kinetic properties of serratia marcescens adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase.the regulatory properties of partially purified adenosine 5'-diphosphate-(adp) glucose pyrophosphorylase from two serratia marcescens strains (atcc 274 and atcc 15365) have been studied. slight or negligible activation by fructose-p2, pyridoxal-phosphate, or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) was observed. these compounds were previously shown to be potent activators of the adpglucose pyrophosphorylases from the enterics, salmonella typhimurium, enterobacter aerogenes, e ...19766432
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
anaerobic dechlorination and degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.screening studies with strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria showed that clostridium app. and several other representatives of bacillaceae and enterobacteriaceae actively degraded gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-hch) under anaerobic conditions. representatives of lactobacillaceae and propronibacterium were inactive. with 36cl-labelled gamma-hch a nearly complete dechlorination was shown to occur in 4--6 days by clostridium butyricum, c. pasteurianum and citrobacter freundii, while other f ...197774989
homology of the gene coding for outer membrane lipoprotein within various gram-negative bacteria.the mrna for a major outer membrane lipoprotein from escherichia coli was found to hybridize specifically with one of the ecori and one of the hindiii restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of total dna from nine bacteria in the family enterobacteriaceae: e. coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhimurium, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella aerogenes, enterobacter aerogenes, edwardsiella tarda, serratia marcescens, and erwinia amylovora. however, among the enterobacteriaceae, dna from two ...1979104972
endo-beta-galactosidase of escherichia freundii. purification and endoglycosidic action on keratan sulfates, oligosaccharides, and blood group active glycoprotein.endo-beta-galactosidase was purified 4400-fold from a culture filtrate of escherichia freundii with 45% recovery. the enzyme preparation was practically free of exoglycosidases, sulfatase, and proteases. this enzyme hydrolyzed several keratan sulfates, endoglycosidically releasing oligosaccharides of various molecular sizes. among the digestion products of the corneal keratan sulfate, the structure of a disaccharride and a tetrasaccharride were shown to be 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-o-sulfo-beta-d-gl ...1976135762
[destruction of alkyl sulfates by a citrobacter freundii culture]. 1978203618
thermolabile repression of cephalosporinase synthesis in citrobacter unusual regulatory system of cephalosporinase synthesis in citrobacter freundii has been found. when the bacteria are grown at 20 c, the cephalosporinase is synthesized as a typical inducible enzyme and benzylpenicillin acts as an effective inducer. the enzyme, however, is synthesized in the absence of the inducer at growth temperatures above 25 c. when the growth temperature is shifted from 20 c to 37 c, the induction of enzyme synthesis is observed after about one half of the organism doubl ...1977203825
lethal effect of complement and lysozyme on polymyxin-treated, serum-resistant gram-negative bacilli.when genetically serum-resistant escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and citrobacter freundii, but not pseudomonas aeruginosa or proteus mirabilis, were exposed to polymyxin b, they became susceptible to the bactericidal action of normal human and rabbit sera. in constrast, beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics did not render any serum-resistant bacteria serum-sensitive. synergy between polymyxin b and the serum bactericidal system could be demonstrated by the addition of polymyxin b t ...1979229175
[cefuroxim, a new beta-lactamase stable cephalosporin].in vitro activity of cefuroxime, a new cephalosporin stable to bacterial beta-lactamases, was compared with that of cefalothin and other cephalosporins by serial dilution test in more than 600 bacterial strains. cefuroxime was more active than cefalothin on most strains of gram negative bacilli (except salmonella species) and also on most strains of cefalothin-resistant bacteria. in comparison to cefalothin, cefoxitin and cefamandol, cefuroxime exerted the strongest activity on meningococci, str ...1978309178
mechanism of synergistic action of a combination of ampicillin and dicloxacillin against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of citrobacter freundii.the mechanism of synergistic activity of a combination of ampicillin and dicloxacillin was studied on beta-lactamase-producing citrobacter freundii gn346 and its derived beta-lactamaseless mutant gn346/16. the synergistic activity was exhibited against the parent strain but not against the mutant strain. precultivation of the parent strain with the combination reduced the amount of the subsequent binding of [14c]penicillin g to the membrane fraction from the treated cells, but no reduction was o ...1979316307
in vitro antibacterial activity of cefoperazone (t-1551), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin.cefoperazone, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. it is as active as cefazolin and cefamandole against gram-positive bacteria and is more active than cefazolin and cefamandole against such gram-negative bacilli as escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae, and serratia marcescens. the superiority of cefoperazone over cefazolin and cefamandole with respect to activity ...1979316988
effect of storage conditions of the performance of bismuth sulfite agar.refrigerated storage of bismuth sulfite agar plates for up to 4 days did not adversely affect growth and colonial characteristics of selected salmonella strains. incubation of inoculated plates for 48 h favored the development of more salmonellae with typical morphology. inoculated plates of freshly poured medium incubated for 48 h gave recoveries similar to those on refrigerated plates and showed a high selectivity against citrobacter freundii and proteus vulgaris, organisms which mimic the col ...1977321469
genetics of colicin e susceptibility in citrobacter freundii.the insensitivity of citrobacter freundii to the e colicins is based on tolerance to colicin e1 and resistance to colicins e2 and e3. spontaneous colicin a resistant mutants of c. freundii also lost their colicin e1 receptor function. sensitivity to colicin e1 can be induced by f'gal+tol+ plasmids, the tol a+ gene product of which is responsible for this effect. receptor function for colicins e2 and e3 is induced by the e. coli f'14 bfe+ plasmid, which is also able to enhance notably the recepto ...1977326179
the mutagenic action of nitroimidazoles. ii. tinidazole, ipronidazole, panidazole and ornidazole.the 5-nitroimidazoles tinidazole (fasigyn), ipronidazole (ro-7-1554), panidazole and ornidazole (tiberal, ro-7-0207) in concentrations of 0.02--1 mm per liter increased the mutation frequency of klebsiella pneumoniae. escherichia coli k12 and citrobacter freundii to streptomycin resistance, including streptomycin dependence, in luria and delbrück's fluctuation test. at low concentration (0.1 mm), the increase of the mutation frequency caused by each compound was nearly the same, i.e. 3--4 times ...1977327306
preprototype of an automated microbial detection and identification system: a developmental investigation.the automicrobic system is an automated, computerized instrument that uses highly selective media and an optical system for detection, enumeration, and identification of bacteria and some yeasts in 13 h. a preprototype instrument (automicrobic system-1) and its urine culture kit (identi-pak), developed for the detection, enumeration, and identification of eight species or groups of bacteria and of candida species and torulopsis glabrata in urine specimens, was evaluated during its development. a ...1977334797
automated microbiological detection/identification automated, computerized system, the automicrobic system, has been developed for the detection, enumeration, and identification of bacteria and yeasts in clinical specimens. the biological basis for the system resides in lyophilized, highly selective and specific media enclosed in wells of a disposable plastic cuvette; introduction of a suitable specimen rehydrates and inoculates the media in the wells. an automated optical system monitors, and the computer interprets, changes in the media, wi ...1977334798
[enterobacteria erroneously identified as salmonella in human faeces (author's transl)].to differentiate citrobacter freundii, enterobacter hafniae, proteus mirabilis and alteromonas putrefaciens from salmonella strains isolated in faeces, the author recommends the use of "hajna-kligler" medium, "nitrate-motility-mannitol" medium, "urease-indole-trytophane desaminase" medium and glycerol peptonated water. the lysis of salmonella and e. hafniae strains by specific phages (felix and callow o: 1 salmonella phage; guinee and valkenburg hafnia phage) is emphasized.1977335345
aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes produced by r plasmids of escherichia coli, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, providencia stuartii and serratia marcescens. 1977340445
l-arabinose-ornithine-irgasan medium for differentiating serratia species.a semisolid medium (designated serratia differentiation medium) containing l-arabinose, ornithine, and selective inhibitor was used to differentiate three clinically encountered serratia species. the inhibitor, irgasan dp-300, was incorporated to eliminate false-positive reactions from most remaining enterobacteriaceae. the suspected serratia colony was inoculated as a stab into the medium. serratia marcescens was indicated by a change in color from olive to purple following 18 h of incubation, ...1978348720
enterotoxin-producing bacteria stools from swedish united nations soldiers in cyprus.a study was designed to establish the role of heat-labile enterotoxin producing escherichia coli and other intestinal pathogens in diarrhoeal disease in swedish soldiers of the united nations' force in cyprus. before leaving sweden for cyprus, no enteropathogens were isolated from the soldiers. the study was performed from october 1975 through january 1976 and in august 1976. enterotoxigenic strains of e. coli, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae and klebsiella pneumoniae were the intesti ...1978355145
differentiation of serratia marcescens and serratia liquefaciens by tests for lipase and phospholipase production.the production of lipase and phospolipase by certain members of the enterobacteriaceae was examined by thin-layer chromatography of resting-cell suspensions incubated with triolein or lecithin. most strains of serratia marcescens produced both enzymes while most strains of serratia liquefaciens exhibited strong lipase but only a minor phospholipase activity. enterobacter spp. (25 strains), klebsiella pneumoniae (20 strains), escherichia coli (15 strains), citrobacter freundii (7 strains) and pro ...1978355631
isolation of klebsielleae from within living wood.previous studies from this laboratory have documented the presence of coliform bacteria emanating from wooden reservoirs containing finished drinking water. coliforms were identified as klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter spp. in the present report, evidence is presented which suggests that the origin of these coliforms is from the wood used to construct the reservoirs. in liquid expressed from freshly cut redwood, total bacterial counts in the range of 10(5) to 10(6)/ml were commonly observe ...1978358920
performance of enterobacteriaceae identification systems. an analysis of college of american pathologists survey data.commercial systems designed and marketed for evaluation of enterobacteriaceae are used in many clinical microbiology laboratories. evaluations of these systems have been reported from several large laboratories. identifications with one or more of these systems were compared with those obtained by conventional methods with many strains of organisms. the microbiology resource committee of the college of american pathologists designed two surveys to evaluate the performances of commercial systems ...1978360823
the bacterial outer-membrane permeability of beta-lactam antibiotics.two penicillins and 5 cephalosporins were evaluated for their ability to pass through the outer-membranes of proteus morganii, citrobacter freundii and escherichia coli. cefazolin, ceftezole and cephaloridine showed high permeability through the outer-membranes of these gram-negative bacteria. benzylpenicillin and cephalothin, on the contrary, showed low permeability. the outer-membrane permeability of ampicillin and cephalexin varied from species to species. c. freundii was found to have the hi ...1979368002
association of tellurium resistance and bacteriophage inhibition conferred by r plasmids.concomitant resistance to tellurium compounds (ter) and inhibition of coli-phage development (phi) are properties mediated by many h2 incompatibility group r plasmids which have been isolated from diverse bacterial and geographic sources. ter plasmids from tellurium-resistant bacteria that were isolated from sewage and industrial wastes also mediated phage inhibition. of these ter plasmids, three from citrobacter freundii belonged to the h incompatibility group, whereas three from klebsiella pne ...1979374351
resolution of the coenzyme b-12-dependent dehydratases of klebsiella sp. and citrobacter freundii.diol dehydratase (1,2-propanediol hydro-lyase, ec and glycerol dehydratase (glycerol hydro-lyase, ec are shown to be distinct, separable enzymes that occur individually or together in different strains of klebsiella sp. anaerobic growth with propan-1,2-diol induces diol dehydratase alone, whereas glycerol fermentation induces both enzymes in k. pneumoniae atcc 25955 and in citrobacter freundii ncib 3735. the dehydratases can be resolved by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis o ...1979383154
l-asparagainases from citrobacter freundii.three enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of l-asparagine have been identified in extracts of citrobacter freundii. one of these (asparaginase-glutaminase (ec also shows substantial glutaminase activity. this enzyme is extremely labile, is sensitive to inactivation by p-chloromercuribenzoate, and is not protected by dithiothreitol. a second enzyme (asparaginase b) is also sensitive to mercurials but is protected from inactivation by dithiothreitol. this enzyme has a relatively low aff ...1977401650
in vitro activity of netilmicin, gentamicin, and amikacin.the in vitro activity of netilmicin (sch 20569), a new semisynthetic derivative of gentamicin, was compared with that of gentamicin and amikacin. one hundred and ninety-two clinical isolates of enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus were tested using both agar and broth dilution techniques. netilmicin was comparable to gentamicin, with the following exceptions: (i) for serratia marcescens and p. aeruginosa, gentamicin was more active than netilmicin; (ii) all strai ...1977402104
rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in water by a colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay.the colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay is based upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactoside (onpg) by fecal coliforms. this technique provides an estimate of the fecal coliform concentration within 8 to 20 h. a 100-ml portion of test sample was passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter. this filter was then incubated at 37 degrees c for 1 h in ec medium followed by the addition of filter-sterilized onpg. the incubation was continued at 44.5 degrees c ...1978414659
participation of quinone and cytochrome b in tetrathionate reductase respiratory chain of citrobacter freundii.formate dehydrogenase, nadh dehydrogenase, a quinone and a b-type cytochrome characterized by maxima at 429 and 560 nm are shown to participate in the tetrathionate redox chain of citrobacter.1979435281
developmental change and genetic defect in the carbohydrate structure of band 3 glycoprotein of human erythrocyte membrane.the chemical structure of band 3 glycopeptide prepared from erythrocytes of normal adult (blood group oi), umbilical cord vessels (oi), and an i adult variant who fails to develop i antigen (oi), has been compared. band 3 glycopeptide of cord erythrocytes gave, on permethylation analysis, predominantly 2,4,6-tri-o-methylgalactose and 3,6-di-o-methyl-2-n-methylacetamido-2-deoxyglucose, whereas the same glycopeptide of normal adult erythrocytes gave much higher amounts of 2,3,4,6-tetra-o-methylgal ...1979438154
sensitivity of gentamicin-resistant enterobacteriaceae to cefamandole and cefoxitin.a collection of gentamicin-resistant enterobacteriaceae strains was significantly more resistant to cefamandole than a species-matched collection of gentamicin-sensitive organisms. cefamandole and gentamicin resistance could be simultaneously transferred by conjugation from four different species, citrobacter freundii, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and serratia marcescens, to a recipient e. coli strain. plasmids specifying linked resistance to cefamandole and gentamicin are thus common ...1979456076
a natural outbreak of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia in a/j mice.transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia was diagnosed in 6-month-old a/j mice kept under standard laboratory conditions. bacterial cultures revealed the presence of citrobacter freundii (4280). clinical signs included rough coats, feces adhering to the anus, slight dehydration and rectal prolapses. a nonclotting sanquinous intestinal fluid and gross colonic thickening were frequently seen at necropsy. morbidity was approximately 50%; mortality approximately 25%. tetracycline appeared to be effe ...1979459415
citrobacter freundii meningitis in an adult.we have described the first case of an adult patient with citrobacter freundii meningitis, which was successfully treated without administration of intrathecal aminoglycoside.1979515772
silver-resistant enterobacteriaceae from hospital patients.the inclusion of agar medium containing 0.5 mm agno3 in the hospital laboratory replicating system for routine antibiotic-susceptibility determinations resulted in identification of species of enterobacteriaceae (escherichia coli, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and citrobacter freundii) with silver resistance. since the study began in october, 1975, 11 in-hospital patients receiving silver sulfadiazine for burn wound prophylaxis have yielded silver-resistant bact ...1979526888
[synthesis of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine by bacteria citrobacter freundii].among facultative-anaerobic bacteria utilizing formic acid, a large number of strains having tyrosine phenol lyase were found. the enzyme can catalyze synthesis of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl alanine (dopa) from pyruvate, ammonium and, accordingly, phenol and pyrocatechol. these strains were identified as citrobacter freundii. cell suspensions of the most active strains synthesized up to 75 g/l tyrosine for 12 hr, up to 86 g/l tyrosine for 24 hr, and up to 29 g/l dopa for 42 hr. a medium c ...1979538011
regulation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase synthesis in citrobacter freundii by traces of oxygen in commercial nitrogen gas and by glutamate.glutamate induced the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase 50-fold during anaerobic growth of citrobacter freundii and, in the absence of glutamate, this enzyme was even more active in cultures sparged with n2/co2(95:5, v/v). enzyme synthesis was partially repressed when the inlet gas was passed through heated copper but totally repressed when the inlet gas was passed through alkaline pyrogallol and reduced benzyl viologen (a treatment which would remove co2 as well as o2). fumarate hydrata ...1979541660
enterobacteria of emerging pathogenic significance from clinical cases in man and animals and detection of toads and wall lizards as their reservoirs.a total of 416 samples comprising faecal samples from diarrhoeic cases of man, calves, sheep and goats, and urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections, were examined for the presence of enterobacteria of emerging pathogenic significance. citrobacter freundii from 20, c. intermedius biotype-a from four, serratia marcescens (serotype 05:h13, bactericin type 16) from one and erwinia herbicola from two human stool samples were isolated. only two urine samples yielded c. freundii. citr ...1978582096
dietary, bacterial, and host genetic interactions in the pathogenesis of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia.transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia, cuased by a variant of citrobacter freundii (4280). was shown to be modified by diet and by host strain and species. four different diets fed to mice inoculated with c frundii 4280 were found to have a significant but varying influence on the severity of hyperplasia. diet also influenced the colonic crypt height of uninoculated, control mice. f344 rats, syrian hamsters, and nih swiss [n:(s)], c57bl/6j, c3h/hej, and dba/2j mice were inoculated with c freu ...1977599885
[presence of resistance factors to antibiotics in multiresistant enterobacteria].the present study was carried out with 111 multiresistant pathogenic strains of enterobacterias isolated from different sources with increased resistance to three or more antibiotics. among the identified species are included e. coli, shigella sp., salmonella oranienburg, klebsiella pneumoniae and citrobacter freundii. in general, the minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was above 100 microgram/ml and in some cases it was superior to 1000 microgram/ml. resistance transfer factors were ...1977614652
transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia.after exposure to a variant of citrobacter freundii, suckling and adult mice developed transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia of the same degree of severity. mucosal hyperplasia was most severe 2 to 3 weeks after inoculation and then regressed. suckling mice had a high mortality because of secondary inflammatory and erosive changes. severe hyperplasia was characterized by mitotic activity along the entire crypt column and surface mucosa.1978664189
clinical significance of citrobacter isolates.little is know about the clinical significance of isolating citrobacter in the clinical laboratory. during a one-year period, 116 citrobacter isolates were obtained from 77 patients with 83 suspected infectious episodes. the majority of the suspected infectious episodes involved the urinary tract (45%) or respiratory tract (41%). citrobacter diversus was associated with 42% of the episodes, citrobacter freundii with 29%, and citrobacter species with 29%. in 42% of the suspected infectious episod ...1978696671
erythroglycan, a high molecular weight glycopeptide with the repeating structure [galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-2-deoxy-2-acetamido-glucosyl(1 leads to 3)] comprising more than one-third of the protein-bound carbohydrate of human erythrocyte stroma.glycopeptides of molecualr weight range 7,000 to 11,000, unusual in size and structure, have been partially purified from pronase digests of lipid-free human erythrocyte ghosts; we term this fraction "erythroglycan." these substances comprise about one-third of the galactose and glucosamine of the ghost. methylation analysis of erythroglycan yields mainly 4-linked glucosamine, 3-linked galactose, and 3,6-linked galactose, along with mannose and fucose derivatives. hydrazinolysis and nitrous acid ...1978711733
sce-963, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin: in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities.sce-963 {7beta-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]-3-[({1-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)- 1h-tetrazol-5-yl}thio)methyl]-ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acid}, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, showed excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including haemophilus influenzae, indole-positive proteus, enterobacter species, and citrobacter freundii. the minimum inhibitory concentrations of sce-963 against most strains of clinically isolated escherichia coli, klebsiella pneum ...1978718154
relative importance of enterotoxigenic and invasive enteropathogenic bacteria in infantile diarrhoea.swedish children and adults (648 patients) with acute diarrhoea were investigated for enterotoxigenic strains in stool cultures. a total number 74 strains were isolated from 28 patients and assayed in the rabbit intestinal loop test and the adrenal cell test. only three of the enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) isolates belonged to classical enteropathogenic serotypes of e. coli (epec). two enterotoxigenic strains of proteus morganii, two of enterobacter hafniae and one of citrobacter freundii were ...1978735553
instability of the tetrathionate respiratory chain of citrobacter freundii.the formate--tetrathionate reductase redox pathway of citrobacter freundii is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane fraction. a high concentration of phosphate in the buffer used for cell disintegration assists in the preparing of membrane particles capable of efficient tetrathionate respiration. a part of this effect at least may be attributed to the high ionic strength of the buffer.1978744552
reductive microbial conversion of anthracycline antibiotics.reductive conversion of several anthracycline glycosides to their 7-deoxyaglycones occurs during their microaerophilic incubation with strains of aeromonas hydrophila, citrobacter freundii, and escherichia coli. further, extracts of microaerophilically grown a. hydrophilia catalyze dpnh-dependent reductive conversion of the same compounds. anthracycline substrates cleaved by both whole cells and by the cell-free system include steffimycin, steffimycin b, nogalamycin, cinerubin a, and daunomycin. ...1976786368
formation of crystalline deposits by several genera of the family enterobacteriaceae.several species of bacteria from the family enterobacteriaceae formed crystalline materials containing calcium when grown in a defined culture medium. enterobacter aerogenes, proteus vulgaris, citrobacter freundii, and c. intermedius produced calcium pyrophosphate crystals. edwardsiella tarda and escherichia coli formed calcite iii crystals, whereas proteus mirabilis, klebsiella pneumoniae, providencia stuartii, and serratia marcescens produced hydroxyapatite crystals. several of these bacteria ...1976786887
[comparative studies with the rapid kcn-test for enterobacteriaceae according to cahan, sechter and ohad (author's transl)].581 strains of enterobacteriaceae (184 of salmonella, 100 of shigella, 31 of citrobacter freundii, 61 of escherichia coli, 40 of klebsiella, 165 of proteus) were investigated in comparison with the kcn-test according to møller and with the rapid kcn-test according to cahan, sechter and ohad. there was found that the results obtained with both methods were identical to 99 percent. in both tests there could be observed that inexplicable differences occur only in two strains of proteus mirabilis. t ...1976790855
consequences of microbial contamination during extended intravenous therapy using inline filters.a study was conducted to determine: (1) the effectiveness of 0.22-mum and 0.45-mum pore size membrane filters in retaining microorganisms over a period of 72 hours of intravenous fluid administration; (2) the growth and multiplication characteristics of microorganisms retained on the filter; and (3) the possibility of pyrogens being released by microorganisms trapped on the filter. lactated ringer's injection was used as the i.v. solution. the 0.45-mum filter was found to be effective in retain ...1975805533
in vitro bacteriological study of a new antibiotic substance: sisomicin.effects of a new antimicrobial agent sisomicin on microorganisms isolated from pathologic material (pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, serratia marcescens, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella spp., streptococcus pyogenes-b, citrobacter freundii) were studied. the results obtained were compared with another two aminoglycoside antibiotics - gentamicin and tobramycin. all three antibiotics were found to be very effective in vitro; their effect was enhanced by addition of an antibiotic of ...1975809943
thin-layer chromatographic technique for rapid detection of bacterial phospholipases.silica gel thin-layer chromatography was employed to detect lecithinase activity induced from bacterial resting cell preparations induced from bacterial resting cell preparations incubated at 37 c for 4 h in the presence of purified egg yolk lecithin. bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, serratia marcescens, and pseudomonas aeruginosa hydrolyzed lecithin with the formation of free fatty acids as the sole lipid-soluble product. in none of the escherichia coli and citrobacter freundii strains teste ...1975811682
prototrophic growth of citrobacter freundii and the biochemical basis for its apparent growth requirements in aerated media. 1977833571
cerebral abscesses complicating neonatal citrobacter freundii meningitis. 1977919545
morphogenesis of early 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced lesions and latent period reduction of colon carcinogenesis in mice by a variant of citrobacter freundii.the morphogenesis of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh)-induced lesions in the colon of outbred nih swiss mice was determined for up to 5 months of treatment. the effect of hyperplasia on dmh carcinogenesis was also evaluated by introducing a transient hyperplastic stimulus to the colon during the chronic weekly treatment regimen of dmh. the hyperplastic stimulus was a naturally occurring disease of mice, transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia, which is caused by a variant of citrobacter freundii. i ...1977922726
serotyping of strains belonging to the citrobacter-levinea group isolated from diagnostic material.a proposal is presented for the serotyping of citrobacter-levinea strains: 9 serotypes for citrobacter diversus (levinea malonatica) and 13 serotypes for h2s-negative, indole-positive variants of citrobacter freundii (levinea amalonatica), which showed a considerable antigenic diversity. by means of both kinds of antiserum types 80 per cent of the strains (l. malonatica 100 per cent, l. amalonatica 72 per cent) from a series of 106 strains isolated from different diagnostic material were serolo ...1976936828
physiological characteristics of chemostatically grown citrobacter freundii as a function of the specific growth rate and type of nutrient limitation.citrobacter freundii was grown aerobically in a chemostat on a mineral medium with galactose or glucose as carbon and energy sources under limitation by carbon or nitrogen source respectively. at various specific growth rates ranging from 7 to 95% mumax the culture in steady state was analysed and growth yield, specific metabolic rate of substrate utilization, intracellular concentration of pyruvate, atp, adp, amp and energy charge were determined and plotted as functions of dilution rate. in al ...1976947835
cellular localization of uridine 5'-diphosphate-n-acetyl-d-glucosamine oxidoreductase activity in citrobacter freundii.the uridine 5'-diphosphate-n-acetyl-d-glucosamine oxidoreductase activity of citrobacter freundii atcc 10053 was found to be located in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction of lysed spheroplasts.1976956115
nitrogen fixation by bacteria from the hindgut of termites.anaerobically grown bacteria isolated from the hindgut contents of the termites coptotermes lacteus (froggatt), mastotermes darwiniensis froggatt and nasutitermes exitiosus (hill) were nitrogenase-positive as assayed by acetylene reduction. nitrogen fixation, confirmed with 15n2, was highest in the isolate from m. darwiniensis. all isolates were identified as citrobacter freundii (braak) werkman & gillen.1976956782
antibiotic resistance of bacteria in water containing ornamental fishes.water containing ornamental fishes was found to frequently contain countable numbers of bacteria that were resistant to one or more antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents. the multidrug-resistant strains most commonly isolated were lactose-fermenting citrobacter freundii. the overall resistance of these aquaria strains was greater than the previously described resistance of clinical isolates of c. freundii. although the strains examined appeared to lack r-factors, this pool of resistant bacteria ...1976988781
[use of nessler's reagent for recognition of lysine, ornithine, and arginine decomposition by gramnegative fermentative bacteria (author's transl)].the reactions of lysine, ornithine and arginine decomposition are often difficult to read in falkow's medium because either the decolorization of the indicator or the lack of sharp colour differences between positive and negative reactions. in such cases nessler's reagent may be a useful aid. a volume of about 0.2 ml is added to the cultures after 4 days incubation through the mineral oil layer by means of a pipette. a positive reaction is indicated by an immediate white precipitation in case of ...1976998031
the etiology of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia.the etiology of a transmissable colonic mucosal hyperplasia of mice was investigated. hyperplasia was produced in mice inoculated with unfiltered colonic suspension from affected mice, but infectivity was lost after passage through a 0.45 mum filter. the etiologic agent was subsequently identified as a variant of citrobacter freundii. the organism induced colonic mucosal hyperplasia when inoculated into germfree mice, and it was recovered in pure culture from the affected animals.19761018473
antibacterial activity of combinations of cefazolin and semisynthetic penicillins.the antibacterial activity of cephalosporin (cs) and semisynthetic penicillins was studied using cs-resistant strains of escherichia freundii and proteus morganii. a synergistic growth inhibitory action toward these microorganisms was demonstrated by a qualitative method and confirmed by a quantitative determination.19751041717
a genetic study of tolerance and resistance to colicin a in citrobacter freundii.colicin a-insensitive mutants of citrobacter freundii were isolated and grouped into six phenotypic classes characterized by sensitivity, insensitivity or partial insensitivity to the bacteriocins s6, df 13 and colicin a, and sensitivity or insensitivity to deoxycholate (doc) and ampicillin. mapping by the gradient-of-transmission method revealed the chromosomal regions in which the responsible genes are situated. res-3 mapped near pur between pur and thr; tol-5 mapped between aro and ilv and to ...19751082297
structure of the glycopeptide storage material in gm 1 gangliosidosis. sequence determination with specific endo- and exoglycosidases.1. an endo-beta-galactosidase from escherichia freundii, specific for the hydrolysis of desulfated keratan sulfate, quantitatively liberated a trisaccharide (gal-glcnac-gal) from a glycopeptide (mr 1800) isolated from the liver of a patient with gm 1 (generalized) gangliosidosis. 2. the remaining glycopeptide was susceptible to sequential digestion with purified beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase and exo-beta-galactosidase from jack bean meal. 3. these and other studies established the structure of the ...19751092358
massive empyema due to citrobacter diversus.citrobacter diversus is a gram-negative rod member of the enterobacteriacease family. a patient is described from whom this organism was isolated twice in pure culture from empyema fluid. our isolates of citrobacter diversus were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin and sensitive to cephalothin. citrobacter diversus should be distinguished from citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae and klebsiella pneumoniae. this organism joins streptococcus pyogenes, bacteroids species, anaerobic stre ...19751149508
endo-beta-galactosidase of escherichia freundii. hydrolysis of pig colonic mucin and milk oligosaccharides by endoglycosidic action. 19751170852
a specific cephalosporin-binding protein of citrobacter freundii.1. a cephalosporin-binding protein obtained from a strain of citrobacter freundii was purified to the extent of a single band in analytical and sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing disc electrophoresis. 2. the molecular weight determined by disc electrophoresis was 53 000. 3. the binding protein did not show any beta-lactamase activity at substrate concentrations examined: 6 mm to 100 mum of penicillins and 12 mm to 100 mum of cephalosporins. 4. in gel filtration, [14c]benzylpenicillin was found no ...19761247578
role of is1 in the conversion of virulence (vi) antigen expression in enterobacteriaceae.when escherichia coli hb101 harbors pwr127, a plasmid comprising the viab gene from citrobacter freundii wr7004 and the cole1-derived packc1, the strain produces the virulence (vi) antigen. vi antigen expression is abolished (vi- phenotype), however, when an is1 or is1-like dna element inserts into the viab region. to determine the sites of is1 insertion, pwr127 dnas extracted from 95 independently isolated vi- strains were analyzed by digestion with the restriction endonuclease psti and agarose ...19921324399
in vitro activity of opc-17116 compared to other broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones.the in vitro activity of opc-17116 was compared to that of five similar fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and temafloxacin). a total of 700 isolates from recent cases of clinical bacteremia were tested. fifty additional stock strains with well-characterized resistance mechanisms were also processed. the minimal concentrations inhibiting 90% of strains (mic90) of enterobacteriaceae species were for opc-17116 0.015-0.5 micrograms/ml and for ciprofloxacin 0.015-0.25 ...19921327789
epidemiological survey of genes encoding aminoglycoside phosphotransferases aph (3') i and aph (3') ii using dna probes.the epidemiological survey of aph (3') i and aph (3') ii genes, at a time when the specific antibiotic pressure was very low, was carried out by dna-dna hybridization. the sample included 334 aminoglycoside resistant gram-negative bacteria collected from patients of a general hospital. of these, 251 hybridized with the aph (3') i-probe and 19 with the aph (3') ii-probe but only 190 strains showed high resistance levels (cim greater than 64 micrograms/ml) for kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin. ...19921328557
characterization of the citrobacter freundii phoe gene and development of c. freundii-specific oligonucleotides.the phoe gene of citrobacter freundii, encoding a pore-forming outer membrane protein, was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the homologies in terms of identical amino acids between the c. freundii phoe protein and those of escherichia coli, e. cloacae and klebsiella pneumoniae were 90%, 86% and 84%, respectively. two synthetic oligonucleotides, corresponding to hypervariable, cell surface-exposed regions of the protein, were tested for their specificity in polymerase chain reac ...19921337052
the comparative activity of fleroxacin, three other quinolones and eight unrelated antimicrobial agents.the in vitro activity of fleroxacin, a new trifluorinated quinolone was evaluated against 432 bacterial isolates. fleroxacin was 1- to 2-fold less active than ciprofloxacin and at least as active as ofloxacin and lomefloxacin against most members of the family enterobacteriaceae. the mics of fleroxacin for 90% of strains tested (mic90) were < or = 0.25 micrograms/ml against all isolates of enterobacteriaceae except citrobacter freundii (mic90, 4 micrograms/ml) and serratia marcescens (mic90, 2 m ...19921337507
[plasmid localization and cloning of restriction modification genes from citrobacter freundii 4111 strain].over 60 producing strains of restriction endonucleases type ii have been found among 500 different strains, mostly enterobacteriaceae. the strain citrobacter freundii 4111 produces restriction endonuclease cfrbi, a new isoschisomer of styi. the genes of the restriction-modification system cfrbi were located on the multicopy plasmid pze8 containing the co1e1-type replicon and cloned to e. coli k802. the deletion variant of 3.2-kb pze8 which contains intact restriction-modification and a dna fragm ...19921338550
characterization of membrane-bound spermidine dehydrogenase of citrobacter freundii.spermidine dehydrogenase found in the membrane fraction of citrobacter freundii ifo 12681 was solubilized with triton x-100 and further purified to homogeneity. the properties of the membrane enzyme were almost identical to those obtained from the soluble fraction of the organism with respect to molecular and catalytic properties. thus, binding properties of the enzyme to the bacterial membrane were checked. the ratio of enzyme activity found in the soluble fraction to the membrane fraction was ...19921369091
citrobacter freundii septic arthritis.septic arthritis in an 8 month old infant due to citrobacter freundii was treated successfully with a third generation cephalosporin. infections due to citrobacter are uncommon in this age group and are almost unknown as a cause of septic arthritis.19921389455
cefclidin (e1040), a novel cephalosporin: lack of selection of beta-lactamase overproducing mutants in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model system.the bactericidal activity of cefclidin (e1040), a new cephalosporin, against a clinical strain of citrobacter freundii was compared with that of ceftazidime in a two-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic model system designed to simulate plasma concentrations in humans for 12 hours after intravenous administration of a 1 g dose. both cefclidin and ceftazidime showed rapid bactericidal activity against c. freundii. however, during the simulation of ceftazidime treatment, regrowth was observed afte ...19921399855
specific detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.development of a routine detection assay for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). an oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaa gene of c. coli vc167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by pcr. the primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of c. coli and 47 strains of c. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of campylobacter fetus, campylobacter lari, campylobacter upsaliensis, cam ...19921400961
in vitro activity and susceptibility to hydrolysis of s-1006.the in vitro activity of s-1006, the active component of a new orally absorbed cephalosporin, s-1108, inhibited 90% of staphylococcus aureus isolates at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, 90% of group a, b, c, f, and g streptococci and streptococcus pneumoniae isolates at less than or equal to 0.12 microgram/ml, and all haemophilus influenzae isolates at less than or equal to 0.06 microgram/ml. although 50% of the members of the family enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by less than or equal ...19921416835
cloning and expression of the erwinia herbicola tyrosine phenol-lyase gene in escherichia coli.the tyrosine phenol-lyase (tpl) gene of erwinia herbicola was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli, and the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene determined. the tpl gene comprises 1368 bp, encoding 456 amino acids which have 90% amino acid identity with tpl from citrobacter freundii. after replacing the 5'-flanking region of the tpl gene with the e. coli lac promoter, tpl protein could be hyperproduced constitutively in e. coli without induction by l-tyrosine.19921418690
[antimicrobial activities of major oral antibacterial agents against clinically isolated microbial strains from inpatients].antimicrobial activities were examined for major antibacterial agents against clinically isolated microbial strains which were isolated and identified from materials collected from inpatients with various infections in 1988, 1989 and 1990, and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. among strains isolated each year, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) were found frequently. 2. ceps-resistant escherichia coli strains were observed among strains isolated each year. 3. increasing ...19921433903
[antibacterial activities of sisomicin against fresh clinical isolates].to investigate antibacterial activities of sisomicin (siso), mics of siso as well as other aminoglycosides (ags) were determined against many clinical isolates which were obtained in 1991. results are summarized below: 1. no siso-resistant strains were observed among isolates of escherichia coli, citrobacter diversus, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, proteus mirabilis and morganella morganii. 2. in comparison with the results of our previous study against isolat ...19921433905
[comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from urinary tract infections (1988). i. susceptibility distribution].isolation frequencies and sensitivities to antibacterial and antibiotic agents were investigated on 801 bacterial strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections in 9 hospitals during the period of june to november 1988. of the above total bacterial population, gram-positive bacteria accounted for 29.3% and a majority of them were enterococcus spp. gram-negative bacteria accounted for 70.7% and most of them were escherichia coli. 1. enterococcus faecalis: vancomycin was most active ...19921433906
analysis of polar lipids from some representative enterobacteria, plesiomonas and acinetobacter by fast atom bombardment-mass atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (fab-ms) was used to analyse lipid extracts of bacteria to assess its usefulness for analysing anionic phospholipids of potential chemotaxonomic value. the following micro-organisms were tested: acinetobacter calcoaceticus, acinetobacter sp., citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae (2 strains), escherichia coli (3 strains), hafnia alvei, klebsiella oxytoca, klebsiella pneumoniae, morganella morganii, plesiomonas shigelloides, proteus mirabilis (3 strain ...19921447059
[can the reactions of lysine oxidative deamination be used for the biochemical differentiation between salmonella sp. and citrobacter freundii?]. 19921472785
beta-lactamase stability and inhibitory activity of meropenem combined with a potent antibacterial activity.the affinity of meropenem for various known types of beta-lactamases and its stability to them were tested in comparison with other beta-lactams, including imipenem. meropenem exhibited a marked stability to all beta-lactamases tested and was only hydrolyzed by xanthomonas maltophilia beta-lactamase, as were other beta-lactams. this was responsible for the potent antibacterial activities of meropenem against beta-lactamase-producing strains. meropenem and imipenem had almost the same, relatively ...19921473360
growth temperature-dependent activity of glycerol dehydratase in escherichia coli expressing the citrobacter freundii dha regulon.using the cosmid pwe15, a genomic library of citrobacter freundii dna in escherichia coli ecl707 was prepared and screened for glycerol utilization. six out of approximately 3000 clones were positive. one clone, harboring the recombinant cosmid prd1, expressed glycerol dehydratase in high activity when grown at 28 degrees c but not at 37 degrees c. the growth temperature had little effect on the activity of the other enzymes encoded by the dha regulon. when the glycerol-containing medium was sup ...19921478463
[effect of meropenem on fecal flora in children].meropenem (mepm, sm-7338), a novel parenteral carbapenem antibiotic, was examined for its effect on intestinal flora in children. seven children with infectious diseases (3 male and 4 female children of age's ranging from 4 months to 8 years and 9 months weighing from 7.3 to 23.0 kg) were treated with mepm at doses ranging 10.3 to 40.5 mg/kg 3 or 4 times a day for 6 to 12 days. before, during and after the treatment, identities and numbers of various bacteria contained in 1 g of feces were deter ...19921479688
survey of the prevalence of beta-lactamases amongst 1000 gram-negative bacilli isolated consecutively at the royal london hospital.beta-lactamase expression was examined in 1000 consecutive gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine, wound swab, sputum or blood specimens received at the microbiology laboratory of the royal london hospital. this survey, performed between january and april, 1991, followed a similar study undertaken in early 1982. the distribution of species was similar in the two surveys, except that the proportion of pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates had increased from 11% in 1982 to 17.5% in the present study. ...19921490917
[synergistic action of cefodizime with other antimicrobial agents on clinically isolated microorganisms. ii. synergistic action with sisomicin].cefodizime (cdzm) possesses a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a relatively long half life in the blood. in addition, it shows excellent therapeutic efficacies in the treatment of infections in leukopenic animal models, hence it is expected that cdzm may have good efficacies against various infections in immunocompromised hosts. in the meantime, sisomicin (siso) not only has strong antibacterial activities against gram-negative rods (gnr), but has relatively low nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. t ...19921495193
the effect of amino acid substitution at position 219 of citrobacter freundii cephalosporinase on extension of its substrate spectrum.the cephalosporinase of citrobacter freundii gn346 is a class-c beta-lactamase comprising 361 amino acids. the substitution of the glutamic acid at position 219 in the enzyme by lysine was previously shown to broaden its substrate specificity to unfavorable substrates such as oxyimino cephalosporins [tsukamoto, k., ohno, r. & sawai, t. (1990) j. bacteriol. 172, 4348-4351]. to investigate the cause of this phenomenon, glu219 was changed to glutamine, cysteine or tryptophan. all the resultant enzy ...19921499556
nucleotide sequence of the ampc-ampr region from the chromosome of yersinia enterocolitica.the nucleotide sequence of a 3.1-kb region from the chromosome of the yersinia enterocolitica o:5b strain ip97 containing the gene for an inducible chromosomal cephalosporinase has been determined. the cephalosporinase gene was homologous to other enterobacterial chromosomal cephalosporinase genes, and it was accompanied by a gene homologous to the regulatory ampr gene. the arrangement of genes in the y. enterocolitica ampcr unit was identical to that in the enterobacter cloacae and citrobacter ...19921510392
in vitro and in vivo activities of sce-2787, a new parenteral cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum.sce-2787, a new cephalosporin having a condensed azolium moiety in the 3 position and an aminothiadiazolyl group in the 7 beta side chain, was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo activities in comparison with those of ceftazidime, flomoxef, cefpirome, and e1040. against methicillin-susceptible strains of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis, sce-2787 was more active than ceftazidime and e1040 and was as active as flomoxef and cefpirome, with mics for 90% of strains tested (mic ...19921510428
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ljc 10,627.the in vitro activity of ljc 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. ljc 10,627 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter agglomerans, enterobacter cloacae, hafnia alvei, citrobacter freundii, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, morganella morganii, proteus rettgeri, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae ...19921510436
the threat of resistance to the new oral cephalosporins.phenotypic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly due to the prevalence of beta-lactamases. the most common enzymes responsible for resistance to aminopenicillins and older (1st generation) cephalosporins are the tem-1, tem-2, oxa-1 and shv-1 enzymes, all of which are plasmid-mediated. the recent development of oral cephalosporins sharing structural features and an antimicrobial spectrum comparable to that of 3rd-generation cephalosporins has provided highly active compounds for the man ...19921516458
expression of vi antigen in escherichia coli k-12: characterization of viab from citrobacter freundii and identity of viaa with rcsb.the vi antigen in salmonella typhi is stably expressed and may act to protect the strain against the defensive system of the host. citrobacter freundii, not usually a common human pathogen, also expresses the vi antigen but expresses it unstably, exhibiting a reversible transition between the vi+ and vi- states. two widely separated chromosomal regions, viaa and viab, are needed for vi synthesis. escherichia coli k-12 harboring a functional viab plasmid can also express vi antigen, but the clone ...19921522067
immunochemical studies on sialic acid-containing lipopolysaccharides from enterobacterial species.lipopolysaccharides with sialic acid as a component were isolated from six bacterial serovars of the family enterobacteriaceae. sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and passive haemagglutination demonstrated that epitopes are localized in the o-specific polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharides. the strains were tested for a serological relationship; the only distinct cross-reactivity recorded was between escherichia coli serovars o24 and o56. the molecular mimicry phenomenon was f ...19921524838
bacteriophage lytic patterns for identification of salmonellae, shigellae, escherichia coli, citrobacter freundii, and enterobacter cloacae.a series of bacteriophages specific for escherichia coli (e-1, e-2, e-3, and e-4), citrobacter freundii (phi i, phi ii, and phi iii), enterobacter cloacae (ent), and shigella spp. (sh) have been isolated from hospital sewage. these bacteriophages, in combination with felix salmonella phage o-i, were used as a diagnostic phage typing set which included seven phage preparations: o-i, c (phi i and phi iii), sh, e (e-1 and e-2), ce (phi ii and e-3), e-4, and ent. after 20,280 cultures of 27 species ...19921551974
use of a commercial double-test tablet (rosco pgua/indole) for screening of escherichia coli.a commercial double-test tablet (rosco pgua/indole) for detection of beta-glucuronidase (beta-gur) activity and indole production was evaluated on a collection of 393 isolates of enterobacteria. both beta-gur and indole were positive on 96.6% of escherichia coli strains. beta-gur, only, was also detected in 25 shigella spp., four enterobacter cloacae, eight citrobacter freundii, and five salmonella enteritidis strains, none of which were indole producers. an additional 261 consecutive clinical i ...19921611844
in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new cephalosporin, compared with other cephalosporin antibiotics.the in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a c-3 bicyclic pyridinium group, was compared with ceftazidime, cefpirome, and cefepime. cefquinome inhibited members of the enterobacteriaceae at less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml for escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, salmonella shigella, proteus mirabilis, morganella, and providencia. although most citrobacter freundii and enterobacter cloacae were inhibited by less than 2 ...19921611848
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