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neisseria lactamica and neisseria polysaccharea as possible sources of meningococcal beta-lactam resistance by genetic transformation.we studied the susceptibilities of relatively penicillin g-resistant and -susceptible strains of neisseria meningitidis, as well as neisseria lactamica and neisseria polysaccharea, to penicillin, ampicillin, and several cephalosporins. the mics of penicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefuroxime for moderately resistant meningococci have increased two- to sixfold in relation to mics for susceptible strains. for these strains of meningococci, n. lactamica, and n. polysaccharea, penicillin, amp ...19902127349
pharyngeal carriage of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica in households with infants within areas with high and low incidences of meningococcal disease.in a household survey in the faroe islands, an isolated community with hyperendemic occurrence of meningococcal disease due to serogroup b 15, 1604 persons were examined for pharyngeal carriage of neisseria meningitidis and n. lactamica. two areas were chosen having experienced high (hia), and two having experienced low incidences (lia) of disease. living in hia compared with lia was associated with higher risk of n. meningitidis b 15 carriage and lower risk of n. lactamica carriage, with odds r ...19911904825
variability in growth of neisseria polysaccharea on colistin-containing selective media for neisseria spp.in a prospective survey of 773 healthy schoolchildren in southern alberta, canada, neisseria polysaccharea was isolated from the pharynxes of only 4 (0.5%) subjects, whereas neisseria lactamica and neisseria meningitidis were isolated from 110 (14%) and 15 (2%) children, respectively. these strains of n. polysaccharea, together with three other sporadic isolates from alberta, canada, were compared with the type strain from france and strains from spain and germany. all strains were phenotypicall ...19911774246
superoxol and aminopeptidase tests for identification of pathogenic neisseria species and moraxella (branhamella) catarrhalis.the superoxol test, and prolyl aminopeptidase and gammaglutamyl aminopeptidase tests were evaluated for the detection of pathogenic neisseria spp. using 317 strains of neisseria-ceae. the superoxol test was positive for all 116 gonococci and 62 moraxella (branhamella) catarrhalis strains, but also for three strains of neisseria meningitidis, one strain of neisseria lactamica and eight saprophytic neisseriae. when using strains grown on thayer-martin medium, the positive and negative predictive v ...19901974848
neisseria lactamica meningitis following skull trauma.a woman developed meningitis due to neisseria lactamica in association with a cribriform plate fracture. cerebrospinal fluid antigen tests for neisseria meningitidis were negative. the patient recovered with intravenous penicillin therapy. n. lactamica can be rapidly distinguished from n. meningitidis by the hydrolysis of onpg (o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside). in contrast to n. meningitidis and neisseria gonorrhoeae, n. lactamica lacks virulence properties. as 100% of n. lactamica strain ...19912041952
meningococcal molecular mimicry and the search for an ideal vaccine.the carbohydrates expressed on the surface of meningococcal strains of groups b and c mimic those commonly found on human cells and thus are not functionally antigenic in infancy. in order to develop an effective vaccine, it will be necessary to find ways of circumventing this molecular mimicry. three possible ways of achieving this are discussed. (i) the surface polysaccharides can theoretically present conformationally different epitopes, some of which might be recognized as antigenic by the h ...19911725072
secretor status and humoral immune responses to neisseria lactamica and neisseria meningitidis.non-secretors of abo blood group antigens are over-represented among patients with meningococcal diseases. lower levels of secretory iga reported for non-secretors have been suggested to compromise mucosal defences. total serum and salivary igg, iga and igm and levels of these isotypes specific for neisseria lactamica and five isolates of meningococci were determined by elisa for 357 pupils and staff of a secondary school in which an outbreak of meningitis occurred. there were no differences in ...19921468529
septicemia due to neisseria lactamica.neisseria lactamica was isolated from the blood of a pediatric patient who had signs of septicemia and otitis media. organisms morphologically resembling neisseria, as well as gram-positive cocci, were seen on a gram stain of fluid from the middle ear. it is hypothesized that the n. lactamica septicemia was secondary to infection of the middle ear by this organism.1976972188
[experience with neisseria lactamica (author's transl)].the authors have performed a detailed study of the presence of a new microbial species, neisseria lactamica which even recently had still been classified among the nontypable neisseria meningitidis strains. an examination of the spread of neisseria strains among the healthy population of this country revealed 1.6% to be carriers of neisseria lactamica as compared with 4.7% being carriers of neisseria meningitidis. from the material examined, the highest number of neisseria lactamica carriers was ...1976827879
neisseria lactamica meningitis. 1978722428
neisseria lactamica meningitis.neisseria lactamica was recovered from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of a 7-month-old girl with acute purulent meningitis. the isolate was identified initially as n meningitidis. however, additional biochemical testing at the center for disease control showed that the organism fermented lactose and produced beta-d-galactosidase, thereby confirming its identity as n lactamica.1976814807
meningitis caused by neisseria lactamica. 1978683293
the lipopolysaccharide (r type) as a common antigen of neisseria gonorrhoeae. ii. use of hen antiserum to gonococcal lipopolysaccharide in a rapid slide test for the identification of n. gonorrhoeae from primary isolates and secondary cultures.an antiserum has been prepared in hens to r-type gonococcal lipopolysaccharide (lps) and used in a simple slide-agglutination test for the identification of neisseria gonorrhoeae. anti-lps serum agglutinated gonococcal cells representative of the four colony types of n. gonorrhoeae. absorption of the antiserum with lps removed the agglutinating activity. secondary cultures (1120) were tested without observation of the colony type and all were agglutinated. no agglutination occurred with strains ...1978417781
carriage of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica in infants and children.asymptomatic carriage of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica was studied in a total of 2,969 healthy infants and children in danbury, conn., between october 1971 and june 1975. the prevalence of n. meningitidis averaged 0.71% during the first four years of life and increased to 5.4% by 14--17 years. rates of carriage of n. lactamica increased from 3.8% in three-month-old infants to a peak of 21.0% at 18 months and then declined to 1.8% by 14--17 years of age. of the children who acqui ...1978415097
inhibition of neisseria gonorrhoeae by normal human saliva.saliva was found to be a powerful and specific inhibitor of neisseria gonorrhoeae. although 28 other species of bacteria were tested, including neisseria meningitidis, neisseria pharyngis var flava, neisseria lactamica, and neisseria catarrhalis, we failed to find any others sensitive to saliva under similar conditions. the physical properties of the inhibitory substance indicated that it might be salivary alpha-amylase. to test this hypothesis alpha-amylase was extracted from saliva and was sho ...1979106919
neisseria meningitidis in the anal canal of homosexual men.cultures were obtained from the oropharynx, urethra, and anal canal of 157 homosexual men. neisseria gonorrhoeae was identified in 30 men (19.1%), neisseria meningitidis in 32 men (20.4%), and neisseria lactamicus and branhamella catarrhalis in one man each. n. gonorrhoeae was isolated from the anal canal of three men (1.9%), and n. meninititidis was identified in the anal canal of seven men (4.5%). these findings suggest that confirmatory tests are indicated for homosexual males with rectal iso ...1977411836
identification of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies sm1 and sm2 which react with all pili of neisseria gonorrhoeae but which differentiate between two structural classes of pili expressed by neisseria meningitidis and the distribution of their encoding sequences in the genomes of neisseria spp.the pili expressed by all isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae react with two monoclonal antibodies, sm1 and sm2. in contrast, although many isolates of neisseria meningitidis also express pili (class i) which react with antibodies sm1 and sm2, a proportion express pili (class ii) which fail to react. in order to define the epitopes recognized by these antibodies, a series of overlapping peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of conserved regions of gonococcal pili have been synthesized. ...19892483993
comparison of three methods for identification of pathogenic neisseria species.a radiometric procedure was compared with the minitek and cystine trypticase agar sugar degradation methods for identification of 113 neisseria species (58 neisseria meningitidis, 51 neisseria gonorrhoeae, 2 neisseria lactamica, 2 neisseria sicca). identification of meningococci and gonococci was confirmed by agglutination and fluorescent antibody techniques, respectively. the minitek method identified 97% of meningococci, 92% of gonococci, and 100% of other neisseria after 4 h of incubation. th ...1979383747
penicillin-resistant isolates of neisseria lactamica produce altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 that arose by interspecies horizontal gene transfer.isolates of neisseria lactamica that have increased resistance to penicillin have emerged in recent years. resistance to penicillin was shown to be due to the production of altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 (pbp 2) that have reduced affinity for the antibiotic. the sequences of the pbp 2 genes (pena) from two penicillin-resistant isolates were almost identical (less than or equal to 1% sequence divergence) to that of a penicillin-susceptible isolate, except in a 175-bp region where t ...19912024965
[differential diagnosis of neisseria lactamicus from other neisserias]. 1979400540
identification of neisseria spp., haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative bacteria with the microscan haemophilus-neisseria identification panel.the haemophilus-neisseria identification (hnid) panel (american microscan, sacramento, calif.) is a 4-h microdilution format system for identification of haemophilus and neisseria spp., branhamella (moraxella) catarrhalis, and gardnerella vaginalis. the hnid panel was evaluated by using 423 clinical isolates and stock strains of these organisms, and hnid identifications were compared with those obtained by conventional methods. in addition, 32 isolates representing six genera not included in the ...19892501351
acute otitis media caused by neisseria lactamica. 19911794375
respiratory symptoms due to branhamella catarrhalis and other neisseria species infections--response to erythromycin therapy.neisseria microorganisms (neisseria lactamica, neisseria sicca, and neisseria mucosa) are regarded as normal respiratory commensals. branhamella catarrhalis (formerly neisseria catarrhalis) has also been regarded as a normal respiratory commensal, but reports indicate that it can be pathogenic. the role of neisseria spp was studied in 160 patients with chest infections and symptoms and signs of obstructive respiratory disease. group i patients (n = 140) had a history of asthma, bronchitis, and e ...19892509070
effect of smoking on meningococcal carriage.a case-control study was done to examine whether certain environmental or medical factors were associated with meningococcal carriage. questionnaires were posted to 138 meningococcal carriers and their controls, and to 52 carriers of neisseria lactamica and their controls. carriers were matched to controls by age, sex, and area of residence. the overall response rate was 89%. there were no differences in environmental or medical factors between n lactamica carriers and their controls, nor in hou ...19892570968
further antigenic similarities of neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides and human glycosphingolipids.anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies were tested for their ability to bind to various strains of neisseria. a monoclonal antibody that binds to the ganglio-series glycosphingolipid, ganglio-n-triaosylceramide, also bound to strains of neisseria gonorrhoeae but not to other species of neisseria. an antibody specific for the globo-series glycosphingolipid, globotriaosylceramide, also bound to strains of n. gonorrhoeae, neisseria meningitidis, neisseria lactamica, and branhamella catarrhalis but ...19921612771
lipooligosaccharides (los) of some haemophilus species mimic human glycosphingolipids, and some los are sialylated.the lipooligosaccharides (los) of strains of haemophilus ducreyi, neisseria gonorrhoeae, neisseria meningitidis, and neisseria lactamica contain epitopes that are antigenically and structurally similar to carbohydrates present in human glycosphingolipids. los from strains of haemophilus influenzae and h. influenzae biogroup aegyptius were tested for the binding of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) that bind to human glycosphingolipids possessing gal beta 1-4glcnac (mab 3f11) and gal alpha 1-4gal beta ...19921372291
homology of cryptic plasmid of neisseria gonorrhoeae with plasmids from neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica.dna probe hybridisation was used to examine the relation between the cryptic plasmid from neisseria gonorrhoeae and plasmids carried by pharyngeal isolates of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica. the complete gonococcal cryptic plasmid and hinfi derived digestion fragments subcloned into escherichia coli were used to probe southern blots of plasmid extracts. homology was found to a plasmid of approximate molecular weight 4.5 kilobase pairs (kb) but not to plasmids of less than 3.2 kb ...19863097079
letter: neisseria lactamicus pharyngitis. 19751173412
septicaemia due to neisseria lactamica--initial confusion with neisseria meningitidis.neisseria lactamica, isolated from a baby with septicaemia, was at first thought to be neisseria meningitidis, possibly acquired in hospital. extensive investigation of contacts was made until the o-nitrophenyl-d-galactopyranoside reaction proved positive. distinction between the two species, easily made in this way, is important both in individual patients and in population surveys.19873121756
epidemiology and molecular basis of penicillin-resistant neisseria meningitidis in spain: a 5-year history (1985-1989).penicillin-resistant (penr) clinical isolates of neisseria meningitidis, which do not produce beta-lactamase, were first identified in spain in 1985; the frequency of their recovery, which has been increasing in the past few years, reached 20% in 1989. serogrouping, determination of serotypes and subtypes, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of the penr strains showed an extensive diversity. resistance is due, at least in part, to a decreased affinity of penicillin-binding protein (pbp) 2 for ...19921554823
nasal secretions of neisseria lactamica carriers have an inhibitory effect on neisseria meningitidis attachment to human oroepithelial cells.nasal secretions of volunteers colonized by n. lactamica impaired the attachment of n. lactamica and of meningococci of groups a and b to oroepithelial cells. bacterial adherence was found to be mediated by nonpiliated adhesins with antigen(s) which probably are shared by the strains tested. although a strong attachment-inhibiting activity arises in their nasal secretions, volunteers remained colonized by n. lactamica. this evidence suggest that the eradication of neisseria carriage is a multifa ...19863112512
increased detection of prolylaminopeptidase in neisseria meningitidis by identicult-neisseria.identicult-neisseria (scott laboratories, inc., fiskeville, r.i.), a rapid enzymatic method with chromogenic substrates, was tested in our laboratories for the identification of neisseria gonorrhoea, neisseria meningitidis, and neisseria lactamica. the test correlated very highly in its identification of pathogenic neisseria spp. with modified new york city fermentation medium. identicult-neisseria appeared to be more sensitive in its detection of prolylaminopeptidase activity in n. meningitidis ...19863088031
evaluation of the rim-n, gonochek ii, and phadebact systems for the identification of pathogenic neisseria spp. and branhamella catarrhalis.methods for identifying neisseria spp. include conventional and modified carbohydrate degradation procedures, chromogenic enzyme substrate tests, and immunologic coagglutination tests for neisseria gonorrhoeae. in this study, we evaluated the abilities of the rim-n carbohydrate degradation system (american microscan, campbell, calif.), the gonochek ii enzymatic identification system (du pont co., wilmington, del.), and the phadebact gonococcus coagglutination test (pharmacia diagnostics, piscata ...19853889044
presence of a capsule in neisseria lactamica, antigenically similar to the capsule of n. meningitidis.three of thirteen strains of neisseria lactamica, a species closely related to n. meningitidis, were selected on the basis of their ability to be strongly agglutinated by serogroup b antimeningococcal serum. the presence of a capsule was demonstrated using alcian blue as a stain for acidic polysaccharide. when reacted with serogroup b antimeningococcal sera, 2 out of 3 n. lactamica b-coagglutanating strains exhibited an extracellular material comparable in size, antigenicity and staining propert ...19863122640
the stonehouse survey: nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci and neisseria lactamica.a total of 6234 nasopharyngeal swabs was collected during a survey of the population of stonehouse, gloucestershire in november 1986 as part of an investigation into an outbreak of meningococcal disease. the overall meningococcal carriage rate was 10.9%. the carriage rate rose with age from 2.1% in the 0- to 4-year-olds to a peak of 24.5% in the 15- to 19-year-olds, and thereafter declined steadily with age. male carriers outnumbered female carriers of meningococci by 3:2. group b (or non-groupa ...19873123263
evaluation of a ten-minute chromogenic substrate test for identification of pathogenic neisseria species and branhamella catarrhalis.a ten-minute chromogenic substrate test was evaluated for its ability to rapidly identify pathogenic neisseria spp. and branhamella catarrhalis. identifications obtained with this system were compared to those obtained using conventional procedures. the test correctly identified 98.9% of 90 neisseria gonorrhoeae, 98.3% of 60 neisseria meningitidis, 96.2% of 26 neisseria lactamica, and 100% of 36 branhamella catarrhalis strains. eight neisseria subflava strains that grew on modified thayer-martin ...19883132371
hen fluorescein-labeled gonococcal lipopolysaccharide antibody in the delayed fluorescent antibody technique for the confirmation of neisseria gonorrhoeae.a fluorescent antibody reagent (termed anti-lps conjugate) was prepared from sera obtained from hens immunized with gonococcal r-type lipopolysaccharide. the reagent was absorbed with formalin-treated cells of neisseria meningitidis. the anti-lps conjugate gave uniform brilliant staining of neisseria gonorrhoeae with little background fluorescence, thus making interpretation and reading of fluorescence simple. the conjugate did not significantly stain cultures of n. meningitidis, neisseria lacta ...1979110824
cloning and characterization of two tandemly arranged dna methyltransferase genes of neisseria lactamica: an adenine-specific m.nlaiii and a cytosine-type methylase.the gene encoding the neisseria lactamica iii dna methyltransferase (m.nlaiii) which recognizes the sequence catg has been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. dna sequencing of a 3.125 kb ecori-psti fragment localizes the m. nlaiii gene to a 334 codon open reading frame (orf) and identifies, 468 bp downstream, a second orf of 313 amino acids, which is referred to as m.nlax. both proteins are detectable in the e. coli coupled in vitro transcription-translation system; they are apparently ex ...19902277628
neisseria lactamica and neisseria meningitidis share lipooligosaccharide epitopes but lack common capsular and class 1, 2, and 3 protein epitopes.neisseria lactamica, a common human pharyngeal commensal, contributes to acquired immunity to neisseria meningitidis. to define the surface antigens shared between these two species, we used monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to study 35 n. lactamica strains isolated in various parts of the world for cross-reactivity with meningococcal capsules, outer membrane proteins, and lipooligosaccharides (los). no n. lactamica strain reacted significantly with mabs specific for capsular group a, b, c, y, or w, ...19892463970
comparative evaluation of five commercial systems for the rapid identification of pathogenic neisseria species.prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of urogenital gonococcal infections require rapid isolation and identification of neisseria gonorrhoeae from urogenital specimens. we evaluated a new, rapid (30-min) test called gonochek ii (e-y laboratories, san mateo, calif.) which utilizes chromogenic substrates for the identification of pathogenic neisseria species. it was compared with the api neident (analytab products, inc., plainview, n.y.), minitek (bbl microbiology systems, cockeysville, md.), a ...19853926813
nutritional profiles of neisseria gonorrhoeae, neisseria meningitidis, and neisseria lactamica in chemically defined media and the use of growth requirements for gonococcal typing. 19734198720
isolation of neisseria lactamicus from a genital site. 19724116149
sources of neisseria lactamicus. 19734121581
superoxol and amylase inhibition tests for distinguishing gonococcal and nongonococcal cultures growing on selective media.two inexpensive screening tests were evaluated singly and in tandem for distinguishing neisseria gonorrhoeae from other oxidase-positive microorganisms growing on selective gonococcal media. in tests of 728 cultures, including 460 n. gonorrhoeae, 4 neisseria lactamica, 257 neisseria meningitidis, and 7 branhamella catarrhalis, both superoxol (30% h2o2; j. t. baker chemical co., phillipsburg, n.j.) and amylase inhibition tests were 100% sensitive (positive) for 20-h cultures of n. gonorrhoeae. si ...19846205016
isolation of neisseria lactamicus from the nasopharynx.during 1971 and 1972, 71 cultures of neisseriae that attacked lactose were received by this laboratory. all strains except one from an eye swab were from the nasopharynx of healthy subjects. nineteen similar strains from the nasopharynx were isolated in this laboratory. the characteristics of these strains were compared with those of neisseria meningitidis, neisseria pharyngis, neisseria catarrhalis, and neisseria lactamicus. the 90 strains under investigation closely resembled neisseria meningi ...19734198110
letter: the growth of neisseria lactamica on media selective for pathogenic neissericaeae. 19744213226
rapid confirmatory identification of neisseria gonorrhoeae with lectins and chromogenic substrates.a group of five tests utilizing wheat germ and soybean lectins and chromogenic substrates (orthonitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside, gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide, and prolyl-beta-naphthylamide derivatives) was used as a rapid (30-min) method for the identification of neisseria gonorrhoeae. the rapid method agreed with minitek test results for all 126 n. gonorrhoeae isolates and all 39 nongonococcal isolates tested. soybean lectin was useful for the identification of rare strains (4 of 126) ...19846425356
two unique restriction endonucleases from neisseria lactamica.two new site-specific endonucleases, n1a iii and n1a iv, have been isolated from neisseria lactamica. n1a iii recognizes the sequence, catg, and cleaves 3' of the sequence to produce a four base 3' extension. n1a iv recognizes the sequence, ggnncc, and cleaves between the two n's to produce blunt ended fragments.19863008082
differentiation of neisseriaceae by isoenzyme electrophoresis.analysis of 71 strains of neisseriaceae by starch-gel electrophoresis of hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose phosphate isomerase, and l-malate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidoreductase showed that all gonococci and all memingococci have a characteristic hexokinase isoenzyme that is specific for each species and clearly distinguishes meningococci and gonococci from each other and from other species of neisseriaceae. strains of gonococci that were transformed into maltose util ...19836219168
use of the api neident system for identification of pathogenic neisseria spp. and branhamella catarrhalis.the api neident system (analytab products, plainview, n.y.) was evaluated for identifying neisseria spp. and branhamella catarrhalis commonly isolated from clinical specimens. the system identified 90% of 303 neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates, 71% of 113 neisseria meningitidis isolates, and 63% of 16 neisseria lactamica isolates but failed to identify any of 22 b. catarrhalis isolates. testing of gonococcal strains of various auxotypes revealed no relationship between nutritional requirements and n ...19846371040
serologic confirmation of neisseria gonorrhoeae by monoclonal antibody-based coagglutination procedures.two commercially available monoclonal antibody coagglutination tests, phadebact monoclonal gc omni test (pmgot; pharmacia diagnostics ab, uppsala, sweden) and gonogen (gg; new horizons diagnostics, columbia, md.), for the confirmation of neisseria gonorrhoeae were evaluated. the sensitivities of pmgot and gg were 99.2 and 98.7% and the specificities were 91.5 and 100.0%, respectively. false-positive reactions were observed with neisseria lactamica and neisseria meningitidis in pmgot. a modificat ...19883148634
branhamella catarrhalis: significance in pulmonary infections and bacteriological features.a three-month survey revealed 29 patients at our hospital with symptoms of acute pulmonary infection, from whom branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from lower respiratory tract specimens, in 18 cases in pure culture. approximately 2% of all respiratory tract specimens examined during the period yielded growth of b. catarrhalis. all except one patient suffered from chronic pulmonary disease, notably chronic bronchitis. a phenotypic comparison was made between 55 strains of b. catarrhalis, of whi ...19863728028
[frequency and characterization of "neisseria lactamica" among the population of milan italy (author's transl)].in 1979, 4,941 asymptomatic subjects, ranging from children to adolescents and working-age adults living in the milan area, were examined for the presence of neisseriae in rhinopharyngeal exudate. 382 carriers of neisseriae were identified (7.7%); of these, 265 (5.3%) presented neisseria meningitidis and 117 (2.4%) neisseria lactamica. carriers of neisseria lactamica were found more frequently among children and adolescents than among adults of working age. the strains of neisseria lactamica iso ...19816803684
evaluation of a rapid identification method for neisseria spp.a comparison was made of carbohydrate degradation reactions of neisseria gonorrhoeae, neisseria meningitidis, neisseria lactamica, neisseria mucosa, neisseria sicca, neisseria subflava, and branhamella catarrhalis in a rapid (0.5- to 1-h) identification micromethod (rim-n kit; austin biological laboratories, inc., austin, tex.) and in a serum-free agar slanted medium (72 h). reactions after 1 h in the rim-n system agreed completely with those after 72 h in the conventional system.19853891778
carriage of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica in a school population during an epidemic period in spain.a study was made of the incidence of neisseria meningitidis and n. lactamica in a school population; 2470 children aged between 5 and 7 years were studied from four schools in alcala de henares (madrid). nasopharyngeal swabs were taken in june, november and march, between 1979 and 1983. in all the surveys except one, the proportion of carriers of n. lactamica was higher than that of n. meningitidis, reaching a ratio of about 2:1 in the complete study. the predominant serogroup of meningococcus f ...19853924995
the epidemiology of infections due to neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica in a northern nigerian community.the epidemiology of infection due to neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica was studied in a northern nigerian community. a low meningococcal carriage rate was observed throughout the two-year survey. initially, most meningococci isolated from nasopharyngeal carriers belonged to serogroup c or to serogroup y. following an outbreak of group a meningococcal disease, more group a meningococcal carriers were detected. antibody studies indicated that infection with group a meningococci had be ...19827130749
isolation of neisseria lactamica from the female genital tract. a case report.neisseria lactamica was isolated from the genital tract of a young patient with a persistent vaginal discharge. although infection with n lactamica occurs very rarely, the importance of complete biochemical identification of neisseriae is emphasised in view of the serious social and medicolegal consequences which could result from a misdiagnosis of gonorrhoea.19807427704
investigations into the molecular basis of meningococcal toxicity for human endothelial and epithelial cells: the synergistic effect of lps and pili.using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as an in vitro model of toxicity, it was found that neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, neisseria lactamica and neisseria sicca caused damage to these cells, in contrast to the lack of cytotoxicity exhibited by haemophilus influenzae type b. n. meningitidis was also found to be toxic for human epithelial cells. the major toxic factor of n. meningitidis was found to be a heat-stable component of outer membrane vesicles, and could be inhibite ...19957643745
neisseria lactamicus sp. n., a lactose-fermenting species resembling neisseria meningitidis.the biochemical and serological characteristics of lactose-utilizing strains of neisseria were determined. these organisms were found in the nasopharynx of man and grew well on thayer-martin selective medium. they were compared with n. meningitidis to ascertain whether they were variants of this species. differences between the lactose-using strains and the recognized species of neisseria were considered significant enough to warrant designation of a new species, neisseria lactamicus. this group ...19694975454
nested duplex pcr to detect bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis and its application in diagnosis of pertussis in nonmetropolitan southeast queensland, australia.a duplex pcr to detect bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis was developed with the insertion sequences is481 (b. pertussis) and is1001 (b. parapertussis) and evaluated with specimens from 520 consecutive patients presenting with possible pertussis. no culture-positive-pcr-negative results occurred, giving the method a sensitivity of 100%. for b. pertussis, 58 of 520 patients (11.2%) were positive by pcr compared to 17 of 520 patients positive (3.3%) by culture. for b. parapertussis, ...19999986820
comparison of monoclonal antibody methods and a ribosomal ribonucleic acid probe test for neisseria gonorrhoeae culture confirmation.recently, a chemiluminescent nucleic acid probe test that specifically detects the ribosomal ribonucleic acid of neisseria gonorrhoeae has been released for clinical laboratory use (accuprobe neisseria gonorrhoeae). in this study, three coagglutination tests (gonogen i, meritec gc, and gc omni), the gonogen ii immunofiltration method and the micro trak neisseria gonorrhoeae fluorescent monoclonal antibody test were compared with accuprobe for identification of gonococci. strains tested (n = 376) ...19937685283
the nlaiv restriction and modification genes of neisseria lactamica are flanked by leucine biosynthesis genes.the genes encoding the neisseria lactamica restriction endonuclease iv (r.nlaiv) and its cognate dna methyltransferase (m.nlaiv), both of which recognize the sequence ggnncc, have been cloned in escherichia coli and overexpressed using the t7 polymerase/promoter system. analysis of a sequenced 3.58 kb fragment established the gene order, leud-m.nlaiv-r.nlaiv-leub. the predicted primary sequence of m.nlaiv (423 amino acids) shows the highest degree of identity to a pair of cytosine-specific methy ...19948190068
study of the idiotypy of lipopolysaccharide-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.the monoclonal antibodies produced by a variety of hybridomas making antibody specific for e. coli 0113 lipopolysaccharide (lps) were purified by affinity chromatography and their fine specificity studied. all reacted specifically with the polysaccharide moiety of lps from e. coli 0113 and from neisseria lactamica; two reacted with lps from pseudomonas aeruginosa and one reacted with lps from klebsiella pneumoniae. polyclonal and monoclonal syngeneic and semi-syngeneic anti-idiotypic antisera we ...19826184233
meningococcal disease in south australia: incidence and serogroup distribution 1971-1980.during the ten-year period 1971-80 isolates of meningococci from 85 cases of meningococcal disease (md) in south australia, from 66 children, 6 adolescents and 13 adults, were examined. these comprised 69 cases of meningitis and 16 cases of bacteraemia without meningitis. thirty-three (39%) of all cases of md occurred in children less than 1 year of age, the median age was 19 months. serogroup b accounted for 61 (72%) cases of md, group a seven (8%), group c seven (8%), group w135 five (6%), gro ...19836401776
lack of immunoglobulin a protease in neisseria lactamica. 19836345152
the significance of nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal neisseria isolates from blood cultures.nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal neisseriae are part of the normal respiratory flora and infrequently cause disease. these organisms include neisseria lactamica, neisseria mucosa, neisseria sicca, neisseria flavescens, neisseria subflava , neisseria perflava , neisseria flava , and branhamella catarrhalis (previously classified as neisseria catarrhalis). blood cultures positive for these bacteria have been associated with serious infections, including endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis. in ...19846374834
evaluation of gonochek-ii as a rapid identification system for pathogenic neisseria species.the gonochek-ii test kit (e-y laboratories, san mateo, calif.) may be used to rapidly identify (within 30 min) neisseria gonorrhoeae, neisseria meningitidis, neisseria lactamica, and branhamella catarrhalis. the kit consists of oxidase swabs, chromogenic substrates, and ey-20 reagent (diazonium salt derivative). a beta-lactamase tube is also included. fifty-two clinical isolates were tested from cervical (22 isolates), urethral (13), throat (11), rectal (5), and urine (1) sources. all strains we ...19846436315
conjugation of plasmids of neisseria gonorrhoeae to other neisseria species: potential reservoirs for the beta-lactamase plasmid.the discovery that penicillinase production in neisseria gonorrhoeae was plasmid mediated and the spread of the beta-lactamase encoding plasmids in gonococcal isolates since 1976, raise the possibility that a nonpathogenic indigenous bacterium could serve as a reservoir for these plasmids. we initiated studies to define the ability of commensal neisseria species and branhamella catarrhalis strains, as well as strains of the pathogen neisseria meningitidis, to serve as recipients in conjugation w ...19846434640
necessity of molecular techniques to distinguish between neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from patients with meningococcal disease and from their healthy contacts.serogroup c strains of neisseria meningitidis were isolated from a germany patient with severe meningococcal disease after a trip to the czech republic. these strains (case isolates) were characterized by classical and molecular techniques, as were other strains (carrier isolates) isolated from healthy contacts. five of 10 carrier isolates had switched off the expression of capsular polysaccharide, as demonstrated by a serogroup-specific pcr. the two case isolates were indistinguishable by multi ...19989705375
neisseria lactamica septicemia in an immunocompromised patient.neisseria lactamica was isolated from the blood of a 7-year-old girl who was immunosuppressed from chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. she was receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylactically. the isolate was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and sensitive to penicillin. the patient responded to intravenous penicillin therapy. the organism did not produce immunoglobulin a1 protease.19836602809
presence of a new cytochrome b - like pigment with a peak at 567 nm in various aerobic bacteria.several physiological groups of bacteria were examined for the presence of a cytochrome b - like pigment which is demonstrable in dithionite-reduced minus substrate-reduced difference spectra. this pigment is characterized by an unusually high alpha band at 567 nm, a low concentration relative to conventional cytochromes, and an inability to be fully reduced by endogenous substrates or nadh. previous studies with one denitrifying and nondenitrifying species of the genus pseudomonas, in paracoccu ...19836652580
protein engineering reveals ancient adaptive replacements in isocitrate dehydrogenase.evolutionary analysis indicates that eubacterial nadp-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (ec 1.1.1.42) first evolved from an nad-dependent precursor about 3.5 billion years ago. selection in favor of utilizing nadp was probably a result of niche expansion during growth on acetate, where isocitrate dehydrogenase provides 90% of the nadph necessary for biosynthesis. amino acids responsible for differing coenzyme specificities were identified from x-ray crystallographic structures of escherichia c ...19979096353
[factors affecting neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica carrier state].invasive meningococcal diseases have become in the czech republic since 1993 a serious epidemiological and clinical problem due to a clonus which was not present previously: neisseria meningitidis c:2a:p1.2,p1.5, et-15/37. in 1996 a trial was conducted focused on the problem how this altered epidemiological and clinical situation is reflected in carriership of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica in the healthy population. two age groups were followed up which were most severely affect ...19989919812
phylogenetic relationships between some members of the genera neisseria, acinetobacter, moraxella, and kingella based on partial 16s ribosomal dna sequence analysis.we obtained 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) sequence data for strains belonging to 11 species of proteobacteria, including the type strains of kingella kingae, neisseria lactamica, neisseria meningitidis, moraxella lacunata subsp. lacunata, [neisseria] ovis, moraxella catarrhalis, moraxella osloensis, [moraxella] phenylpyruvica, and acinetobacter lwoffii, as well as strains of neisseria subflava and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the data in a distance matrix constructed by comparing the sequences suppor ...19947520730
risk factors for neisseria meningitidis carriage in a school during a community outbreak of meningococcal infection.as part of the management of an outbreak of meningococcal infection, 119 school contacts of an index case were swabbed for nasopharyngeal carriage. in a cohort study, risk factors for neisseria meningitidis carriage were ascertained by means of a questionnaire, completed by 114 (96%) of those swabbed. twenty five (21%) cultures were identified as "neisseria positive'; of which there were 18 (15%) neisseria meningitidis isolates, 2 (2%) neisseria lactamica isolates and 5 (4%) showed contaminants ...19968870623
an evaluation of pre-poured selective media for the isolation of neisseria gonorrhoeae.fourteen commercial media supplied as pre-poured plates were compared with an 'in-house' selective medium for their ability to support the growth of 105 gonococcal isolates (representing a wide variety of serovars encountered in natural infection), 25 meningococcal and 20 neisseria lactamica isolates, and to inhibit the growth of 71 isolates of non-pathogenic neisseriae and miscellaneous organisms. only two of the pre-poured plate media and the in-house selective medium yielded growth of duplica ...19968606352
the effect of cigarette smoke on adherence of respiratory pathogens to buccal epithelial cells.smoking is associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infection in adults. in children, exposure to cigarette smoke is a risk factor for respiratory tract infection and bacterial meningitis: active smoking and passive exposure to cigarette smoke is also associated with carriage of some potentially pathogenic species of bacteria in both adults and children. the aims of the study were to determine the effect of active smoking on: (1) bacterial binding to epithelial cells; (2) expressio ...199910030544
carriage of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria lactamica among ethnic greek school children from russian immigrant families in athens.during february and march 1995, a survey of meningococcal carriage in 625 school children was carried out in a suburb of athens in which there was a large number of ethnic greeks who had immigrated from russia beginning in the early 1990s. the objectives of the study were: (1) to determine if factors associated with carriage of meningococci observed in a previous study of greek school children were similar for the immigrant population; (2) to compare phenotypic characteristics of meningococci fr ...199910030542
diagnostic value of interactions between members of the family neisseriaceae and lectins.the lectin slide agglutination test for neisseria gonorrhoeae has been modified and improved. results show that wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin agglutinate 100% (193 of 193 tested) of clinical isolates of n. gonorrhoeae. lectin-reactive meningococci can be readily identified by the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide. branhamella catarrhalis, neisseria lactamica, neisseria sicca, neisseria subflava, neisseria perflava, and meningococcal serogroups a, b, c, x, y, and z do not ...19846546936
nonopsonic phagocytosis of group c neisseria meningitidis by human neutrophils.although complement-mediated bactericidal activity in serum has long been known to be very important in host defense against neisseria meningitidis, recent studies have shown that opsonic phagocytosis by neutrophils is also important. the purpose of this study was to determine if endemic group c n. meningitidis strains were susceptible to nonopsonic (complement- and antibody-independent) phagocytosis by human neutrophils, which is a well-described phenomenon for neisseria gonorrhoeae. gonococci ...19989488392
immunoreactivity of five monoclonal antibodies against the 37-kilodalton common cell wall protein (psaa) of streptococcus pneumoniae.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against the streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcal surface adhesin a (psaa) 37-kda common cell wall protein. these antibodies were used in a dot immunoblot and western blot study of clinical isolates of s. pneumoniae to detect the presence of the protein. by both assays, the mabs reacted with clinical isolates representing the 23 type-specific serotypes present in the licensed pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. western blot analysis confirmed the ...19989521144
update on meningococcal disease with emphasis on pathogenesis and clinical management.the only natural reservoir of neisseria meningitidis is the human nasopharyngeal mucosa. depending on age, climate, country, socioeconomic status, and other factors, approximately 10% of the human population harbors meningococci in the nose. however, invasive disease is relatively rare, as it occurs only when the following conditions are fulfilled: (i) contact with a virulent strain, (ii) colonization by that strain, (iii) penetration of the bacterium through the mucosa, and (iv) survival and ev ...200010627495
neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants altered in toxicity to human fallopian tubes and molecular characterization of the genetic locus involved.in an effort to identify potential cytotoxins expressed by neisseria gonorrhoeae, we have identified a locus that, when mutated in the gonococcus, results in a significant increase in toxicity of the strain to human fallopian tube organ cultures (hftoc). this locus, gly1, contains two open reading frames (orfs) which are likely cotranscribed. orf1 encodes a polypeptide of 17.8 kda with a signal sequence that is recognized and processed in escherichia coli and n. gonorrhoeae. the 15.6-kda process ...19999916071
evaluation of amplicor neisseria gonorrhoeae pcr using cppb nested pcr and 16s rrna pcr.certain strains of neisseria subflava and neisseria cinerea are known to produce false-positive results with the amplicor neisseria gonorrhoeae pcr (roche diagnostic systems, branchburg, n.j.). the analytical sensitivity and analytical specificity of three pcr tests were assessed with 3 geographically diverse n. gonorrhoeae strains and 30 non-n. gonorrhoeae neisseria spp. the sensitivities of the in-house nested cppb gene and the 16s rrna pcr methods were greater than that of the amplicor n. gon ...19999889224
natural genetic exchange between haemophilus and neisseria: intergeneric transfer of chromosomal genes between major human pathogens.members of the bacterial families haemophilus and neisseria, important human pathogens that commonly colonize the nasopharynx, are naturally competent for dna uptake from their environment. in each genus this process is discriminant in favor of its own and against foreign dna through sequence specificity of dna receptors. the haemophilus dna uptake apparatus binds a 29-bp oligonucleotide domain containing a highly conserved 9-bp core sequence, whereas the neisserial apparatus binds a 10-bp motif ...19989770495
distribution of a lipooligosaccharide-specific sialyltransferase in pathogenic and non-pathogenic neisseria.sialyltransferase activity has been detected in triton x100 extracts of all examined strains of pathogenic neisseria as well as in 17 out of 18 neisseria lactamica isolates. the enzyme was detected both in strains able to synthesize the 4.5 kda lipooligosaccharide (los) component known to be sialylated in vivo and in vitro by cytidine 5'-monophospho-n-acetylneuraminic acid, and in some strains which lack this component. exogenous 4.5 kda+ los was required to detect the sialyltransferase activity ...19938326855
characterization of the ftsz cell division gene of neisseria gonorrhoeae: expression in escherichia coli and n. gonorrhoeae.we cloned the cell division gene ftsz of the gram-negative coccus neisseria gonorrhoeae (ng) strain ch811, characterized it genetically and phenotypically, and studied its localization in n. gonorrhoeae and escherichia coli (ec). the 1,179-bp orf of ftsz(ng) encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.5 kda. protein sequence alignments indicate that ftsz(ng) is similar to other ftsz proteins and contains the conserved gtp binding motif. ftsz homologues were identified in several n. g ...200010648099
sequence analysis and clinical significance of the icea gene from helicobacter pylori strains in japan.the helicobacter pylori icea gene was recently identified as a genetic marker for the development of peptic ulcer in a western population. to assess the significance of icea subtypes of h. pylori in relation to peptic ulcer, 140 japanese clinical isolates (88 from fukui and 52 from okinawa) were characterized. sequence analysis of the icea1 gene from 25 representative japanese strains was also carried out to identify the differences in icea between the ulcer group and the gastritis group. the ic ...200010655332
antimicrobial resistance of neisseria gonorrhoeae and high prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates in japan, 1993 to 1998.to assess the antimicrobial resistance of neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from 1993 through 1998 in japan, susceptibility testing was conducted on 502 isolates. selected isolates were characterized by auxotype and analysis for mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining region (qrdr) in the gyra and parc genes, which confer fluoroquinolone resistance on the organism. plasmid-mediated penicillin resistance (penicillinase-producing n. gonorrhoeae) decreased significantly from 1993-1994 (7 ...200010655338
in vitro activities of ketolides hmr 3647 [correction of hrm 3647] and hmr 3004 [correction of hrm 3004], levofloxacin, and other quinolones and macrolides against neisseria spp. and moraxella catarrhalis.in vitro activities of the ketolides hmr 3647 [corrected] and hmr 3004 [corrected] against pathogenic neisseria gonorrhoeae and n. meningitidis, saprophytic neisseria isolates, and moraxella catarrhalis were determined. the comparison of ketolide activities with those of the other macrolides shows a much better activity in the majority of species, with macrolide mics at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited between 8- and 10-fold higher.199910103218
tetrameric repeat units associated with virulence factor phase variation in haemophilus also occur in neisseria spp. and moraxella catarrhalis.the tetrameric repeat units 5'-caat-3' and 5'-gcaa-3' are associated with phase variable expression of lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes in haemophilus influenzae. four other tetrameric repeat units have also been reported from h. influenzae strain rd, 5'-caac-3', 5'-gaca-3', 5'-agct-3', and 5'-ttta-3', which are also associated with putative virulence factors. using oligonucleotide probes corresponding to five tandem copies of each of these tetramers, we have screened three strains of neiss ...19968935664
serum bactericidal activity in a secondary school population following an outbreak of meningococcal disease: effects of carriage and secretor status.sera obtained from 106 children following an outbreak of neisseria meningitidis (b:4:p1.15) were screened for bactericidal antibodies against isolates of meningococci and neisseria lactamica. most had high titres of antibodies to n. lactamica and n. meningitidis ng:4:- but not to capsulate isolates: b:4:p1.15; b:15:p1.16; b:4:-; c:4:-. bactericidal activity was higher for both carriers and secretors but the differences were not significant. bactericidal activity was not associated with total or ...19968809542
mutagenesis of the neisseria gonorrhoeae porin reduces invasion in epithelial cells and enhances phagocyte responsiveness.porin (porb), the major outer membrane protein of neisseria gonorrhoeae, has been implicated in pathogenesis previously. however, the fact that porin deletion mutants are not viable has complicated investigations. here, we describe a method of manipulating the porin gene site-specifically. n. gonorrhoeae ms11, which harbours the porb1b (p.1b) porin allele, was used to generate mutants carrying deletions in the surface loops 1 and 5. an 11-amino-acid deletion in loop 1 impaired opa50-dependent in ...199910048033
hmbr, a hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein of neisseria meningitidis, undergoes phase variation.neisseria meningitidis uses hemoglobin (hb) as an iron source via two tonb-dependent outer membrane receptors, hmbr and hpub. analysis of 25 epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates from serogroups a, b, c, and y revealed that 64% strains possessed both hb receptor genes. examination of the hmbr expression pattern in strains in which the hpub gene was genetically inactivated revealed two distinct hb utilization phenotypes. five strains retained the ability to grow as a confluent lawn, while ...199910094683
molecular cloning and expression of nlaiii restriction-modification system in e. coli.the nlaiii restriction enzyme isolated from neisseria lactamica recognizes the sequence 5'-catg-3', cleaving after the g to generate a four base 3' overhang. the nlaiii methylase and a portion of the nlaiii endonuclease gene were cloned into e. coli by the methylase selection method, and the remaining portion of the nlaiii endonuclease gene was cloned by inverse pcr. the nucleotide sequence of the endonuclease gene and the methylase gene were determined. the nlaiii endonuclease gene is 693 bp, e ...19968996109
coinfection with influenza b virus does not affect association of neisseria meningitidis with human nasopharyngeal mucosa in organ culture.there is an epidemiological association between influenza virus infection and meningococcal disease. proposed mechanisms are the destruction of the normal epithelial barrier function of the upper respiratory tract by influenza virus or the expression of human or viral surface-exposed proteins that enhance bacterial adherence and/or invasion. to test these hypotheses, human nasopharyngeal mucosa specimens from a total of 19 individual donors were successfully infected with influenza b virus and t ...199910338524
capsule switching of neisseria meningitidis.the different sialic acid (serogroups b, c, y, and w-135) and nonsialic acid (serogroup a) capsular polysaccharides expressed by neisseria meningitidis are major virulence factors and are used as epidemiologic markers and vaccine targets. however, the identification of meningococcal isolates with similar genetic markers but expressing different capsular polysaccharides suggests that meningococcal clones can switch the type of capsule they express. we identified, except for capsule, isogenic sero ...19978990198
identification and characterization of tspa, a major cd4(+) t-cell- and b-cell-stimulating neisseria-specific antigen.in search for novel t-cell immunogens involved in protection against invasive meningococcal disease, we screened fractionated proteins of neisseria meningitidis (strain sd, b:15:p1.16) by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) and specific t-cell lines obtained from normal individuals and patients convalescing from n. meningitidis infection. proteins of iron-depleted meningococci produced higher pbmc proliferation indices than proteins of iron-replete organisms, indicating that iron-re ...199910377136
identification of regions of the chromosome of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria gonorrhoeae which are specific to the pathogenic neisseria species.neisseria meningitidis and neisseria gonorrhoeae give rise to dramatically different diseases. their interactions with the host, however, do share common characteristics: they are both human pathogens which do not survive in the environment and which colonize and invade mucosa at their port of entry. it is therefore likely that they have common properties that might not be found in nonpathogenic bacteria belonging to the same genetically related group, such as neisseria lactamica. their common p ...199910531275
detection of igg and igm to meningococcal outer membrane proteins in relation to carriage of neisseria meningitidis or neisseria lactamica.carriage of non-serogroupable neisseria meningitidis or neisseria lactamica induces antibodies protective against meningococcal disease. antibodies directed against outer membrane proteins are bactericidal and the serotype and subtype outer membrane protein antigens are being examined for their value as vaccine candidates for serogroup b disease. the aim of this study was to examine the effect of carriage of these two neisseria species among children and young adults on induction of antibodies t ...199910340715
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