endocarditis due to citrobacter diversus developing resistance to cephalothin.a 43-year-old man was admitted with acute bacterial endocarditis. citrobacter diversus susceptible to cephalothin was isolated from blood cultures. citrobacter diversus was later isolated from the aortic valve cusps at surgery, but this isolate was resistant to cephalothin. laboratory testing showed that the citrobacter diversus recovered from blood cultures was capable of producing mutants highly resistant to cephalothin.1977266661
comparison of in vitro activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor.inhibitory activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor was compared by the who-ics agar dilution technique. cefaclor was substantially more active against staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci, haemophilus, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, salmonellae, and shigellae than was cephalexin, which in turn was more active than cephradine. cefaclor appeared to be less resistant to staphylococcal penicillinase than did the other two ag ...1977301005
esculin hydrolysis by enterobacteriaceae.literature reports disagree concerning esculin hydrolysis in the family enterobacteriaceae. a total of 2,490 strains of the family were investigated for esculin hydrolysis by two methods, the esculin spot test and the pathotec incubation strip, which measures constitutive enzyme, and five growth-supporting methods, which determine both constitutive and inducible enzymes. the five growth-supporting media studied were: vaughn-levine, the standard esculin hydrolysis medium (p. r. edwards and w. h. ...1977330558
clinical evaluation of the micro-id, api 20e, and conventional media systems for identification of enterobacteriacea.micro-id (general diagnostics, morris plains, n.j.) is a new kit system designed for the identification of enterobacteriaceae in 4 h. it consists of 15 biochemical tests of paper disks. each test is in its own compartment in a molded plastic tray. only one reagent need be added to the system (2 drops of 20% koh, which is added to the voges-proskauer test). based on the pattern of positive and negative biochemical test results, a five-digit octal code number is calculated. an identification is de ...1979389946
neonatal meningitis due to citrobacter koseri.a five day old neonate was diagnosed as having bacterial meningitis and commenced on ampicillin and flucloxacillin. the organism was then found to be citrobacter koseri and the antibiotics changed to chloramphenicol systemically for two weeks. the child made an uneventful recovery. at four weeks of age her head circumference had increased unacceptably and a computerised axial tomography scan revealed a large frontal lobe abscess. aspiration revealed a large pus filled cavity and citrobacter kose ...1979501512
some interesting isolates from a diagnostic laboratory.citrobacter koseri, plesiomonas shigelloides, edwardsiella tarda, yersinia enterocolitica, alkalescens dispar, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and vibrio alginolyticus were seven interesting microorganisms isolated recently in our diagnostic laboratory.1978641196
clinical significance of citrobacter isolates.little is know about the clinical significance of isolating citrobacter in the clinical laboratory. during a one-year period, 116 citrobacter isolates were obtained from 77 patients with 83 suspected infectious episodes. the majority of the suspected infectious episodes involved the urinary tract (45%) or respiratory tract (41%). citrobacter diversus was associated with 42% of the episodes, citrobacter freundii with 29%, and citrobacter species with 29%. in 42% of the suspected infectious episod ...1978696671
interference by neisseria gonorrhoeae growth by other bacterial species.growth of neisseria gonorrhoeae from clinical specimens has been enhanced by the use of selective media that inhibit the simultaneous growth of other microorganisms. one explanation for this enhancement could be that certain other bacteria inhibit gonococcal growth. this hypothesis was examined by testing 167 bacterial isolates for in vitro gonococcal inhibition; 34.1% of the isolates failed to inhibit the gonococcus, but 12.0% produced weak inhibition and 53.9% strongly inhibited n. gonorrhoeae ...1976823175
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (antibiograms) as an aid in differentiating citrobacter species.the hydrogen sulfide-negative citrobacter group represents a taxonomic problem. various investigators have proposed such designations as padlewskia, levinea, atypical enterobacter cloacae, h2s-negative variants of citrobacter, citrobacter koseri and citrobacter diversus. this problem has been investigated with emphasis on antibiograms as a means of discrimination. clinical isolates fitting the designation citrobacter were studied and, using the criteria of ewing and davis, separated into two gro ...1977836626
distinctive electrophoretic patterns of esterases from levinea malonatica, levinea amalonatica and citrobacter.esterases of 42 strains of levinea malonatica, levinea amalonatica and citrobacter were analysed by horizontal slab electrophoresis in polyacrylamide-agarosegel using several synthetic substrates. on the basis of esterase zymograms a distinctive pattern was established for each of the three species. levinea malonatica was characterized by two major bands: one hydrolysing acetate esters but not butyrate esters; and the other hydrolysing alpha-naphthyl acetate and reacting weakly with alpha-naphth ...1977856943
serotyping of strains belonging to the citrobacter-levinea group isolated from diagnostic material.a proposal is presented for the serotyping of citrobacter-levinea strains: 9 serotypes for citrobacter diversus (levinea malonatica) and 13 serotypes for h2s-negative, indole-positive variants of citrobacter freundii (levinea amalonatica), which showed a considerable antigenic diversity. by means of both kinds of antiserum types 80 per cent of the strains (l. malonatica 100 per cent, l. amalonatica 72 per cent) from a series of 106 strains isolated from different diagnostic material were serolo ...1976936828
citrobacter koseri meningitis in a special care baby outbreak of meningitis due to citrobacter koseri in a special care baby unit is described. the organism showed a high capacity for spread among the babies on the unit and although the intestinal carriage rate was high, the clinical case:carrier ratio was low.19761010878
citrobacter koseri. ii. serological and biochemical examination of citrobacter koseri strains from clinical specimens.165 strains of citrobacter koseri isolated from clinical specimens were studied and their biochemical reactions determined. they were examined serologically by means of a scheme consisting of 14 o antigens. the sources of the clinical specimens were tabulated and the epidemiological information was summarized. the clinical significance of these findings is discussed.19751056967
citrobacter koseri. i. an extended antigenic scheme for citrobacter koser (syn. c. diversus, levinea malonatica).the names citrobacter koseri, levinea malonatica and citrobacter diversus are synonymous. as a result of the study of representative strains of these organisms an antigenic scheme comprising seven o antigens has been proposed. the examination of a further 165 strains from clinical sources suggests that an additional seven antigens should be included in the scheme. the serological and biochemical reactions of the test strains for all 14 o antigens are described.19751097496
massive empyema due to citrobacter diversus.citrobacter diversus is a gram-negative rod member of the enterobacteriacease family. a patient is described from whom this organism was isolated twice in pure culture from empyema fluid. our isolates of citrobacter diversus were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin and sensitive to cephalothin. citrobacter diversus should be distinguished from citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae and klebsiella pneumoniae. this organism joins streptococcus pyogenes, bacteroids species, anaerobic stre ...19751149508
first isolations of levinea-citrobacter cultures in czechoslovakia.twenty-two strains corresponding by their biochemical properties to the genus levinea - citrobacter were isolated. six of the strains were referred to the species citrobacter diversus and 12 to c. freundii, whose properties are identical with those of l. malonatica and l. amalonatica, respectively. four strains differed from levinea organisms by some reactions, but were fully compatible with c. freundii (in the scheme of ewing and davis); two of them utilized malonate. the taxonomic position of ...19751170700
evaluation of tyrosine medium for the identification of enterobacteriaceae.use of the tyrosine medium in the identification of members of the family enterobacteriaceae form the basis of this paper. six hundred and twenty-three strains were tested for their property of tyrosine degradation. three hundred and seventy-two strains were positive in 24 h and an additional eight strains were positive in 48 to 72 h. these positive strains consisted of all 344 strains of the proteus-providencia group, all 25 strains of citrobacter diversus, and three strains of atypical c. freu ...19751176617
[proceedings: neonatal septicemia and meningitis caused by levinea malonatica]. 19751182008
citrobacter diversus at grace hospital, detroit, michigan.over a six-month period from december 1973 to june 1974, isolations of citrobacter diversus were obtained from nine patients at grace hospital. our initial experience was with a patient who developed pneumonitis and a massive fatal empyema due to this organism. seven of the nine patients were 50 years of age. three patients had an underlying malignancy. four patients experienced significant clinical infections. isolations in three patients were considered to be commensal, and two isolations were ...19751211410
[o and h antigens of "levinea malonatica" (author's transl)].a serological study of representative strains of levinea malonatica allows to identify fourteen o factors and seven h factors. the structure of the somatic antigens is rather complicated: group factors (1, 4, 5, 11, 13, 14) and type factors (2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12) can be distinguished. flagellar antigens are monophasic; reciprocal cross-reactions between h antigens of l. malonatica are rarely found. the determinations of o and h antigens are performed by the tube agglutination method. a preli ...19751211719
comparative in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ru29246, the active metabolite of 916b is a new orally absorbed cephalosporin. in tests its active metabolite, ru29246, inhibited streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus pneumoniae at less than or equal to 0.12 micrograms/ml, which is similar to the antibacterial activity of cefuroxime, and was more active than cefaclor. it was also more active (mic 2 micrograms/ml) than cefixime, cefuroxime, cefaclor and cefotaxime against staphylococci. ru29246 inhibited escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, ci ...19921396779
[antibacterial activities of sisomicin against fresh clinical isolates].to investigate antibacterial activities of sisomicin (siso), mics of siso as well as other aminoglycosides (ags) were determined against many clinical isolates which were obtained in 1991. results are summarized below: 1. no siso-resistant strains were observed among isolates of escherichia coli, citrobacter diversus, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, proteus mirabilis and morganella morganii. 2. in comparison with the results of our previous study against isolat ...19921433905
analysis of relationships among isolates of citrobacter diversus by using dna fingerprints generated by repetitive sequence-based primers in the polymerase chain reaction.oligonucleotide probes which match consensus sequences of the repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep) element hybridize to genomic dna of diverse bacterial species. primers based on the rep sequence generate complex band patterns with genomic dna in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), a technique named rep-pcr. we used rep-pcr with genomic dna to fingerprint 47 isolates of citrobacter diversus. previously, 37 were assigned electrophoretic types (ets) by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and 35 ...19921452663
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ljc 10,627.the in vitro activity of ljc 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. ljc 10,627 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter agglomerans, enterobacter cloacae, hafnia alvei, citrobacter freundii, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, morganella morganii, proteus rettgeri, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae ...19921510436
citrobacter diversus brain abscess: case reports and molecular epidemiology.citrobacter diversus brain abscess occurred in two infants in aberdeen, 5 months apart. these are the first reported cases of this condition in the uk since 1976. restriction endonuclease analysis with saci enzyme showed blood and csf isolates from both patients to be identical and different from 10 other clinical isolates of c. diversus and one c. amalonaticus strain. furthermore, isolates of c. diversus from patients belonged to biotype "d" whereas control isolates were of biotypes "a" or "e". ...19921560449
in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new cephalosporin, compared with other cephalosporin antibiotics.the in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a c-3 bicyclic pyridinium group, was compared with ceftazidime, cefpirome, and cefepime. cefquinome inhibited members of the enterobacteriaceae at less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml for escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, salmonella shigella, proteus mirabilis, morganella, and providencia. although most citrobacter freundii and enterobacter cloacae were inhibited by less than 2 ...19921611848
review of the in vitro antibacterial activity of cefprozil, a new oral cephalosporin.cefprozil is a newer oral cephalosporin with a spectrum of activity against organisms that include gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. a review of published data shows that cefprozil is active (susceptibility, less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml; moderate susceptibility, 16 micrograms/ml; resistance, greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) against gram-positive species such as streptococci, methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, and listeria monocytogenes; it may have marginal activi ...19921617037
[bacteremic pneumonia caused by citrobacter diversus: report of a case].a 61 year old male with a localized gastric cancer developed a post-operative pneumonia by c. diversus which was isolated from blood and from bronchoalveolar lavage. a satisfactory response was observed after treatment with penicillin and amikacin. a brief review of the literature concerning the clinical relevance of infections by this unusual agent is offered.19911668779
long term epidemiological analysis of citrobacter diversus in a neonatal intensive care unit.a prolonged outbreak of citrobacter diversus central nervous system infection among hospitalized term infants, peaking in 1979, ceased with establishment of nurse-patient cohorting. the outbreak was attributed to dissemination of an epidemic strain among infants in an antiquated neonatal intensive care unit. when c. diversus colonization recurred within the new neonatal intensive care unit in 1984, cohorting and bacteriologic surveillance were reinstituted. by utilizing biotypes, plasmid profile ...19921741205
in vitro activity of ro 09-1428 compared to other cephalosporins.the in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a new catechol-type parenteral cephalosporin, was compared to that of ceftazidime, e-1040, cefpirome and cefepime against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. ro 09-1428 inhibited group a streptococci at less than or equal to 0.12 micrograms/ml, and group b, c and g streptococci and streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.5 micrograms/ml, whereas for staphylococcus aureus ro 09-1428 had mics of 8-16 micrograms/ml similar to ceftazidime and e-1040. against pseudom ...19911748124
beta-lactamase induction antagonizes beta-lactam susceptibilities in citrobacter diversus and enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates.inducible beta-lactamases were obtained after exposure to several beta-lactams in clinical isolates of enterobacter cloacae and citrobacter diversus. enzyme production was related to the inducer and medium composition. beta-lactamase is able to inactivate only labile compounds, thus generating minimum inhibitory concentrations higher than in the absence of the inducer; imipenem susceptibilities usually were not changed.19911819615
[clinical evaluation of cefpirome in children].cefpirome (cpr, hr 810) was clinically evaluated for its efficacy and safety in 11 patients with ages from 4 months to 11 years with bacterial infection. the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. cpr was administered to 6 patients with bronchopneumonia, a patient with pneumonia, a patient with tonsillitis, 2 patients with acute pharyngitis and a patient with suppurative parotitis at daily dosage levels ranging 55.5-91.7 mg/kg, divided into 3 using intravenous bolus injection or 30 minut ...19911880923
in vitro activity of cefpodoxime against bacterial isolates obtained from patients with cancer.the in vitro activity of cefpodoxime, an oral cephalosporin ester, against 792 bacterial isolates representing 36 species was evaluated in comparison to that of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/smx). cefpodoxime inhibited the majority of streptococcus spp., haemophilus influenzae and proteus mirabilis at a concentration of less than or equal to 0.12 microgram/ml. it was also active against citrobacter diversus, escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., proteus vulgaris, serratia mar ...19911915401
pathophysiology of citrobacter diversus neonatal meningitis: comparative studies in an infant mouse model.citrobacter diversus is a cause of devastating neonatal meningitis, with illness characterized by formation of multiple brain abscesses. we developed an infant mouse intracranial inoculation model to evaluate the pathophysiology of c. diversus neonatal infections. eighteen of 26 strains inoculated intracranially at a dose of ca. 3.3 x 10(3) cfu caused greater than 50% mortality in 2-day-old mice. no correlation was seen between the epidemiologic characteristics of a strain and its rate of mortal ...19912004815
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of gr69153, a new long-acting cephalosporin.gr69153, a new parenteral cephalosporin, inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella oxytoca, proteus mirabilis, citrobacter diversus, shigellae, and salmonellae at less than 0.25 micrograms/ml (mic90). it had activity comparable to those of ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefepime, and e-1040. against cephalosporinase-producing enterobacter cloacae, citrobacter freundii, and serratia marcescens, mics ranged from 0.12 to greater than 32 micrograms/ml, and cefpirome and cefepime were the most active ag ...19912024959
palindromic unit highly repetitive dna sequences exhibit species specificity within enterobacteriaceae.palindromic units (pu, or rep for repetitive extragenic palindrome) constitute a family of dna sequences of 40 nucleotides which is highly repeated in the genome of escherichia coli. we analysed the presence of pu sequences in 99 different bacterial genomes by cross-hybridization. when pu sequences were used as a probe, only dna from enterobacteriaceae closely related to e. coli exhibited an appreciable hybridization signal: shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, salmonella enteritica serotype typhim ...19902092362
pefloxacin efficacy in gram-negative bacillary meningitis.sixteen patients with acute meningitis caused by gram-negative bacteria were treated with pefloxacin intravenously. the age range of the patient group was six months to 85 years with a mean age of 40 years; three patients were children. in all but two patients meningitis was a complication of neurosurgical operations and fourteen of the sixteen had received prior therapy which was not successful. the causative organisms were: pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), acinetobacter calcoaceticus (4), klebsiell ...19902258348
cefotaxime and aminoglycoside treatment of meningitis caused by gram-negative enteric organisms.we reviewed cases of gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis in infants and children treated with cefotaxime at texas children's hospital from january, 1984, through june, 1989. seventeen of 20 children had an underlying condition predisposing to the development of meningitis. the etiologic organisms in these 20 children (2 days to 12 years old; median, 12 days old) were klebsiella sp, 9; escherichia coli, 4; enterobacter cloacae, 3; citrobacter diversus, 2; other, 2. with the exception of on ...19902263430
in vitro activity of hre 664, a penem antibiotic.hre 664, a new penem antibiotic, inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, proteus vulgaris, salmonella, shigella, providencia, aeromonas, and morganella at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml but was considerably less active than cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and imipenem. it did not inhibit pseudomonas aeruginosa (mic greater than 128 micrograms/ml). hre 664 inhibited enterobacter spp., citrobacter freundii, and serratia marcescens at 1-8 micrograms/m ...19902279381
citrobacter diversus lung abscess in a preterm infant. 19902336304
broad spectrum beta-lactamases of citrobacter diversus.citrobacter diversus nf85 produced a chromosomal beta-lactamase that was induced by a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. two major forms of the enzyme, with isoelectric points (pi's) of 5.7 and 6.2, were found in crude cell extracts. derepressed mutants of nf85, generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment, displayed different levels of beta-lactamase expression to the parent strain and had different patterns of resistance to a range of beta-lactam antibiotics. those mutants of nf85 that were totall ...19902338412
genotypic heterogeneity of strains of citrobacter diversus expressing a 32-kilodalton outer membrane protein associated with neonatal meningitis.genetic diversity and relationships among 42 strains of citrobacter diversus recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid of human infants with meningitis and from other clinical sources in the united states were estimated on the basis of electrophoretically detectable allelic variation in 20 genes encoding metabolic enzymes. sixteen distinctive multilocus enzyme genotypes were identified, among which the mean genetic diversity per locus was 0.244. the recovery of isolates of the same genotype in seve ...19902394801
in vitro activity of dactimicin, a novel pseudodisaccharide aminoglycoside, compared with activities of other aminoglycosides.the in vitro activity of dactimicin, a new pseudodisaccharide aminoglycoside which possesses a formimidoyl group, was compared with those of gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin against 500 isolates. dactimicin inhibited 90% of isolates from the family enterobacteriaceae at a concentration of less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml. it was more active than amikacin against klebsiella pneumoniae, serratia marcescens, citrobacter diversus, enterobacter agglomerans, yersinia species, and salmonella s ...19892514625
the microbial ecology of soybean soaking for tempe production.soybeans soaked in tap water for 24 to 36 h at 20, 30 or 37 degrees c underwent a natural fermentation that was characterized by the growth of microorganisms to 10(8)-10(10) cfu/ml (depending on temperature) and a reduction of ph from 6.5 to 4.5. lactobacillus casei, streptococcus faecium, staphylococcus epidermidis and streptococcus dysgalactiae dominated the fermentation but, significant contributions were also made by klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella ozaenae, enterobacter cloacae, enterobact ...19892518226
in vitro activity of ytr 830.ytr 830, now known as tazobactam, is a new penicillanic acid sulfone beta-lactamase inhibitor. the in vitro activity of ytr 830 combined with various penicillins was determined and compared to that of clavulanate and sulbactam combined with the same agents. combined with ampicillin or amoxicillin, all three inhibitors were active against beta-lactamase producing strains of staphylococcus aureus, haemophilus influenzae, klebsiella, citrobacter diversus, and all anaerobes except for bacteroides fr ...19892552029
comparative in vitro activities of piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanate.the in vitro activities of ticarcillin, piperacillin, clavulanic acid, tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam against 819 bacterial isolates were compared. the two beta-lactamase inhibitors, clavulanic acid and tazobactam, had little useful antibacterial activity but enhanced the activities of the penicillins against beta-lactamase-producing strains of haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis, and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus; all strains were su ...19892552904
the beta-lactamases of citrobacter diversus and their hydrolysis kinetics for some structurally-related cephalosporins.we measured the kinetics of hydrolysis of various cephalosporins by the chromosomally-encoded beta-lactamases of citrobacter diversus ula-27. cefonicid, cefamandole, cefatrizine and cefoperazone were all hydrolyzed but these antibiotics showed a different feature in their kinetic parameters. moreover, cefoperazone was a non-competitive inhibitor of this type of enzyme. cefotetan was stable to hydrolysis and behaved like a progressive inactivator. the ability of these enzymes to inactivate the re ...19892614506
characterization of a wide host range plasmid panv-6 from citrobacter diversus.panv-6 is a 5.85 kb, streptomycin resistant, high copy number plasmid isolated from a multi drug resistant clinical isolate of c. diversus by transformation in escherichia coli c-600. the plasmid was very stable, noncurable and could not be amplified with chloramphenicol. it was non-conjugative among enterobacteriaceae hosts. plasmid was transferred by transformation to several gram negative and gram positive hosts. these included esch. coli, serratia marcescens, salmonella typhimurium, klebsiel ...19892644170
review of the in-vitro spectrum and characteristics of cefmetazole (cs-1170).the in-vitro antimicrobial qualities of cefmetazole are summarized from a review of over 30 publications. cefmetazole, a 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporin, is shown to have an antimicrobial spectrum closely resembling cefoxitin's. however, cefmetazole is approximately two- to eight-fold more active than cefoxitin against commonly isolated species such as escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., proteus mirabilis, staphylococcus aureus, pyogenic streptococci, pneumococci, and haemophilus influenzae. cefmet ...19892656622
[susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibacterial agents. a study mainly focused on ofloxacin (the second report). reported by the research group for testing ofloxacin susceptibility on clinical isolates].susceptibilities of various clinical isolates to ofloxacin (oflx) and other antibacterial drugs were examined at 128 hospital laboratories in 36 prefectures throughout japan between april, 1986 and march, 1987. the results were totalized with an emphasis mainly on oflx and were compared with data obtained in the previous year. in this study, identification and susceptibility tests of the isolates were carried out at each hospital laboratory and the tests were performed according to the 1-dilutio ...19892664255
epidemiologic marker system for citrobacter diversus using outer membrane protein profiles.investigations of nursery outbreaks of citrobacter diversus sepsis and meningitis have been hampered by lack of adequate epidemiologic markers for the organism. we studied outer membrane protein profiles from clinical isolates of c. diversus by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine whether this method might be useful in the epidemiologic differentiation of strains. paired cerebrospinal fluid isolates from each of three separate nursery outbreaks of c. diversus me ...19892671030
studies on the microflora associated with xenic cultures of entamoeba gingivalis.the microflora associated with xenic stock cultures (atcc 30927) of entamoeba gingivalis, the major protozoan of the human oral cavity, were isolated and identified as citrobacter diversus, yersinia enterocolitica, acinetobacter anitratus and pseudomonas maltophilia. in studies to determine whether the bacterial isolates were able to utilize rice starch as a sole carbon source, y. enterocolitica exhibited excellent growth in rice starch minimal medium and tysgm-9 medium (with rice starch), but g ...19892739589
initial antibiotic therapy for alligator bites: characterization of the oral flora of alligator open thumb fracture resulting from an alligator bite became infected with aeromonas hydrophila, enterobacter agglomerans, and citrobacter diversus. the patient was treated by surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. we obtained cultures from the mouth of ten alligators to characterize their oral flora. initial empiric therapy after alligator bites should be directed at gram-negative species, in particular, aeromonas hydrophila and anaerobic species including clostridium. of the numerous f ...19892783788
septic pulmonary embolization caused by citrobacter diversus.citrobacter diversus is an unusual human pathogen. this organism has never been reported as a cause of septic pulmonary embolization. we report a case of septic pulmonary embolization caused by c. diversus in a relatively healthy young woman following an otherwise uncomplicated cesarean section.19892813977
reduction of campylobacter jejuni colonization of chicks by cecum-colonizing bacteria producing anti-c. jejuni metabolites.cecum-colonizing bacteria were isolated from campylobacter jejuni-free white leghorn (gallus domesticus) laying hens and screened for the ability to produce anti-c. jejuni metabolites. nine isolates were obtained that possessed this characteristic. the peroral administration of the nine isolates as a mixture (ca. 10(9) per chick) to 1-day-old chicks was followed 1 week later by peroral inoculation of campylobacter jejuni (ca. 10(9) per chick) to determine if the cecal isolates could protect chic ...19921610187
a study of the skin flora of spinal cord injured patients.the skin flora of 11 spinally-injured patients was compared to that of 11 healthy control subjects. the perinea, groins, penile shafts and urethras of the patients were heavily colonized by a range of multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli. observations on patients from admission for up to 25 days suggest that the gram-negative bacilli start to colonize the skin 2-3 days after admission. some species, e.g., citrobacter diversus and escherichia coli appear as transient organisms while others ...19862876030
bacteriocin typing of serratia marcescens. a simplified system.the authors describe a simplified system for the detection of bacteriocin production by serratia marcescens with the use of six indicator strains, which include escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter diversus, enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), and serratia rubidaea grown on arabinose minimal medium plates. of the 64 possible bacteriocin types, 11 were observed; 66% of the isolates tested were found to be one of three types. occasionally more than one bacteriocin type was observ ...1979371382
chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases of citrobacter diversus. interaction with beta-iodopenicillanate and labelling of the active site.both forms of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of citrobacter diversus react with beta-iodopenicillanate at a rate characteristic of class a beta-lactamases. the active site of form i was labelled with the same reagent. the sequence of the peptide obtained after trypsin hydrolysis is identical with that of a peptide obtained in a similar manner from the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of klebsiella pneumoniae.19882848500
[determination of the mic of cefotetan against freshly isolated gram-negative bacilli].antimicrobial activities (mics) of cefotetan (ctt) against 575 strains of 16 spp. of gram-negative bacilli isolated in 1988 were determined to investigate distribution of mics in comparison with those of cefmetazole (cmz), cefoxitin (cfx), latamoxef (lmox) and cefazolin (cez). the change in frequencies of incidence of cephem-resistant strains in the latter half of the 1980 was also investigated. distribution of mic of ctt varied with test strains. no or very few mics were at or higher than 12.5 ...19892621779
do inert beta-lactamase inhibitors act as synergizers of beta-lactam antibiotics? utility of boric and boronic acids.boric and boronic acids were used as inhibitors of beta-lactamases produced by two citrobacter diversus strains and by one strain of pseudomonas aeruginosa; all strains were clinical isolates. the beta-lactamases produced by the two citrobacter diversus strains were inhibited by both borates and boronates, using cephazolin as substrate. the enzyme from pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited only by boronates, using benzylpenicillin as substrate. these inhibitors were also used in combination with ...19892515261
immunological comparison of constitutive beta-lactamases of gram-negative bacteria by neutralization in zymogram gels: properties of anti-tem-1 and anti-tem-2 sera.the zymogram technique was applied to a beta-lactamase neutralization assay with anti-tem-1 and anti-tem-2 sera. both were shown to contain neutralizing antibodies directed towards various beta-lactamases of gram-negative bacteria. the quantitative neutralization allowed classification into five groups of the 28 beta-lactamases used as standards and 61 from clinical isolates. in the first were enzymes such as tem-1 and tem-2 including tle-1, shv-1, shv-2, penicillinases of klebsiella pneumoniae ...19882460115
serious pediatric infections.third-generation cephalosporins are important additions to the range of antibiotics available for treating children with serious bacterial infections. they are highly active against the common pathogens, which cause bacterial meningitis in children. strains of haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol, and streptococcus pneumoniae relatively resistant to penicillin remain susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, citr ...19902183605
in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (ci-978; at-4140) against clinical isolates from cancer patients.the in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new quinolone, was compared with those of ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, greater than 90% of which were isolated from blood culture specimens of cancer patients. sparfloxacin was extremely active against acinetobacter species, aeromonas hydrophila, citrobacter diversus, enterobacter species, escherichia coli, klebsiella species, proteus vulgaris, and serratia marcescens (inhibiting greater than 90% of these ...19902127348
vertical transmission of citrobacter diversus from mother to infant. 19883174312
antimicrobial activity of ly163892, an orally administered 1-carbacephem.ly163892 was found to be similar to cefaclor and slightly superior to cephalexin in antimicrobial activity and spectrum. bacteria with mic50 less than or equal to 8.0 mg/l included escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., proteus mirabilis, citrobacter diversus, haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis, pathogenic neisseria spp., oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci, and streptococcus spp. strains that produced plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases generally remained susceptible to ly163892. ly163892 ...19883182429
in vitro activity of u-76,252 (cs-807), a new oral cephalosporin.u-76,252 is the prodrug of u-76,253. mics of u-76,253 were 0.015 to 0.06 microgram/ml for greater than or equal to 90% of the strains of streptococcus spp., haemophilus influenzae, and proteus mirabilis; 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml for branhamella catarrhalis, escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., and citrobacter diversus; 1 to 8 micrograms/ml for staphylococcus spp.; and 2 to greater than 16 micrograms/ml for other members of the family enterobacteriaceae and aeromonas hydrophila; for 72% of the latter ...19883190194
pathogenesis of brain abscess caused by citrobacter diversus or enterobacter sakazakii. 19883211637
in vitro activity of cefixime, a new oral cephalosporin.the in vitro activities of cefixime and seven comparative oral antimicrobials were studied. mic90s of cefixime were 0.015-1 micrograms/ml for haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis, escherichia coli, klebsiella, citrobacter diversus, proteus, providencia, aeromonas hydrophila and streptococcus. mic90s for other enterobacteriaceae were greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml; 44% of those strains were inhibited by less than or equal 1 microgram/ml. staphylococcus, psuedomonas aeruginosa ...19883219746
proteolytic interconversion and n-terminal sequences of the citrobacter diversus major beta-lactamases.the n-terminal sequences of the two major beta-lactamases produced by citrobacter diversus differed only by the absence of the first residue in form ii and the loss of five amino acid residues at the c-terminal end. limited proteolysis of the homogeneous form i protein yielded a variety of enzymatically active products. in the major product obtained after the action of papain, the first three n-terminal residues of form i had been cleaved, whereas at the c-terminal end the treated enzyme lacked ...19912039443
on the kinetic interaction between ceftriaxone and some beta-lactamases.the activity of beta-lactamases from citrobacter diversus ula-27 on ceftriaxone, a widely recognized third-generation cephalosporin, has been examined and compared to the activity of various other beta-lactamases from different sources. ceftriaxone (roche s.p.a. milan) was found to be resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases from enterobacter cloacae and bacillus cereus, but susceptible to beta-lactamases from mycobacterium fortuitum strain cow 18 and, mostly, to beta-lactamases from various s ...19883260552
in vitro activity of an oral iminomethoxy aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, r-3746.the in vitro activity of r-3746, an iminomethoxy aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a ch2och3 moiety at position 3, was compared with those of other antibiotics. r-3746 inhibited the majority of hemolytic streptococci (groups a, b, c, f, and g) and streptococcus pneumoniae at less than 0.06 micrograms/ml, which was comparable to the activity of amoxicillin, 2- to 8-fold more active than cefixime, and 16- to 64-fold more active than cefaclor and cephalexin. ninety percent of beta-lactamase-produci ...19883260766
citrobacter diversus ula-27 beta-lactamases. improved purification and general properties.two chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases have been purified from citrobacter diversus ula-27. they exhibited slightly different isoelectric points (6.8 and 6.2) and very similar mr values (congruent to 29,000). their specificity spectrum was rather wide, since they hydrolysed some cephalosporins with kcat: values similar to those observed with the best penicillin substrates. cloxacillin, methicillin and imipenem were hydrolysed very slowly. hydrolysis of azthreonam could not be detected.19883264152
tigemonam, an oral monobactam.tigemonam is an orally administered monobactam. at less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml it inhibited the majority of strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., enterobacter aerogenes, citrobacter diversus, proteus spp., providencia spp., aeromonas hydrophila, salmonella spp., shigella spp., serratia marcescens, and yersinia enterocolitica. at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml it inhibited haemophilus spp., neisseria spp., and branhamella catarrhalis. it did not inhibit pseudomonas spp. ...19883279906
activity of antiseptics against biofilms of mixed bacterial species growing on silicone part of a programme to establish the relative merits of antiseptics that are used as bladder instillations to control urinary tract infections in patients with indwelling catheters, the activity of five such formulations were tested against dense (10(9) cfu/cm2) mixed biofilms composed of citrobacter diversus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococcus faecalis growing on silicone discs. all three species were resistant to chlorhexidine (200 mg/l) and povidone-iodine (1% v/v) in the biofilm mode ...19911908382
comparative in vitro activity of amoxycillin/clavulanate (augmentin), ceftazidime and ceftriaxone against hospital strains of gram-negative and -positive bacteria.the in vitro antibacterial activities of amoxycillin/clavulanate (augmentin), ceftazidime and ceftriaxone were compared against 330 gram-negative and gram-positive strains isolated from clinical specimens received at the king abdulaziz university hospital (kauh) in saudi arabia. the antibacterial susceptibility was determinated by stokes method and by the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) using an agar dilution method. ceftazidime and ceftriaxone were the most active antibiotics, inhibiting ...19883293818
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new monobactam, b0-1165.b0-1165 is a 1-carboxy-1-cyclopropoxyamino,4-fluoromethyl monobactam. it inhibited the majority of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, aeromonas hydrophila, proteus mirabilis, proteus vulgaris, providencia rettgeri, providencia stuartii, yersinia enterocolitica, haemophilus influenzae, neisseria gonorrhoeae, and salmonella and shigella species at less than or equal to 0.125 microgram/ml. overall, its in vitro activity was similar to that of aztreona ...19873300528
activity of some antiseptics against urinary tract pathogens growing as biofilms on silicone surfaces.the activity of chlorhexidine, mandelic acid and a mandelic/lactic mixture were tested against biofilms of four species of gram-negative nosocomial organisms that commonly infect the catheterized urinary tract. cells growing on silicone discs were exposed to concentrations of agents used in bladder instillation. citrobacter diversus biofilms proved to be sensitive to all three agents. pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus mirabilis and klebsiella pneumoniae all survived well in chlorhexidine but their ...19911908381
pathogenesis of brain abscess formation in an infant rat model of citrobacter diversus bacteremia and meningitis.the pathogenesis of citrobacter diversus meningitis and brain abscess was studied in infant rats. two-day-old rats were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally with c. diversus. c. diversus strain 4277, lacking the 32,000-molecular-weight outer membrane protein that appears to be a marker for strains causing meningitis in human neonates, was more likely to produce bacteremia, meningitis, and death in rats than was strain 4036, which possesses this outer membrane protein. strain 4036 was, h ...19883335794
vertical transmission of citrobacter diversus from mother to infant. 19883368261
carriage of citrobacter diversus among young children in baltimore. 19883368273
antimicrobial activity of imipenem against 1386 clinical isolates.1386 isolates from clinical specimens were tested against imipenem by disc agar diffusion. the bacteria used in this study consisted of escherichia coli, enterobacter aerogenes, e. agglomerans, e. cloacae, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, k. ozanae, proteus mirabilis, p. vulgaris, providencia stuartii, p. rettgeri, acinetobacter calcoaceticus, citrobacter diversus, c. freundii, morganella morganii, serratia liquefaciens, s. marcescens, hafnia alvei, aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa ...19863468319
efficacy and tolerance of oral ofloxacin in treating various infections.66 patients were given daily doses of ofloxacin between 400 and 800 mg for 10 days to 6 months. they were suffering from exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (15), soft tissue phlegmon (11), complicated urinary tract infections (7), bronchopneumonia (7), chronic osteomyelitis in exacerbation (8), chronic prostatitis in exacerbation (5), lower urinary tract infections (3), chronic otitis media (3), acute otitis (3), acute bronchitis (1), lung abscess (2) or liver abscess (1). pathogens included pse ...19873481312
antimicrobial activity and beta-lactamase stability of sk&f 88070 compared with other agents.the in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of sk&f 88070 (7-[[2-amino-4-thiazolyl)(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-3-[[ [1-(2-sulfaminoethyl)-1h-tetrazol-5-yl]thio]methyl]-3- cephem-4-carboxylic acid) a new parenteral cephalosporin was investigated against 780 types of bacteria. sk&f 88070 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, salmonella species, shigella species, morganella morganii, and citrobacter diversus at less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml. i ...19863485506
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of two oral cephalosporins, ceftetrame (ro 19-5247) and cefetamet (ro 15-8074).ceftetrame (ro 19-5247) and cefetamet (ro 15-8074), two new orally administered aminothiazolyl imimomethoxy cephalosporins, inhibited hemolytic streptococci and streptococcus pneumoniae at less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml but were less active against staphylococci than were cephalexin and cefaclor. they did not inhibit s. faecalis, s. faecium, listeria monocytogenes, corynebacterium jk species, or pseudomonas aeruginosa. haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis, and neisseria gonor ...19863490827
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new difluoro oxacephem, 6315-s.6315-s, a novel difluoromethyl thioacetamido oxacephem, had in vitro activity comparable to that of cefotaxime and moxalactam against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, klebsiella oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, salmonella spp., and shigella spp., inhibiting 90% at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml. it inhibited piperacillin- and cefoperazone-resistant isolates in these species. 6315-s did not inhibit cefotaxime- or moxalactam-resistant citrobacter freundii, enterob ...19863492172
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new penem, cgp 31608.the in vitro activity of cgp 31608, a new penem, against aerobic and anaerobic organisms was evaluated and compared with those of other beta-lactams. cgp 31608 inhibited escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, proteus mirabilis, citrobacter diversus, and salmonella, shigella, aeromonas, and yersinia spp. with mics for 50% of the strains (mic50s) of 2 to 4 micrograms/ml and mic90s of 4 micrograms/ml, compared with cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and imipenem mics of less than 0.2 ...19873496845
citrobacter diversus ula27 produces two forms of a chromosomal beta-lactamase.a multi-resistant clinical isolate of citrobacter diversus, particularly resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins, has been studied. the strain produced constitutively high levels of beta-lactamase which efficiently hydrolysed cephaloridine but not ampicillin. the apparent km value for cephaloridine (125 +/- 25 microm) was within the range usually observed for beta-lactamases in similar bacteria. the strain possessed two forms of the enzyme as indicated by isoelectric focusing patterns, hplc ...19873497915
fractionation and characterization of two beta-lactamases in citrobacter diversus ula-27 strain by chromatofocusing. 19873500180
cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding the beta-lactamase from citrobacter diversus.the gene coding for the class a beta-lactamase of citrobacter diversus has been cloned and sequenced. it contains the information for a 294-amino-acid precursor protein, including a 27-residue n-terminal signal peptide. the deduced sequence of the n-terminal portion of the mature protein is in excellent agreement with that determined by microsequencing of the protein and readily explains the pi differences observed between the naturally occurring forms i and ii of the enzyme. the sequence of the ...19911778425
in vitro susceptibility of citrobacter species to various antimicrobial agents.the in vitro activities of 16 antimicrobial agents against 14 clinical isolates of citrobacter diversus and 27 isolates of citrobacter freundii were studied. c. freundii isolates were more resistant, being susceptible only to amikacin, netilmicin, gentamicin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. c. diversus isolates were susceptible to many more of the agents tested.19873606084
[meningitis and brain abscess caused by levinea malonatica in a newborn infant]. 19863707283
[neonatal sepsis and urinary tract infection due to citrobacter diversus]. 19863732947
anaerobic malonate decarboxylation by citrobacter diversus. growth and metabolic studies, and evidence of atp formation.citrobacter diversus atcc 27156 was able to grow by decarboxylation of malonate to acetate under strictly anaerobic conditions, in the presence of yeast extract. the growth yield, corrected for growth on yeast extract, was 2.03 g cell dry mass per mol malonate. the addition of malonate to atp-depleted cell suspensions (less than 0.2 nmol atp/mg cell protein) resulted in a rapid increase in cellular atp levels to between 4.5 and 6.0 nmol/mg cell protein. intact cells decarboxylated malonate at ra ...19921510573
occurrence and clinical significance of tyrosine clearing positive citrobacter freundii in human faecal specimens.59 tyrosine clearing positive citrobacter strains were isolated from a total of 2062 human faecal specimens, specifically from 1167 healthy people and from 895 patients suffering from different gastrointestinal syndromes. all strains were identified biochemically as citrobacter freundii. citrobacter diversus 100% positive for tyrosine clearing could not be isolated in any case. citrobacter freundii was found twice as frequently in stools of healthy human beings than of patients. there is a stati ...19863788353
[spondylitis due to citrobacter diversus. case report and review of citrobacter diversus infections].citrobacter diversus (c.d.) is an unusual human pathogen. its pathogenic potency is small or nil, and in most cases it is isolated in combination with other organisms. most isolates are of indeterminate clinical significance. occasionally c.d. may cause opportunistic infections, especially in subjects with primary or secondary conditions of poor host defense, immunosuppressed patients or neonates. we report a case of c.d. vertebral osteomyelitis following c.d. pneumonia. the osteomyelitis was cu ...19921496345
mezlocillin, ceftizoxime, and amikacin alone and in combination against six enterobacteriaceae in a neutropenic site in rabbits.closed-space, locally neutropaenic infection sites were simulated in rabbits by implanting subcutaneous semipermeable chambers inoculated with 5 x 10(4) cfu/ml of escherichia coli (one strain), citrobacter diversus (one strain), klebsiella pneumoniae (two strains) or serratia marcescens (two strains). four hours after inoculation, treatment was begun with amikacin (15 mg/kg), mezlocillin (100 mg/kg), or ceftizoxime (50 mg/kg) alone or in two-drug combinations. antibiotics were given intramuscula ...19853856563
the activity of cefbuperazone, a 7 alpha-methoxy 7 beta acyl ureido cephalosporin.the activity of cefbuperazone, a 7 alpha-methoxy ureido cephalosporin, was determined against 726 clinical isolates. ninety percent of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, enterobacter aerogenes, proteus vulgaris, morganella morganii, salmonella, and shigella species were inhibited by less than or equal to 6.3 micrograms/ml. cefbuperazone was more active than cefamandole, cefoxitin and piperacillin against these species. concentrat ...19853879464
evaluation of progesterone treatment to create a model for equine investigate a model for equine endometritis, 12 mares with normal reproductive tracts were divided into 2 groups. all mares received progesterone in oil, 250 mg im, daily. at 5 days after initiation of progesterone administration, the uteri were inoculated with 10(6) colony forming units of pseudomonas aeruginosa. the day of inoculation was designated day 0. on day 6, endometrial swab samples yielded p. aeruginosa in 5 mares; samples from the other 7 mares yielded heavy growth of escherichia ...19921459059
the in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of cefpirome (hr 810), a pyridine cephalosporin agent active against staphylococci, enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonas aeruginosa.the in vitro activity of cefpirome, a new cyclopyridinium cephalosporin, was evaluated against 947 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. cefpirome inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., citrobacter diversus, morganella morganii, proteus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis, aeromonas spp., salmonella spp., shigella spp. and haemophilus and neisseria species at less than or equal to 0.4 mg/l. it had activity comparable to that of cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and moxalactam again ...19853928497
treatment of gram-negative infections with aztreonam.twenty-one patients with serious gram-negative infections were treated with aztreonam. twenty of these were clinical and microbiologic cures; there was one clinical improvement with microbiologic persistence. no bacteria became resistant. cure rates were: bone and joint (11 of 11); skin and soft tissue (six of six); pneumonia (two of two); perinephric abscess (one of one); and intra-abdominal abscess (zero of one). the bacteria responsible for these infections included pseudomonas aeruginosa (12 ...19854038577
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