partial purification and properties of enterobacter cloacae heat-stable enterotoxin.cell free preparations of the whole-cell lysate and ultrafiltration (uf) fractions of broth cultures of a strain of enterobacter cloacae, isolated from a puerto rican with tropical sprue, were assayed for their ability to induce in vivo net water secretion in the rat jejunum. the whole-cell lysate and um-10 retentate of broth cultures were inactive. the um-2 retentate and filtrate were active at a concentration of 100 mug/ml or more; the toxigenic activity was entirely retained, and increased to ...19765376
kinetic properties of serratia marcescens adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase.the regulatory properties of partially purified adenosine 5'-diphosphate-(adp) glucose pyrophosphorylase from two serratia marcescens strains (atcc 274 and atcc 15365) have been studied. slight or negligible activation by fructose-p2, pyridoxal-phosphate, or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) was observed. these compounds were previously shown to be potent activators of the adpglucose pyrophosphorylases from the enterics, salmonella typhimurium, enterobacter aerogenes, e ...19766432
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
contamination of rat urine with gut flora using all-glass metabolism cages for collection of urine and rat urine collected in all-glass metabolism cages, at least four strains of intestinal microflora were found: two types of e. coli, enterobacter cloaceae and proteus vulgaris. the number of bacteria of each strain increased with time. 2. the ph of the urine increased from 6-9 after 24 h to 8-95 after 120 h. the ph of the urine of neomycin-treated rats remained nearly constant over a period of two days. 3. nitroreductase activity was present in the rat urine. added p-nitrobenzoic acid was redu ...197718846
a new restriction enzyme from enterobacter cloacae (ecli). 197719297
hr 756, the syn isomer of a new methoxyimino cephalosporin with unusual antibacterial 756, the syn derivative of 7-[(2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-methoxyimino)acetamido]cephalosporanic acid, is a new semisynthetic cephalosporin. it was 80 times more active than the anti derivative against beta-lactamase-producing strains of gram-negative bacteria. the range of inhibitory concentrations of hr 756 against gram-negative bacteria, including haemophilus influenzae, susceptible or resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins was from 0.01 to 0.1 mug/ml. this activity was consistently hi ...197831836
purification and characterization of cloacin df13 receptor from enterobacter cloacae and its interaction with cloacin df13 in vitro.extraction of the crude cell envelope fraction of cloacin df13-susceptible enterobacter cloacae strain 02 with triton x-100 and ethylenediaminetetraacetate solubilized an outer membrane fraction which neutralized the lethal activity of cloacin df13. a similar fraction could not be isolated from strains known to be lacking functional cloacin df13 receptors. on this basis the isolated outer membrane fraction was assumed to contain the specific cloacin df13 receptor. the receptor was purified to ho ...197935522
ps-5, a new beta-lactam antibiotic. ii. antimicrobial, a new beta-lactam antibiotic, has relatively potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, especially the enterobacter groups, serratia marcescens, the proteus groups and klebsiella pneumoniae. the activity of ps-5 against many beta-lactamase-producing organisms is greater than that of cefoxitin or cefazolin. ps-5 has good therapeutic activity in mice infected with staphylococcus aureus smith or enterobacter cloacae 45.197938238
a polyvalent human gamma-globulin immune to pseudomonas aeruginosa: passive protection of mice against lethal a means to development of guidelines for therapeutic application to human disease, preparations of human polyvalent gamma-globulin immune to pseudomonas aeruginosa (pg) were studied in acute infections in mice. pg was highly effective in controlling lethal infections induced in mice by the major immunotypes of p. aeruginosa; greater than or equal to 10 microgram of of gamma-globulin per mouse protected against challenge with less than or equal to 10(6) 50% lethal doses of p. aeruginosa. pg wa ...197770492
enterotoxigenicity of colonising coliform bacteria in tropical sprue and blind-loop syndrome.the enterotoxigenicity of strains of klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter cloacae, and escherichia coli, which represented the predominant coliform species isolated from the jejunum of 12 patients with tropical sprue and 5 with the blind-loop syndrome, was quantitatively assessed in terms of the ability of toxin preparations to induce water secretion as assayed by in-vivo perfusion in the rat jejunum. all 12 patients with sprue harboured 1 or more highly toxigenic strains--14 of the 16 strains is ...197879710
competition of beta-lactam antibiotics for the penicillin-binding proteins of pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella aerogenes, proteus rettgeri, and escherichia coli: comparison with antibacterial activity and effects upon bacterial morphology.the competition of a number of beta-lactam morphogenic probes for the penicillin-binding proteins (pbps) of pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella aerogenes, proteus rettgeri, and escherichia coli has been studied. the results indicate that the various gram-negative bacteria have similar, but not identical, pbp patterns and that the individual proteins probably perform similar morphogenic functions as in e. coli k-12. comparison of the 50% binding concentrations of the compound ...1979116592
in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies on three hydroxyiminophenylacetyl cephalosporins with particular reference to sk&f 80303, an unusually long-acting cephalosporin.three cephalosporins with 7-(2-hydroxyiminophenylacetamido) side chains (sk&f 79433, 80000 and 80303), differing in their 3-substituents, exhibited similar broad-spectrum antibacterial activity in vitro against strains of staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis and various gram-negative bacilli. all three were active in vivo (s.c., mouse) against s. aureus, escherichia coli or klebsiella pneumoniae, but they differed significantly in serum pharmacokinetic profiles. sk&f 80303 produced high ...1979118958
[kinetics of setting up of a human fecal flora in germ free mice and trial of decontamination of antibiotherapy (author's transl)].we have tried in this study to reproduce in germfree mice a bacterial equilibrium observed previously in the gastrointestinal tract of child "l.n.", reared in a plastic isolator. eight bacterial strains were studied. seven had been fortuitously introduced: acinetobacter lwoffi ln1, staphylococcus epidermidis ln2, clostridium perfringens ln3, plectridium anatum ln4, streptococcus bovis ln5, enterobacter cloacae ln6, corynebacterium sp ln7. the eighth strain was purposely administered to the child ...1975174472
bacterial contamination potential of sterile, prefilled humidifiers and nebulizer reservoirs.contaminated respiratory therapy equipment may be responsible for the spread of pathogens to hospital patients. this study focused on the potential for contamination of prefilled, sterile, disposable water and saline systems for humidification and nebulization. gas and liquid samples from 48 prepacked oxygen humidifier/cannula and 26 prepacked nebulization setups were taken at the initial application of devices and at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hour intervals, totaling 386 cultures. all samples from the ...1979259068
specific gonadotropin binding to pseudomonas maltophilia.binding of 125i-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and ph and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. the equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 x 10(-9) m. there are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (hill coefficient, 1.05). the number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. nacl and kcl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mm, have no effect on binding. divalent catio ...1977265583
taxonomy of the genus hundred and fifty-six strains of serratia and related bacteria including representatives of enterobacter liquefaciens, enterobacter cloacae, enterobacter aerogenes, erwinia carotovora, erwinia chrysanthemi, erwinia herbicola and erwinia nimipressuralis were studied using 223 morphological, physiological, biochemical and carbon source utilization tests. the results were subjected to computer analysis. at the 80% similarity level all strains, except two, grouped into eight phenons representing ...1977319202
coliforms from hides and meat.coliform tests were performed on 85 hide and 75 meat samples. imvic reactions were determined on isolates from positive confirmed and fecal tests, and strains other than escherichia coli were identified. strains typed as aerobacter aerogenes types i and ii were identified as enterobacter cloacae (51.4%), klebsiella pneumoniae (21.5%), enterobacter aerogenes (15%), and enterobacter liquefaciens, serratia, and unidentified coliforms (12.1%). k. pneumoniae appeared to be responsible for less than 1 ...1977319754
a microbiological investigation of acute summer gastroenteritis in black south african infants.a microbiological investigation of black infants suffering from severe acute summer gastroenteritis revealed enteropathogenic agents in 30 out of 37 patients (81%). enterotoxigenic bacteria were isolated from 15 patients (41%). a total of 16 enterotoxigenic strains were isolated, comprising 9 enterotoxigenic escherichia coli strains secreting labile and stable toxin on their own and in combination, and labile-toxin secreting strains of klebsiella pneumoniae (4), enterobacter cloacae (2) and prot ...1977325127
relative enterotoxigenicity of coliform bacteria.the enterotoxigenicity of 12 strains of coliform bacteria (enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella pneumoniae, and escherichia coli) isolated from the gastrointestinal (gi) tract of persons with either acute diarrhea or tropical sprue and of 13 strains of the same species isolated from urine (gu) cultures was determined. fractions of heat-labile (lt) and heat-stable (st) toxins of each strain were separated by ultrafiltration, and the effect of graded concentrations (range, 100 microgram-10 pg/ml) on w ...1977330767
common plasmid specifying tobramycin resistance found in two enteric bacteria isolated from burn patients.tobramycin-resistant burn wound isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter cloacae, together with escherichia coli k-12 transconjugants from these two strains, were examined for plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (dna). all the resistant strains contained a common, high-molecular-weight, covalently closed circular dna plasmid that was absent in the tobramycin-susceptible e. coli recipient strain. the common plasmid residing in e. cloacae was designated pie098, and that residing in k. pneumoni ...1978348100
comparison of assay of coliform enterotoxins by conventional techniques versus in vivo intestinal perfusion.thirty-six strains of coliform bacteria were tested for enterotoxigenicity both by conventional assays, including the y-1 adrenal and chinese hamster ovary cell assays for heat-labile toxin and the suckling mouse assay for heat-stable toxin, and by determining the ability of graded concentrations of ultrafiltrate high- or low-molecular-weight toxin preparations to induce water secretion during in vivo perfusion in the rat jejunum. the ultrafiltrates of all 18 strains isolated from persons with i ...1979383611
nitrogen fixation associated with 'park' kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.).associative nitrogen fixation in kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis l.) turfs inoculated with five nitrogen-fixing bacterial isolates was evaluated using the acetylene reduction assay and nitrogen accumulation as indicators of fixation. 'park' and 'nugget' kentucky bluegrass turfs were grown in controlled environment chambers and inoculated with klebsiella pneumoniae (w-2, w-6, and w-14), erwinia herbicola (w-8), and enterobacter cloacae (w-11). 'park' inoculated with k. pneumoniae (w-6) had sign ...1979394819
comparative bactericidal effect of ceforanide (bl-s 786) and five other cephalosporins in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model.the bactericidal activity of ceforanide was compared, in an in vitro kinetic model, with that of five other cephalosproins: cephalothin, cefazolin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, and cefoxitin. cultures of various pathogens in 95% human serum were incubated for 12 hours in the presence of the cephalosporins whose concentrations were modified periodically-by addition of a concentrated solution of drug or dilution with unmedicated serum-in order to simulate the variation of antibiotic concentration in h ...1979396292
in vitro and in vivo studies with bl-s786, cefoxitin, and cefamandole.the in vitro antimicrobial activities of bl-s786, cefoxitin, and cefamandole against 90 isolates of enterobacteriaceae, including escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, enterobacter cloacae and e. aerogenes, were studied by using an agar dilution procedure. comparison of geometric mean minimal inhibitory concentrations showed that bl-s786 was half as active as cefamandole against enterobacter species, 2 to 4 times more active than cefamandole against all other species, and 4 ...1978400821
the growth and respiration of bacterial colonies.young colonies of two swarming organisms, bacillus subtilis and proteus vulgaris, grew about as quickly on solid media as in liquid culture whilst four non-swarming organisms, bacillus cereus, enterobacter cloacae, escherichia coli and staphylococcus albus, all grew slower on solid than in liquid media. oxygen uptake by young colonies of b. subtilis, followed manometrically, increased exponentially at about the same rate as unrestricted aerobic growth. all other colonies demonstrated acceleratin ...1977591923
nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with roots of winter wheat and sorghum in nebraska.root segments and root-soil cores (6.5-cm diameter) from fields and nurseries of winter wheat and sorghum were tested for n2 fixation by using the acetylene reduction assay. wheat samples (approximately 1,200) from 109 sites generally had low or no activity (0 to 3.1 nmol of c2h4 produced per h per g [dry weight] of root segments), even after 24 h of incubation. however, a commercial field of scout 66, located in western nebraska, exhibited appreciable activity (290 nmol of c2h4 produced per h p ...1978623458
bacterial colonization of jejunal mucosa in giardiasis.nine of 14 cases of giardiasis and severe malabsorption were found to have numerous bacteria adjacent to the mucosa and within luminal fluid samples from the upper jejunum. three species of enterobacteria (klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter cloacae and e. hafniae) were cultured from eight patients and from only one were bacteroides isolated. enterobacteria were not cultured from seven of eight patients who had giardiasis but only mild malabsorption (of xylose only) nor from seven patients witho ...1978635972
heterotrophic bacteria present in hindguts of wood-eating termites [reticulitermes flavipes (kollar)].strict anaerobic culture techniques were used to quantitate heterotrophic bacteria present in hindguts of reticulitermes flavipes. the grand mean number of viable cells per hindgut was 0.4 x 10(5) (first-instar larvae), 1.3 x 10(5) (third-instar larvae), 3.5 x 10(5) (workers), and 1.5 x 10(5) (soldiers). of a total of 344 isolates, 66.3% were streptococci that were always obtained regardless of the origin of termites, their developmental stage or caste, or their length of captivity. most of the ...1978655709
[synthesis and biological activity of 7-(2-nitroimidazoles and 7-(2-aminoimidazole) methyleneamino cephalosporin and their derivatives].the synthesis of 7-[[(1-methyl-2-nitro-1h-imidazol-5-yl)methylene]amino] and 7-[[(2-amino-1-methyl-1h-imidazol-5-yl)methyle-ne]amino]cephalosporanic acids and of some derivatives is described. their physico-chemical characteristics are reported. the compounds show no appreciable antibacterial activity in vitro. they show no synergy with cephaloridine against enterobacter cloacae 214 (producer of class i beta-lactamase) and therefore have no anti-beta-lactamase activity.1979553829
biochemical differentiation in large colonies of enterobacter cloacae.large colonies of enterobacter cloacae which were about 700 micrometer thick were frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned horizontally. the sections were disrupted and several oxidative enzymes were assayed in the crude unfractionated homogenates. in the top 120 micrometer of the colonies the specific activities of the enzymes were high and characteristic of aerobically adapted cells. cells nearer the base of colonies had very low enzyme activities.1979541662
gas liquid chromatography for detection of bacteriuria: examination for volatile acidic and neutral injection of clinically infected urines on porous-polymer columns was investigated to determine which microbial metabolites were consistently detectable, and whether their presence could be used as a reliable index of infection. chromosorb 101 was found to be the most suitable porous polymer for the detection of microbial metabolites; greater sensitivity of detection was achieved by partial purification of the urine before injection. acetic acid was the only compound found consistently an ...1978711917
rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in water by a colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay.the colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay is based upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactoside (onpg) by fecal coliforms. this technique provides an estimate of the fecal coliform concentration within 8 to 20 h. a 100-ml portion of test sample was passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter. this filter was then incubated at 37 degrees c for 1 h in ec medium followed by the addition of filter-sterilized onpg. the incubation was continued at 44.5 degrees c ...1978414659
effect of aerosol immunization with re 595 salmonella minnesota on lung bactericidal activity against serratia marcescens, enterobacter cloacae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa.intrapulmonary bactericidal activity was measured after mice were given 3 weekly aerosol exposures to acid-hydrolyzed re 595 salmonella minnesota. ten days after their last immunization, mice were challenged with aerolized serratia marcescens, enterobacter cloacae, or pseudomonas aeruginosa. quantitative bacterial counts in ground lung were obtained immediately after exposure and again 4 hours later. enhanced bactericidal activity against serratia marcescens and enterobacter cloacae was seen in ...1977407823
[growth of some pathogenic microorganisms on chemically defined media which were proposed for sensitivity testing (author's transl)].the growth of 16 bacterial cultures, which belong to the frequently encountered pathogens, in three different chemically defined fluid media was investigated through turbidity measurements in comparison with mueller-hinton-broth. e. coli, salm. dublin, salm. typhi-murium, enterobacter cloacae, proteus mirabilis, pseud. aeruginosa and bac. cereus grew in two of the three tested defined media with approximately the same intensity as in the mueller-hinton broth. staph. aureus grew well only in one ...1978730218
synergy between ticarcillin and tobramycin against pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterobacteriaceae in vitro and in vivo.the antibacterial activities of ticarcillin, carbenicillin, tobramycin, and gentamicin and of combinations of these antibiotics were measured against pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacilli in vitro and in experimental mouse infections. synergistic effects were produced by the penicillin/aminoglycoside combinations in growth inhibition tests and in bactericidal tests against many of the bacteria tested. combinations of ticarcillin + tobramycin were more active in vitro than carben ...1977406837
purification and characterization of a complex between cloacin and its immunity protein isolated from enterobacter cloacae (clo df13). dissociation and reconstitution of the complex.cell of enterobacter cloacae (clo df13) produce a bacteriocin which is characterized by its very effective killing activity against sensitive bacteria. purification and characterization of the excreted bacteriocin has revealed that this bacteriocin consists of an equimolar complex of two plasmid-specific gene products: the cloacin and its inhibitor the immunity protein. dissociation of the complex by treatment with sodium dodecylsulfate induces the endonucleolytic activity of the cloacin but str ...1977402267
[on the contamination of the citric acid fermentation. i. the contamination by representatives of enterobacteriaceae (author's transl)].among the most dangerous bacterial contaminations of the citric acid fermentation is the so-called brown contamination, which is called forth by non pathogenic representatives of enterobacteriaceae like escherichia coli, aerobacter aerogenes, enterobacter cloacae and proteus vulgaris, while other bacteria do not produce the mentioned contamination. there is given a comprehensive characterization of the brown contamination. enterobacteriaceae interrupt the growth of the mycelium of the mold asper ...1979398647
physical characterization of ten r plasmids obtained from an outbreak of nosocomial klebsiella pneumoniae infections.gentamicin resistance in klebsiella pneumoniae involved in an outbreak at the minneapolis veterans administration hospital was due to a transmissible r plasmid. in addition to gentamicin, this plasmid conferred resistance to tobramycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, and sulfathiazole. r plasmids which transferred this complex antibiogram were identified in several clinical isolates, including four different serotypes of k. pneumoniae, escherichia coli, enter ...1979380464
reevaluation of kanamycin dosage in infants and was recently reported that the dosage of kanamycin formerly recommended for neonates of 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h did not produce therapeutic serum concentrations of 15 to 25 mug/ml, but a larger dosage of 10 mg/kg every 12 h was required. reevaluation of the pharmacokinetics of kanamycin in infants and children was therefore undertaken. sixteen time-concentration curves after a dose of 5 mg/kg were obtained from patients 2 months to 12 years of age; the mean peak serum kanamycin concentration was ...1976779634
transferable gentamicin resistance in enterobacter cloacae. 1976783111
disinfection procedures of fiberscopes in endoscopy departments.disinfection of fibre endoscopes was examined in 5 endoscopy departments during endoscopy sessions. on the endoscopes, especially in the instrument channels, pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus species could be regularly found, in some cases also enterobacter cloacae and candida albicans. with the results of disinfection experiments, proposals are made to reduce the infection risk due to insufficiently disinfected instruments in endoscopy departments.1976799960
laboratory studies with cefatrizine (sk + f 60771), a new broad-spectrum orally-active cephalosporin.cefatrizine (sk&f 60771), a new orally-active semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, was compared with cephalexin and cefazolin for in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetic behavior in laboratory animals. the average mic values obtained with cefatrizine against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were superior to those obtained with cephalexin and somewhat poorer than those of cefazolin. in addition, a large percentage of th ...1975808525
lytic activity of a new cephalosporin, cefuroxime, against gram-negative bacteria.cefuroxime, a new cephalosporin antibiotic, was inhibitory at low concentrations to several types of gram-negative bacteria. it was considerably more stable than cephaloridine or cephalothin to the beta-lactamases produced by escherichia coli (rp1), klebsiella aerogenes k1 and enterobacter cloacae p99. concentrations of cefuroxime much greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) were usually necessary to induce lysis of beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producers. in contrast, ce ...1978359269
differentiation of serratia marcescens and serratia liquefaciens by tests for lipase and phospholipase production.the production of lipase and phospolipase by certain members of the enterobacteriaceae was examined by thin-layer chromatography of resting-cell suspensions incubated with triolein or lecithin. most strains of serratia marcescens produced both enzymes while most strains of serratia liquefaciens exhibited strong lipase but only a minor phospholipase activity. enterobacter spp. (25 strains), klebsiella pneumoniae (20 strains), escherichia coli (15 strains), citrobacter freundii (7 strains) and pro ...1978355631
enterotoxin-producing bacteria stools from swedish united nations soldiers in cyprus.a study was designed to establish the role of heat-labile enterotoxin producing escherichia coli and other intestinal pathogens in diarrhoeal disease in swedish soldiers of the united nations' force in cyprus. before leaving sweden for cyprus, no enteropathogens were isolated from the soldiers. the study was performed from october 1975 through january 1976 and in august 1976. enterotoxigenic strains of e. coli, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae and klebsiella pneumoniae were the intesti ...1978355145
reversal of jejunal water secretion by glucose in rats exposed to coliform enterotoxins.glucose absorption and glucose-facilitated water transport were assessed in rats exposed to semipurified preparations of the heat-labile (lt) and heat-stable (st) enterotoxins of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and enterobacter cloacae by in vivo jejunal perfusion of these toxins alone and with varying amounts of glucose. progressive increases in the glucose concentration of from 12 to 56 mm resulted in incremental rises in water absorption from perfusates containing each of these toxin ...1978352789
intracellular crystalline deposits by bacteria grown in urine from a stone former.several species of bacteria were found to form an intracellular crystalline material when grown in urine obtained from a subject with a history of infrequent renal calculi formation. the following species: proteus mirabilis, proteus rettgeri, providencia stuartii, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter cloacae, escherichia coli, and candida albicans formed crystals of hydroxyapatite. klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and proteus vulgaris produced crystals of calcite -ii. several of th ...1977844994
immunological interrelationships between cholera toxin and the heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins of coliform bacteria.cholera toxin (ct) and the heat-labile (lt) toxin of escherichia coli are known to share antigenic properties. the present study examined the immunological relationship of ct and the lt and heat-stable (st) toxins of e. coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and enterobacter cloacae. the neutralizing capacity of equine ct antiserum and of antiserum raised in rabbits to the lt toxin of the three species of coliform bacteria was evaluated by determining their capacity to inhibit the action of purified ct an ...1977332637
in vitro antibacterial activity of cefoperazone (t-1551), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin.cefoperazone, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. it is as active as cefazolin and cefamandole against gram-positive bacteria and is more active than cefazolin and cefamandole against such gram-negative bacilli as escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae, and serratia marcescens. the superiority of cefoperazone over cefazolin and cefamandole with respect to activity ...1979316988
resistant enterobacter cloacae in a burn center: the ineffectiveness of silver sulfadiazine.enterobacter cloacae sepsis was found in 15 burn center patients in 1976, of whom 13 died. nine of the deaths occurred in the first 60 days. the burn center isolates were resistant to silver sulfadiazine (agsd) in agar cup-plate tests and confirmed by tube dilution tests. hospital, non-burn isolates of e. cloacae were sensitive to agsd. all e. cloacae isolates were sensitive to mafenide acetate (ma) in the agar cup-plate tests, but this was not confirmed by the tube dilution tests. the agar cup- ...1978660684
r factors from enterobacter group.twenty-six r factors transmissible to e. coli k12 were derived from 79 strains of enterobacter species isolated in various clinical specimens (urine, sputum, blood, pus); 71 of 79 strains were enterobacter cloacae. fifteen r factors were fi+: 14 belonged to group fii, 1 to group fi. eleven r factors were fi-: 5 belonged to group m, of the others 6 (all controlling the cloramphenicol-resistance) 1 was recognized of group k, 1 was incompatible with standard plasmids of both groups s and w, and 4 b ...1978656192
clinical study of the use of the new aminoglycoside tobramycin for therapy of infections due to gram-negative bacteria.tobramycin, a new aminoglycoside antimicrobial, was evaluated as therapy for infections due to gram-negative bacilli in 15 seriously ill patients with underlying diseases. three of 10 patients with gram-negative bacteraemia also had a urinary tract infection. two patients had a respiratory tract infection, one had cellulitis, one had a urinary tract infection, and another had septic phlebitis. twelve patients were cured of their infections. eosinophilia was observed in one patient, and another d ...1977600202
interaction of acetoin precursors with pyruvate metabolism of torulopsis colliculosa & enterobacter cloacae. 1978570546
neonatal meningitis due to enterobacter cloacae.enterobacter species, in recent years, have been divided into e aerogenes, e hafniae, e liquefaciens, and e cloacae. early reviews of neonatal meningitis include some cases due to klebsiella-aerobacter,(1) and recent reviews(2,3) include enterobacter which did not divide them into species of enterobacter. reported here is a case of neonatal meningitis due to a gram-negative organism, enterobacter cloacae.1978702571
standardization of a rapid microbiologic assay for aminoglycosides using enterobacter cloacae.the standardization of a rapid serum aminoglycoside assay using enterobacter cloacae is described. this includes the sensitivity testing of the organism and its performance on various media, with mueller-hinton agar being the medium of choice. the precision and reproducibility of the assay, as measured by the within-run and between-run coefficients of variation, were 5.0 and 5.9, respectively. a significant positive correlation was obtained between the microbiologic assay for gentamicin and a 12 ...1978717287
the fate of bacteria in frozen red cells.units of blood were intentionally contaiminated with suspensions of either aerobacter aerogenes, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, enterobacter cloacae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, sarcina lutea, seratia marcesens, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus faecalis, paracolabacterum aerogenoides (enterobacter hafriae), mima polymorpha or acinetobacter- calcoaceticus. when inoculation was made prior to glycerolization, the subsequent glycerolization, freezing, thawing, and deglycerolization result ...1976936269
[pharmacokinetics of a new cephalosporin, cefoperazone].cefoperazone is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin for parenteral use with an extended antibacterial spectrum covering pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter cloacae and serratia marcescens. its pharmacokinetic properties were studied in 8 healthy subjects after 2 intravenous infusions of 2 g of the drug at a 12-hour interval. the mean peak serum concentrations were 134 +/- 16 microgram/ml and 143 microgram/ml. cefoperazone was shown to possess a long half-life for a cephalosporin (1.7 hours). in our ...1979538442
silver-resistant enterobacteriaceae from hospital patients.the inclusion of agar medium containing 0.5 mm agno3 in the hospital laboratory replicating system for routine antibiotic-susceptibility determinations resulted in identification of species of enterobacteriaceae (escherichia coli, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and citrobacter freundii) with silver resistance. since the study began in october, 1975, 11 in-hospital patients receiving silver sulfadiazine for burn wound prophylaxis have yielded silver-resistant bact ...1979526888
[study of a new group of enterobacteriacea (group h1) related to enterobacter cloacae strain].a dna-dna hybridization study was carried out on a new group of enterobacteria (group h1) previously studied by numerical taxonomy work on the genus enterobacter. this group showed a very high genetic homogeneity since the average relative binding ratio of nine analysed strains is equal to 91%. the taxonomic position of this group into the family of enterobacteria is discussed with the species e. cloacae (37 to 61%), k. pneumoniae (44 to 60%), k. oxytoca (57-58%), l. malonatica (syn. citrobacter ...1979476548
enterobacter cloacae septicemia in a burn center: epidemiology and control of an outbreak of infections due to enterobacter cloacae occurred in the burn center at the medical college of virginia (richmond, virginia) in 1976. fifteen patients had bacteremia due to e. cloacae; 10 cases of bacteremia occurred during a six-week period in january and february. the development of bacteremia was significantly related to the extent of third-degree burn and to admission to the burn center in january and february but not to the presence of an intravenous cannula, underlying disease ...1979438531
control of salmonellosis pacifarin biosynthesis by iron.enterobacter cloacae strain ss4-56 produced salmonellosis pacifarins when grown in an iron-depleted synthetic medium to which 3.16 x 10-7 g-atom of iron had been added per liter, but did not do so when grown in iron-depleted medium supplemented with 3.16 x 10-4 g-atom of iron per liter. the addition of 3.16 x 10-4 g-atom of ferric iron per liter to a pacifarin-containing culture supernatant fluid had no significant effect upon the ability of the active pacifarins present, when administered per o ...19751090527
stereoselective reduction of cobalt(iii) complexes by bacteria.a strain of enterobacter cloacae, isolated from soil, reduces racemic abdtriglycinatocobalt(iii), triglycinatocobalt(iii), stereoselectively under anaerobic conditions; washed suspensions oc cells, grown anaerobically in the absence of triglycinatocobalt(iii) initially reduce the l-enantiomer stereospecifically under argon yielding a labile co(ii) chelate. an approximately 5-fold increase in the rate of reduction of the complex occurs using cells disrupted by 2-phenylethanol; decomposition now p ...19751092371
mode of action of the cloacin df13-immunity protein.1. cells of enterobacter cloacae harbouring the bacteriocinogenic factor clo df13 produce an immunity protein which inbhbits the in vitro activity of cloacin df13. the amino acid composition of purified immunity protein was determined. 2. experiments about the protection of ribosomes against cloacin df13 in the presence of the immunity protein show that one molecule of immunity protein neutralized the activity of one molecule cloacin. 3. direct and specific interaction of cloacin df13 with the i ...19751092372
[numerical taxonomic studies on enterobacteria of surface-water (author's transl)].435 enterobacterial strains of surface-water were tested in 35 physiological characters and classified numerically by a single-linkage procedure. the relations of similarity are shown in a "vernetzungsdiagramm" (connected graph, fig. 1). tab. 1 specifies the characters of the taxa, which were formed graphically. the following facts are the result of this taxonomic classification: 1. 32% of the escherichia group are kcn-positive. in addition it was found that 60% of the e. coli isolated from the ...1978735569
[relation of acetoin and valine in enterobacteriaceae cultures on media with glucose and glycerin].the ratio between acetoin and valine produced by the cultures of the family enterobacteriaceae changes upon the addition of glucose and glycerol or their mixture to a defined medium. the experiments were carried out with 12 strains of aerobacter aerogenes and 2 strains of aerobacter cloacae and serratia marcescens. the highest yield of acetoin was found on the medium with glucose (12.5--13.0 g/litre); the maximum accumulation of valine was registered on the medium with glucose and glycerol (1.8- ...1975775256
antibodies against enteric bacteria in brown bullhead catfish (ictalurus nebulosus, lesueur) inhabiting contaminated waters.brown bullhead catfish were collected from sewage- and acid mine waste-polluted waters in an attempt to detect antibodies against human enteric bacteria in their sera and to investigate the association of antibody response with environmental conditions. agglutination antigens prepared from isolates obtained from water collected at the same locations as the fish habitats were used to demonstrate such antibodies. the results showed large percentages of reactive sera for common isolates such as esc ...19751099987
instability and linkage of silver resistance, lactose fermentation, and colony structure in enterobacter cloacae from burn wounds.a strain of enterobacter cloacae from a burn wound has displayed unstable resistance to silver nitrate and a linkage of this characteristic to that for rapid lactose fermentation and mucoidcolony structure. attempts to demonstrate transferability of these unstable determinants gave negative results.1976777048
insect immunity. 11. simultaneous induction of antibacterial activity and selection synthesis of some hemolymph proteins in diapausing pupae of hyalophora cecropia and samia cynthia.we have previously shown that pupae of the giant silkmoth samia cynthia have a humoral antibacterial activity, which was induced by viable, nonpathogenic gram-negative bacteria (h.g. boman et al., 1974). we show here that this activity was formed simultaneously with a selective incorporation of amino acids into eight polypeptide chains characterized by their electrophoretic behavior. if actinomycin d or cycloheximide were given at an early time, no antibacterial activity was found. if the inhibi ...1975812827
interference by neisseria gonorrhoeae growth by other bacterial species.growth of neisseria gonorrhoeae from clinical specimens has been enhanced by the use of selective media that inhibit the simultaneous growth of other microorganisms. one explanation for this enhancement could be that certain other bacteria inhibit gonococcal growth. this hypothesis was examined by testing 167 bacterial isolates for in vitro gonococcal inhibition; 34.1% of the isolates failed to inhibit the gonococcus, but 12.0% produced weak inhibition and 53.9% strongly inhibited n. gonorrhoeae ...1976823175
susceptibility of clinically important gram-negative bacilli to 15 antibiotics. comparison of patterns in poland and federal republic of germany.three hundred and sixty strains of gram-negative bacilli (escherichia coli, salmonella enteritidis, enterobacter cloacae, providencia, indole-positive and indole-negative proteus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and serratia marcescens), were isolated by random in poland and germany, and tested by agar dilution method for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents, including six cephalosporin derivatives, colistin, gentamycin and tobramycin, three newer tetracyclines, ampicillin and ...1976824896
enzymatic and immunological characterization of a new cephalosporinase from enterobacter aerogenes.a hospital strain of enterobacter aerogenes (mulb 250) isolated from a urinary tract infection was found to be cephalosporin and ampicillin resistant and carbenicillin susceptible. the beta-lactamase produced by this strain was extracted and purified by means of affinity chromatography, using a cephalosporin c-bound sepharose 4b column. the purified enzyme was tested for hydrolysis of penicillin and various cephalosporins. the k(m) value is 11.8 mum for benzyl penicillin and 130 mum for cephalos ...1977900918
bacteremia associated with enterobacter sakazakii (yellow, pigmented enterobacter cloacae).a case report of bacteremia due to enterobacter sakazakii, listed previously as yellow-pigmented enterobacter cloacae (r. sakazaki, in r. e. buchanan and n. e. gibbons, ed., bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th ed., p. 325, 1974), occurred in a 7-day-old, caucasian male who responded successfully to ampicillin therapy. the source of the infection was not known; however, because of the time lapse between birth and the onset of symptoms, the infection was thought to have occurred pos ...1979521484
[rahnella aquatilis, a new member of the enterobacteriaceae (author's transl)].a dna-dna hybridization study was carried out to determine the taxonomic position of a new group of enterobacteria (group h2) previously studied by numerical taxonomy. all the strains of this group revealed relatively high reassociation binding ratios with the centrotype; 82% of the strains of the group showed more than 69% of reassociation with the centrotype. in spite of numerical taxonomy conclusions, there was no genetic relationship with the species enterobacter cloacae (higher reassociatio ...1979484990
amikacin in the treatment of gram-negative bronchopulmonary infections.six patients with acute gram-negative bronchopulmonary infection were treated with amikacin (15 mg/kg per day) administered intramuscularly in two equal doses at 12-hr intervals for 10-13 days. two patients had underlying nonspecific pulmonary disease, two had advanced bronchocarcinoma, and two had extensive bronchiectasis (due to chronic aspergillosis in one patient). the pathogens were pseudomonas aeruginosa in three patients, and haemophilus influenzae, klebsiella ozaenae, and enterobacter cl ...19761086876
dna relatedness among species of enterobacter and serratia.species of enterobacter and serratia were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness to klebsielleae, to atypical erwiniae, and to other members of enterobacteriaceae. deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization and then hydroxyapatite chromatography was the technique used to assess relatedness. strains of enterobacter cloacae formed two separate hybridization groups that correlate with the presence or absence of yellow pigment. pigmented e. cloacae were 75-100% related, but they were only 40-50% re ...19761260520
r factor in enterobacter cloacae resistant to silver sulfadiazine.a strain of enterobacter cloacae resistant to silver sulfadiazine was recovered from a unit in which this antimicrobial agent was in use. this strain was found to harbor an r factor responsible for resistance to carbenicillin, kanamycin and ampicillin. these antibiotic resistances were transferable to escherichia coli by mating. resistance to silver sulfadiazine was not, however, transmissible.19751097208
laboratory-scale production of acetoin plus diacetyl by enterobacter cloacae atcc 27613.conditions for the laboratory-scale production of acetoin plus diacetyl by enterobacter cloacae atcc 27613 were studied. thirty-five g acetoin plus diacetyl/50 g sucrose were obtained when fermentation was carried out in 2.5 liter medium containing 12.5 g peptone and 12.5 g yeast extract, at ph 7.0, in a 5 liter conical flask on a shaker (240 rpm) at 28-30 degrees c for 48 hr. recovery of pure diacetyl was 85% of the total acetoin plus diacetyl.1978728550
membrane filter procedure for enumerating the component genera of the coliform group in seawater.a facile, quantitative, membrane filter procedure (mc) for defining the distribution of coliform populations in seawater according to the component genera was developed. the procedure, which utilizes a series of in situ substrate tests to obviate the picking of colonies for identification, also provides an estimate of the total coliform density. when pure cultures of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and enterobacter cloacae were suspended in seawater and held at 4 c for 24 h, between 56 ...19751098575
failure of disposable domes to prevent septicemia acquired from contaminated pressure transducers.between january and june 1976, eight cases of primary bacteremia due to enterobacter cloacae occurred in patients after open-heart surgery in a hospital in connecticut. epidemiologic studies implicated radial arterial catheters as the route of acquistion of e cloacae, and bacteriologic studies confirmed arterial pressure transducers as the sources of bacteria. prospective studies indicated that the disposable domes from the pressure transducers did not prevent the spread of bacteria from contami ...1978738087
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (antibiograms) as an aid in differentiating citrobacter species.the hydrogen sulfide-negative citrobacter group represents a taxonomic problem. various investigators have proposed such designations as padlewskia, levinea, atypical enterobacter cloacae, h2s-negative variants of citrobacter, citrobacter koseri and citrobacter diversus. this problem has been investigated with emphasis on antibiograms as a means of discrimination. clinical isolates fitting the designation citrobacter were studied and, using the criteria of ewing and davis, separated into two gro ...1977836626
clavulanic acid: a beta-lactamase-inhiting beta-lactam from streptomyces clavuligerus.a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor has been isolated from streptomyces clavuligerus atcc 27064 and given the name clavulanic acid. conditions for the cultivation of the organism and detection and isolation of clavulanic acid are described. this compound resembles the nucleus of a penicillin but differs in having no acylamino side chain, having oxygen instead of sulfur, and containing a beta-hydroxyethylidine substituent in the oxazolidine ring. clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of many beta-la ...1977879738
multiple joint infections with enterobacter infant with multiple joint infections from enterobacter cloacae seems not to have been reported previously. the infant survived, incurred a pathologic dislocation of the left hip, but at 18 months of age was well with all other joints functioning normally.1977880754
[role of several conditionally-pathogenic enterobacteria in group acute intestinal diseases and food poisonings of unestablished etiology].results of studying group acute intestinal diseases of obscure (from the point of view of isolation of commonly known pathogenic bacteria of enteric family) etiology coursing by the type of food poisoning, in which conditioned pathogenic enterobacteria (enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella) demonstrated that the occurrence of these diseases was connected with ingestion of the same food product infected with the mentioned bacteria due to disturbance of the sanitary-epidemic regimen and rules of food ...1977919924
plasmid profiles of acinetobacter and enterobacter species of hospital origin: restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmid dna and transformation of escherichia coli by r plasmids.a total of 37 multi-resistant strains (20 acinetobacter calcoaceticus and 17 enterobacter cloacae) were isolated from patients of the intensive care units. all the isolates were examined for resistance to a battery of antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. plasmid profiles and restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmid dna by ecor1 revealed the spread of one a. calcoaceticus and two e. cloacae endemic strains. transformation experiments on escherichia coli competent cells by three ...19921321240
in vitro activities of five oral cephalosporins against aerobic pathogenic bacteria.cefaclor (lilly 99638) and cefatrizine (bl-s640, sk&f 70771) are orally absorbed, broad-spectrum semisynthetic cephalosporins. they were compared in vitro with cephalexin, cephaloglycin, and cepharadine against a variety of aerobic pathogenic bacteria by an agar dilution procedure. cefaclor and cefatrizine were found to be similar or superior to cephalexin, cephaloglycin, and cephradine in terms of activity against gram-positive cocci other than enterococci. only cefatrizine demonstrated any pot ...1977921258
enterobacteria of emerging pathogenic significance from clinical cases in man and animals and detection of toads and wall lizards as their reservoirs.a total of 416 samples comprising faecal samples from diarrhoeic cases of man, calves, sheep and goats, and urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections, were examined for the presence of enterobacteria of emerging pathogenic significance. citrobacter freundii from 20, c. intermedius biotype-a from four, serratia marcescens (serotype 05:h13, bactericin type 16) from one and erwinia herbicola from two human stool samples were isolated. only two urine samples yielded c. freundii. citr ...1978582096
epidemiological survey of genes encoding aminoglycoside phosphotransferases aph (3') i and aph (3') ii using dna probes.the epidemiological survey of aph (3') i and aph (3') ii genes, at a time when the specific antibiotic pressure was very low, was carried out by dna-dna hybridization. the sample included 334 aminoglycoside resistant gram-negative bacteria collected from patients of a general hospital. of these, 251 hybridized with the aph (3') i-probe and 19 with the aph (3') ii-probe but only 190 strains showed high resistance levels (cim greater than 64 micrograms/ml) for kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin. ...19921328557
host-dependent, thermosensitive replication of an r plasmid, pjy5, isolated from enterobacter cloacae.the thermosensitive replication of an r plasmid, pjy5, isolated from enterobacter cloacae, was studied. pjy5 consisted of 61 million daltons of covalently closed circular (ccc) deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) with a buoyant density of 1.714 g/cm3 (55 mol % guanine plus cytosine). in escherichia coli, this plasmid replicated stringently at 32 degrees c, but ceased its ccc dna replication after a short incubation at 42 degrees c, resulting in production of r- segregants. the thermosensitive replicatio ...1977924975
production, purification, and characterization of excitability-inducing molecule.excitability-inducing molecule (eim) is a high molecular weight polymeric protein. it is a channel-forming ionophore which can induce action potential in lipid bilayers and lyse red blood cells. it is also a potent mitogen for mouse b lymphocytes. eim is produced and secreted into a chemically defined medium during the early growth period by enterobacter cloacae atcc 961. it is now 6000-fold purified as compared to the original egg white eim. production of the active material requires calcium io ...1977925029
effects of azadirachtin on rhodnius prolixus: immunity and trypanosoma interaction.the effects of azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree azadirachta indica j., on both immunity and trypanosoma cruzi interaction within rhodnius prolixus and other triatomines, were presented. given through a blood meal, azadirachtin affected the immune reactivity as shown by a significant reduction in numbers of hemocytes and consequently nodule formation following challenge with enterobacter cloacae beta 12, reduction in ability to produce antibacterial activities in the hemoly ...19921342719
substrate inhibition of beta-lactamases, a method for predicting enzymatic stability of cephalosporins.selected cephalosporins, including cefamandole, cephaloridine, cephaloglycin, and cefoxitin, were examined for their ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of and act as substrates for beta-lactamases produced by enterobacter cloacae and staphylococcus aureus. enzyme inhibition was determined by michaelis-menten kinetic measurements and by a spot plate assay using a chromogenic substrate (glaxo compound 87/312). these two methods provide comparable estimates of kinetic parameters. inhibition ...1976984790
[taxonomic importance of fermentation balances of enterobacteriaceae (author's transl)].fermentation balances have been studied on 66 strains from 9 taxa of enterobacteriaceae. in addition, 6 strains of aeromonas have been investigated. among these fermentation balances, 7 types could be distinguished. it was shown, that the taxa of enterobacteriaceae differed with respect to the balance types involved. this is true especially for vp-positive taxa. for example, hafnia, the klebsiella-enterobacter-serratia group, enterobacter cloacae and erwinia are to some extend characterized by d ...1976998036
epidemiological role of arthropods detectable in health facilities.a total of 161 arthropod specimens were collected from 55 sites in a health care facility during july and september 1990. of the 116 bacterial isolates obtained from their body surfaces 6% were from parasites (mosquitoes), 59% from eusynanthropic arthropods (tenebrionid beetles, flies, german cockroaches, wasps), 16% from hemisynanthropic arthropods (ants, spiders) and 19% from occasionally encountered insects (non-biting midges, moths, beetles). most (88%) of the isolated bacteria were gram-neg ...19921350604
complement consumption in fresh blood sera by double culture of paramecium caudatum and aerobacter cloacae compared with survival and stage of disease in some malignant tumors in man.using the complement consumption test by double culture of paramecium caudatum and aerobacter cloacae (dpa) as antigen we examined blood sera and compared survival rates and stage of disease in 124 patients with carcinoma of cervix uteri, corpus uteri, ovaries and breast. the evidence suggests that bacteria aerobacter cloacae constitute the proper antigenically effective substances of dpa. the intensity of reaction and therapy the relative titres of antibodies detected by the test were expressed ...19761084486
infectious arthritis resulting from enterobacter cloacae and enterobacter hafniae. 1977891089
[enterobacter cloacae bacteremia in dialysis patients]. 19751162135
comparative in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (at 4140, rp 64206--spfx) against 275 multiresistant clinical isolates.the in-vitro activity of sparfloxacin was compared with that of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime, gentamicin and amikacin against 275 multiresistant nosocomial clinical isolates. they consisted of pseudomonas aeruginosa (37), enterobacter cloacae (42), acinetobacter anitratus (60), klebsiella pneumoniae (37) and staphylococcus sp (99). minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic90) and geometric mean mics for sparfloxacin were as follows (mg/l): p. aeruginosa 128-23.7, e. c ...19921328554
nationwide epidemic of septicemia caused by contaminated intravenous products: mechanisms of intrinsic contamination.between 1 july 1970 and april 1971, in many hospitals in this country, there were outbreaks of nosocomial septicemia caused by enterobacter cloacae of e. agglomerans (formerly erwinia, herbicola-lathyri). all of these hospitals used infusion products manufactured by one company, abbott laboratories, and all affected patients had onset of septicemia while receiving the company's infusion products. septicemia was epidemiologically and microbiologically traced to intrinsic contamination of the comp ...19751206107
a method for removal of toxic chromium using dialysis-sac cultures of a chromate-reducing strain of enterobacter cloacae.a method for removal of toxic hexavalent chromium (chromate: cro2-4) was developed by use of dialysis-sac cultures of a chromate-reducing strain of enterobacter cloacae (ho1). e. cloacae strain ho1 cells were put in dialysis (semipermeable membrane) sacs, and the sacs were submerged in water containing toxic cro2-4. the dialysis sacs allowed cro2-4 to diffuse into the culture, and cro2-4 was reduced anaerobically in the dialysis sacs by the e. cloacae cells. because reduced chromium readily form ...19901366562
relative morphological effects induced by cefoxitin and other beta-lactam antibiotics in vitro.cefoxitin, a new semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic, induced filament formation at subinhibitory concentrations with a beta-lactamaseless strain of enterobacter cloacae (hsc 18410 m66). the extent of filament induction by cefoxitin was similar to that seen with cephalothin, cefazolin, and benzylpenicillin. filament induction by cefoxitin was markedly less than that seen with cephalexin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, cephradine, and cephapirin. antibiotics which failed to induce filaments at any l ...19761267431
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