia. one strain was isolated from a 4-month-old pig. the s. pullorum strains originated from epizootiologically linked foci of pullorosis, being isolated from live chicken carriers, dead embryos, and down ...19863765371
contribution of salmonella gallinarum large plasmid toward virulence in fowl typhoid.four strains of salmonella gallinarum isolated from independent cases of fowl typhoid all possessed both an 85-kilobase and a 2.5-kilobase plasmid. each plasmid was eliminated in turn from one of the strains by transposon labeling and curing at 42 degrees c. elimination of the small plasmid had no effect on the high virulence of the strain for newly hatched and 2-week-old chickens. whereas oral inoculation of 2-week-old chickens with the parent strain produced 90% mortality with characteristic s ...19873804442
direct demonstration of high transepithelial chloride-conductance in normal human sweat duct which is absent in cystic fibrosis.the transepithelial electrical potential difference (vt) and the transepithelial resistance (rt) were measured across individual microdissected sweat ducts obtained from biopsies of the scapular region of normal human volunteers and of a cystic fibrosis (cf) patient. during luminal and contraluminal perfusion with nacl ringer solution vt and rt were -10.7 +/- 1.1 (mv, lumen negative) and 10.9 +/- 1.7 (omega x cm2). bilateral substitution of cl- by gluconate increased vt and rt to -42.7 +/- 5.1 ( ...19863822760
[effect of levamisole on white mice and on the immunological reactivity of guinea pigs].investigations were carried out on the protective action of therapeutic doses of levamisole (pharmachim) on mice with a ld100 salmonella gallinarum infection. studied was also the effect of levamisole on the immunologic response of guinea pigs infected with salmonella cholerae suis. it was found that therapeutic amounts of 3 mg/kg levamisole applied to mice following respective patterns protected them against a lethal dose of s. gallinarum. the animals showed enhanced resistance to the infection ...19854035985
[effect of fenitrothion (agria-1050) and phosalone (agria-1060) on the immunological reactivity of sheep].studied was the effect of the preparations phenitrothion (agria-1050) and phosalon (agria-1060) on the immunologic reactivity of sheep through following up the phenomena of agglutination and phagocytosis at the injection of a salm. gallinarum antigen. an unknown property of these preparations was established, consisting in the stimulation of some defense immunobiologic processes in the body of animals, at their application in minimum doses per os, simultaneously with the injection of a bacterial ...19854090266
[biological action and hygienic regulation of diisobutylphthalate in the air of the work environment]. 19854092974
inheritance of antibody specificity. i. anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl of the mouse primary response.our data suggest that fine specificity of antihapten antibodies is a useful mendelian marker of variable (v) genes. we found that some mouse strains (e.g., c57/bl6) consistently produced heteroclitic anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (np) antibodies (relative affinity for related (4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl and (4-hydroxy-3.5-dinitrophenyl)acetyl was always >2) while other strains (e.g., cba) produced "conventional" anti-np antibodies (relative affinities were consistently <1). 48 ...19744139230
production of cephalosporin c by paecilomyces persicinus p-10.after the growth of paecilomyces persicinus p-10 in a glucose-peptone medium, filtrates were collected and analyzed for antibiotic antivity. activities against salmonella gallinarum atcc 3030 and alcaligenes faecalis atcc 8750 (penicillin n-resistant strain) were obtained. part of the former activity was readily inactivated by penicillinase. the fraction active against a. faecalis was isolated by passage through amberlite xad-2 and amberlite ira-68. the powder eventually obtained was subjected t ...19744157343
investigations on the antigenic composition of salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum. 19664161874
the effect of immunosuppression on the development of immunity to fowl typhoid. 19744213431
the effects of trace elements and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the survival of chicks inoculated with salmonella gallinarum. 19744218644
in vitro cellular immunity to unrelated pathogens in chickens infected with fowlpox virus.peritoneal macrophages recovered from chickens 15 to 20 days after inoculation with fowlpox virus and showing a delayed hypersensitivity reaction against fowlpox antigens demonstrated an enhanced antimicrobial effect against fowlpox virus as well as unrelated viruses and bacteria. inoculation of normal chicken macrophage cultures with fowlpox virus resulted in approximately a 200-fold increase in virus titer by 96 h, whereas the virus showed less than a fourfold increase in macrophage cultures f ...19744366915
influence of high levels of minerals on the susceptibility of chicks to salmonella gallinarum. 19744413865
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