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inactivation of citrate lyase from rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa by a specific deacetylase and inhibition of this inactivation by l-(+1-glutamate.a previously unrecognized enzyme, citrate lyase deacetylase, has been purified about 140-fold from cell extracts of rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa. it catalyzed the conversion of enzymatically active acetyl-s-citrate lyase into the inactive hs-form and acetate. the enzyme exhibited an optimal rate of inactivation at ph 8.1. because of the instability of acetyl-s-citrate lyase at acidic and alkaline ph values, all assays were carried out at ph 7.2, where the spontaneous hydrolysis of the acetyl-s-ci ...1975356
expression of the hut operons of salmonella typhimurium in klebsiella aerogenes and in escherichia coli.the normal hut (histidine utilization) operons, as well as those with mutations affecting the regulation of their expression, of salmonella typhimurium were introduced on an f' episome into cells of s. typhimurium and klebsiella aerogenes whose chromosomal hut genes had been deleted and into cells of escherichia coli, whose chromosome does not carry hut genes. the episomal hut operons respond in a manner very similar to induction and catabolite repression in all three organisms. the small differ ...1975362
regulation of the hut operons of salmonella typhimurium and klebsiella aerogenes by the heterologous hut repressors.in merodiploid strains of klebsiella aerogenes with chromosomal hut genes of k. aerogenes and episomal hut genes of salmonella typhimurium, the repressor of either species can regulate the hut operons of the other species. the repression exerted by the homologous repressor on the left-hand hut operon is, in both organisms, stronger than that exerted by the heterologous repressor.1975363
aerobacter aerogenes prl-r3 urease. purification and properties.a method for the preparation of a 150-fold purified and homogenous a. aerogenes urease is reported. the enzyme exhibited two ph optima at ph 7.0 and 7.5 in triethanolamine and phosphate buffer, respectively. the affinity of the enzyme toward its substrate increased with the increase of ph. no effect of the ph was observed on the measured temperature coefficient (q10). there was no discontinuity in the arrhenius plots at ph 5.4 and 7.5 but an upward discontinuity at ph 6.15 and 8.7 with transitio ...1975879
purification and some properties of a novel maltohexaose-producing exo-amylase from aerobacter aerogenes.maltohexaose producing amylase (ec 3.2.1.-) is the fourth known exo-amylase, the three previously known being glucoamylase, beta-amylase and pseudomonas stutzeri maltotetraose producing amylase. the enzyme after release from aerobacter aerogenes cells by 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate extraction was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, deae-sephadex column chromatography and sephadex g-100 gel filtration to 80-fold of the original sodium lauryl sulfate extract activity, it gave a single band ...19751094
regulation of synthesis of glutamine synthetase by adenylylated glutamine synthetase.we have examined three mutants of klebsiella aerogenes whose genetic lesions (glnb, glnd, and glne) are in loci unlinked to the structural gene for glutamine sythetase (glna) and in which the control of both the level and state of adenylylation of glutamine synthetase is altered. each mutation alters a different component of the adenylylation system of glutamine synthetase l-glutamate:ammonia ligase (adp-forming), ec 6.3.1.2. inability of the cell to deadenylylate glutamine synthetase (glnb and ...19751744
transduction of chromosomal genes between enteric bacteria by bacteriophage p1.we have used p1 transduction to create intergeneric hybrid strains of enteric bacteria by moving the gena and hut genes between klebsiella aerogenes, escherichia coli and salmonella typhimurium. the use of e. coli as the recipient in such transductions permits the construction of episomes and specialized transducing phage containing non-e. coli material. the effect of host restriction modification and deoxyribonucleic acid homology on the frequency of intergeneric transduction of these loci has ...19763494
l-asparaginase of klebsiella aerogenes. activation of its synthesis by glutamine synthetase.an l-asparaginase has been purified some 250-fold from extracts of klebsiella aerogenes to near homogeneity. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 141,000 as measured by gel filtration and appears to consist of four subunits of molecular weight 37,000. the enzyme has high affinity for l-asparagine, with a km below 10(-5) m, and hydrolyzes glutamine at a 20-fold lower rate, with a km of 10(-3) m. interestingly, the enzyme exhibits marked gamma-glutamyltransferase activity but comparatively little ...19764459
the existence of three types of acetohydroxy acid synthetase in an isoleucine-requiring mutant of aerobacter aerogenes.the synthesis of the three types of acetolactate synthase (ec 4.1.3.18) which are responsible for the biosynthesis os isoleucine and valine, was observed in aerobacter aerogenes i-12, an isoleucine-requiring mutant, when grown on the four kinds of media. when the cells were grown on isoleucine-rich medium, acetolactate synthase sensitive to feedback inhibition and having an optimum ph at 8.0 was formed. by increasing the amount of potassium phosphate in the medium, the catabolite repression of t ...19765136
regulation of histidase synthesis in intergeneric hybrids of enteric bacteria.regulation of the expression of the histidase coded by hutk of klebsiella aerogenes in salmonella typhimurium and in escherichia coli and of the expression of the histidase coded by huts of s. typhimurium in e. coli was investigated. the hutk histidase was found to be sensitive to catabolite repression in k. aerogenes and in e. coli, but insensitive to catabolite repression in s. typhimurium; huts histidase has previously been shown to be catabolite sensitive in all three organisms. the expressi ...19766426
glutamate dehydrogenase: genetic mapping and isolation of regulatory mutants of klebsiella aerogenes.the gene for glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhd) has been mapped in klebsiella aerogenes by p1 transduction. it is linked to pyrf and trp with the order pyrf-trp-gdh. complementation analysis using f' episomes from escherichia coli suggests an analogous location in e. coli. two mutants able to produce glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of high levels of glutamine synthetase have been isolated. one, tightly linked to gdhd, shows normal repression control by glutamine synthetase but produces four ...19766429
regulation of enzyme formation in klebsiella aerogenes by episomal glutamine synthetase of escherichia coli.we studied the physiology of cells of klebsiella aerogenes containing the structural gene for glutamine synthetase (glna) of escherichia coli on an episome. the e. coli glutamine synthetase functioned in cells of k. aerogenes in a manner similar to that of the k. aerogenes enzyme: it allowed the level of histidase to increase and that of glutamate dehydrogenase to decrease during nitrogen-limited growth. the phenotype of mutations in the glna site was restored to normal by the introduction of th ...19766431
kinetic properties of serratia marcescens adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase.the regulatory properties of partially purified adenosine 5'-diphosphate-(adp) glucose pyrophosphorylase from two serratia marcescens strains (atcc 274 and atcc 15365) have been studied. slight or negligible activation by fructose-p2, pyridoxal-phosphate, or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) was observed. these compounds were previously shown to be potent activators of the adpglucose pyrophosphorylases from the enterics, salmonella typhimurium, enterobacter aerogenes, e ...19766432
the effect of nitrogen limitation on catabolite repression of amidase, histidase and urocanase in pseudomonas aeruginosa.in pseudomonas aeruginosa, the synthesis of histidase, urocanase and amidase is severly repressed when succinate is added to a culture growing in pyruvate + ammonium salts medium. when growth is nitrogen-limited, catabolite repression by succinate of histidase and urocanase synthesis does not occur but succinate repression of amidase synthesis persists. amidase synthesis is not regulated in the same way as histidase synthesis by the availability of other nitrogen compounds for growth. growth of ...19766623
spore germination promoter of dictyostelium discoideum excreted by aerobacter aerogenes.the nutrient medium in which aerobacter aerogenes was grown, contains a spore germination promoter (sgp) for the cellular slime mould dictyostelium discoideum. sgp can cuase synchronous spore germination in a short time, and triggers the germination process in just a few minutes. germination-promoting capacity of sgp decreases as it comes in contact with increasing number of spores. when spores activated by sgp are stored at 4 degrees c, they gradually return to the dormant state. sgp is compara ...19769416
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
effect of environmental factors on inactivation of b12-dependent glycerol dehydratase from aerobacter aerogenes.effect of temperature, ph and univalent cation on kinetics of self-activation of b12-dependent glycerol dehydratase (gd) from aerobacter aerogenes with co alpha-alpha-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl-co beta-adenosylcobamide (adocbl) was investigated. the activation energy of the process of gd inactivation is found to be 3.9 kkal/m, the effect of ph on gd inactivation being insignificant. monovalent cation is not required for the formation of gd-adocbl complex, but it protects the complex from selfin ...197611842
transport of cyclitols by a proton symport in klebsiella aerogenes.the respiration and the atp content of klebsiella aerogenes in the presence of various inhibitors were compared to the transport of scyllo-inositol. the atpase was found to be inhibited by dicyclohexyl carbodiimide. the transport has been tested in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis. from the results obtained it is concluded that either atp or respiration can sustain the transport activity in independent manner. 2. the energy derived from the respiratory chain reactions or the atp hydrolysis results in ...197712979
energetic aspects of anaerobic growth of aerobacter aerogenes in complex medium.molar growth yields for anaerobic growth of aerobacter aerogenes in complex medium were much higher than for growth in minimal medium. in batch cultures the molar growth yield for glucose varied from 44 to 50 and yatp from 17.1 to 18.8. for glucose-limited chemostat cultures a value of 17.5 g/mole was found for y max atp and a value of 2.3 mmoles atp/g dry weight h for the maintenance coeficient. growth-dependent ph changes were used to control the addition of fresh medium, containing excess of ...197613757
biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from klebsiella aerogenes.the glutamine synthetase (gs) from klebsiella aerogenes is similar to that from escherichia coli in several respects: (i) it is repressed by high levels of ammonia in the growth medium; (ii) its biosynthetic activity is greatly reduced by adenylylation; and (iii) adenylylation lowers the ph optimum and alters the response of the enzymes to various inhibitors in the gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammagt) assay. there are, however, several important differences: (i) the isoactivity point for the ade ...197714104
regulation of glna messinger ribonucleic acid synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes.we examined wild-type and mutant strains of klebsiella aerogenes for the relative amounts of ribonucleic acid (rna) hybridizing specifically to deoxyribonucleic acid from a transducing phage carrying glnak, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. our data showed a positive correlation between the intracellular level of glutamine synthetase and the level of glna messenger rna; we were unable to detect glna messinger rna in strains devoid of glutamine synthetase protein. therefore, it is pos ...197714114
glutamine synthetase of klebsiella aerogenes: genetic and physiological properties of mutants in the adenylylation system.mutations resulting in defects in the adenylylation system of glutamine synthetase (gs) affect the expression of glna, the structural gene for gs. mutants with lesions in glnb are glutamine auxotrophs and contain repressed levels of highly adenylylated gs. glutamine-independent revertants of the glnb3 mutant have acquired an additional mutation at the glne site. the glne54 mutant is incapable of adenylylating gs and produces high levels of enzyme, even when ammonia is present in the growth mediu ...197714117
evidence for regulation of aerobacter aerogenes ph 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme by acetate ion. 197714639
lack of a regulatory function for glutamine synthetase protein in the synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase and nitrite reductase in escherichia coli k12.synthesis of glutamine synthetase (gs) in anaerobic batch cultures of escherichia coli was repressed when excess nh4+ was available, but derepressed during growth with a poor nitrogen source. in wild-type bacteria there was only a weak inverse correlation between the activities of gs and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) during growth in various media. no positive correlations were found between the activities of gs and nitrite reductase, or between gs and cytochrome c552: both of these proteins wer ...197716079
regulation of enzyme synthesis by the glutamine synthetase of salmonella typhimurium: a factor in addition to glutamine synthetase is required for activation of enzyme formation.in klebsiella aerogenes but not in salmonella typhimurium glutamine synthetase can function during nitrogen-limited growth to increase the rate of synthesis of histidase from the hut genes of s. typhimurium 15-59 (huts. 15-59). formation of proline oxidase is also not increased in nitrogen-limited cultures of s. typhimurium. however, in hybrid strains of escherichia coli or k. aerogenes, the glutamine synthetase of s. typhimurium activates synthesis of histidase from the huts. 15-59 genes. appar ...197716868
a microcalorimetric study of the growth of klebsiella aerogenes in simple salts/glucose media.heat output-time records or 'thermograms' produced during the aerobic growth of klebsiella aerogenes in simple salts/glucose media with growth limiting glucose concentrations of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 g dm-3 were obtained using a flow-microcalorimeter fitted with an aerobic cell. these traces are interpreted in terms of the recorded oxygen tension, ph, glucose concentration and bacterial population of the culture. heat output is greatest during the phase of exponential growth, indicating that here the ...197617049
effect of metabolites on epsilon-n-hydroxylysine formation in cell-free extracts of aerobacter aerogenes 62-1.the conversion of l-lysine to its corresponding epsilon-n-hydroxy derivative has been achieved for the first time by cell-free extracts of aerobacter aerogenes 62-1. partial fractionation by differential centrifugation (at 12 000 x g) revealed that both supernatant and pellet are essential for maximum enzymatic activity. the omega-n-hydroxylase (ec 1.14.99) was found to function optimally at ph 7-7.5 and exhibited an apparent km of about 75 mum for l-lysine. l(+)-lactate or dl-lactate and pyruva ...197718266
urease of klebsiella aerogenes: control of its synthesis by glutamine synthetase.urease was purified 24-fold from extracts of klebsiella aerogenes. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 230,000 as determined by gel filtration, is highly substrate specific, and has a km for urea of 0.7 mm. a mutant strain lacking urease was isolated; it failed to grow with urea as the sole source of nitrogen but did grow on media containing other nitrogen sources such as ammonia, histidine, or arginine. urease was present at a high level when the cells were starved for nitrogen; its synthesis ...197718438
regulatory mutations in the klebsiella aerogenes structural gene for glutamine synthetase.glutamine synthetase could be repressed several hundredfold rather than 6- to 10-fold as previously reported. ammonia was not the primary repression signal for glutamine synthetase. repression appeared to be mediated by a high level of glutamine and probably by a high ratio of glutamine to alpha-ketoglutarate. mutations in glna (the structural gene for glutamine synthetase) were seen to fall into three phenotypic groups: glutamine auxotrophs that produced no detectable glna product; glutamine au ...197721157
autogenous regulation of the synthesis of glutamine synthetase in klebsiella aerogenes.we isolated an f' episome of escherichia coli carrying the glna+ gene from k. aerogenes and an f' episome of e. coli carrying the glna4 allele from k. aerogenes responsible for the constitutive synthesis of glutamine synthetase. complementation tests with these episomes showed that the glna4 mutation (leading to the constitutive synthesis of active glutamine synthetase) was in the gene identified by mutations glna20, glna51, and glna5 as the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. by using the ...197721158
catabolic n2-acetylornithine 5-aminotransferase of klebsiella aerogenes: control of synthesis by induction, catabolite repression, and activation by glutamine synthetase.klebsiella aerogenes formed two n2-acetylornithine 5-aminotransferases (acoat) which were separable by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography. one acoat was repressed when the cells grew on arginine-containing medium, indicating its function in arginine biosynthesis. the second acoat was induced when arginine or ornithine was present in the medium as the sole source of carbon or nitrogen, suggesting its function in the catabolism of these compounds. the induced enzyme was purified almost to ...197824039
bacterial 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases.enterobacter aerogenes, aeromonas hydrophila, serratia marcescens and staphylococcus aureus possessing l(+)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced mainly meso-butanediol and small amounts of optically active butanediol; acetobacter suboxydans, bacillus polymyxa and erwinia carotovora containing d(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced more optically active butanediol than meso-butanediol. resting and growing cells of these organisms oxidezed only one enantiomer of racemic butanediol. the d(-)-butanedio ...197825056
involvement of the product of the glnf gene in the autogenous regulation of glutamine synthetase formation in klebsiella aerogenes.mutations in a site, glnf, linked by p1-mediated transduction of argg on the chromosome of klebsiella aerogenes, result in a requirement for glutamine. mutants in this gene have in all media a level of glutamine synthetase (gs) corresponding to the level found in the wild-type strain grown in the medium producing the strongest repression of gs. the adenylylation and deadenylylation of gs in glnf mutants is normal. the glutamine requirement of glnf mutants could be suppressed by mutations in the ...197825264
glutamine synthetase of klebsiella aerogenes: properties of glnd mutants lacking uridylyltransferase.the glnd mutation of klebsiella aerogenes is cotransducible by phage p1 with pan (requirement for pantothenate) and leads to a loss of uridylytransferase and uridylyl-removing enzyme, components of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation system. this defect results in an inability to deadenylylate glutamine synthetase rapidly and in a requirement for glutamine for normal growth. suppression of the glnd mutation are located at the glutamine synthetase structural gene glna.197826659
effect of ph on the antimicrobial activity of some triphenylmethane dyes.four common dyes were tested as inhibitors of four types of bacteria over the ph range 5.0-9.0. inhibition of the gram-negative types, salmonella anatum and enterobacter aerogenes, was markedly affected by the ph of the medium. these organisms tolerated concentrations of crystal violet and ethyl violet about 100-fold higher at ph 5.0 than at ph 9.0. above ph 7.0 brilliant green (bg) and malachite green (mg) were precipitated as their respective carbinols and lost their inhibitory properties with ...197827297
glutamine synthetase regulation, adenylylation state, and strain specificity analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.we used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to examine the regulation and adenylylation states of glutamine synthetases (gss) from escherichia coli (gs(e)) and klebsiella aerogenes (gs(k)). in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), we found that gs(k) had a mobility which differed significantly from that of gs(e). in addition, for both gs(k) and gs(e), adenylylated subunits (gs(k)-adenosine 5'-monophosphate [amp] and gs(e)-amp) had lesser mobilities in sds gels than did the corresponding n ...197933958
enzymes of agmatine degradation and the control of their synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes.the degradation of agmatine to succinate by klebsiella aerogenes occurs in five steps. the enzyme catalyzing the first step, agmatinase, is induced by agmatine. the enzymes catalyzing the second and third steps, putrescine aminotransferase and 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, are induced by putrescine and also by their product, 4-aminobutyrate. the enzymes catalyzing the fourth and fifth steps, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, are induced by 4-aminobu ...197935512
rate of demethylation of methylmercuric chloride by enterobacter aerogenes and serratia marcescens. 197936188
distinctive properties of glutamine synthetase from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans.the intracellular levels of glutamine synthetase (gs) in anacystis nidulans grown under different conditions were determined using a whole-cell assay. nitrate-grown cells have 64% more gs than cells grown in ammonium sulfate. nitrogen starvation does not affect gs levels appreciably. incubation of nitrate-grown cells with ammonium sulfate does not change the ratio of gamma-glutamyl transferase activities stimulated by mg2+ and mn2+ ions. an in vitro test of adenylylation indicates that algae do ...197938892
immunological study of anthranilate synthetase.an immunological study of anthranilate synthetase (asase) has been initiated using quantitative precipitation, enzyme neutralization, and immunodiffusion methods. cross-reactivity of anthranilate synthetase-anthranilate-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (asase-prtase) from escherichia coli, klebsiella aerogenes, and salmonella typhimurium and asase from serratia marcescens and pseudomonas putida was detected with antibodies to ?e. coli trypsin-treated asase. cross-reactivit ...197550316
diminished effect of gentamicin under anaerobic or hypercapnic conditions.the in-vitro activity of gentamicin, judged by m.i.c. determinations, was much reduced when a normal aerobic atmosphere was replaced either by air +4% co2 or by anaerobic conditions. the phenomenon was greatest for staphylococcus aureus, where a decrease in activity of up to 20-fold was found. for escherichia coli, klebsiella aerogenes, enterobacter spp., and proteus spp. the factor of decrease was between 15-fold and 2-5-fold. changes in medium ph, as a result of bacterial growth, can explain t ...197655718
gentamicin-resistant klebsiella aerogenes in a urological ward.a gentamicin-resistant strain of klebsiella aerogenes was isolated from the urine of 17 patients out of 237 admitted to a male urological ward between jan. 21 and may 9, 1977. the factors most frequently associated with k. aerogenes in the urine were catheterisation and antibiotic therapy. often the epidemic strain (type k16) was found not only in the patients' faeces but also on more remote skin sites such as hands, knees, groins, and the umbilicus. resistance to gentamicin and many other antib ...197770654
immunological study of the regulation of cellular arylsulfatase synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes.regulation of cellular arylsulfatase synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes was analyzed by immunological techniques. antibody directed against the purified arylsulfatase from k. aerogenes w70 was obtained from rabbits and characterized by immunoelectrophoresis, double-diffusion, quantitative precipitation, and enzyme neutralization tests. arylsulfatase was located in the periplasmic space when the wild-type strain was cultured with methionine or with inorganic sulfate plus tyramine, but not with ino ...197772063
trimethoprim-resistant klebsiella aerogenes. 197878356
control of hospital epidemic of gentamicin-resistant klebsiella aerogenes. 197989322
beta-lactam antibiotics. ii. structure-activity relationships of 6-[alpha-(alpha'-ureido-acylamino) acylamino] penicillanic acids.the influence on the structure-activity relationships (s.a.r.) of the stereochemistry and various alkyl, aryl, aralkyl and heterocyclic substituents at the two chiral centres in the dipeptide side-chain of a new series of penicillins was examined. in many cases the effects of these changes had a pronounced influence on the degree of activity against gram-positive and especially gram-negative bacteria. several compounds indicated that the size, shape and spatial disposition of a substituent were ...1978101499
homology of the gene coding for outer membrane lipoprotein within various gram-negative bacteria.the mrna for a major outer membrane lipoprotein from escherichia coli was found to hybridize specifically with one of the ecori and one of the hindiii restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of total dna from nine bacteria in the family enterobacteriaceae: e. coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhimurium, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella aerogenes, enterobacter aerogenes, edwardsiella tarda, serratia marcescens, and erwinia amylovora. however, among the enterobacteriaceae, dna from two ...1979104972
purification and characterization of the respiratory nitrate reductase of bacillus licheniformis.1. respiratory nitrate reductase of bacillus licheniformis was extracted from the bacterial membranes by treatment with deoxycholate and purified to a homogeneous state by means of gel chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. 2. the enzyme (mr = 193,000, s20, w = 8.6) consists of two subunits, having apparent molecular weight of 150,000 (alpha subunit) and 57,000 (beta subunit), which are present in an equimolar ratio. it does not contain carbohydrate. ageing of the enzyme appears to re ...1979106896
comparative antibacterial activity of azlocillin, mezlocillin, carbenicillin and ticarcillin and relative stability to beta-lactamases of pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella aerogenes.the antibacterial activities of two ureidopenicillins, azlocillin and mezlocillin, were compared with those of the alpha-carboxypenicillins, carbenicillin and ticarcillin, against a large number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. all four penicillins were active against a wide range of bacteria including pseudomonas aeruginosa, but there were differences in the antibacterial spectra and in the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the two classes of penicillins. in particular, the mini ...1979108220
aminopeptidase i activities in several microorganisms.aminopeptidase i activity which was found to be localized in the same subcellular fraction and to be similarly heat stable was partially purified by a common procedure from escherichia coli b, escherichia coli k12, enterobacter aerogenes, salmonella typhimurium, serratia marcescens pseudomonas aeruginosa, and proteus vulgaris. the enzyme preparations were shown to contain a single animopeptidase active toward both leucylleucine and methionylalanylserine by mixed-substrate initial-velocity kineti ...1978110425
competition of beta-lactam antibiotics for the penicillin-binding proteins of pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella aerogenes, proteus rettgeri, and escherichia coli: comparison with antibacterial activity and effects upon bacterial morphology.the competition of a number of beta-lactam morphogenic probes for the penicillin-binding proteins (pbps) of pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella aerogenes, proteus rettgeri, and escherichia coli has been studied. the results indicate that the various gram-negative bacteria have similar, but not identical, pbp patterns and that the individual proteins probably perform similar morphogenic functions as in e. coli k-12. comparison of the 50% binding concentrations of the compound ...1979116592
cadmium and zinc sensitivity and tolerance in bacillus subtilis subsp. niger and in a pseudomonas sp.the action of cd2+ and zn2+ on bacillus subtilis subsp. niger atcc 9372, and on a pseudomonas sp. (possibly pseudomonas fluorescens), isolated from cadmium-polluted soil has been determined and compared with results obtained previously with klebsiella aerogenes. in liquid medium the lag and the mean generation time of bacillus subtilis subsp, niger increased with increasing cd2+ or zn2+ concentrations whereas only the total biomass of the pseudomonas sp. was affected. nevertheless, the responses ...1979119131
[increased incidence of some strains of klebsiella aerogenes].study of the incidence of klebsiella aerogenes strains in neonates and infants with acute enterocolitis in the maternity and pediatric departments gave the following results: - bacteriologic investigations were carried out in 1831 subjects, isolating 138 klebsiella aerogenes strains; - the proportion of klebsiella isolations increased from 4.6% in 1973 to 11.1% in 1974; - the maximum receptivity to klebsiella aerogenes was noted in the 0-2 years age group, in a proportion of 23%; - in the 0-6 mo ...1975128803
nutritional requirement for 4-aminobenzoate caused by mutation of dihydropteroate synthetase.aerobacter aerogenes mutant 62-1 ac requires high concentrations of 4-aminobenzoate for growth. the mutant accumulates n-glucosyl-4-aminobenzoate and has an intact 4-aminobenzoate synthetase (bacher, gilch, rappold, and lingens, z. naturforsch. 28 c, 614-617 [1973]). on the other hand the ability of the mutant to synthesize dihydropteroate is markedly reduced. the dihydropteroate synthetase level of mutant 62-1 ac is 1% as compared to the parent strain. spontaneous revertants of mutant 62-1 ac s ...1976134570
purification and properties of a phosphohydrolase from enterobacter aerogenes.a phosphohydrolase from enterobacter aerogenes which hydrolyzes phosphate mono- and diesters has been purified approximately 50-fold to apparent homoeneity and crystallized. the enzyme is produced when the bacteria utilize phosphate diesters as sole phosphorus source. from sedimentation equilibrium experiments the molecular weight of the native enzyme is 173,000; from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the subunit molecular weight is 29,000, indicating that the enzyme is h ...1975168197
the enthalpies of hydrolysis of acyclic, monocyclic, and glycoside cyclic phosphate diesters.the enthalpies of hydrolysis of acyclic, monocyclic, and glycoside cyclic phosphate diesters have been measured by flow microcalorimetry using a phosphohydrolase isolated from enterobacter aerogenes as catalyst. the values so obtained (kilocalories per mol) (at 25 degrees) for sodium salts are: diethyl phosphate, minus 1.8 plus or minus 0.5; ethylene phosphate, minus 6.4 plus or minus 0.2; trimethylene phosphate, minus 3.0 plus or minus 0.2; tetramethylene phosphate, minus 2.2 plus or minus 0.1; ...1975168198
independent constitutive expression of the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of glycerol catabolism in klebsiella aerogenes.klebsiella aerogenes dissimilates glycerol aerobically via an inducible pathway initiated by an adenosine triphosphate-linked kinase that converts the substrate to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. phosphorylated glycerol is then dehydrogenated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by an enzyme characteristic of a flavoprotein. anaerobically, the organism dissimilates glycerol via an inducible pathway initiated by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenase that converts the substrate to dihydroxyac ...1975170247
characterization of the respiratory nitrate reductase of klebsiella aerogenes as a molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur enzyme.1. in respiratory nitrate reductase i of klebsiella aerogenes, 0.24 atom of molybdenum, eight iron-sulfur groups and four tightly bound, non-heme iron atoms per molecule of enzyme (mr 260 000) are found. 2. epr spectra at 83 degrees k of oxidized and reduced nitrate reductase i show complex lines at g = 2.02 and g = 1.98, which are more intense in the reduced than in the oxidized enzyme. the resonances, the shape and intensity of which are rather temperature insensitive, are attributed to two sp ...1975170983
studies on inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. steady state kinetics.the reaction catalyzed by imp dehydrogenase (imp: nad+ oxidoreductase ec 1.2.1.14) from aerobacter aerogenes has been investigated kinetically at ph 8.1 as a three reactant system by means of steady-state velocity studies in the absence of products, as well as by inhibition studies using products and substrate analogues. the mechanism appears to be a partially random one in which imp and k+ can bind randomly to the free enzyme while nad does not react unless k+ or both k+ and imp are present on ...1976178371
regulation of tyramine oxidase synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes.tyramine oxidase in klebsiella aerogenes is highly specific for tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, and norepinephrine, and its synthesis is induced specifically by these compounds. the enzyme is present in a membrane-bound form. the km value for tyramine is 9 x 10(-4) m. tyramine oxidase synthesis was subjected to catabolite repression by glucose in the presence of ammonium salts. addition of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (camp) overcame the catabolite repression. a mutant strain, k711, whic ...1976179974
natural and altered induction of the l-fucose catabolic enzymes in klebsiella aerogenes.mutants of klebsiella aerogenes w70 were isolated that had gained the ability to utilize the uncommon pentose d-arabinose as their sole source of carbon and energy. in contrast to the d-arabinose-negative, parent strain, these mutants were found to be either constitutive for certain enzymes of the l-fucose catabolic pathway or inducible for such enzymes when incubated in the presence of d-arabinose. the mutants used l-fucose isomerase to convert d-arabinose to d-ribulose, which is an intermediat ...1976179982
structure of the prosthetic group of klebsiella aerogenes citrate (pro-3s)-lyase.the prosthetic group of citrate (pro-3s)-lyase [citrate oxaloacetate-lyase (pro-3s-ch2coo- leads to acetate); ec 4.1.3.6] from klebsiella aerogenes was obtained by mild alkaline hydrolysis of the enzyme and purified by deae-cellulose chromatography. several chemical and enzymatic degradation products of the compound have been isolated, and analyses of these have shown the structure of the prosthetic group to be 3'(or 2') leads to 1 inch-(5 inches-phosphoribosyl) dephosphocoenzyme a. proof as to ...1976180526
chirality of the hydrogen transfer to nad catalyzed by myo-inositol dehydrogenase from klebsiella pneumoniae.chirality, hydrogen transfer, myo-inositol dehydrogenase. the chirality of the hydrogen transfer to nad catalyzed by myo-inositol dehydrogenase (myo-inositol: nad 2-oxydoreductase, ec 1.1.1.18) from klebsiella pneumoniae (formerly classified taxonomically as aerobacter aerogenes or kleb siella aerogenes) was investigated. [4-3h] nad was enzymatically reduced to [4-3h] nadh with non-labeled myoinositol and myo-inositol dehydrogenase. the stereochemistry of the prochiral center at c4 of the nadh p ...1976185832
enzymic activities of cadmium- and zinc-tolerant strains of klebsiella (aerobacter) aerogenes growing in glucose-limited chemostats.the activities of phosphatases and some enzymes of glucose metabolism were determined in k. aerogenes ncib 418 and in two strains derived from it, resistant to 50 mug cd2+ ml-1 and 16 mug zn2+ ml-1 respectively, during growth at d = 0.38 h-1 in medium containing beta-glycerophosphate as sole phosphorus source and supplemented with cd2+ and zn2+, as appropriate, for the resistant strains. the ph-activity profiles of the phosphatases differed from strain to strain but all showed maximum activity a ...1976186694
purification and initial rate kinetics of acyl-phosphate-hexose phosphotransferase from aerobacter aerogenes.the enzyme acyl-phosphate-hexose phosphotransferase from aerobacter aerogenes was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. the molecular weight of the enzyme as determined on sephadex gels is 150 000. the enzyme possesses potent phosphotransferase and phosphohydrolase activities. initial rate kinetics were used to investigate the mechanism of acyl-phosphate-hexose phosphotransferase. these studies, which involved a number of different phosphoryl donors and substrate analogues, suggest that the k ...1977196625
on the structure of the prosthetic group of citrate (pro-3s)-lyase.the prosthetic group of citrate (pro-3s)-lyase from klebsiella aerogenes as well as streptococcus diacetilactis was obtained eigher by beta elimination or pronase digestion of the enzyme and purified by deae-cellulose chromatography. the compound was shown to contain 3 mol of po4, 2 mol of ribose, and 1 mol of sulfhydryl/mol of adenine. 5'-amp and dephospho-coa are components of the prosthetic group. the evidence obtained so far support our proposed structure of 3' (or 2') leads to 1''-(5''-phos ...1977197081
intracellular distribution of enzymes of phospholipid metabolism in several gram-negative bacteria.cell-free extracts of salmonella typhimurium, serratia marcescens, enterobacter aerogenes, and micrococcus cerificans contained the following enzymatic activities related to phospholipid metabolism: cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (cdp-diglyceride):l-serine o-phosphatidyltransferase (phosphatidylserine synthase), phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, cdp-diglyceride:sn-glycero-3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase (phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase), phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosp ...1977199573
kinetic studies on the reactions catalyzed by chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from aerobacter aerogenes.steady-state kinetic techniques have been used to investigate each of the reactions catalyzed by the bifunctional enzyme, chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase, from aerobacter aerogenes. the results of steady-state velocity studies in the absence of products, as well as product and dead-end inhibition studies, suggest that the prephenate dehydrogenase reaction conforms to a rapid equilibrium random mechanism which involes the formation of two dead-end complexes, viz, enzyme-nadh-prephenate ...1978206281
electron paramagnetic resonance studies on membrane-bound respiratory nitrate reductase of klebsiella aerogenes. 1978207577
coenzyme b12-dependent diol dehydratase: regulation of apoenzyme synthesis in klebsiella pneumoniae (aerobacter aerogenes) atcc 8724.immunochemical studies demonstrated that klebsiella pneumoniae (aerobacter aerogenes) atcc 8724 produces only a single diol dehydratase whether grown on glycerol or on 1,2-propanediol. the enzyme was subject to induction by 1,2-diols and to catabolite repression reversed by cyclic amp.1978210157
5-methylthioribose kinase. a new enzyme involved in the formation of methionine from 5-methylthioribose.the presence of a previously unidentified enzyme, tentatively designated 5-methylthioribose kinase, has been demonstrated in cell-free extracts of enterobacter aerogenes. the enzyme catalyzes the atp-dependent phosphorylation of 5-methylthioribose. adp is one of the products of the reaction and, based on functional group analyses, the other product is 5-methylthioribose 1-phosphate. a 40-fold purified enzyme preparation has been obtained from a cell-free extract of e. aerogenes. activity of the ...1978210167
purification, properties, and kinetics of d-ribulokinase from aerobacter aerogenes.the enzyme d-ribulokinase from aerobacter aerogenes was purified to near homogeneity. the molecular weight, as determined by sephacryl gel chromatography, is 116,000. the subunit molecular weight, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, is 59,000, suggesting that d-ribulokinase is a dimer of identical subunits. initial rate kinetic studies, involving substrate analogs and products, were carried out. these investigations support a kinetic mechanism of the random bi bi type. isot ...1979220218
chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from aerobacter aerogenes: evidence that the two reactions occur at one active site.the relationship between the sites for catalysis of two reactions by the bifunctional enzyme chorismate mutase--prephenate dehydrogenase has been investigated. the results are consistent with the occurrence of both reactions at one active site. comparisons have been made between experimental data for the time course of the overall reaction and computer simulations, according to various models for the relationship between the mutase and dehydrogenase sites. a model based on a single active site i ...1979224902
stereochemistry of the hydrolysis of the endo isomer of uridine 2',3'-cyclic phosphorothioate catalyzed by the nonspecific phosphohydrolase from enterobacter aerogenes.the nonspecific phosphohydrolase from enterobacter aerogenes (atcc 13048) requires divalent metal ions for activity, since zinc present in the isolated enzyme can be removed by extensive dialysis against 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate at ph 7.5 to yield an inactive enzyme which can be reactivated by addition of zn2+, cd2+, co2+, mn2+, or ni2+; six ions of either zinc or cadmium can be incorporated into the inactive enzyme, and this incorporation of metal ion can be correlated with the regaining ...1979227444
investigations into the klebsiella aerogenes pentitol operons using specialised transducing phages lambdaprbt and lambdaprbt dal. 1979230352
purification, structure and properties of the respiratory nitrate reductase of klebsiella aerogenes.1. the respiratory nitrate reductase of klebsiella aerogenes was solubilized from the bacterial membranes by deoxycholate and purified further by means of gel chromatography in the presence of deoxycholate, and anion-exchange chromatography. 2. dependent on the isolation procedure two different homogeneous forms of the enzyme, having different subunit compositions, can be obtained. these forms are designated nitrate reductase i and nitrate reductase ii. both enzyme preparations are isolated as t ...1975234757
identification of the structural gene for glutamine synthetase in klebsiella aerogenes.mutations at two sites of the klebsiella aerogenes chromosome, unlinked by transduction with phages pw52 and p1, result in the lack of enzymatically active glutamine synthetase. a mutation in the glnb site leads to a marked decrease in the formation of an apparently normal enzyme. some of the mutations in the glna site lead to the production of enzymatically inactive material capable of reacting with anti-glutamine synthetase serum. the revertant of a glna mutant was found to produce a glutamine ...1975234938
genetic control of glutamine synthetase in klebiella aerogenes.mutations at two sites, glna and glnb, of the klebsiella aerogenes chromosome result in the loss of glutamine synthetase. the locations of these sites on the chromosome were established by complementation by episomes of escherichia coli and by determination of their linkage to other genetic sites by transduction with phage p1. the glnb gene is located at a position corresponding to 48 min on the taylor map of the e. coli chromosome; it is linked to trya, nadb, and gua. the glna gene is at a posi ...1975234939
analysis of bacterial biotin-proteins.the biotin-protein populations in several bacterial strains were analyzed by solubilization of [3h]biotin-labeled cells with sodium dodecylsulfate followed by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing the detergent. a variety of patterns of biotin-labeled polypeptide chains was seen, ranging from a single biotin-protein in escherichia coli, corresponding to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein component of acetyl-coa carboxylase, to multiple species in enterobacter aerogenes, pseudomonas ...1975235315
effect of aeration and sodium on the metabolism of citrate by klebsiella aerogenes.anaerobic growth of klebsiella aerogenes ncdo 711 (nctc 418) on citrate was dependent on the presence of na+ in the medium, and fermentation of citrate was mediated via the fermentation pathway enzymes, citrate lyase and a na+-dependent oxalacetate decarboxylase. this confirms the previous findings on strain nctc 418. growth under aerobic conditions was independent of na+. the mean generation time for cells grown aerobically on either na+ or k+ citrate medium was about 60 min, with a molar growt ...1975236280
impedance monitoring of bacterial activity.bacterial activity and growth were monitored by following the changes of electrical impedance of cultures in liquid media. the signal is expressed automatically as a curve similar to grwoth curves produced by other methods. the technique offers a new, rapid and sensitive means of detecting active micro-organisms and is potentially the basis of rapid automated systems in this field. the impedance changes indicate that the micro-organisms metabolise substrates of low conductivity into products of ...1975236390
l-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase from aerobacter aerogenes. 1975236467
d-arabinose (l-fucose) isomerase from aerobacter aerogenes. 1975236476
2,3-butanediol biosynthetic system in aerobacter aerogenes. 1975236481
glycerol dehydratase from aerobacter aerogenes. 1975237191
gene order of the histidine utilization (hut) operons in klebsiella aerogenes.p1-sensitive mutants of klebsiella aerogenes were isolated and the gene order of the hut region was then determined using p1-mediated transduction. the genes are located in the klebsiella chromosome between gal and bio as in salmonella typhimurium. the gene order, gal, huti, hutg, hutc, huu, huth, bio is also the same as that observed in s. typhimurium.1975238937
regulation of nitrogen metabolism in escherichia coli and klebsiella aerogenes: studies with the continuous-culture technique.ammonia-nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of escherichia coli and klebsiella aerogenes contain induced levels of glutamine synthetase that is deadenylyated (i.e., fully active). in the presence of excess ammonia or glutamate in glucose-limited cultures of e. coli, glutamine synthetase is repressed and adenylylated (inactive). the average state of adenylylation (n) is a linear function of the specific growth rate. at low specific growth rates, glutamine synthetase is adenylylated; as the speci ...1975238954
purification and properties of citrate lyase from streptococcus diacetilactis.citrate lyase from streptococcus diacetilactis has been purified to yield a protein that was homogeneous as judged by sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium experiments. the enzyme's sedimentation coefficient is 16.8 s and its molecular weight is around 585,000. it contains three nonidentical subunits of about 53,000, 34,000, and 10,000 daltons. the enzyme in its active form contains an acetyl group which turns over during the citrate cleavage reaction. removal of the acetyl group ...1975238987
regulation of the ammonia assimilatory enzymes in salmonella typhimurium.the regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase (ec 1.4.1.4), glutamine synthetase (ec 6.3.1.2), and glutamate synthase (ec 2.6.1.53) was examined for cultures of salmonella typhimurium grown with various nitrogen and amino acid sources. in contrast to the regulatory pattern observed in klebsiella aerogenes, the glutamate dehydrogenase levels of s. typhimurium do not decrease when glutamine synthetase is derepressed during growth with limiting ammonia. thus, it appears that the s. typhimurium glutamin ...1975240804
effect of different environmental factors on valine production by aerobacter aerogenes. 1975241175
comparative activities of ampicillin, epicillin and amoxycillin in vitro and in vivo.the antibacterial activities of three aminopenicillins ampicillin, epicillin and amoxycillin were compared in vitro and in vivo. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of the three penicillins were very similar and the compounds were active against non-beta-lactamase-producing strains of escherichia coli, salmonella and shigella species, proteus mirabilis, haemophilus influenzae and neisseria gonorrhoeae. streptococci including streptococcus faecalis, and non-beta-lactamase-producing staphy ...1979256524
specific gonadotropin binding to pseudomonas maltophilia.binding of 125i-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and ph and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. the equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 x 10(-9) m. there are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (hill coefficient, 1.05). the number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. nacl and kcl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mm, have no effect on binding. divalent catio ...1977265583
assymetry of the myo-inositol transport system in klebsiella aerogenes. energy is necessary to create the assymetry of the transport system.1. in klebsiella aerogenes the influx of myo-inositol proceeds during the steady state at a rate equal to that of efflux. 2. the kinetic parameters of influx during the steady state are similar to those observed at the initial time of uptake. 3. efflux and influx processes share the same transport system. 4. the ability of other cyclitols to chase the accumulated scyllo-inositol is dependent on their affinity for the transport system. 5. a counter transport can be observed in preloaded cells onl ...1977318995
myo-inositol transport in klebsiella aerogenes. scyllo-inositol, a non-metabolizable substrate for the study of the myo-inositol transport system.1. scyllo-inositol is transported against a concentration gradient by klebsiella aerogenes, but is not metabolized. 2. the apparent kt of scyllo-inositol is 0.05 x 10(-3) m while that of myo-inositol is 0.23 x 10(-3) m. the v values are respectively 32 and 12 nmol min(-1) mg cells(-1) (dry weight). 3. both cyclitols bind to the same carrier, since typical competitive inhibition kinetics are observed. 4. neither phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase nor a periplasmic binding protein seems to be ...1977319004
excystment of axenically prepared cysts of hartmanella culbertsoni.axenically prepared cysts of hartmannella culbertsoni readily excysted in the presence of heat stable factors prepared from escherichia coli, klebsiella aerogenes, staphylococcus aureus, sarcina lutea, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium and several fungi. peptone, proteose peptone, tryptone or amino acids also promoted excystment. crowding of the cysts and dilution of bacterial extracts adversely affected the excystment. continual presence of the factors in the medium was essential for excys ...1977319194
taxonomy of the genus serratia.one hundred and fifty-six strains of serratia and related bacteria including representatives of enterobacter liquefaciens, enterobacter cloacae, enterobacter aerogenes, erwinia carotovora, erwinia chrysanthemi, erwinia herbicola and erwinia nimipressuralis were studied using 223 morphological, physiological, biochemical and carbon source utilization tests. the results were subjected to computer analysis. at the 80% similarity level all strains, except two, grouped into eight phenons representing ...1977319202
coliforms from hides and meat.coliform tests were performed on 85 hide and 75 meat samples. imvic reactions were determined on isolates from positive confirmed and fecal tests, and strains other than escherichia coli were identified. strains typed as aerobacter aerogenes types i and ii were identified as enterobacter cloacae (51.4%), klebsiella pneumoniae (21.5%), enterobacter aerogenes (15%), and enterobacter liquefaciens, serratia, and unidentified coliforms (12.1%). k. pneumoniae appeared to be responsible for less than 1 ...1977319754
studies on the mechanism of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent diol dehydrase reaction by the use of analogs of the coenzyme.a series of 16 analogs of 5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamin (adenosylcobalamin) were examined for their effects on the diol dehydrase system of klebsiella pneumoniae (aerobacter aerogenes). four analogs, ara-adenosyl-, aristeromycyl-, 3-isoadenosyl-, and nebularylcobalamin, were able to function as coenzymes in the diol dehydrase reaction, coenzyme activity decreasing in that order. like the native holoenzyme, complexes of the enzyme with these four analogs show a cob(ii)alamin-like absorption peak ...1977320203
novel r-plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase from klebsiella aerogenes.a novel beta-lactamase with a broad spectrum of activity against penicillins and cephalosporins has been detected in a strain of klebsiella aerogenes. its synthesis is mediated by an r-plasmid of molecular weight 64 x 10(6).1977329756
isolation of poly-alpha-l-guluronate lyase from klebsiella aerogenes.the bacterium klebsiella aerogenes type 25 produces an extracellular alginolyase which has been partly purified. the enzyme is specific for the alpha-l-guluronosyl linkages in whole alginate and fractions therefrom. the end products of its action on polyguluronic acid blocks are mainly the unsaturated di- and tri-saccharides, with a smaller proportion of the homologous tetrasaccharide. some general properties of the enzyme are reported.1977332364
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