in vitro study of netilmicin compared with other aminoglycosides.netilmicin (sch 20569) is an ethyl derivative of gentamicin c(1a) that is active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus isolates. among 342 clinical isolates tested, all staphylococci; 92% of escherichia coli, 93% of klebsiella pneumoniae, and 92% of enterobacter were inhibited by 0.8 mug or less of netilmicin per ml, but only 78% of p. aeruginosa were inhibited by 3.1 mug or less per ml. most clinical isolates of enterococci, serratia marcescens, and ...197610829
resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in respiratory infections (author's transl).the present status of resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in respiratory infections is reviewed. schematically it can outlined as follows. streptococcus b-haemolyticus as well as pneumococcus did not change their sensitivity to penicillin, but some strains are now resistant to tetracycline. streptococcus viridans, enterococcus and h. influenzae did not change substantially their sensitivity to antibiotics. staphylococcus aureus is the bacterial species that always poses some problems ...197613744
intracellular nucleodepolymerase of bacteria, representatives of the proteus and providencia groups. its isolation and properties.high activity of enzymes, splitting native, denaturated dna, deoxyribooligonucleotides and rna, was observed in cell free extracts of bacteria--representatives of 5 strains of proteus-providencia. some properties of nucleases were studied in cell free extracts. in the bacteria studied dnaases were thermolabile proteins, which were completely inactivated at 50-60 degrees, rnaases were more thermostable. the ph optima of the dnaases were at ph 9.0-11.0 in cell free system; rnaases were maximally a ...197617219
1-n hapa gentamicin b, a new aminoglycoside active against gentamicin resistant isolates--activity compared to other aminoglycosides.1-n hapa gentamicin b is a new aminoglycoside active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. among 504 clinical isolates at a concentration of 12.5 microgram/ml all staph. aureus, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus rettgeri, providencia and 78% of pseudomonas, 86% of proteus morganii were inhibited. like other aminoglycosides, the activity was greatest at an alkaline ph and reduced by high cations concentrations. 1-n hapa gentamicin b w ...197827494
[antibiotic treatment in acute peritonitis].the selection depends on several factors and in particular: -the means of transport by which the antibiotic reaches the peritoneum : the aminosides and the betalactamines attain the peritoneum easily while the polymyxins do not; -the causative agent: most often it is a gram negative aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. the entero-bacteria predominate but in the last few years bacteroides fragilis has been frequently encountered giving rise to numerous studies. the flora is most often polymicrobic. th ...197835071
esterase zymograms of proteus and providencia.the intracellular esterases of 80 strains of proteus and providencia were analysed by the acrylamide-agarose zymogram technique using several synthetic substrates. the esterase bands were classified in five main groups. the alphaa-esterase bands hydrolysed alpha-naphthyl acetate and were resistant or relatively insensitive to di-isofluoropropyl phosphate (dfp). the alphab-esterase band hydrolysed both alpha-naphthyl acetate and alpha-naphthyl butyrate and were very sensitive to dfp. both groups ...197548538
letter: providencia stuartii infections. 197553535
reconstitution of the somatic (o-) antigenic scheme for providencia and preparation of o-typing antisera.the somatic (o-) antigens of the type strains of the providencia antigenic scheme were examined for their biochemical reactions and their o-specificities. the scheme of 62 o-antigens was reconstituted from 52 original type strains and 10 strains substituted for originals that either were biochemically atypical of the genus or showed inappropriate serological reactions. thirty-six type strains showed no significant relations with other type strains, and antisera could be used for typing without a ...197656410
in vitro activity of amikacin and ten other aminoglycoside antibiotics against gentamicin-resistant bacterial strains.sixty-nine strains of gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacilli obtained from different geographical sources were tested for susceptibility to 11 aminoglycoside antibiotics. from the results of determinations of minimal inhibitory concentrations, patterns of resistance were established for 45 strains of enterobacteriaceae and 24 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa. overall, 81% of the strains were sensitive to amikacin and 33% of the strains were sensitive to butirosin, the next most active compo ...197662815
ovalbumin gene. action of restriction endonucleases upon dna coding sequence. 197768956
[dry medium with ampholan for isolation of proteus and providencia]. 197879680
intercontinental nosocomial infections. 197879961
in vitro susceptibility of gentamicin and/or tobramycin resistant gram-negative bacilli to seven aminoglycosides.the in vitro activity of gentamicin, tobramycin, sisomicin, netilmicin, amikacin, kanamycin and streptomycin was tested simultaneously by the agar dilution method against 584 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli that were resistant to gentamicin and/or tobramycin. about half of the gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas were susceptible to tobramycin but cross-resistance was virtually complete between gentamicin and tobramycin for enterobacteriaceae. sisomicin was much more active than gentamici ...197898451
susceptibility of 327 clinical isolates to netilmicin.netilmicin, a semisynthetic derivative of sisomicin, was tested against 327 isolates of staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-negative enteric bacilli. seventy-two per cent of the isolates were inhibited at a concentration of 0.5 microgram netilmicin per ml, and 93% of the isolates were susceptible to 4 microgram per ml or less. the mics of netilmicin and gentamicin for 24 providencia and 38 pseudomonas isolates were compared. the activity of netilmicin closely paralleled that o ...1978100353
[effect of aerobic and anaerobic germs on the healing of decubitus ulcers].bacteriological examinations of decubitus ulcers were performed in 34 geriatric patients. a total of 179 wound swabs were analyzed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. the decubitus ulcers were divided into three groups according to wound healing: group a with progressive worsening, group b, stationary, and group c with healing within 10 weeks. the aerobic bacteria isolated from the three groups were significantly different (p less than 0.0001). in group a pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in 8 ...1979119316
piperacillin, a new penicillin active against many bacteria resistant to other penicillins.the in vitro activity of piperacillin, a new semisynthetic piperazine penicillin derivative, was evaluated against 626 clinical isolates and compared with the activity of other beta-lactam antibiotics. at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml, piperacillin inhibited all streptococci except enterococci. non-beta-lactamase-producing staphylococci were inhibited by 1.6 microgram or less per ml. both beta-lactamase- and non-beta-lactamase-producing haemophilus were inhibited by 0.1 microgram/ml. piper ...1978122519
susceptibility of cephalothin-resistant gram-negative bacilli to piperacillin, cefuroxime, and other selected antibiotics.the in vitro antibacterial activity of piperacillin and cefuroxime against 180 isolates of cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae and of piperacillin against 46 isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. amikacin, gentamicin, carbenicillin, cefoxitin, and cefamandole were included for comparison. the activities of piperacillin and carbenicillin against enterobacteriaceae were comparable. piperacillin was appreciably more active against pseudomonas than carbenicillin and was equivalent ...1978122524
[detection of split products of the immunoglobulins igg, iga and igm during chronic otitis media (author's transl)].proteolytic enzymes such as pepsine or papaine are able to split igg antibodies into large fragments in vitro. these immunoglobulin fragments (igg, iga, igm) were now detected in vivo from the purulent secretions of cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media and radical mastoid cavities. during chronic otitis media the intact immunoglobulins are split due to the proteolytic activity of neutral proteinases. these fragments were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by means of various immunologi ...1975129630
[simplified diagnostic scheme for enterobacteriaceae].after testing 18 experimental variants against 40 reference strains belonging to different enterovacteriaceae groups, the authors chose a multitest medium that permits concomitant testing of mobility, indol, lysinedecarboxylase and phenylalanine deaminase (milp). in this medium, the reactions of 3734 strains belonging to the genera escherichia, shigella. salmonella, citrobacter, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia. proteus and providencia were concordant with the reactions in individual test medi ...1977144994
the cleavage of polyoma virus dna by restriction enzymes kpni and psti.the action of two restriction endonucleases on polyoma virus dna has been examined and the sites at which they cleave the dna located. one of the enzymes, kpni from klebsiella pneumoniae ok8, cleaves polyoma dna twice at about 11-6 and 59-2% from the ecori site. the other enzyme, psti from providencia stuartii 164, cleaves polyoma dna five times at about 14-8, 16-5, 32-6, 50-3 and 80-0% from the ecori site. some of the cleavages produced by these enzymes alone, or in conjunction with other endon ...1976180247
susceptibility of "enterobacteria" to aminoglycoside antibiotics: comparisons with tetracyclines, polymyxins, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin.strains of enterobacteria, including common, aerobic, pathogenic gram-negative bacilli, and enterococci were tested for susceptibility to 11 aminoglycoside antibiotics by a twofold agar-dilution method with an inocula replicator. for comparison, similar tests were done with seven tetracycline analogues, two polymyxins, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin. tobramycin compared favorably with the more active aminoglycosides, with some exceptions related to individual strains of species. the tetracyc ...1976184213
paradoxical effect of mecillinam on providencia stuartii. 1976206531
location of the cleavage sites on the sv 40 dna map produced by the restriction endonucleases pst 1 and bam 1.restriction endonucleases from providencia stuartii (pst 1) and bacillus amyloliquefaciens h (bam 1) cleave sv 40 dna at two and one specific sites, respectively. using ecori and hind iii endonuclease restriction sites as reference, the two pst i sites were mapped at 0.050; 0.265 and the bam i site was mapped at 0.170 of the genome length, clockwise, from the single ecori cleavage site.1978210371
in vitro combination of mecillinam with cephradine or amoxycillin for organisms resistant to single agents.of 36 multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli isolated from different cases of urinary tract infection, 18 strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus, providencia and serratia with the exception of acinetobacter species showed synergy when mecillinam was combined with cephradine or amoxycillin in the ratio of 1:1. combination with cephradine was synergistic on sixteen occasions and amoxycillin on six. synergy, which might have clinical relevance, was demonstrated only when the ...1979227829
purification of the restriction endonuclease pali. 1979231393
hr 756, a highly active cephalosporin: comparison with cefazolin and 756, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with cefazolin and carbenicillin for activity against a total of 264 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., proteus mirabilis, proteus spp. (indole positive), enterobacter spp., salmonella typhi, serratia marcescens, providencia stuartii, and staphylococcus aureus. in every comparison, except that with the last organism, hr 756 was clearly more active than cefazolin and carbenicillin. all three compounds had simi ...1978253572
gentamicin and amikacin---an in vitro comparison using 1000 clinical isolates.the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gentamicin and amikacin against 1000 bacterial isolates from clinical material were compared. the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by an agar dilution technique. both of these aminoglycoside antibiotics had a similar spectrum of activity, being highly active against most species of aerobic gram negative bacilli. gentamicin was more active than amikacin against most species of enterobacteria, haemophilus influenzae and staphylococcus aureu ...1978282852
spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct: report of a case.a case is reported of spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct in a 59-year-old woman. recurrent episodes of epigastric and right hypochondriac pain over one year culminated in the onset of obstructive jaundice. there were not signs of peritonitis, and laparotomy revealed an abscess surrounding a perforation in the common bile duct just distal to the cystic duct. a cholesterol gallstone was present at the site of perforation. a paracolon bacterium, providence alcalifaciens, was isolated f ...1978285702
[epidemiologic study performed at the college "las americas" of the community of providencia]. 1978289049
genetic recombination in fused spheroplasts of providence alcalifaciens.spheroplasts of providence alcalifaciens strain p29 auxotrophs were prepared by combined treatment with glycine and lysozyme-edta. about 15% of spheroplasts had areas of cytoplasmic membrane exposed where cell wall was absent. the spheroplasts of different auxotrophs were mixed pairwise and fusion was attempted with polyethylene glycol or nascent calcium phosphate. after spheroplasts had regenerated to bacterial forms selection was made for recombinants. recombinants arose at frequencies of 3.8 ...1979295358
comparison of bl-s786 with cephalothin, cefamandole and cefoxitin in vitro and in treatment of experimental infections in mice.the activity of bl-s786 was compared to that of cephalothin, cefamandole and cefoxitin in vitro and in treatment of experimental infections in mice. in broth dilution tests, the activity of bl-s786 was less than cephalothin or cefamandole against staphylococcus aureus and less than cefamandole or cefoxitin against haemophilus influenzae. bl-s786 and cefamandole were the two most active drugs against cephalothin-sensitive enterobacteriaceae. in tests with cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae, ...1978306989
[anodically moving thermolabile antigen (ata) of gram-negative bacteria. its antibody-forming capacity in rabbits and mice].injection of purified ata as well as of ata-containing crude sonic extracts of gram-negative bacteria into rabbits or mice causes rapid occurrence of anti-ata antibodies. thus, the retarded occurrence of anti-ata antibodies after immunization with living bacteria can be explained by the rather deep localization of ata in the cell wall.1979312565
the comparative beta-lactamase resistance and inhibitory activity of 1-oxa cephalosporin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime.the beta-lactamase stability and inhibitory activity of 1-oxa cephalosporin, (6r,7r)-7-[[carboxy(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-7-methoxy-3-[[(1-methyl-1h-tetrazol-5-yl)thio]methyl]-8-oxo-5-oxa-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, was investigated and compared to that of cefoxitin and cefotaxime. there was no detectable beta-lactamase hydrolysis of 1-oxa cephalosporin, cefotaxime and cefoxitin when incubated with beta-lactamases of plasmid or chromosomal origin which were primarily cep ...1979315938
the use of aminoglycoside 2'-n-acetyltransferase for the assay of gentamicin in serum, plasma and urine. 1977321413
mobilization of morganocin 174 plasmid and kinetics of morganocin production in proteus and escherichia coli hosts.morganocin 174 is coded by a plasmid, mor174. the plasmid is not self-transmissible but may be mobilized by resistance factor r772. morganocin synthesis in all proteus and providencia strains carrying mor174 was characterized by a longer lag period after induction and higher titers than in escherichia coli b(mor174). the low titers obtained in e. coli b(mor174) are due to a heatstable inhibitor produced by this strain. synthesis of morganocin is not constitutive and may be induced by ultraviolet ...1977324393
in vitro susceptibility of cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae to cefoxitin and bl-s786.the in vitro antibacterial activity of two agents relatively resistant to beta-lactamases, bl-s786 and cefoxitin, was tested against 123 recent different clinical isolates of cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae. bl-s786 showed considerable activity against escherichia coli and lesser activity against klebsiella pneumoniae with, respectively, 68% and 41% inhibited at 32 microng/ml. cefoxitin showed more activity in vitro against e. coli, k. pneumoniae, serratia marcescens and providencia stu ...1977324961
[growth of non-sporing anaerobes in an oxygen-free blood culture system (author's transl)].the efficacy of the commercially available vacutainer blood culture system to support the growth of non-sporing anaerobes was compared with two laboratory-prepared blood culture media (supplemented thioglycollate medium and brain heart infusion). the media were inoculated with 10, 100 and 1000 organisms of the species tested, and the number of colony-forming units was determined at intervals of 8-10 hrs. analogous experiments were performed with batches of the media to which 10% vol/vol of human ...1977325956
[checking the reliability of the pathotec biochemical test system for bacterial identification].tests of the pathotec system intended for express bacteriological diagnosis were checked in comparative experiments with the common biochemical methods. cultures of the following microbes were used: schigella, salmonella, escherichia, citrobacter, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus, providencia, pseudomonas, bordetella, staphylococcus, streptococcus. in a number of tests, such as determination of cytochromoxidase, nitrate reduciase, phenylalaninedeaminase, indol, acetoin (for the differentiation ...1977325964
esculin hydrolysis by enterobacteriaceae.literature reports disagree concerning esculin hydrolysis in the family enterobacteriaceae. a total of 2,490 strains of the family were investigated for esculin hydrolysis by two methods, the esculin spot test and the pathotec incubation strip, which measures constitutive enzyme, and five growth-supporting methods, which determine both constitutive and inducible enzymes. the five growth-supporting media studied were: vaughn-levine, the standard esculin hydrolysis medium (p. r. edwards and w. h. ...1977330558
methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide production from methionine by proteus species detected by head-space gas-liquid chromatography.head-space gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to detect and identify products formed by proteus vulgaris, p. mirabilis, p. morganii, and p. rettgeri from a defined medium supplemented with either phenylalanine, methionine, valine, leucine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, threonine, asparagine, aspartic acid, or tryptophan. in a detailed study of the products formed by 68 strains of proteus spp. from l-methionine, the production of large amounts of both dimethyl disulfide and ...1977332705
unusual enterobacteriaceae. "proteus rettgeri" that "change" into providencia stuartii.a blood culture bottle from a patient with bacteremia contained both proteus rettgeri biogroup 5 and providencia stuartii (described in bergey's manual of determinative bactiology [8th ed., 1974] as proteus inconstans), which had the same unusual antibiotic resistance pattern. single colonies of this p. rettgeri biogroup 5 isolate were shown to produce urea- clones. if current taxonomy is used, the strain changed from p. rettgeri to p. stuartii in the laboratory and probably also in the patient. ...1977334793
[study of the role of conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria in acute intestinal diseases].conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria were isolated in 34.2% of the patients with acute intestinal diseases (1559 cases examined in all). such representatives of enterobacteria as klebsiella, hafnia, citrobacter of 4, 8, and 22 serological groups. proteus mirabilis of 6, 10, 13, 26, and 28 serological groups, and proteus morganii mostly played the etiological role. in some of the patients conditionally pathogenic microbes only aggravated the main disease, taking part in the development of dysb ...1977335739
aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes produced by r plasmids of escherichia coli, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, providencia stuartii and serratia marcescens. 1977340445
characterization and clinical identification of enterobacteriaceae by dna hybridization. 1978345354
[in vitro activity of cefoxitin compared with the activity of other antibiotics and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (author's transl)].the new developed antibiotic cefoxitin has been tested in vitro on its effectiveness against bacteria isolated from human material. pseudomonas aeruginosa and streptococci of the serological group d were not tested, because these microorganisms are not sensitive against this antibiotic. besides cefoxitin other antibiotics (cephalothin, cephalexin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin g, oxacillin) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were also tested. as to the results ce ...1978347234
combined action of phosphomycin with streptomycin and gentamicin.the combined action of phosphomycin with streptomycin and gentamicin against 41 strains of gram-positive micrococci (s. aureus and str. faecalis) and 87 strains of gram-negative bacilli (including 38 strains of pseudomonas) was evaluated. the combination of phosphomycin with streptomycin acted synergistically against 12 strains of gram-positive micrococci, and the combination of phosphomycin with gentmicin against 10 strains. the combination of phosphomycin with streptomycin acted synergisticall ...1977348150
a comparison of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of sisomicin and of fourteen other antibiotics.the activities of sisomicin and of fourteen other antibiotics have been compared for their inhibitory activity on all the different strains of bacteria isolated from a 3,000 bed hospital. the antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed in liquid medium and expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations. the tests were performed over a period of four months. the results are discussed.1978359385
bacteriophage specificity in the identification of yersinia pestis as compared with other enterobacteria.bacteriophage typing of yersinia pestis and the specificity of the phage among enterobacteriaceae were investigated. the bacteriophage used for rapid identification of y. pestis reacted with representative strains of all recognized species of shigella as well as with salmonella cholerae-suis. reactive shigella serotypes were sh. dysenteriae 1 and 9, sh. flexneri 2a, sh. boydii 1 and 6, and sh. sonnei. patterns consisting of isolated plaques (two cases) or absence of plaques were observed when th ...1978375327
[proteeae enzymes that participate in the amino acid metabolism of food products].biosynthesis of enzymes, catalyzing amino acid conversion in food products, and deposition of end products of protein metabolism is a current problem for hygiene-indicatory microorganisms. results are reported of a study of decarboxylase and aminotransferase activities of a large number of proteus strains. it was found that aminotransferases are produced by all members of this group of microorganisms, despite the specific differences in their quantitative characteristics. the composition of the ...1979379858
a five-hour system for identification of bacteria.a five-hour protocol was compared with routine methods for identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria from clinical specimens. a total of 9551 urine, wound, sputum, and throat cultures were processed using both procedures. the identifications reported less than 24 hours after the laboratory received the specimen were comparable to those obtained by routine methods for 87 to 95 percent of the enterobacteriaceae, 90 percent of the staphylococci and enterococci, but less ...1979382851
[the anodically moving thermolabile antigen (ata) of gram negative bacteria. protection of mice by immunization with ata (author's transl)].mice are protected against lethal doses of salmonella typhi-murium by vaccination with ata extracted from providencia. no protective effect is observed when the s. typhi-murium strains are enterotoxigenic. thus protection is antibacterial, but not antitoxic.1979384750
comparative bactericidal effect of ceforanide (bl-s 786) and five other cephalosporins in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model.the bactericidal activity of ceforanide was compared, in an in vitro kinetic model, with that of five other cephalosproins: cephalothin, cefazolin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, and cefoxitin. cultures of various pathogens in 95% human serum were incubated for 12 hours in the presence of the cephalosporins whose concentrations were modified periodically-by addition of a concentrated solution of drug or dilution with unmedicated serum-in order to simulate the variation of antibiotic concentration in h ...1979396292
[the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination 1st survey into its in vitro activity in brazzaville, congo results of 780 bacterial strains isolated at the national laboratory and the general hospital in a single year].the combination of smz-tmp has recently been introduced in congo. this year (1978), it is very used by many physicians. to help the congolese physicians working without antibiogram frequently, we have tested 780 strains from august 1977 to august 78. the susceptibility of these strains was: for e. coli 90%, klebsiella 69,20%, staphylococcus 93% and for all strains studied gram + and gram - the percentage was 75,51. as many authors have showed, the strains of pseudomonas, streptococcus faecalis a ...1979400121
evolution of sensitivity to fosfomycin at jimenez diaz foundation.the sensitivity to fosfomycin of more than 8,000 strains of bacteria isolated from products recevied by the laboratory between 1972 and 1974 has been studied. some were studied by the dilution technique in a solid medium and the remainder was studied by diffusion. a single 50-mug disc was used and the strains inhibited by concentrations of less than 64 mug/ml or with inhibition halos of 15 mm diameter or more were considered sensitive. it is clear from this study that there are no significant ch ...1977401722
in vitro activity of netilmicin, gentamicin, and amikacin.the in vitro activity of netilmicin (sch 20569), a new semisynthetic derivative of gentamicin, was compared with that of gentamicin and amikacin. one hundred and ninety-two clinical isolates of enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus were tested using both agar and broth dilution techniques. netilmicin was comparable to gentamicin, with the following exceptions: (i) for serratia marcescens and p. aeruginosa, gentamicin was more active than netilmicin; (ii) all strai ...1977402104
clinical and laboratory study of tobramycin in the treatment of infections due to gram-negative organisms.tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, was used to treat 52 infections due to gram-negative organisms in 51 patients. complicated urinary tract infections, bacteremia and pyelonephritis accounted for 80% of the infections. the rate of immediate satisfactory response was 79%. during therapy with tobramycin, resistant organisms emerged in four patients--two pseudomonas aeruginosa and two escherichia coli strains. there were four superinfections with tobramycin-resistant providencia sp. in four ...1977406032
a simple method for determining bacterial susceptibility to aminoglycosides.a method is described of determining the susceptibility of enterobacteria to four amino-glycosides by means of an antibiotic diffusion method. the results are exose obtained by a method that involved titration in agar plates and the use of a multi-point inoculator. a statistical analysis showed that the diffusion method gave accurate reproducible results. the antibiotic can be incorporated into paper disks, paper strips or agar ditches and the calculation converting the measured zones of inhibit ...1977408495
hand-washing degerming: a comparison of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine.two antiseptic preparations for hand washing were compared by the glove-juice method in a crossover study on 10 volunteers. the reference preparation was 7.5% povidone-iodine (betadine surgical scrub); the test agent was 4% chlorhexidine gluconate combined with 4% isopropyl alcohol (hibiclens). the experimental model included inoculation of the hands with a mixture of serratia marcescens, escherichia coli, providentia stuartii, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. the reference preparation achieved a red ...1978412637
o serotyping of providencia stuartii isolates collected from twelve hospitals.a collection of 829 isolates of providencia stuartii, mostly from urological specimens of patients in 12 hospitals, were o serotyped. hospitals varied in serotype distribution, but most isolates (97%) fell into one or another of 14 o types of p. stuartii. one type (o63) was found in 10 hospitals, and six types (o4, o17, o25, o52, o55, o56) were found in 5 or more hospitals. these seven types were more common than others and included 753 (91%) of the isolates. only four isolates agglutinated in p ...1979429535
[characteristics of the antibiotic sensitivity of nitrofuran--resistant gram-negative bacteria of clinical origin].494 persons with various purulent inflammatory diseases were examined. gram-negative nitrofuran resistant organisms isolated from the clinical material were found in 22.9 per cent of the cases. representatives of enterobacteriaceae, klebsiella-enterobacter-serratia (26.8 per cent), proteus-providencia (16.8 per cent) and e. coli-arizona-citrobacter (16.1 per cent) predominated. pseudomonas (32.1 per cent) and acinetobacter (5.3 per cent) predominated among the aerobic gram-negative bacteria. sen ...1979434799
[nosocomial infections with providencia stuartii (proteus inconstans) (author's transl)].48% of all isolates of providencia stuartii obtained within a period of one year, originated from the urine of catheterised patients, whereas another 37% were found in the respiratory tract of patients with intubation. the incidence of providenica stuartii correlated with the period during which iatrogenic measures had been applied, as well as with a preceding course with antibiotics.1979467264
the sensitivity of gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacilli to cefotaxime, other cephalosporins and aminoglycosides.the sensitivities of 80 gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacilli to cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefazolin, tobramycin, netilmicin and amikacin were determined. amikacin was the most active amino-glycoside. however, the percentage sensitivity to cefotaxime of most of the species was higher than, or equal to any of the other antibiotics tested. cefotaxime was particulary active against providencia spp., serratia spp., klebsiella spp., and pseudomonas maltophilia, being 16 to ...1979478651
[results of the use of a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, sisomicin, in gram negative bacterial respiratory infections].clinical efficacy of a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, sisomicin, was evaluated in 14 patients with acute chest infections (12 cases with pneumonia and 2 with bronchitis). they were selected taking into account the isolation of sisomicin-sensitive gram-negative bacilli in a sputum specimen collected prior to therapy. local predisposing factors were present in 4 patients whereas general predisposing factors were present in 4 patients whereas general predisposing factors were recognizable in 9. kle ...1979492551
ly127935, a novel oxa-beta-lactam: an in vitro comparison with other beta-lactam antibiotics.the in vitro activities of ly127935 (ly) were compared with those of other beta-lactam antibiotics. ly was highly active (minimal inhibitory concentration [mic] range 0.06 to 0.25 micrograms/ml) against the common enterobacteriaceae (including providencia stuartiia, enterobacter, and serrati marcescens), 8 to 16 times more active than cefoxitin, cefuroxime, or cefazolin, and from one-half to one-eighth as active as cefotaxime (hr756). the activity of ly against pseudomonas aeruginosa (with mics ...1979507788
a review of providencia bacteremia in a general hospital, with a comment on patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity and use.six cases of providencia bacteremia occurring between 1969 and 1978 were reviewed. these cases represented 3% of the gram-negative bacteremias occurring at one hospital. all six cases of providencia bacteremia were secondary to urinary tract infection with p. stuartii, and in most the infection developed only shortly before the onset of bacteremia; in three cases the bacteremia developed immediately following manipulation of the urinary tract. patients with long-standing providencia infections d ...1979519613
o-serotyping providencia alcalifaciens.the o-serotyping scheme for providencia was tested on providencia alcalifaciens isolates collected mostly from two hospitals. the specificites of the somatic (o) antigens of p. alcalifaciens were found to be different from those of providencia stuartii, and separation of the providencia typing scheme to allow separate typing of each species led to more efficient typing. all but 4 of 86 isolates were typable. eighteen serotypes occurred among 53 typable isolates obtained from a pediatric hospital ...1979521478
application of o-serotyping in a study of providencia rettgeri (proteus rettgeri) isolated from human and nonhuman sources.a somatic (o) antigen serotyping scheme for providencia rettgeri (proteus rettgeri) was modified to exclude o-type strains recently reclassified as urea-positive providencia stuartii and was extended to include new serotypes to provide for serotyping on the basis of 93 o-antigens. isolates from two hospitals, five public health laboratories, and nonhuman sources (polluted water and frogs) were serotyped. the 112 isolates collected from a large general hospital over a 99-month period were distrib ...1979521481
[antimicrobial activity of derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide. viii].the antimicrobial activity of a series of fluoro derivatives of benzothiadiazine and sulfonamides was studied. the compounds tested can be grouped as: a) 3-alkylmercapto derivatives of 6-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide (iii leads to vi); the 3-mercapto precursor (vii) and the related 3-picolinic salt (viii); b) 3-trifluoromethyl derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide and of its benzene substituted derivatives (ix leads to xvi); c) trifluoroacetylaminobenzenesulfonam ...1979527707
comparative in vitro activity of ly 127935 (6059-s), seven cephalosporins, three aminoglycosides, carbenicillin, and 127935 (6059-s), a new semi-synthetic beta-lactam antibiotic was tested simultaneously with 6 cephalosporins, 3 aminoglycosides, carbenicillin and ticarcillin against 398 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. many of the organisms were selected for study because of known resistance to one or more of the clinically available antibiotics tested. escherichia coli, klebsiella, serratia and providencia were susceptible to ly 127935. some resistant strains of enterobac ...1979528361
chlorhexidine resistance and the lipids of providencia stuartii.the lipid composition of providencia stuartii has been shown to resemble closely that of proteus mirabilis. the ability of some pv, stuartii strains to survive exposure to high concentrations of the antiseptic chlorhexidine could not be explained in terms of differences in lipid content between sensitive and resistant strains. in addition, resistance could not be attributed to either reduced adsorption of the antiseptic or to its gross enzymic degradation.1979530092
in vitro activity of ly127935, a new 1-oxa cephalosporin, against aerobic gram-negative bacilli.a total of 434 clinical aerobic gram-negative bacillary isolates were tested against ly127935, a new 1-oxa cephalosporin, and compared with other cephalosporins, penicillins, and aminoglycosides by a broth microdilution technique. cefotaxime (hr756), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, and ly127935 were more active, and showed lower minimum inhibitory concentrations (ranges, less than or equal to 0.12 to 2.0 micrograms/ml), than cefamandole, cefoxitin, and cefazolin against escherichia coli, kleb ...1979533267
[antimicrobial effect of derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazin-1,1-dioxide. vii].series of alkyl derivatives of the following have been prepared: 5,7-dichloro- [compounds (ii leads to v)], 6-methyl- [compounds (vi leads to ix)] and 6-methoxy-3-mercapto-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide [compounds (x leads to xiii)]. the products were tested for antimicrobial activity. studies were also made of the corresponding 3-mercapto precursors (xiv, xv, xvi) and the relative 3-picolinium salts (xvii, xviii, xix) and also of the 3-picolinium salts of 6-chloro-, 7-chloro- and 6,7-dichlo ...1979553823
nosocomial urinary tract infections caused by two o-serotypes of providencia stuartii in one hospital.providencia stuartii nosocomial urinary tract infections occurring in the same hospital over an 18-month period of retrospective study were shown, by serotyping and biotyping, to have been caused by two endemic strains. two episodes, involving 38 patients in one ward and 11 patients in another, were caused by a mannitol-positive strain of serotype o55. transmission of the strain through the movements of one patient appeared to have been the basis for the introduction of the agent from one ward t ...1977591628
[etiologic role of bacteria of the genus providencia in acute intestinal diseases].a study was made of morphological, cultural, biochemical properties and antigenic structure (by o-antigen) of 59 strains isolated in group acute intestinal affection of children at the pioneer camp. by the combination of biochemical properties (31 tests) all the cultures isolated were referred to providencia alcalifaciens of biotype 7. serological typing with the aid of experimental diagnostic agglutinating o-sera showed these strains to be referred to serological group o2. identity of the o-ant ...1977602540
consequence of cerulenin-released beta-lactamase in clinical coliforms.periplasmic beta-lactamase of certain clinical coliforms was released, without affecting cell viability, by perturbation of the outer membrane utilizing the fatty acid-mimicking antibiotic cerulenin. release of such compartmentalized beta-lactamase, at high population density, seems to provide an extra margin of resistance to the organisms against cephaloridine.1978626484
chemotherapeutic evaluation of 5-episisomicin (sch 22591), a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside.5-episisomicin (sch 22591) is a novel semisynthetic aminoglycoside with a spectrum and potency similar to gentamicin in its activity against susceptible bacterial strains, but with increased potency against pseudomonas, providencia, and proteus rettgeri. it is also more active than tobramycin and amikacin against these last-mentioned species.against resistant strains, sch 22591 is significantly more active than gentamicin or tobramycin. against resistant gram-negative bacteria other than pseudom ...1978626490
bacteriocine typing of providencia isolates.a method of typing isolates of providencia is described based on the sensitivities of the organisms to bacteriocines. twelve standard bacteriocine producing strains were selected from a large number of isolates tested and from these liquid bacteriocine preparations were obtained. the activities of these preparations on over 300 isolates were determined and from this information a bacteriocine typing system has been developed.1978654675
comparative in vitro activity of five nitrofurans.five nitrofurans- nitrofurantoin, nifuratel, nitrofurazone, furazolidone and and sq 18,506--have been tested against 201 microbial strains. escherichia coli, streptococcus faecalis, micrococci and staphylococcus epidermidis were sensitive to all five compounds; furazolidone and sq 18,506 were the most active against these species. klebsiella aerogenes was less sensitive, and proteus spp., providencia stuartii and pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant. nifuratel was inhibitory for some ca ...1978657876
synergy of azlocillin and mezlocillin combined with aminoglycoside antibiotics and cephalosporins.synergistic activity between both azlocillin and mezlocillin and aminoglycosides or cefazolin could be demonstrated by checkerboard dilution, isobologram, and killing curve techniques. azlocillin and mezlocillin combined with gentamicin, netilmicin, or amikacin were synergistic against escherichia coli, klebsiella, citrobacter, enterobacter, serratia, and indole-positive proteus. synergy was observed with isolates that were susceptible or resistant to azlocillin or mezlocillin. synergy was seen ...1978666302
simultaneous production of two types of beta-lactamase in escherichia coli and providencia stuartii.the production of beta-lactamase has been studied in two strains isolated from clinical samples: providencia stuartii mulb 501 and escherichia coli mulb 130. these strains were selected for their high resistance level to penicillins and cephalosporins. determination and identification of beta-lactamase activity were achieved by combining several up-to-date methods including (i) neutralization by anti-beta-lactamase sera, (ii) purification by affinity chromatography on cephalosporin c linked seph ...1978365308
cross-protection of mice provided by active and passive immunization against experimental infections with virulent proteus rettgeri and providencia bacteria.immunization with providencia and proteus rettgeri formalin-treated bacterial suspensions produced high levels of protection in mice against homologous and heterologous challenge. mice were also cross-protected, but less effectively, by passive administration of rabbit type-specific antisera. the protective activity appeared to be due to an antigen common to strains of different o-serotypes. it was not detectable in agglutination reactions, and preliminary results indicate that it is thermostabl ...1978669801
kanamycin resistance in providencia stuartii. 1978670120
chemical transformation of gentamicin c1a into 2'-n-methylgentamicin c1a, active against providencia 164. 1978681243
in vitro studies with sch 21420 and sch 22591: activity in comparison with six other aminoglycosides and synergy with penicillin against vitro tests were performed with sch 21420 and sch 22591 to determine (i) their activity in comparison to six other aminoglycosides against 343 clinical isolates, and (ii) whether synergy with penicillin g could be demonstrated with enterococci. in broth dilution tests, sch 22591 was more active than the seven other aminoglycosides against staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteriaceae, and most nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. sch 22591 was as active as tobramycin against pseudomonas aeruginos ...1978697346
activity of 5-episisomicin compared with that of other aminoglycosides.5-episisomicin, a semisynthetic aminoglycoside, has been shown to inhibit many members of the enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus. at a concentration of 3.1 mug/ml, more than 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter, citrobacter, indole-positive proteus, and providencia were inhibited. 5-episisomicin had activity against s. aureus, e. coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, and citrobacter similar to gentamicin and netilmicin. it had activity similar ...1978697347
in vitro studies with uk-18,892, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic.the antibacterial activity of uk-18,892, a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside, was examined against aminoglycoside-susceptible and aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and staphylococcus aureus. uk-18,892 had a similar degree of activity to those of amikacin and kanamycin a against aminoglycoside-susceptible bacteria but was less potent than gentamicin against all isolates except providencia spp. uk-18,892 was highly active against aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria, ...1978708005
sensitivity of urine-grown cells of providencia stuartii to antiseptics.urine-grown cultures of 23 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria having a range of minimum inhibitory concentration values for chorhexidine were challenged with various concentrations of this antiseptic. the results suggest that cells of providencia stuartii, in particular, exhibit a considerable degree of resistance to chlorhexidine under these conditions, concentrations of up to 10 000--20 000 microgram/ml of urine being necessary to produce complete loss of viability of such cultures. o ...1978711901
semisynthetic cephalosporins. synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 7-(1-pyrryl)- and 7-(1-indolyl)acetamidocephalosporin derivatives.a series of 1-pyrrole- and 1-indoleacetamido derivatives of 3-heteroaryl-substituted cephalosporins was prepared. the most active compound in the series was 7-[[2-(1-pyrryl)acetyl]amino]-3-[[(1-methyltetrazol-5-yl)thio]-methyl]-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (6), which showed comparable potency in vitro and in vivo to that of cefazolin, and, in addition, was more potent than cefazolin against enterobacter sp. and providencia stuartii.1978722761
oxalate biosynthesis from phenylalanine by the providencia-proteus group organisms. 1978747520
piperacillin (t-1220), a new semisynthetic penicillin. ii. in vitro antimicrobial activity and synergy comparison with carbenicillin and gentamicin.piperacillin, a new semisynthetic penicillin, was found to have potent antimicrobial activity against nearly all (405) tested bacterial species. piperacillin was consistently 4 approximately 16-fold more active than carbenicillin against the enterobacteriaceae, 16 approximately 32-fold against pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas species, and 16-fold against streptococcus faecalis. carbenicillin and piperacillin were equally effective against staphylococcus aureus, but inactivated by beta-lact ...1979761991
the isolation and partial characterization of a new restriction endonuclease from providencia stuartii.we describe the isolation of a new class 2 restriction endonuclease from providencia stuartii 164. using the procedure of osmotic shock treatment, we have partially purified this enzyme (pst 1) and have begun preliminary work to characterize its specificity and requirements. pst 1 requires mg++ as the only cofactor and produces more than 18 cleavages in wild type lambda. we have determined the location of 7 of these cleavages by the use of deletion and insertion mutants of lambda.1976768923
[resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides in gram negative bacteria. 1. molecular and genetic characterization of r-factors (author's transl)].with frequent use of aminoglycoside antimicrobials and beta-lactam antibiotics in hospitals in the last few years, the number of bacterial strains resistant to these chemotherapeutics increased. lately, strains of e. coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, proteus and pseudomonas resistant to many antimicrobials (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, tobramycin, sisomycin, neomycin, paromomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, sulphonamides) ...1976779353
[current hospitalismus. contribution to the causal factors of problem infection from the bacteriological view point]. 1976785871
formation of crystalline deposits by several genera of the family enterobacteriaceae.several species of bacteria from the family enterobacteriaceae formed crystalline materials containing calcium when grown in a defined culture medium. enterobacter aerogenes, proteus vulgaris, citrobacter freundii, and c. intermedius produced calcium pyrophosphate crystals. edwardsiella tarda and escherichia coli formed calcite iii crystals, whereas proteus mirabilis, klebsiella pneumoniae, providencia stuartii, and serratia marcescens produced hydroxyapatite crystals. several of these bacteria ...1976786887
variation in urease activity of endemic hospital strains of proteus rettgeri and providencia stuartii.both urease-positive and urease-negative proteeae isolated from cross-infected patients in the same hospitals and, in three cases, from the same patients were examined for their biochemical reactions and somatic (o-) antigens. all isolates gave the same reactions in 17 biochemical tests and possessed o-antigens characteristic of providenic o-type strains 4 or 17. study of the isolates indicated that endemic strains are capable of undergoing variation in urease activity. in the current classifica ...1976789790
in vitro synergistic effect of netilmicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic.the combination of netilmicin (sch 20569) with carbenicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, and clindamycin was evaluated by in vitro tests against 91 clinical isolates of pseudomonas, klebsiella, and escherichia coli. combinations were considered to show synergy if there was a fourfold or greater reduction in minimal inhibitory concentration values of both antibiotics when combined. synergy of netilmicin with carbenicillin could be demonstrated against 21 of 46 pseudomonas isolates. comparison of ...1976791104
a rapid glutamic decarboxylase test for identification of bacteria.a simple rapid glutamic decarboxylase test is described. this test was found useful in the identification of escherichia coli, shigella sp., providencia alcalifaciens, clostridium perfringens and bacteroides fragilis.1976793504
pathological and microbiological observations made on spontaneous cases of acute neonatal calf diarrhea.the purpose of this report is to describe clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, bacteriological and immunofluorescence observations made on spontaneous cases of acute neonatal calf diarrhea (ncd) in dairy and beef herds. the following diagnostic tools were used: 1) direct smears of intestinal content, 2) escherichia coli counts, 3) aerobic bacterial cultures of the small intestine and other organs (the o serogroup and the enterotoxigenicity of the e. coli isolated was determined), 4) de ...1976793692
use of tergitol-7 agar in the clinical laboratory.tergitol-7 agar has been utilized in the author's laboratory for eight years and has been found the superior medium for the rapid isolation, separation and identification of gram negative bacilli found in a clinical setting.1975803348
comparison of amikacin and gentamicin.the sensitivity to gentamicin (g) and to amikacin (a) of 25 strains of escherichia coli (ec), 25 klebsiella sp. (k), 25 proteus and providence sp. (pp), and 25 ps. aeruginosa (pa) were tested in vitro by the disc method, by the inocula-replicating method, and by a tube dilution technique using 10-5 microorganisms/ml. bactericidal concentrations active on 50% and 90% of the strains were 1.5 and 4.5 mug/ml for ec, 3 and mug/ml for k, 1.5 and 3 mug/ml for pp, and 3 and 3 mug/ml for pa. resistance t ...1975804370
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