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adenovirus infection associated with respiratory disease in commercial chickens.the lesions and etiologic agents associated with 13 outbreaks of respiratory disease in commercial chickens were investigated. adenoviruses were isolated from tracheal and lung tissues of affected chickens in all 13 outbreaks. escherichia coli was isolated from the lung of an occasional bird. the tracheal specimens were consistently negative for bordetella avium, but e. coli and occasionally staphylococcus aureus were isolated. there was also serological evidence in one outbreak, and pathologica ...19872823779
characterization of sulfonamide resistance determinants and relatedness of bordetella avium r plasmids.five plasmids, varying in size from 16 to 51.5 kb, were isolated from virulent strains of bordetella avium and compared by restriction endonuclease digestion and dna-dna hybridization. these plasmids confer resistance to streptomycin and sulfonamides, and three of the five also confer resistance to tetracycline, but they are not closely related. four of the plasmids, prl100, p4093, pcw, and pwam, carried determinants related to the heat-labile type i plasmid-mediated dihydropteroate synthase of ...19911661013
tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity in turkey poults infected with bordetella avium.1. liver tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tpo) activity was depressed significantly by the bordetella avium infection localized in the trachea of the turkey poult. 2. tryptophan, given orally, induced a significant increase in tpo activity in both control and infected poults. 3. hydrocortisone induced tpo activity in the turkey in a dose dependent manner.19902085957
antimicrobial susceptibility of bordetella avium and bordetella bronchiseptica isolates.two veterinary pathogens, bordetella bronchiseptica and bordetella avium, were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. of the 20 antimicrobial agents tested, both species were consistently resistant to penicillin and cefuroxime but susceptible to mezlocillin, piperacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, and cefoperazone.19892751288
absence of mouse-lethal toxins in australian isolates of bordetella avium.a total of 18 australian isolates of bordetella avium and seven reference b. avium strains from europe and the usa were tested for the presence of a mouse-lethal toxin. five of the seven reference strains of b. avium, but none of the 18 australian isolates, produced the toxin.19911882509
transposon mutagenesis in bordetella avium.transposon mutagenesis was used to introduce specific mutations in the chromosome of bordetella avium. the transposon tn5 was transferred by conjugation to b avium from escherichia coli strain sm10 by the suicide plasmid vector psup1011. a defined minimal medium for growth of b avium was developed for scoring transposon-containing mutants for specific nutritional requirements. approximately 1% of all mutants tested were auxotrophic in some form, and these organisms were grouped into 13 classes. ...19882840009
characterization of the outer membrane proteins of bordetella avium.the outer membrane proteins of bordetella avium were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. sarkosyl-insoluble outer membrane protein-enriched profiles from 50 virulent b. avium isolates, containing major 21,000- and 37,000-molecular-weight proteins (21k and 37k proteins, respectively) and at least 13 less intensely stained proteins with molecular weights ranging from 13,500 to 143,000, were very similar. the 21k, 27k, 31k, and 37k outer membrane proteins were sho ...19921541570
filamentous forms of bordetella avium: culture conditions and pathogenicity.difficulties in preparing suitable antigen for the microagglutination (ma) test led to the discovery of a filamentous form of bordetella avium. broth media high in nutrients, vigorous shaking, and incubation at 37 c appeared to promote the development of filamentous forms of the organism. peptone broth did not induce the development of filamentous forms. eleven different isolates having both smooth and rough colony types were tested and observed to form filaments of various lengths. filamentous ...19921358051
conjugative plasmids in bordetella avium.three of five antibiotic-resistant plasmids isolated from virulent strains of bordetella avium were found to be conjugative. a physical and genetic map of one of these plasmids, the 51.5-kb plasmid p4093, revealed that the area of p4093 responsible for streptomycin and tetracycline resistance was located in a region consisting of a cluster of restriction enzyme recognition sites, whereas the remainder of p4093 contained relatively few restriction sites. additionally, the genes involved in the co ...19921325063
conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (calt) in normal and bordetella avium-infected turkeys.conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (calt) was characterized in normal and bordetella avium-infected turkey poults during the first 5 weeks of life. at 1, 5, 12, 19, 25, and 33 days post-hatching (dph), upper and lower eyelids were examined by gross, histologic, and electron microscopic techniques. calt was confined to the proximal part of the lower eyelid near the conjunctival fornix; it appeared by 5 dph as individual lymphoid nodules and as dense masses by 19 dph. in the upper eyelid, calt ...19892763412
a comparison of outer membrane proteins and surface characteristics of adhesive and non-adhesive phenotypes of bordetella avium.the outer membrane protein profiles of four adherent and one reduced-adherence mutant phenotype of bordetella avium were compared; a non-adherent b. avium-like organism isolated from turkeys was also examined. the organisms were grown on brain-heart infusion agar at 35 c for 36 hours. in addition, one of the adherent phenotypes was grown at 18 c and 40 c. the outer membrane proteins were isolated by sonication and detergent extraction with triton x-100. surface characteristics of intact bacteria ...19882462412
identification of bordetella avium antigens recognized after experimental inoculation in turkeys.sera and tracheal washings (tw) were used to identify antigens of bordetella avium recognized during experimentally induced bordetellosis in young turkeys. pooled sera and tw were examined for antibody by a microtitration agglutination test and by western immunoblotting. in addition, comparable samples collected from 1-day-old turkeys and uninoculated control turkeys also were examined. at least 8 outer membrane proteins of b avium were recognized in immunoblots of sera and tw from infected turk ...19902386317
brain monoamine concentrations in turkey poults infected with bordetella avium.six hours post-hatch, large white turkey poults were inoculated intranasally with 5 x 10(7) organisms of the "w" isolate of bordetella avium. three hours after inoculation and subsequently on days 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 postinoculation, 30 infected and 30 uninfected control poults were injected intramuscularly with alpha methylparatyrosine (ampt, 250 mg/kg), and an additional 30 of each group received a saline vehicle. three hours after ampt injection, whole brains from treated and untreated poul ...19872890343
a survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from arkansas.wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the arkansas game and fish commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. the 45 birds were trapped at four locations in pope, scott, and montgomery counties (arkansas, usa). forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19902250323
influence of bordetella avium infection on association of escherichia coli with turkey trachea.four-week-old bordetella avium-infected and b avium-free turkeys were inoculated intratracheally with a suspension of fimbriated or nonfimbriated escherichia coli. numbers of e coli associated with tracheal sections were determined at postinoculation hour (pih) 1 or 6. significantly (p less than 0.05) greater numbers of e coli were isolated from the tracheas of b avium-infected turkeys compared with numbers in b avium-free turkeys. in b avium-free turkeys, tracheal associated e coli were 90% les ...19872893567
isolation and characterization of bordetella avium phase variants.two spontaneous phase variants of bordetella avium were isolated at a frequency of 2 x 10(-4) by colony immunoblot assay of b. avium with antibody against b. avium dermonecrotic toxin. the two phase variants, designated gobl309 and gobl312, lack dermonecrotic toxin and four outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 93, 48, 38, and 27 kda but retain the ability to agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes. the proteins which are not expressed by gobl309 and gobl312 correspond to five proteins wh ...19911937761
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bordetella avium infection in turkey flocks: sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of bordetella avium infection in turkey poults was developed. one-week-old poults challenged intratracheally with 10(12) colony-forming units of b. avium had detectable titers (greater than or equal to 11), with an average of 13.6% positive samples when the birds were 6 to 11 weeks old. the method was sensitive enough to detect maternal antibodies to b. avium in poults up to 3 weeks of age. the same poults challenged at 1 week of age had ...19911854313
health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial california meat-turkey flocks.a survey was conducted to characterize domestic and exotic bird populations, estimate seroprevalence to selected disease agents, and describe health management practices on 62 premises containing "backyard" flocks located within one mile of 22 commercial california meat-turkey flocks participating in national animal health monitoring system (nahms). chickens were present on 56 backyard premises and turkeys on seven. antibodies were identified against mycoplasma gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. mel ...19911854324
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure antibody levels in turkey breeder hens, eggs, and progeny following natural infection or immunization with a commercial bordetella avium bacterin.twelve large white turkey hens were immunized with a commercially available bordetella avium bacterin. hens and eggs were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to determine the response to the bacterin. three hundred poults were then obtained from two commercial flocks, the hens of one flock having been immunized with the same bacterin used on the group of 12 turkeys. titers of the poults were monitored for 7 weeks, and poults were challenged by exposure to infected poults at ...19911854314
effect of fasting on plasma thyroid and adrenal hormone levels in turkey poults infected with bordetella avium.plasma triiodothyronine (t3), thyroxine (t4), and corticosterone (cs) were measured in fasted and nonfasted control and bordetella avium-infected poults. the stress of b. avium infection increased plasma cs, and fasting for 24 hours caused a further significant increase in cs levels. plasma t3 was not affected by the infection, but fasting caused a significant reduction in both control and infected poults. plasma t4 of fasted poults was increased in both control and infected groups, but infectio ...19911854318
detection of antibodies against bordetella avium in turkeys by avidin-biotin enhancement of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the dot-immunobinding assay.an avidin-biotin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ab-elisa) and an avidin-biotin-enhanced dot-immunobinding (ab-dib) assay for detecting antibody to bordetella avium in turkey sera were developed and compared with the microagglutination (ma) test. whole-cell antigen, biotin-labeled goat anti-turkey igg conjugate, and horseradish-peroxidase-labeled streptavidin were used in the ab-elisa and ab-dib assay. the ab-elisa and ab-dib assay were sensitive, specific, and reproducible. these as ...19911838473
detection of antibody to bordetella avium using a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (pcfia).a fluorescent assay for detection of antibody to bordetella avium was developed and evaluated against current serological techniques. bordetella antigen was coated on submicron polystyrene beads and used in an antibody sandwich technique with commercially available goat anti-turkey fluorescein-labeled igg. positive control sera were taken from turkeys from which b. avium was isolated. negative control sera were from turkeys from which no b. avium was isolated and which tested negative by aggluti ...19911786009
tracheal cilia response to exogenous niacin in drinking water of turkey poults infected with bordetella avium.niacin was added daily to the drinking water of control and bordetella avium-infected turkey poults at a dosage of 0, 70, and 280 mg/liter over a 2-week experimental period. fourteen days postinoculation, tracheal sections were examined by histological and morphometrical analysis of cilia, as well as agar plate isolation for bacteria. infected poults exhibited a 96-97% loss of cilia along the tracheal epithelial border, compared with only a 4-5% loss in controls. infected poults receiving niacin ...19911785998
effect of bordetella avium infection on electrocardiograms in turkey poults.electrocardiograms (ecgs) were recorded from turkey poults infected with the w isolate of bordetella avium. strip chart data (amplitudes and intervals) were measured at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postinoculation and compared with data from uninoculated controls. b. avium infection altered p-, rs-, and t-wave amplitudes, as well as p-r and s-t intervals throughout the 4-week experimental period. heart rates were similar over the 4-week period in control poults, while rates in the infected birds were ...19911785997
effects of bordetella avium on lymphoid tissue monoamine concentrations in turkey poults.six hours post-hatch, large white turkey poults were inoculated intranasally with 5 x 10(7) cells of the w isolate of bordetella avium. three hours after inoculation and subsequently on days 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 postinoculation, poults from infected and control groups were killed by cervical dislocation. thymus, spleen, and bursa of fabricius were removed, weighed, and frozen until assayed for norepinephrine (ne), dopamine (da), and serotonin (5ht). b. avium infection caused a reduced concentra ...19872894824
[multicausal infectious respiratory tract disease of young fattening turkeys].the outbreak of the disease occurred in a large multiple-age farm with about 50,000 meat turkeys, where groups of 6-8000 one-day-old birds were stalled up every 14 days. all the turkey poults housed were affected mostly in the 1.-3. week of the life. the respiratory disease spread rapidly within the flocks and were characterised clinically by inclination of huddle, ruffled feathers, anorexia, stunted growth, swelling of the infraorbital sinus and nasal discharge. the clinical apparent disease la ...19921559465
observations on colonial phenotypic variation in bordetella avium.two forms of bordetella avium colonial morphology on artificial media were observed. the smooth colonial morphology is convex, with an entire edge, and has a glistening mucoid appearance when cultured on 5% bovine blood agar or tryptic soy agar. on the same media, the rough morphology has a crenated edge, a flat surface, and sometimes a wrinkled or ground-glass appearance to the surface. colonial morphology remained stable when cultures were passaged at 37 c every 48 hours. when different salts ...19911953575
[pasteurella multocida as the cause of disease outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks].six cases of fowl cholera in growing turkeys and 3 in adult breeder chickens of the broiler type as well as one case each of a pasteurella (p.) multocida-associated disease in ducklings and goslings were described in consideration of own laboratory findings and available informations of the case history. furthermore a report is given on a treatment strategy successfully used in turkeys with highly acute fowl cholera. all the p. multocida strains isolated culturally could be assigned to the subsp ...19911953629
protection of turkey poults from bordetella avium infection and disease by pili and bacterins.the role of pili in protection against bordetella avium infection in turkey poults was studied. an isolate that produced the largest number of pili under growth conditions developed in our laboratory was used for preparation of pili and bacterin and for challenge. the pili were isolated, purified, examined by electron microscopy, and tested for purity by gel electrophoresis. poults were vaccinated with oil-adjuvant pili, formaldehyde- or merthiolate-inactivated bacterins, or a commercial bacteri ...19882904805
effects of bordetella avium infection on the pulmonary clearance of escherichia coli in turkeys.thirty-six 1-day-old turkeys were inoculated intranasally with bordetella avium (ba) strain 838. noninoculated hatchmates (n = 36) were housed separately. at 2 and 4 weeks of age, 15 inoculated (ba+) and 15 noninoculated (ba-) turkeys were exposed to an aerosol of virulent escherichia coli. the remaining six ba+ turkeys and six ba- turkeys were used as controls (ie, not exposed to e coli). turkeys were necropsied on postaerosolization days 0 (immediately after aerosolization), 1, 3, 5, and 7. lu ...19873300439
cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from bordetella avium and expression of the gene in salmonella typhimurium.three gene libraries of bordetella avium 197 dna were prepared in escherichia coli le392 by using the cosmid vectors pcp13 and pya2329, a derivative of pcp13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. the cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-b. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against b. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. one e. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kda protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with b. avium 197. i ...19921447140
pili of bordetella avium: expression, characterization, and role in in vitro adherence.electron microscopy revealed pili on all isolates of bordetella avium and b. avium-like bacteria examined. trypticase soy broth (tsb) and 2% peptone agar were the best media for promoting pilus expression. cultures grown at 37 or 42 c had similar pilus production, whereas cultures grown at 18 c produced few or no pili. pilus expression of the art vax strain was best when that strain was grown in tsb, but the strain yielded fewer pili than b. avium and b. avium-like isolates grown under the same ...19872887159
characterization of fimbrial subunits from bordetella species.using antisera raised against serotype 2 and 3 fimbrial subunits from bordetella pertussis, serologically related polypeptides were detected in bordetella bronchiseptica, bordetella parapertussis and bordetella avium strains. the two b. pertussis fimbrial subunits, and three of the serologically related b. bronchiseptica polypeptides, were shown to be very similar in amino acid composition and n-terminal amino acid sequence. homology was observed between the n-termini of these polypeptides, and ...19872907088
clinical outbreak of bordetella avium infection in two turkey breeder flocks.an acute upper respiratory disease was observed in two broad-breasted white (bbw) turkey primary breeder flocks. associated clinical signs included sneezing, depression, and a deep dry cough originating from large conducting airways. morbidity reached approximately 15-20% of the hens in an affected house. none of the turkeys died, and total feed consumption was not affected. a minimal effect upon egg production was noticed. sera from an acutely affected flock exhibited a marked rise in titer to ...19863729868
dermonecrotic toxin and tracheal cytotoxin, putative virulence factors of bordetella avium.we examined bordetella avium for virulence factors common to bordetella pertussis, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, adenylate cyclase, dermonecrotic toxin, and tracheal cytotoxin. b. avium produced a dermonecrotic toxin and a tracheal cytotoxin. the dermonecrotic toxin of b. avium is a 155,000-molecular-weight, heat-labile protein which was lethal for mice, guinea pigs, young chickens, and turkey poults and produced dermonecrosis when injected intradermally into guinea pigs, ...19883384473
adherence of bordetella avium to tracheal mucosa of turkeys: correlation with hemagglutination.adherence to turkey tracheal mucosa and agglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes were determined for 20 strains of bordetella avium. ten type-i strains, 7 type-ii strains, 2 transposon-induced mutants, and 1 revertant were evaluated. all type-i strains adhered readily to tracheal mucosa and agglutinated erythrocytes, whereas no type-ii strains adhered to trachea or caused hemagglutination (ha). two mutants selected for loss of ha activity were less adherent to tracheal mucosa, compared with the ...19883395012
development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for bordetella avium.a bordetella avium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect serum antibodies in 1-day-old poults, experimentally infected turkeys, and naturally infected turkeys. the optimized procedure included use of a suspension of whole bacteria coated onto plastic microtiter plates, a 1:200 serum dilution, a 1:3200 dilution of commercially available goat anti-turkey igg (heavy and light chain) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase, and 0.04% orthophenylenediamine as substrate. a s ...19883401178
histologic evaluation of lung and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in young turkeys infected with bordetella avium.one-day-old turkeys were inoculated intranasally with bordetella avium. noninoculated hatchmates were housed separately. at postinoculation weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, b avium-infected (ba+) and b avium-free (ba-) turkeys were necropsied; specimens of tracheas, intrapulmonary primary bronchi, and lung adjacent to primary bronchi were bacteriologically cultured. lung tissue was collected for histologic examination. lungs perfused with acetic acid were collected for evaluation to determine the size, ...19883400920
effects of bordetella avium toxin on turkey tracheal organ cultures as measured with a tetrazolium-reduction assay.turkey tracheal organ cultures (tocs) were exposed to one of the following bordetella avium fractions or controls: live b. avium, formalin-killed b. avium, b. avium sonicate, heat-inactivated sonicate, culture supernatant, heat-inactivated culture supernatant, phosphate-buffered saline, or brain-heart infusion broth. after the tocs were incubated for 2 hours with the bacterial fractions, the cellular metabolism of each toc was evaluated using a tetrazolium chloride reduction assay, and cellular ...19873579782
isolation and characterization of bordetella avium plasmids.experiments were conducted to study the plasmids of bordetella avium, b. avium-like, and b. bronchiseptica isolates from turkeys and the plasmids of the art-vax commercial vaccine strain. plasmids were observed in 6 of 20 b. avium isolates, in 6 of 20 b. avium-like isolates, in all 5 b. bronchiseptica isolates, and in the art-vax strain. plasmids of b. avium correlated with resistance to antibiotics but not with pathogenicity, hemagglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes, or expression of pili.19873442530
turkey coryza: lack of correlation between plasmids and pathogenicity of bordetella avium.plasmids were removed from pathogenic bordetella avium using a variety of treatments. the plasmid-cure rates depended on the treatment and isolate. pathogenicity of b. avium in turkey poults was not altered by removal of plasmids.19863767817
an in vivo model for the study of bordetella avium adherence to tracheal mucosa in turkeys.an in vivo model was developed for studies characterizing the adherence of bordetella avium to the tracheal mucosa of turkeys. three-week-old turkeys were anesthetized, and the cervical part of the trachea was isolated after tracheostomy was done. a hemostat was applied craniad to the tracheostomy site to occlude the tracheal lumen. isolated tracheal segments were filled with an aqueous bacterial inoculum for 1 minute, and then excess inoculum and the hemostat were removed. after 1 hour, a 1-cm ...19863541709
the effects of heat-labile bordetella avium toxin on turkey poults.intraperitoneal exposure of turkey poults to various concentrations of bordetella avium sonicate containing heat-labile toxin indicated a high degree of toxicity: poults died after exposure to sonicate containing as little as 6.32 micrograms of protein. the toxic effects were dose-related: poults that received sonicate containing 158 micrograms of protein died in 4 to 6 1/2 hours, those that received 31.6 and 6.32 micrograms of protein died in 25 to 30 hours, and those that received 1.2 microgra ...19873619828
differentiation of bordetella avium and related species by cellular fatty acid analysis.the fatty acids of 18 strains of bordetella avium, 3 strains of alcaligenes faecalis, 5 strains of bordetella bronchiseptica, and 12 strains of a b. avium-like organism were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the presence of a significant amount of the acid 2-oh c14:0 characterized b. avium and the b. avium-like organism. b. avium and the b. avium-like organism differed in their relative concentrations of c16:1 and 3-oh c14:0 acids. b. bronchiseptica and a. faecalis were distingui ...19873597749
efficacy in turkeys of spray vaccination with a temperature-sensitive mutant of bordetella avium (art vax).broad-breasted white turkeys were vaccinated with a temperature-sensitive mutant of bordetella avium (art vax) at 2 and 15 days of age and challenged at 22 days of age by contact with infected birds. necropsy was performed at 35 days of age. two vaccination protocols (eyedrop/oral and spray cabinet/spray bottle) and two challenge isolates (arkansas 105 and north carolina [nc] isolates) were used. neither the spray nor the eyedrop/oral methods of vaccination prevented infection of the anterior tr ...19873619824
a note on the isoprenoid quinone content of bordetella avium and related species.the isoprenoid quinone content of isolates of bordetella avium (four strains), alcaligenes faecalis (one strain), bordetella bronchiseptica (one strain) and a bordetella avium-like organism (four strains) was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. all the isolates contained ubiquinones with eight isoprene units as the major component. no menaquinones were detected.19873597205
contribution to the taxonomy of the turkey coryza agent: cellular fatty acid analysis of the bacterium.gas-liquid chromatography was used to analyze bacterial cellular fatty acids to elucidate the relatedness of the turkey coryza (tc) bacterium to alcaligenes spp., bordetella spp., and other gram-negative bacteria. the results indicated that the tc bacterium is not closely related to alcaligenes faecalis or any of the reference strains of alcaligenes and bordetella studied. most urease-positive bacterial isolates obtained from the upper respiratory tract of turkeys were identified as bordetella b ...19863729861
ultrastructural pathology of bordetella avium infection in turkeys.one-day-old turkeys were infected intranasally with bordetella avium, and tracheas were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy at 1 to 5 weeks post-inoculation (pi). the predominant ultrastructural lesions were progressive loss of ciliated epithelium with replacement by nonciliated cells, bacterial colonization of ciliated cells, membrane-bound crystalline inclusions in cytoplasma of epithelial cells, depletion of mucous granules, and distortion of tracheal rings and the mucos ...19873672806
adherence of bordetella avium to turkey tracheal mucosa: effects of culture conditions.adherence of bordetella avium to the tracheal mucosa of turkeys was evaluated, using bacteria grown under different culture conditions. several solid and liquid media were used at incubation times of 12, 24, 36, or 48 hours with incubation temperatures of 18, 26.5, or 35 c. adherence of b avium was greatest when the bacteria were grown on solid media at 35 c. use of bordet-gengou or brain-heart infusion agar was associated with significantly greater (p less than 0.05) adherence compared with adh ...19863800120
lack of protection against bordetella avium in turkey poults exposed to b. avium-like bacteria.six laboratory experiments were designed to determine whether poults infected with the nonpathogenic bordetella avium-like (bal) bacteria would develop immunity to b. avium (ba), the causative agent of turkey coryza. the bal bacteria were isolated from poults given that organism, but few colonies were observed by 3 weeks postexposure. no serum-agglutinating antibody to the bal bacterium was detected in poults exposed to that organism. poults exposed to bal bacteria either once or twice at differ ...19873675427
isolation and characterisation of bordetella avium and related species and an evaluation of their role in respiratory disease in poultry.a total of 24 gram negative non fermentative bacteria obtained from poultry were compared with reference strains of bordetella avium, alcaligenes faecalis, bordetella bronchiseptica and a bordetella avium-like organism. thirteen isolates were identified as b. avium and 11 were identified as b. avium-like. a commercial microidentification kit (the api2one) did not identify the field isolates but did separate them correctly into the 2 groups. a practical identification scheme, suitable for diagnos ...19873689262
[amino acid metabolism by thin layer chromatography for the differentiation of bordetella and alcaligenes species].the amino acid metabolism of bordetella and alcaligenes strains was investigated for differentiation purposes. all species investigated reacted differently with a number of amino acids. the genus bordetella could be differentiated from that of alcaligenes by its inability to metabolize l-lysine, l-arginine and d-histidine. the recently described species bordetella avium, as well as achromobacter xylosoxidans (yabuuchi), considered as alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans, presented thems ...19863788350
a heat-stable toxin isolated from the turkey coryza agent, bordetella avium.a toxin was isolated from bordetella avium grown in a defined medium. the toxin was active for mice but not for turkey poults or japanese quail. the extraction procedure is described. the toxin was trypsin-sensitive and heat-stable (85 c for 30 min), and its activity was blocked by b. avium hyperimmune serum.19863814013
influence of temperature on the growth of bordetella avium in turkeys and in vitro.effects of temperature on growth of three strains of bordetella avium were determined in young turkeys and in vitro. colonization of the tracheal mucosa by two virulent strains of b. avium was significantly greater in cold-stressed turkeys than in heat-stressed turkeys. the avirulent vaccine strain, art-vax, colonized tracheas of cold-stressed turkeys to a limited extent but failed to colonize heat-stressed turkeys. growth rates of the three b. avium strains were determined in brain-heart infusi ...19853833218
turkey coryza: selected tests for detection and neutralization of bordetella avium heat-labile toxin.bordetella avium heat-labile toxin (hlt) was lethal for poults, mice, and embryonating chicken eggs. it produced hemorrhagic lesions in turkey and guinea pig skin. antiserum made in turkeys neutralized the lethality of the toxin and its ability to produce hemorrhagic skin lesions. further, antiserum against hlt of an ohio strain neutralized lethality of hlt of strains from iowa, north carolina, and west germany. the antiserum did not neutralize lethality of hlt from b. bronchiseptica. bordetella ...19863814017
fowl cholera: influence of bordetella avium on vaccinal immunity of turkeys to pasteurella multocida.turkeys exposed to bordetella avium were vaccinated against fowl cholera with live pasteurella multocida vaccine. previous exposure to b. avium resulted in impairment of systemic immunity conferred by the vaccine: 86% of the vaccinated turkeys exposed to b. avium at 1 day old developed lesions or died of fowl cholera after challenge at 15 weeks old with virulent p. multocida. of vaccinated turkeys not previously exposed to b. avium, only 26% had lesions or died of fowl cholera.19863814022
turkey coryza: toxin production by bordetella avium.twelve strains of bordetella avium representing isolates from turkeys in the united states, the federal republic of germany, and the republic of south africa were tested for toxin production. sterile filtered sonicates from 9 of 12 strains contained a toxin that was lethal for 7-to-10-day-old poults. mice were also susceptible to the lethal effects of the toxin. no differences in susceptibility to the toxin were found between beltsville small white and broad-breasted white poults. the toxin was ...19853833216
isolation of bordetella avium from poultry.four australian isolates of gram-negative nonfermentative bacteria obtained from poultry were compared with reference strains of bordetella avium, bordetella bronchiseptica and alcaligenes faecalis. the australian isolates were identified as bordetella avium. a routine procedure for the identification of this recently recognised poultry pathogen is described.19853834901
an evaluation of two methods of substrate alkalinization for the identification of bordetella avium and other similar organisms.the effect of using two different techniques for the detection of substrate alkalinization by bordetella avium and reference strains of alcaligenes faecalis and b. bronchiseptica was evaluated. the techniques used were those described by otto and pickett and hinz et al. each test was in tubes sealed by either screw caps or cotton wool plugs. the alkalinization patterns obtained depended upon both the technique and the type of seal used.19863739213
glycoconjugates as components of receptors for bordetella avium on the tracheal mucosa of turkeys.bordetella avium is an important respiratory tract pathogen of turkeys. in common with other pathogenic bordetellae, b avium manifests a tissue tropism for cilia of the respiratory tract epithelium. to determine the molecular characteristics of the host cell receptors for b avium, we used hemagglutination and in vivo adherence assays. carbohydrates, mucus, sialic acid-specific lectin, and other glycoconjugates were evaluated for their ability to competitively inhibit binding of b avium to host c ...19938116933
further characterization of the agent causing coryza in turkeys.a total of 128 isolates of alcaligenes faecalis, from the respiratory tract of turkeys and chickens, were identified and divided into two types designated type i and type ii. type i isolates were pathogenic in poults, hemagglutinated guinea pig red blood cells (rbcs), and did not grow on minimal essential medium (mem) agar, and most did not grow in 6.5% nacl broth. type ii isolates were nonpathogenic and nonhemagglutinating and grew on mem agar, and most grew in 6.5% nacl broth. hemagglutination ...19854074238
tracheal mucus transport rate in normal turkeys and in turkeys infected with bordetella avium (alcaligenes faecalis).using the radiopharmaceutical 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid, the tracheal mucus transport rate (tmtr) was measured in healthy unanesthetized turkeys and in turkeys infected with bordetella avium. the tmtr of uninfected turkeys was 35.6 +/- 14.4 cm/min. the tmtr of b. avium-infected turkeys was normal on days 0 through 14 postexposure (pe), despite heavy bacterial colonization of the tracheal epithelium. on day 21 pe, the tmtr of b. avium-infected turkeys was significantly depressed (p less than o ...19863729858
passive immunization versus adhesion of bordetella avium to the tracheal mucosa of turkeys.three-week-old turkeys were passively immunized with convalescent serum or treated with tracheal washings from turkeys infected with bordetella avium. western blot analysis of the convalescent serum and tracheal washings revealed at least two bands of interaction with outer membrane protein preparations of b. avium. adherence of b. avium in vivo to tracheal mucosa was determined and compared in treated and untreated turkeys. passive immunization with convalescent serum reduced adherence of b. av ...19883196265
immune response of poults following intranasal inoculation with artvax vaccine and a formalin-inactivated bordetella avium bacterin.poults 3 weeks and older developed temporary tracheal resistance to intranasal challenge following inoculation of either artvax vaccine or formalin-inactivated bordetella avium bacterin by the intranasal and eyedrop routes. resistance usually persisted for 3-4 weeks after b. avium challenge. however, with constant exposure to infected controls, the vaccinated birds eventually developed tracheal infection. day-old poults did not respond to either the artvax or the bacterin and were completely sus ...19854074243
[occurrence of bordetella avium sp. nov. and bordetella bronchiseptica in birds]. 19854074318
clearance of bacteria in turkeys with bordetella avium-induced tracheitis.quantitative clearance of aerosolized escherichia coli from the trachea, lung, and air sacs was measured in turkeys infected with bordetella avium. clearance of e. coli in turkeys with b. avium-induced tracheitis was minimally affected early in infection. sixteen to 23 days after infection with b. avium, sporadic, mild depressions in clearance of e. coli were observed in the tracheas, which had large areas of deciliated tracheal epithelium or replacement of normal epithelium by immature hyperpla ...19863524545
production of monoclonal antibodies to the bordetella avium 41-kilodalton surface protein and characterization of the hemagglutinin.production of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to bordetella avium surface proteins led to further characterization of the hemagglutinin. proteins obtained by homogenization of whole-cell b. avium were used to immunize mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. immunoprecipitation and western blot techniques were used to determine the specificity of three mabs, which all recognized the b. avium 41-kilodalton (kd) surface protein. in addition, all of the mabs inhibited hemagglutination (ha) of ...19947980267
mucosal and systemic humoral immune response to bordetella avium in experimentally infected turkeys.antibody response to bordetella avium was measured in serum and mucosal secretions of experimentally infected turkeys. two-day-old turkeys were inoculated with b. avium, and four inoculated turkeys and four uninoculated control birds per trial were euthanatized weekly from 1 through 8 weeks postinoculation (pi). maternal antibody of the igg isotype, present in all 2-day-old birds sampled, decreased to background levels by 3 weeks of age. antibody (igg, igm, iga) was detected in serum, tracheal w ...19947980268
bordetella avium hemagglutination and motility mutants: isolation, characterization, and pathogenicity.transposon mutagenesis was used to produce bordetella avium mutants, which were screened for the lack of potential virulence factors, including a hemagglutinin, flagella, pili, and toxins. a mini-tn10 transposon containing a kanamycin-resistance gene was introduced into the chromosomal dna of the virulent 002/s isolate by electroporation. a hemagglutination-negative (ha-) mutant and a motility-negative mutant were obtained. southern blot analysis showed that only the motility-negative mutant con ...19948002900
cloning and sequencing of a bordetella pertussis serum resistance locus.we have characterized a new virulence factor in bordetella pertussis: serum resistance. compared with escherichia coli hb101, wild-type b. pertussis was relatively resistant to classical-pathway, complement-dependent killing by normal human serum. however, a mutant of b. pertussis (bpm2041) which is less virulent in mice and which has tn5 lac inserted in a previously uncharacterized bvg-regulated gene was found to be at least 10-fold more susceptible to serum killing than the wild type. we have ...19947927748
identification and characterization of the treponema pallidum tpn50 gene, an ompa homolog.treponema pallidum is a pathogenic spirochete that has no known genetic exchange mechanisms. in order to identify treponemal genes encoding surface and secreted proteins, we carried out tnphoa mutagenesis of a t. pallidum genomic dna library in escherichia coli. several of the resulting clones expressed enzymatically active t. pallidum-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. the dna sequence of the 5' portion of a number of the treponemal genes was obtained and analyzed. a recombinant clone harbor ...19948112835
uptake of ferritin and bordetella avium in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue of turkeys.the uptake of macromolecular and particulate materials in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (balt) in turkeys was examined using transmission electron microscopy. tracer materials used were live and ultraviolet-killed (uv-killed) bordetella avium and ferritin. suspensions of bacteria and ferritin were instilled via intratracheal catheterization and allowed to remain in contact with the respiratory surfaces for 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. ferritin and b. avium were taken up by both ciliated ...19948042286
identification of bordetella avium using the polymerase chain reaction.a dna fragment from bordetella pertussis, encoding the fim2 fimbrial subunit gene with adjacent sequences, was used as a probe for the detection of homologous sequences in chromosomal dna of bordetella avium. a 1.8 kb sa1i-psti fragment from the genome of b. avium, which hybridized with the probe, was isolated and sequenced. no fimbrial subunit gene was located on the b. avium dna fragment. two regions could be distinguished in the sequence of the fragment. region 1, which was 80% identical to t ...19938271920
isolation of a putative fimbrial adhesin from bordetella pertussis and the identification of its gene.we report the purification of a minor bordetella pertussis fimbrial subunit, designated fimd, and the identification of its gene (fimd). fimd could be purified from the bulk of major fimbrial subunits by exploiting the fact that major subunit-subunit interactions are more stable in the presence of sds than minor-major subunit interactions. to locate the gene for fimd, internal peptides of fimd were generated, purified and sequenced. subsequently, an oligonucleotide probe, based on the primary se ...19938105363
tracheal lesions in young turkeys infected with bordetella avium.forty-six turkeys were inoculated intranasally with bordetella avium at 3 days of age. inoculated and non-inoculated turkeys (n = 72) were necropsied sequentially from post-exposure days (ped) 3 to 53. tracheal lesions were studied histologically. mild fibrinopurulent tracheitis, associated with bacterial colonization of ciliated epithelium, was seen at ped 7 to 10. at ped 14 and 21, there were numerous bacterial colonies, loss of ciliated cells, epithelial hyperplasia, depletion of mucus, and d ...19846497122
identification of a bordetella pertussis regulatory factor required for transcription of the pertussis toxin operon in escherichia coli.transcription of the pertussis toxin operon (ptx) is positively regulated in bordetella pertussis by the bvgas locus. however, a ptx-lacz transcriptional fusion in escherichia coli cannot be activated by bvgas in trans. this suggests that an additional factor(s) is required for transcription of ptx. a gene encoding a bvg accessory factor (baf) was identified by its ability to activate an e. coli ptx-lacz fusion in the presence of bvgas. the expression of ptx-lacz was decreased by the addition of ...19957601846
isolation of a bordetella avium-like organism from a human specimen.the isolation of a strain of bordetella for which the species could not be determined but which most closely resembled bordetella avium is reported. the strain was isolated in mixed culture from an ear swab of a patient suffering from chronic otitis media. the bacterium showed the typical biochemical reactions of bordetella avium but differed in antimicrobial resistance pattern, protein and fatty acid composition, and dna-dna and dna-rrna hybridization. further studies will clarify the taxonomic ...19957556237
bordetella avium: an opportunistic pathogen in leghorn chickens.experiments were conducted in order to produce bordetellosis in specific-pathogen-free (spf) leghorn chickens. in the first and second of three experiments, young turkeys and chickens, respectively, were allotted into groups and challenged at 2 weeks of age with one of seven different isolates of bordetella avium and two isolates of b. avium-like bacteria. isolates of b. avium with the smooth colony type were pathogenic in turkeys but not in chickens. the b. avium-like bacteria and b. avium isol ...19957677659
a time-course study of the transfer of immunoglobulin g from blood to tracheal and lacrimal secretions in young turkeys.three-week-old turkeys were injected intravenously with bordetella avium-specific immunoglobulin g (igg), and absorbance readings were measured in blood, tracheal washings, and lacrimal secretions using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at various time intervals. igg was detected in tracheal and lacrimal secretions as early as 5 minutes after injection and peaked at 10 minutes after injection. thereafter, igg absorbance declined rapidly, reaching background levels by 24 hours. the absorbance ...19957677657
bordetella holmesii sp. nov., a new gram-negative species associated with septicemia.cdc nonoxidizer group 2 (no-2) currently consists of 15 gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, asaccharolytic, brown soluble pigment-producing strains isolated from blood cultures, usually from young adults. on the basis of their cellular fatty acid profiles, no-2 strains formed a single group that was identical with the profile of bordetella avium. 16s rrna sequencing of one no-2 strain and the type strains of b. pertussis, b. parapertussis, b. bronchiseptica, and b. avium showed a high d ...19957699023
beta-cystathionase from bordetella avium. role(s) of lysine 214 and cysteine residues in activity and cytotoxicity.beta-cystathionase (ec 4.4.1.8) from bordetella avium is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (plp)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-cystine to yield pyruvic acid, nh3, and thiocysteine. the latter compound is highly toxic toward mc3t3-e1 osteogenic cells, rat osteosarcoma cells, and other cell lines maintained in tissue culture (gentry-weeks, c. r., keith, j. m., and thompson, j. (1993) j. biol. chem. 268, 7298-7314). site-directed mutagenesis has established that lysine 214 of the seque ...19957706318
an evaluation of lectin agglutination and ampicillin sensitivity testing for the differentiation of bordetella avium and the b avium-like organism. 19947818444
a monoclonal antibody-based latex bead agglutination test for the detection of bordetella avium.the purpose of this study was to develop a rapid method to distinguish bordetella avium from closely related bordetella avium-like and b. bronchiseptica bacteria. a monoclonal antibody of the igm isotype was produced in balb/c mice against live b. avium strain 75. the monoclonal antibody, in the form of ascites fluid, was added to a bovine serum albumin-glycine buffer (ph 8.6) and adsorbed to 3.03-microns-diameter latex beads. optimum concentrations of antibody, beads, and bacteria were determin ...19938257369
[serologic studies on the antigen structure of bordetella avium sp. nov]. 19846712582
identification of a bordetella pertussis bvg-regulated porin-like protein.bordetella pertussis 18323 produces a bvg-regulated 39.1-kda porin-like protein, ompq. ompq had 61% similarity to the major porin of b. pertussis and contains conserved regions common to both the neisserial and enteric porin families. the results of southern blot analysis indicate that strains of bordetella parapertussis and bordetella bronchiseptica but not bordetella avium contain this gene.19957836316
bordetella hinzii sp. nov., isolated from poultry and humans.a polyphasic taxonomic study that included dna-rrna hybridizations, dna-dna hybridizations, dna base ratio determinations, whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses, and an examination of classical phenotypic characteristics was performed in order to classify human and veterinary isolates that resemble bordetella avium. twelve poultry isolates and two human isolates were assigned to a new species, for which we propose the name bordetella hinzii. the position of this organism in the family alcal ...19957857806
virulent salmonella typhimurium-induced lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in chickens.the effect of experimental salmonella infection on chicken lymphoid organs, immune responses, and fecal shedding of salmonellae were assessed following oral inoculation of 1-day-old chicks or intra-air-sac infection of 4-week-old chickens with virulent s. typhimurium wild-type chi 3761 or avirulent s. typhimurium delta cya delta crp vaccine strain chi 3985. some 4-week-old chickens infected intra-air-sac with chi 3761 or chi 3985 were challenged with bordetella avium to determine the effect of s ...19948168969
bordetella avium phase-shift markers: characterization of whole cell, cell envelope, and outer membrane proteins. 19957578462
antimicrobial sensitivity testing of australian isolates of bordetella avium and the bordetella avium-like organism.the in-vitro sensitivity of 16 australian isolates of bordetella avium and 15 isolates of b avium-like organism to 11 antimicrobial agents or combinations of agents was determined using a microtitre plate system to establish minimal inhibitory concentrations. all the b avium isolates were sensitive to ampicillin but resistant to erythromycin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and lincomycin + spectinomycin. most of the b avium isolates were sensitive to tetracycline and ...19957611990
effect of passively administered immunoglobulin g on the colonization and clearance of bordetella avium in turkeys.this study was conducted to detect the effect of parenterally administered immunoglobulin isotype g (igg) on the colonization and clearance of bordetella avium at the tracheal surface in young turkeys. in two separate experiments, 3-week-old turkeys were infected with b. avium either after or before igg administration. comparisons were made between a control group which received an irrelevant igg (specific for keyhole limpet hemocyanin [klh]) and the experimental group which received a b. avium- ...19958746697
the production of colibacillosis in turkeys following sequential exposure to newcastle disease virus or bordetella avium, avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus, and escherichia coli.female large white turkeys were intranasally inoculated with either newcastle disease virus (nd) or bordetella avium (ba) at 4 weeks of age. this was followed by oral inoculation with an avirulent (vaccine) strain of hemorrhagic enteritis virus (he) at 5 weeks and intravenous inoculation with escherichia coli (ec) at 6 weeks. control birds received nd, ba, or he followed by ec; ec alone; or nothing at all. turkeys receiving one agent prior to ec challenge did not experience a significant increas ...19968980815
antimicrobial activity of chicken and turkey heterophil peptides chp1, chp2, thp1, and thp3.four avian heterophil antimicrobial cationic peptides (chicken heterophil peptides 1 and 2, and turkey heterophil peptides 1 and 3) were evaluated for in vitro microbicidal activity against selected avian pathogens and human pathogens which are harbored by birds. at concentrations of 16-2 micrograms/ml, all four avian peptides effected a greater than 90% reduction in the survival of candida albicans, salmonella enteriditis, and campylobacter jejuni. none of the peptides, including the known anti ...19958748545
flagellin gene transcription in bordetella bronchiseptica is regulated by the bvgas virulence control system.the products of the bvgas locus activate expression of a majority of the known bordetella virulence factors but also exert negative control over a class of genes called vrg genes (bvg-repressed genes). bvgas negatively controls the production of flagella and the phenotype of motility in bordetella bronchiseptica. in this study flaa, the flagellin gene, was cloned and characterized to facilitate studies of this negative control pathway. an internal flaa probe detected hybridizing sequences on gen ...19938501051
passive immune protection of turkeys against coryza.antisera made against whole cells of bordetella avium protected turkeys against disease signs of turkey coryza, but antiserum against the dermonecrotic heat-labile toxin (dhlt) did not. neither antiserum against whole cells nor antiserum against dhlt protected turkeys against colonization of the trachea by b. avium. at least 25 bands in whole cell lysate of b. avium separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) reacted in immunoblots with protective antiserum. ...19979454930
bacterial community dynamics during start-up of a trickle-bed bioreactor degrading aromatic compounds.this study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (solvesso100). the starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a care painting facility as the inoculum and solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. the bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rrna-targeted oligon ...19989501433
toxicity of bordetella avium beta-cystathionase toward mc3t3-e1 osteogenic cells.bordetella avium is the etiological agent of an upper respiratory disease in birds which, symptomatically and pathologically, resembles bordetellosis in humans. studies of the virulence of this organism revealed a novel cytotoxic protein, designated osteotoxin, that was lethal for mc3t3-e1 osteogenic cells, fetal bovine trabecular cells, umr106-01(bsp) rat osteosarcoma cells, and embryonic bovine tracheal cells. the osteotoxin lacked dermonecrotic toxin activity, exhibited no cross-reactivity wi ...19938463265
application of 16s rrna gene sequencing to identify bordetella hinzii as the causative agent of fatal septicemia.we report on the first case of fatal septicemia caused by bordetella hinzii. the causative organism exhibited a biochemical profile identical to that of bordetella avium with three commercial identification systems (api 20e, api 20 ne, and vitek gni+ card). however, its cellular fatty acid profile was not typical for either b. avium or previously reported strains of b. hinzii. presumptive identification of the patient's isolate was accomplished by traditional biochemical testing, and definitive ...200010655386
characterization of a predominant immunogenic outer membrane protein of riemerella anatipestifer.the ompa gene, encoding the 42-kda major antigenic outer membrane protein ompa of riemerella anatipestifer, the etiololgical agent of septicemia anserum exsudativa, was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. recombinant ompa displayed a molecular mass similar to that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the ompa gene but lower than that observed in total cell lysates of r. anatipestifer. the ompa gene showed a conserved c-terminal region comprising the ompa-like domain and a variable n-t ...200010702488
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of clinical strains of cdc group ivc-2.cdc group ivc-2 is a gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonfermentative bacillus that has been implicated in human infections, including septicemia and peritonitis. biochemically it most closely resembles bordetella bronchiseptica and alcaligenes sp. results of cellular fatty acid (cfa) and 16s rrna gene analysis were combined with biochemical data to assist in identification and classification. the predominant cfas were hexadecanoic acid (16:0), cis-9-hexadecanoic acid (16:1omega7c), cis-11-octad ...19989705403
evaluation of the vitek 2 system for rapid identification of medically relevant gram-negative rods.the new vitek 2 system (biomérieux) was evaluated at two independent sites with the identification card for gram-negative bacilli (id-gnb card). of the 845 strains tested, which represented 70 different taxa belonging to either the family enterobacteriaceae or the nonenteric bacilli, 716 (84.7%) were correctly identified at the species level. thirty-two (3.8%) additional strains were identified to the species level after the performance of simple, rapid manual tests (oxidase, hemolysis, indole r ...19989650942
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