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disruption of vi bacteriophage iii and localization of its deacetylase activity.it has been shown that particles of vi bacteriophage iii catalyse deacetylation of o-acetyl pectic (polygalacturonic) acid, a structural analogue of vi polysaccharide (vi antigen). using this substrate, and determining the acetic acid liberated by gas-liquid chromatogrphy, a method for the estimation of vi phage deacetylase activity has been developed. purified particles of vi phage iii were exposed to a variety of mildly dissociative reagents and conditions, and then tested for plaque-forming a ...19751468
gentamicin-susceptibility of various pathogens isolated from clinical materials.we studied on the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against various pathogens isolated from clinical materials mainly isolated during 1974 and 1975, comparing with other antibiotics. beta hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci and enterococci are less susceptible to gentamicin than staphylococci. staph, aureus and staph. epidermidis resistant to various antibiotics are very susceptible to gentamicin, and no resistant strain to this drug was found. haemophilus influenzae, h. parainfluenzae and h. ...19765619
kinetic properties of serratia marcescens adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase.the regulatory properties of partially purified adenosine 5'-diphosphate-(adp) glucose pyrophosphorylase from two serratia marcescens strains (atcc 274 and atcc 15365) have been studied. slight or negligible activation by fructose-p2, pyridoxal-phosphate, or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) was observed. these compounds were previously shown to be potent activators of the adpglucose pyrophosphorylases from the enterics, salmonella typhimurium, enterobacter aerogenes, e ...19766432
observations on brilliant green agar with h2s indicator.several formulations of brilliant green agar with an added h2s indicator were evaluated. results were optimum with variations of a basic formula consisting of 40 g of tryptic soy agar (difco), 8 g of lactose, 8 g of sucrose, 80 mg of phenol red, 1 g of sulfanilamide, 1.5 g of ferric ammonium citrate, 5 g of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, and 7 mg of brilliant green dye per liter. brilliant green dye was added after sterilization of the other components this formulation supported good growth of ...19767190
in vitro study of netilmicin compared with other aminoglycosides.netilmicin (sch 20569) is an ethyl derivative of gentamicin c(1a) that is active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus isolates. among 342 clinical isolates tested, all staphylococci; 92% of escherichia coli, 93% of klebsiella pneumoniae, and 92% of enterobacter were inhibited by 0.8 mug or less of netilmicin per ml, but only 78% of p. aeruginosa were inhibited by 3.1 mug or less per ml. most clinical isolates of enterococci, serratia marcescens, and ...197610829
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
studies of relationship among terrestrial pseudomonas, alcaligenes, and enterobacteria by an immunological comparison of glutamine synthetase.antibody to purified glutamine synthetase from escherichia coli was prepared and used for an immunological comparison of glutamine synthetases from species of salmonella, citrobacter, enterobacter, serratia, proteus, erwinia, aeromonas, pseudomonas, acinetobacter, xanthomonas, alcaligenes, and paracoccus. the results of ouchterlony double diffusion experiments and quantitative microcomplement fixation studies indicated that the amino acid sequence of this enzyme was highly conserved in different ...197831146
[metabolism of dicarboxylic amino acids and their amides in bacteria of the genus citrobacter].in 58 citrobacter strains the pathways of the utilization of dicarbonic amino acids and their amides were studied. these organisms were found to be incapable of decarboxylating glutaminic and asparaginic acids, as well as their amides. all the strains could actively desamidizate asparagine. not all of these strains showed glutaminase activity. aspartate-aminotransferase occurred twice as often as alanine-aminotransferase, the level of activity being approximately the same. the citrobacter strain ...197937683
resistance of gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics in large calf agglomerations.the antibiotic resistance of e. coli, citrobacter, enterobacter-klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from calves was tested. a high proportion of multiresistance was found even in e. coli strains isolated from newborn calves. gram-negative bacteria isolated from animals in three large calfhouses were almost 100% resistant to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulphonamides. multiresistance was general and varied from 5 to 12 antibiotics among different strains. initial high sensitiv ...197941425
importance of colicinogeny for the course of acute bacillary dysentery.the development of acute bacillary dysentery was followed in 23 patients involved in two outbreaks and in three sporadic, mutually unrelated cases. repeated cultivations performed at 2-day intervals for 10 days yielded 386 identifiable strains of "opportune intestinal flora". escherichia coli colicinogenic activity is one of the significant factors of gastrointestinal tract protection. the period of shigella excretion is significantly reduced (p less than 0.02) if an appropriate colicinogenic e. ...197944941
immunological relationships of bacterial l-asparaginases.rabbit antisera against l-asparaginase preparations from escherichia coli, erwinia carotovora, citrobacter sp. and chromobacterium violaceum showed on immunoelectrophoresis that only the enzymes from e. coli and citrobacter are immunologically related. purified preparations had to be used to determine the immunological cross-reactions. immunoelectrophoresis at different ph values yielded the zero mobility points of the enzymes. the activity of the er. carotovora preparation was enhanced up to fo ...197654404
[live enteric typhoid vaccine consisting of a vi-negative double-dependent mutant of s. typhi and a vi-positive strain of citrobacter].the authors present experimental data on the study of the living enteral vaccine against the typhoid infection from the vi-negative strain of salmonella with a double-dependence by streptomycin and purine, and from the vi-positive strain -- citrobacter 5396/38. the method of immunoelectrophoretic analysis showed an indenticity of the o- and h-antigens of the doubledependent mutant with the o- and h-antigens of the typhoid strains of bacteria (ty2-4446 and 5501). a sufficiently marked immunologic ...197660853
[analysis of beta-galactosidase in differential study of salmonella and citrobacter]. 197770559
anaerobic dechlorination and degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.screening studies with strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria showed that clostridium app. and several other representatives of bacillaceae and enterobacteriaceae actively degraded gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-hch) under anaerobic conditions. representatives of lactobacillaceae and propronibacterium were inactive. with 36cl-labelled gamma-hch a nearly complete dechlorination was shown to occur in 4--6 days by clostridium butyricum, c. pasteurianum and citrobacter freundii, while other f ...197774989
synthetic disaccharide-protein antigen for production of specific o2 antiserum for immunofluorescence diagnosis of salmonella.antisera from rabbits immunized with the synthetic disaccharide paratose 1 leads to alpha 3 mannose, representive of salmonella o-antigen 2, covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (bsa), were used in indirect immunofluorescence studies for the identification of salmonella serogroup a (o-antigen 1,2,12) bacteria. among 1311 enteric bacteria tested, 497 were salmonella. the anti-paratose 1 leads to alpha 3 mannose-bsa serum identified correctly all the 63 serogroup a strains tested. no positive ...197878659
[sensitivity of enterobacteria, similar to salmonellae, to polyvalent salmonella bacteriophage]. 197879020
[simplified and accelerated methods of determining the generic affiliation of bacteria of the intestinal bacilli group]. 197986647
the strategy of infection as a criterion for phylogenetic relationships of non-coli phages morphologically similar to phage t7.five phages which are morphologically similar to coliphage t7 but attack other host bacteria have been compared to t7 and to its relative, t3, by the following criteria: (a) cross-reactivity with antisera against t7 and t3, (b) dna base sequence homologies, as determined by the c0t technique, (c) synthesis of two phage-coded enzymes: rna polymerase and samase, (d) patterns of phage-directed protein synthesis, as determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of phage coat subunits. as judg ...197990110
identification of bacteroides fragilis by indirect immunofluorescence.rabbit antiserum against live or heat-killed bacteroides fragilis nctc 9343 bacteria was titrated against hot phenol water-extracted polysaccharide antigens from five different species of the 'b. fragilis group' of bacteria using an enzyme immunoassay and shown to be specific for the b. fragilis nctc 9343 polysaccharide. when the antiserum was used in indirect immunofluorescence, 97.1% of 244 b. fragilis strains were correctly identified. only 8 of the other 312 bacteroides strains were stained ...197994651
in vitro susceptibility of gentamicin and/or tobramycin resistant gram-negative bacilli to seven aminoglycosides.the in vitro activity of gentamicin, tobramycin, sisomicin, netilmicin, amikacin, kanamycin and streptomycin was tested simultaneously by the agar dilution method against 584 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli that were resistant to gentamicin and/or tobramycin. about half of the gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas were susceptible to tobramycin but cross-resistance was virtually complete between gentamicin and tobramycin for enterobacteriaceae. sisomicin was much more active than gentamici ...197898451
susceptibility of the anaerobic bacteria, group d streptococci, enterobacteriaceae, and pseudomonas to semisynthetic penicillins: carbenicillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin.sodium piperacillin t-1220, a new semisynthetic penicillin, was tested in vitro against 297 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria and 669 aerobic bacteria by the conventional agar dilution method and compared with carbenicillin and ticarcillin. at a 100-mug/ml concentration the three drugs showed comparable effectiveness against the anaerobes tested. however, at 20 mug/ml, piperacillin was the most effective drug against bacteroides fragilis, peptostreptococci, and group d streptococci. at thi ...1978103491
[efficacy, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of sisomicin in urinary tract infections (author's transl)].since 1973 30 patients with urinary tract infections (uti) or pyelonephritis have been treated with sisomicin, a new aminoglycoside, in a daily dose of 2 mg/kg for a period of seven to nine days. from a clinical point of view the result of treatment was good. complete resolution was achieved in 17 patients, improvement in nine, and there was no effect in four patients. thirty-five causative organisms (escherichia coli = 23, proteus sp. = 7, klebsiella sp. = 3, pseudomonas aeruginosa = 1, citroba ...1978103844
homology of the gene coding for outer membrane lipoprotein within various gram-negative bacteria.the mrna for a major outer membrane lipoprotein from escherichia coli was found to hybridize specifically with one of the ecori and one of the hindiii restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of total dna from nine bacteria in the family enterobacteriaceae: e. coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhimurium, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella aerogenes, enterobacter aerogenes, edwardsiella tarda, serratia marcescens, and erwinia amylovora. however, among the enterobacteriaceae, dna from two ...1979104972
[the antibacterial efficacy of cefaclor in routine testing of clinical material from two berlin hospitals (author's transl)].the agar diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial efficacy of cefaclor against bacterial strains isolated routinely from patients in two hospitals in berlin. a comparison was made with the efficacy of oxacillin, azlocillin, amikacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin, cefazolin, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. a total of 1235 strains of staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus species, citrobacter and pse ...1979121730
piperacillin, a new penicillin active against many bacteria resistant to other penicillins.the in vitro activity of piperacillin, a new semisynthetic piperazine penicillin derivative, was evaluated against 626 clinical isolates and compared with the activity of other beta-lactam antibiotics. at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml, piperacillin inhibited all streptococci except enterococci. non-beta-lactamase-producing staphylococci were inhibited by 1.6 microgram or less per ml. both beta-lactamase- and non-beta-lactamase-producing haemophilus were inhibited by 0.1 microgram/ml. piper ...1978122519
[follow-up study of the occurence of the representatives of the species citrobacter in man and in ambient environment (author's transl)]. 1975124223
[simplified diagnostic scheme for enterobacteriaceae].after testing 18 experimental variants against 40 reference strains belonging to different enterovacteriaceae groups, the authors chose a multitest medium that permits concomitant testing of mobility, indol, lysinedecarboxylase and phenylalanine deaminase (milp). in this medium, the reactions of 3734 strains belonging to the genera escherichia, shigella. salmonella, citrobacter, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia. proteus and providencia were concordant with the reactions in individual test medi ...1977144994
[comparison of in vitro activity of ciclacillin and other penicilline(author's transl)]. 1975164612
biological values of the infant, juvenile, and adult agouti (dasyprocta sp) with emphasis on microbial flora.normal values for intestinal flora were determined on four adult, two juvenile, and four infant agoutis (dasyprocta sp) maintained at our institution. serologic, hematologic, biochemical, and histologic observations were also made on these same agoutis, and serologic, microbiologic, and endoparasitic tests were made on serum and fecal samples from agoutis maintained at other institutions. streptococci, lactobacilli and nonenteropathogenic escherichia coli were isolated from cecal contents of all ...1976185456
[destruction of alkyl sulfates by a citrobacter freundii culture]. 1978203618
thermolabile repression of cephalosporinase synthesis in citrobacter freundii.an unusual regulatory system of cephalosporinase synthesis in citrobacter freundii has been found. when the bacteria are grown at 20 c, the cephalosporinase is synthesized as a typical inducible enzyme and benzylpenicillin acts as an effective inducer. the enzyme, however, is synthesized in the absence of the inducer at growth temperatures above 25 c. when the growth temperature is shifted from 20 c to 37 c, the induction of enzyme synthesis is observed after about one half of the organism doubl ...1977203825
lethal effect of complement and lysozyme on polymyxin-treated, serum-resistant gram-negative bacilli.when genetically serum-resistant escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and citrobacter freundii, but not pseudomonas aeruginosa or proteus mirabilis, were exposed to polymyxin b, they became susceptible to the bactericidal action of normal human and rabbit sera. in constrast, beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics did not render any serum-resistant bacteria serum-sensitive. synergy between polymyxin b and the serum bactericidal system could be demonstrated by the addition of polymyxin b t ...1979229175
[comparison of the antibacterial activity of amikacin (bb-k8) with other aminoglycosides against pathogens recently isolated from clinical materials (author's transl) ].we determined the antibacterial activity of amikacin against 1,277 strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical materials during 1974, including beta hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, enterococci, staphylococcus aureus, staph. epidermidis, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, citrobacter, serratia, proteus morganii and pseudomonas aeruginosa, and compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of this drug with gentamicin, dibekacin, tobramycin and kanamycin. 1)antibacteri ...1975240047
[on sensitivity test of dibekacin by the disc method (author's transl)]. 1975240956
[synthetic medium for testing of susceptibility. ii. susceptibility of bacteria to sulphonamides (author's transl)].a comparative study of 9 media for testing the susceptibility of bacteria to 7 sulphonamides has been carried out. the evaluated culture-media included 4 "mueller hinton" media (mh), 4 others based on the formula of the "diagnostic sensitivity test" agar base (d.s.t.) and a "synthetic medium" (sm) which has been developed in our laboratory. mh and d.s.t. culture-media have been supplied by 4 manufacturing companies in europe and usa. a total number of 21 bacterial cultures have been employed. th ...1975241178
cefuroxime, a beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of gram-positive and -negative activity.the in vitro activity of cefuroxime, a cephalosporin antibiotic, was investigated against 604 isolates and compared with the activity of other beta-lactam compounds. cefuroxime had activity comparable to that of other cephalosporins, including cefamandole and cefoxitin, against streptococcal and staphylococcal species; most streptococci were inhibited by 0.1 mug or less per ml, and staphylococci were inhibited by 1.6 mug or less per ml. enterococci were relatively resistant. cefuroxime inhibited ...1978248268
comparison of in vitro activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor.inhibitory activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor was compared by the who-ics agar dilution technique. cefaclor was substantially more active against staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci, haemophilus, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, salmonellae, and shigellae than was cephalexin, which in turn was more active than cephradine. cefaclor appeared to be less resistant to staphylococcal penicillinase than did the other two ag ...1977301005
bactericidal factor produced by haemophilus influenzae b: partial purification of the factor and transfer of its genetic determinant.when aerobically grown on complex media, haemophilus influenzae b and unencapsulated variants, rb strains, produced a bactericidal factor that was active against other haemophilus species and certain genera of the enterobacteriaceae. a total of 341 clinical isolates of haemophilus were tested for susceptibility to the factor. ninety-three percent of h. influenzae (nontypable), 75% of h. haemolyticus, 71% of h. parainfluenzae, and 22% of h. parahaemolyticus were susceptible. h. influenaze b strai ...1977301008
combined activitiy of clavulanic acid and ticarcillin against ticarcillin-resistant, gram-negative bacilli.fifty-one clinical isolates of ticarcillin-resistant, gram-negative bacilli were tested for susceptibility to combinations of ticarcillin and clavulanic acid (brl 14151), a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor. minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) were measured by a microdilution method, and minimal bactericidal concentrations for selected strains were measured by the broth dilution method. ticarcillin mics were >/=128 mug/ml for all and >/=512 mug/ml for 38 (75%) of the strains. thirty-nine stra ...1978308792
[cefuroxim, a new beta-lactamase stable cephalosporin].in vitro activity of cefuroxime, a new cephalosporin stable to bacterial beta-lactamases, was compared with that of cefalothin and other cephalosporins by serial dilution test in more than 600 bacterial strains. cefuroxime was more active than cefalothin on most strains of gram negative bacilli (except salmonella species) and also on most strains of cefalothin-resistant bacteria. in comparison to cefalothin, cefoxitin and cefamandol, cefuroxime exerted the strongest activity on meningococci, str ...1978309178
comparative inhibition beta-lactamases by novel beta-lactam compounds.the beta-lactamase-inhibiting activity of cp-45,899, 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicylo(3,2,0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 4,4-dioxide [2s-(2alpha,5alpha)], was investigated and compared with the beta-lactamase-inhibiting activity of clavulanic acid and dicloxacillin. cp-45,899 was an effective inhibitor of staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase and of those beta-lactamases of gram-negative bacteria which are primarily active against penicillins or equally active against penicillins and cephalosp ...1979311616
mechanism of synergistic action of a combination of ampicillin and dicloxacillin against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of citrobacter freundii.the mechanism of synergistic activity of a combination of ampicillin and dicloxacillin was studied on beta-lactamase-producing citrobacter freundii gn346 and its derived beta-lactamaseless mutant gn346/16. the synergistic activity was exhibited against the parent strain but not against the mutant strain. precultivation of the parent strain with the combination reduced the amount of the subsequent binding of [14c]penicillin g to the membrane fraction from the treated cells, but no reduction was o ...1979316307
in vitro antibacterial activity of cefoperazone (t-1551), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin.cefoperazone, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. it is as active as cefazolin and cefamandole against gram-positive bacteria and is more active than cefazolin and cefamandole against such gram-negative bacilli as escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae, and serratia marcescens. the superiority of cefoperazone over cefazolin and cefamandole with respect to activity ...1979316988
comparison of antibacterial activity of a new cephalosporin, ceftizoxime (fk 749) with other cephalosporin antibiotics.fk 749 is a distinctive new parenteral cephalosporin antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum which is more potently active against a wide variety of gram-negative bacilli, including the opportunistic pathogens such as citrobacter and enterobacter species and serratia marcescens, than sce 963, t 1551 and cefmetazole. the activity of fk 749 against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, pyogenes was by far superior to that of the three other antibiotics. these test organisms were not resi ...1979317284
interaction of blood with enterobacteriaceae: hemolysis, hemagglutination, fibrinolysis.one thousand eighty enterobacteriaceae, isolated during a period of three months, were tested for the presence of hemolysis, hemagglutination and fibrinolysis on human erythrocytes and plasma. the fibrinolysis on human erythrocytes and plasma. the escherichia coli have the greatest diversity of action on the blood. of 481 strains, 32.9% were hemolytic, 21.9% fibrinolytic, and 10.5% hemagglutinating. of 190 strains of klebsiella, 95.2% were fibrinolytic. of 53 strains of enterobacter, 90.6% were ...1977320861
effect of storage conditions of the performance of bismuth sulfite agar.refrigerated storage of bismuth sulfite agar plates for up to 4 days did not adversely affect growth and colonial characteristics of selected salmonella strains. incubation of inoculated plates for 48 h favored the development of more salmonellae with typical morphology. inoculated plates of freshly poured medium incubated for 48 h gave recoveries similar to those on refrigerated plates and showed a high selectivity against citrobacter freundii and proteus vulgaris, organisms which mimic the col ...1977321469
gram-negative bacillary pneumonia in the compromised host.the clinical and radiological characteristics of 217 consecutive episodes of gram-negative bacillary pneumonia occurring in 189 adult cancer patients between november 1968 and december 1974 were analyzed. the majority of patients had acute leukemia (54%). fever larger than or equal to 101 degrees f was the single most common symptom and sign of the presence of infection (90%). next in frequency were crepitant rales (65%), cough (41%), dyspnea (19%) and chest pain (18%). radiographic evidence of ...1977323640
pollution indicator bacteria associated with municipal raw and drinking water supplies.a total of 3819 bacterial cultures isolated from municipal water samples were identified using a combination of enterotubules and confirmatory media. frequency distributions for the different genera or groups of bacteria were similar for raw water and drinking water isolations, except for escherichia organisms which doubled their frequency in raw water. differences between the membrane filter (mf) and presence-absence (p-a) test with regard to types of organisms isolated were limited to klebsiel ...1977324588
in vitro susceptibility of cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae to cefoxitin and bl-s786.the in vitro antibacterial activity of two agents relatively resistant to beta-lactamases, bl-s786 and cefoxitin, was tested against 123 recent different clinical isolates of cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae. bl-s786 showed considerable activity against escherichia coli and lesser activity against klebsiella pneumoniae with, respectively, 68% and 41% inhibited at 32 microng/ml. cefoxitin showed more activity in vitro against e. coli, k. pneumoniae, serratia marcescens and providencia stu ...1977324961
[checking the reliability of the pathotec biochemical test system for bacterial identification].tests of the pathotec system intended for express bacteriological diagnosis were checked in comparative experiments with the common biochemical methods. cultures of the following microbes were used: schigella, salmonella, escherichia, citrobacter, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus, providencia, pseudomonas, bordetella, staphylococcus, streptococcus. in a number of tests, such as determination of cytochromoxidase, nitrate reduciase, phenylalaninedeaminase, indol, acetoin (for the differentiation ...1977325964
genetics of colicin e susceptibility in citrobacter freundii.the insensitivity of citrobacter freundii to the e colicins is based on tolerance to colicin e1 and resistance to colicins e2 and e3. spontaneous colicin a resistant mutants of c. freundii also lost their colicin e1 receptor function. sensitivity to colicin e1 can be induced by f'gal+tol+ plasmids, the tol a+ gene product of which is responsible for this effect. receptor function for colicins e2 and e3 is induced by the e. coli f'14 bfe+ plasmid, which is also able to enhance notably the recepto ...1977326179
synthetic disaccharide-protein antigens for production of specific 04 and 09 antisera for immunofluorescence diagnosis of salmonella.the synthetic disaccharides abequose 1 leads to a 3 mannose and tyvelose 1 leads to a 3 mannose, representative of salmonella o-antigen 4 and 9 respectively, were covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (bsa) . antisera from rabbits immunized with these immunogens were used in indirect immunofluorescence assay for the identification of group b (o-antigen 4) and d (o-antigen 9) salmonella. a total of 1030 enteric bacterial strains were tested, including 207 group b and 55 group d salmonella. th ...1977327249
the mutagenic action of nitroimidazoles. ii. tinidazole, ipronidazole, panidazole and ornidazole.the 5-nitroimidazoles tinidazole (fasigyn), ipronidazole (ro-7-1554), panidazole and ornidazole (tiberal, ro-7-0207) in concentrations of 0.02--1 mm per liter increased the mutation frequency of klebsiella pneumoniae. escherichia coli k12 and citrobacter freundii to streptomycin resistance, including streptomycin dependence, in luria and delbrück's fluctuation test. at low concentration (0.1 mm), the increase of the mutation frequency caused by each compound was nearly the same, i.e. 3--4 times ...1977327306
age and evolution of bacteria. 1977330208
esculin hydrolysis by enterobacteriaceae.literature reports disagree concerning esculin hydrolysis in the family enterobacteriaceae. a total of 2,490 strains of the family were investigated for esculin hydrolysis by two methods, the esculin spot test and the pathotec incubation strip, which measures constitutive enzyme, and five growth-supporting methods, which determine both constitutive and inducible enzymes. the five growth-supporting media studied were: vaughn-levine, the standard esculin hydrolysis medium (p. r. edwards and w. h. ...1977330558
[quantitative determination of antibodies in sera using bacterial immunosorbents]. 1977331783
enzymatic degradation of polygalacturonic acid by yersinia and klebsiella species in relation to clinical laboratory procedures.as scored by several specified plating procedures, clinical and environmental strains of yersinia enterocolitica, yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and klebsiella pneumoniae "oxytocum" showed detectable, albeit generally weak, ability to digest polygalacturonic (pectic) acid. none of these bacterial strains had the vigorous and rapid pectolytic activity on these polygalacturonic acid-containing media that is typical of soft-rot erwinia species, although some of the oxytocum strains came fairly close. ...1977334794
preprototype of an automated microbial detection and identification system: a developmental investigation.the automicrobic system is an automated, computerized instrument that uses highly selective media and an optical system for detection, enumeration, and identification of bacteria and some yeasts in 13 h. a preprototype instrument (automicrobic system-1) and its urine culture kit (identi-pak), developed for the detection, enumeration, and identification of eight species or groups of bacteria and of candida species and torulopsis glabrata in urine specimens, was evaluated during its development. a ...1977334797
automated microbiological detection/identification system.an automated, computerized system, the automicrobic system, has been developed for the detection, enumeration, and identification of bacteria and yeasts in clinical specimens. the biological basis for the system resides in lyophilized, highly selective and specific media enclosed in wells of a disposable plastic cuvette; introduction of a suitable specimen rehydrates and inoculates the media in the wells. an automated optical system monitors, and the computer interprets, changes in the media, wi ...1977334798
[enterobacteria erroneously identified as salmonella in human faeces (author's transl)].to differentiate citrobacter freundii, enterobacter hafniae, proteus mirabilis and alteromonas putrefaciens from salmonella strains isolated in faeces, the author recommends the use of "hajna-kligler" medium, "nitrate-motility-mannitol" medium, "urease-indole-trytophane desaminase" medium and glycerol peptonated water. the lysis of salmonella and e. hafniae strains by specific phages (felix and callow o: 1 salmonella phage; guinee and valkenburg hafnia phage) is emphasized.1977335345
[study of the role of conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria in acute intestinal diseases].conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria were isolated in 34.2% of the patients with acute intestinal diseases (1559 cases examined in all). such representatives of enterobacteria as klebsiella, hafnia, citrobacter of 4, 8, and 22 serological groups. proteus mirabilis of 6, 10, 13, 26, and 28 serological groups, and proteus morganii mostly played the etiological role. in some of the patients conditionally pathogenic microbes only aggravated the main disease, taking part in the development of dysb ...1977335739
[the effect of resuscitation on the results obtained in identification of enterobacteriaceae by the api system (author's transl)].during studies on the reliability of the api system, the question arose whether the small proportion of adequate results in cultures stored at 4 degrees c could be attributable to this method of storage. therefore, the reactions of those cultures which had caused most problems were studied following periods of storage ofone day, six weeks and nine weeks at 4 degrees c, and in the freeze-dried state. storage in particular conditions was found to have a definite effect on the reliability of the ap ...1977337567
[is congenital hour-glass bladder always a malformation? (author's transl)].hour-glass bladder was detected by x-ray investigation in a newborn female infant with delayed postpartum micturition. no signs of difficulty in micturition or urinary tract infection were subsequently detected. control x-ray investigation at the age of 5 1/2 months showed a completely normal-shaped urinary bladder. this finding contrasts with the general opinion that hour-glass bladder is caused by a congenital malformation.1977337685
aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes produced by r plasmids of escherichia coli, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, providencia stuartii and serratia marcescens. 1977340445
characterization and clinical identification of enterobacteriaceae by dna hybridization. 1978345354
[coliform bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk].studied were 360 samples of raw and 1404 samples of pasteurized milk, collected from three milk centers, for the presence of coliform bacteria. it was found that the coli titer of the raw milk varied from 10(-5) up to 10(-7), depending on the season. the regimes of pasteurization applied kill 100 per cent of the present coli organisms. after the thermic treatment the milk was additionally contaminated with coli forms from the containers and the equipment in dependence on the conditions of washin ...1977345606
[experience with a new culture medium for salmonella diagnosis (author's transl)].a new medium for the cultivation of salmonella is presented which enables an immediate distinction of proteus bacteria and citrobacter. the time needed for diagnosis is reduced, expenditure on staff and material will be reduced. the "positive" salmonella yield from faeces specimens is increased as compared to leifson agar and ss agar.1978345692
combined action of phosphomycin with streptomycin and gentamicin.the combined action of phosphomycin with streptomycin and gentamicin against 41 strains of gram-positive micrococci (s. aureus and str. faecalis) and 87 strains of gram-negative bacilli (including 38 strains of pseudomonas) was evaluated. the combination of phosphomycin with streptomycin acted synergistically against 12 strains of gram-positive micrococci, and the combination of phosphomycin with gentmicin against 10 strains. the combination of phosphomycin with streptomycin acted synergisticall ...1977348150
l-arabinose-ornithine-irgasan medium for differentiating serratia species.a semisolid medium (designated serratia differentiation medium) containing l-arabinose, ornithine, and selective inhibitor was used to differentiate three clinically encountered serratia species. the inhibitor, irgasan dp-300, was incorporated to eliminate false-positive reactions from most remaining enterobacteriaceae. the suspected serratia colony was inoculated as a stab into the medium. serratia marcescens was indicated by a change in color from olive to purple following 18 h of incubation, ...1978348720
differences between cephalothin and newer parenterally absorbed cephalosporins in vitro: a justification for separate disks.the activities of cefamandole and cefoxitin in vitro were compared with that of cephalothin against staphylococci and gram-negative bacilli. cephalothin was the most active agent against staphylococci. cefamandole exhibited the greatest activity against the enterobacteriaceae, with the exceptions of serratia marcescens and indole-positive proteeae, against which cefoxitin was the most active antibiotic. the activity of newer cephalosporins that are resistant to the beta-lactamases of gram-negati ...1978349096
a comparative study of the activity of cefamandole and other cephalosporins and analysis of the beta-lactamase stability and synergy of cefamandole with aminoglycosides.the antibacterial activity of cefamandole against 445 clinical isolates was investigated and compared with the activity of other known cephalosporins (cephalothin, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and cefazolin) and of two penicillins (ampicillin and carbenicillin). cefamandole was the most active antibiotic against isolates of citrobacter, enterobacter, and shigella, and its activity against staphylococcus aureus, bacteroides, and some members of the enterobacteriaceae was comparable to that of the o ...1978349097
bacterial colonization of neonates admitted to an intensive care environment.in order to elucidate some of the factors responsible for the high rate of nosocomial infection associated with neonatal intensive care, we studied bacterial colonization in 63 infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. in a six-month period, cultures of nose, throat, umbilicus, and stool were obtained on admission and every three days from all infants staying in the nicu greater than or equal to 3 days. study infants did not develop "normal" aerobic flora. forty-eight percent of infant ...1978353239
[microbiological examinations in the intensive surgical care unit of the general calixto garcia teaching hospital].microbiological examinations carried out in the intensive surgical-care unit of the "calixto garcía" teaching hospital between october, 1974 and february, 1976 are exposed. nineteen examinations were carried out in the unit and results were as follows: 53,1% of the personnel had pathogenic germs (43,8%, coagulase-positive staphylococci; 6,3%, beta-hemolytic streptococci; and 6,3%, klebsiella). acceptable results were obtained in the unit air but it was not the case in laboratory and nursery sect ...1977354643
enterotoxin-producing bacteria stools from swedish united nations soldiers in cyprus.a study was designed to establish the role of heat-labile enterotoxin producing escherichia coli and other intestinal pathogens in diarrhoeal disease in swedish soldiers of the united nations' force in cyprus. before leaving sweden for cyprus, no enteropathogens were isolated from the soldiers. the study was performed from october 1975 through january 1976 and in august 1976. enterotoxigenic strains of e. coli, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae and klebsiella pneumoniae were the intesti ...1978355145
differentiation of serratia marcescens and serratia liquefaciens by tests for lipase and phospholipase production.the production of lipase and phospolipase by certain members of the enterobacteriaceae was examined by thin-layer chromatography of resting-cell suspensions incubated with triolein or lecithin. most strains of serratia marcescens produced both enzymes while most strains of serratia liquefaciens exhibited strong lipase but only a minor phospholipase activity. enterobacter spp. (25 strains), klebsiella pneumoniae (20 strains), escherichia coli (15 strains), citrobacter freundii (7 strains) and pro ...1978355631
isolation of klebsielleae from within living wood.previous studies from this laboratory have documented the presence of coliform bacteria emanating from wooden reservoirs containing finished drinking water. coliforms were identified as klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter spp. in the present report, evidence is presented which suggests that the origin of these coliforms is from the wood used to construct the reservoirs. in liquid expressed from freshly cut redwood, total bacterial counts in the range of 10(5) to 10(6)/ml were commonly observe ...1978358920
performance of enterobacteriaceae identification systems. an analysis of college of american pathologists survey data.commercial systems designed and marketed for evaluation of enterobacteriaceae are used in many clinical microbiology laboratories. evaluations of these systems have been reported from several large laboratories. identifications with one or more of these systems were compared with those obtained by conventional methods with many strains of organisms. the microbiology resource committee of the college of american pathologists designed two surveys to evaluate the performances of commercial systems ...1978360823
distribution of enterobacteriaceae in recycled manure bedding on california dairies.the distribution of coliform organisms on three california dairies which use a system of automatic flushing of alley ways and composted, recycled manure solids as free stall bedding for utilization of waste was studied. there was a wide distribution of escherichia coli, klebsiella, and enterobacter and to less extent citrobacter organisms. klebsiella were not commonly in bovine feces. composting manure solids effectively reduced coliform counts to few or to zero. however, if given proper conditi ...1978361769
the significance of serum-sensitive bacilli in gram-negative bacteremia.clinical findings from 76 patients (median age 67 years) with gram-negative bacteremia were analysed and related to the sensitivity of the blood isolates to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum. 28 strains (37%) were resistant, an equal number intermediately sensitive and 20 markedly sensitive (26%). no correlation was found between serum sensitivity and origin of the bacteremia, presence of fever or blood granulocyte count. the frequency of shock in immunocompromised patients with se ...1978362514
the bacterial outer-membrane permeability of beta-lactam antibiotics.two penicillins and 5 cephalosporins were evaluated for their ability to pass through the outer-membranes of proteus morganii, citrobacter freundii and escherichia coli. cefazolin, ceftezole and cephaloridine showed high permeability through the outer-membranes of these gram-negative bacteria. benzylpenicillin and cephalothin, on the contrary, showed low permeability. the outer-membrane permeability of ampicillin and cephalexin varied from species to species. c. freundii was found to have the hi ...1979368002
thermosensitive h1 plasmids determining citrate utilization.twelve thermosensitive h1 plasmids from strains of salmonella typhi that had caused outbreaks of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever in vietnam, thailand and india mediated citrate utilization (cit+) in a prototrophic escherichia coli k12 strain but not in the s. typhi strains from which they were derived. four h1 plasmids from a similar outbreak in mexico differed from the far eastern plasmids in not mediating citrate utlization but in mediating mercury resistance. h1 plasmids resembling th ...1978370344
[aromatic amino acid metabolism in enterobacteriaceae microorganisms].the authors revealed phenylalanine deaminase (pad) in the majority of the citrobacter strains investigated; the activity of pad varied within a rather considerable range (0.3--4.58 micrometer of phenylpiruvate in 1 hr per 1 mg of bacterial protein). the presence of this enzyme thus served as an auxiliary biochemical test characterising this group of conditionally pathogenic microbes of the enterobacteriacea family. tyrosine decarboxylase was absent in 26 of 50 strains of citrobacter examined. in ...1978371304
[nomenclature of the bacteria of the genus shigella and their systematic position in the family of enterobacteriaceae]. 1978371309
bacteriocin typing of serratia marcescens. a simplified system.the authors describe a simplified system for the detection of bacteriocin production by serratia marcescens with the use of six indicator strains, which include escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter diversus, enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), and serratia rubidaea grown on arabinose minimal medium plates. of the 64 possible bacteriocin types, 11 were observed; 66% of the isolates tested were found to be one of three types. occasionally more than one bacteriocin type was observ ...1979371382
sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of the y1 adrenal cell enterotoxin assay.the y1 adrenal cell assay for heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) was found to be relatively insensitive for filtrates of toxigenic escherichia coli h10407. when observations were made blindly and subjected to rigorous controls, reliable detection of lt occured only at filtrate dilutions from 1:4 to 1:10. detection of lt was unreliable when e. coli h10407 was mixed with another enteric organism. overall, 7.1% of observers' reports from a single assay were imprecise, and 2.6% would have resulted in erro ...1979372224
association of tellurium resistance and bacteriophage inhibition conferred by r plasmids.concomitant resistance to tellurium compounds (ter) and inhibition of coli-phage development (phi) are properties mediated by many h2 incompatibility group r plasmids which have been isolated from diverse bacterial and geographic sources. ter plasmids from tellurium-resistant bacteria that were isolated from sewage and industrial wastes also mediated phage inhibition. of these ter plasmids, three from citrobacter freundii belonged to the h incompatibility group, whereas three from klebsiella pne ...1979374351
studies on the influence of competitive enterobacteriaceae flora on salmonella isolation. 1979377858
characterization of motile and acetoin-negative klebsiella pneumoniae strains by dna: dna by hybridization.hybridization studies were carried out to determine the extent of divergence between different members of the enterobacteriaceae and group d, previously described by numerical analysis of phenotypic characters, and comprising strains isolated from surface waters. this group, apparently belonging in or related to the genus citrobacter on the basis of the imvic tests differs from this taxon by numerical analysis and dna base composition. our work reveals a dna relatedness of 81-89% between the cen ...1978378119
fermentation of 1,2-propanediol with 1,2-ethanediol by some genera of enterobacteriaceae, involving coenzyme b12-dependent diol dehydratase.klebsiella pneumoniae (aerobacter aerogenes) atcc 8724 was able to grow anaerobically on 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol as carbon and energy sources. whole cells of the bacterium grown anaerobically on 1,2-propanediol or on glycerol catalyzed conversion of 1,2-diols and aldehydes to the corresponding acids and alcohols. glucose-grown cells also converted aldehydes, but not 1,2-diols, to acids and alcohols. the presence of activities of coenzyme b(12)-dependent diol dehydratase, alcohol dehyd ...1979378959
coliform mastitis--a review. 1979379056
gentamicin resistance in christchurch hospitals.prior to june 1976, the isolation of gentamicin resistant organisms was an infrequent occurrence in north canterbury hospital board institutions. during july 1976, 20 different gentamicin resistant organisms were isolated from patients in christchurch hospital. gentamicin resistant organisms hav e been continually isolated from an increasingly wide area since then. the organisms involved are: providence species; pseudomonas aeruginosa; klebsiella species; e coli; staphyloccus aureus; proteus mir ...1979381994
resolution of the coenzyme b-12-dependent dehydratases of klebsiella sp. and citrobacter freundii.diol dehydratase (1,2-propanediol hydro-lyase, ec 4.2.1.28) and glycerol dehydratase (glycerol hydro-lyase, ec 4.2.1.30) are shown to be distinct, separable enzymes that occur individually or together in different strains of klebsiella sp. anaerobic growth with propan-1,2-diol induces diol dehydratase alone, whereas glycerol fermentation induces both enzymes in k. pneumoniae atcc 25955 and in citrobacter freundii ncib 3735. the dehydratases can be resolved by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis o ...1979383154
[experience with sisomicin in pediatrics (author's transl)].sisomicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is especially effective against escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, citrobacter, serratia, indole-positive and indole-negative proteus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella and staphylococcus aureus. it has a bactericidal action. although sisomicin is similar to the other aminoglycoside antibiotics, there is not complete cross-resistance to them. our own pharmacokinetic investigations showed that a dose of 2--3 mg/kg body weight of sisomicin ...1979383623
the detection of nasal carriers of salmonella and other enterobacteria amongst young farm animals.an investigation was conducted to detect the presence of salmonella nasal carriers amongst young farm animals (cow-calves, buffalo-calves, lambs, kids, piglets and foals) on farms having a previous history of salmonellosis. salmonella could be isolated from nasal swabs of 1.2% of the cow-calves and 2.9% of the piglets studied but not from other young animals. isolated strains included s. typhimurium and s. weltevreden from cow-calves and piglets, respectively. other members of family enterobacri ...1979384721
comparison of ec broth and medium a-1 for the recovery of escherichia coli from frozen shucked snow crab.two variations of the multiple-tube fermentation technique were used to enumerate fecal coliforms in commercially processed, frozen crab meat. these were the ec confirmation test and a more rapid method that requires medium a-1. the method with medium a-1 was more specific than the ec confirmation test for detecting escherichia coli type 1. e. coli was isolated from 84% of the positive medium a-1 tubes, whereas it was isolated from only 64% of the positive tubes of ec broth. when samples of crab ...1979384899
[antibacterial activity of cefotaxim in comparison with seven cephalosporins].the antibacterial activity of cefotaxim and seven cephalosporins was determined in 1,112 fresh isolates using the microdilution technique. all of the cephalosporins tested were ineffective against enterococci. cefalotin was the most effective agent against staphylococcus aureus. cefaclor was superior to cephalexin against escherichia coli and proteus mirabilis, and thus inhibited 20% more enterobacteriaceae. cefazolin was as effective as cefamandole against e. coli. cefuroxime and cefoxitin were ...1979389804
in vitro investigations with fosfomycin on mueller-hinton agar with and without glucose-6-phosphate.determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of fosfomycin in the agar dilution test on mueller-hinton agar showed that the addition of glucose-6-phosphate to the nutrient medium potentiates the action of fosfomycin against escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, citrobacter and staphylococcus aureus, sometimes by as much as 256-fold. such a potentiation of action was not detectable with serratia marcescens, the individual proteus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa or enterococci. fosf ...1979389806
[criteria for the determination of fecal enterobacteria]. 1979391651
comparison of m-endo les, macconkey, and teepol media for membrane filtration counting of total coliform bacteria in water.total coliform counts obtained by means of standard membrane filtration techniques, using macconkey agar, m-endo les agar, teepol agar, and pads saturated with teepol broth as growth media, were compared. various combinations of these media were used in tests on 490 samples of river water and city wastewater after different stages of conventional purification and reclamation processes including lime treatment, and filtration, active carbon treatment, ozonation, and chlorination. endo agar yielde ...1979394678
[coliforms in water: definition and discussion of analytical methods]. 1979395908
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