phylogenetic relationships between some members of the genera neisseria, acinetobacter, moraxella, and kingella based on partial 16s ribosomal dna sequence analysis.we obtained 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) sequence data for strains belonging to 11 species of proteobacteria, including the type strains of kingella kingae, neisseria lactamica, neisseria meningitidis, moraxella lacunata subsp. lacunata, [neisseria] ovis, moraxella catarrhalis, moraxella osloensis, [moraxella] phenylpyruvica, and acinetobacter lwoffii, as well as strains of neisseria subflava and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the data in a distance matrix constructed by comparing the sequences suppor ...19947520730
activities of hmr 3004 (ru 64004) and hmr 3647 (ru 66647) compared to those of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and eight other antimicrobial agents against unusual aerobic and anaerobic human and animal bite pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in humans.the activities of hmr 3004 and hmr 3647 and comparator agents, especially macrolides, were determined by the agar dilution method against 262 aerobic and 120 anaerobic strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections associated with human and animal bite wounds. hmr 3004 and hmr 3647 were active against almost all aerobic and fastidious facultative isolates (mic at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited [mic90], < or = 0.5 and 1 microg/ml, respectively) and against all anaerobes [bacteroid ...19989593139
characterization of moraxella (branhamella) catarrhalis lbpb, lbpa, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants.pathogenic members of the family neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. recently, putative moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpb, lbpa, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. we describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in lbpb, lbpa, or orf3 protein.199910024604
complete dna sequence and structural analysis of the enteropathogenic escherichia coli adherence factor plasmid.the complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) adherence factor (eaf) plasmid of epec strain b171 (o111:nm) were determined. the eaf plasmid encodes two known virulence-related operons, the bfp operon, which is composed of genes necessary for biosynthesis of bundle-forming pili, and the bfptvw (perabc) operon, composed of regulatory genes required for bfp transcription and also for transcriptional activation of the eae gene in the lee pathogenic ...199910496929
[haemophilus influenzae-moraxella lacunata. isolation of a beta-lactamase-positive dual association]. 19846232552
diagnostics of neisseriaceae and moraxellaceae by ribosomal dna sequencing: ribosomal differentiation of medical and reliable identification of microbial isolates is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. however, in the case of some fastidious gram-negative bacterial species, classical phenotype identification based on either metabolic, enzymatic, or serological methods is difficult, time-consuming, and/or inadequate. 16s or 23s ribosomal dna (rdna) bacterial sequencing will most often result in accurate speciation of isolates. therefore, the objective of this study was to find a hypervariable ...200111230407
identification, cloning, and sequencing of piv, a new gene involved in inverting the pilin genes of moraxella lacunata.moraxella lacunata is a bacterium that is a causative agent of human conjunctivitis and keratitis. we have previously cloned the q and i pilin (formerly called beta and alpha pilin) genes of moraxella bovis and determined that an inversion of 2 kilobases (kb) of dna determines which pilin gene is expressed. using an m. bovis pilin gene as a hybridization probe to screen a lambda zap library of m. lacunata dna, we have isolated a clone that not only contains the entire type 4 pilin gene inversion ...19901973927
comparative evaluation of the bd phoenix and vitek 2 automated instruments for identification of isolates of the burkholderia cepacia complex.we evaluated two new automated identification systems, the bd phoenix (becton dickinson) and the vitek 2 (biomérieux), for identification of isolates of the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc). the test sample included 42 isolates of the highly virulent and epidemic genomovar iii, 45 isolates of b. multivorans, and 47 isolates of other members of the bcc. rates of correct identification by the bd phoenix and vitek 2 were similar when all bcc isolates were considered (50 and 53%, respectively) but ...200211980954
excision of is492 requires flanking target sequences and results in circle formation in pseudoalteromonas atlantica.the gram-negative marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas atlantica produces extracellular polysaccharide (eps) that is important in biofilm formation by this bacterium. insertion and precise excision of is492 at a locus essential for extracellular polysaccharide production (eps) controls phase variation of eps production in p. atlantica. examination of is492 transposition in p. atlantica by using a pcr-based assay revealed a circular form of is492 that may be an intermediate in transposition or a te ...199910438765
differentiation of mycobacterium ulcerans, m. marinum, and m. haemophilum: mapping of their relationships to m. tuberculosis by fatty acid profile analysis, dna-dna hybridization, and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis.although mycobacterium ulcerans, m. marinum, and m. haemophilum are closely related, their exact taxonomic placements have not been determined. we performed gas chromatography of fatty acids and alcohols, as well as dna-dna hybridization and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, to clarify their relationships to each other and to m. tuberculosis. m. ulcerans and m. marinum were most closely related to one another, and each displayed very strong genetic affinities to m. tuberculosis; they are actually ...19989542909
a cytosolic serine endopeptidase from trypanosoma cruzi is required for the generation of ca2+ signaling in mammalian early event in the trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion process, the recruitment of host lysosomes, led us to investigate the involvement of signal transduction. infective trypomastigotes were found to contain a soluble ca2+-signaling activity for mammalian cells that is sensitive to protease inhibitors. inhibitor and substrate utilization profiles were used to purify a candidate peptidase for involvement in this process, from which we isolated a full-length cdna clone. the sequence revealed a nov ...19979024691
tissue-specific gene expression identifies a gene in the lysogenic phage gifsy-1 that affects salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium survival in peyer's vivo expression technology was used to identify salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium genes that are transcriptionally induced when the bacteria colonize the small intestines of mice. these genes were subsequently screened for those that are transcriptionally inactive during the systemic stages of disease. this procedure identified gipa, a gene that is specifically induced in the small intestine of the animal. the gipa gene is carried on the lambdoid phage gifsy-1. consistent with the expre ...200010913072
isolation of moraxella canis from an ulcerated metastatic lymph node.moraxella canis was isolated in large numbers from an ulcerated supraclavicular lymph node of a terminal patient, who died a few days later. although the patient presented with septic symptoms and with a heavy growth of gram-negative diplococci in the lymph node, blood cultures remained negative. m. canis is an upper-airway commensal from dogs and cats and is considered nonpathogenic for humans, although this is the third reported human isolate of this species.200011015424
multiple dna binding activities of the novel site-specific recombinase, piv, from moraxella lacunata.the recombinase, piv, is essential for site-specific dna inversion of the type iv pilin dna segment in moraxella lacunata and moraxella bovis. piv shows significant homology with the transposases of the is110/is492 family of insertion elements, but, surprisingly, piv contains none of the conserved amino acid motifs of the lambda int or hin/res families of site-specific recombinases. therefore, piv may mediate site-specific recombination by a novel mechanism. to begin to determine how piv may ass ...199910092658
conserved amino acid motifs from the novel piv/moov family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of dna inversion by piv.piv, a site-specific invertase from moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the is110/is492 family of insertion elements. the functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (piv/moov family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in piv. all piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the m. lacunata invertible ...200111169105
campylobacter fetus uses multiple loci for dna inversion within the 5' conserved regions of sap homologs.campylobacter fetus cells possess multiple promoterless sap homologs, each capable of expressing a surface layer protein (slp) by utilizing a unique promoter present on a 6.2-kb invertible element. each sap homolog includes a 626-bp 5' conserved region (fcr) with 74 bp upstream and 552 bp within the open reading frame. after dna inversion, the splice is seamless because the fcrs are identical. in mutant strain 23d:aca2k101, in which sapa and sapa2 flanking the invertible element in opposite orie ...200111673436
moraxella lacunata isolated from epidemic conjunctivitis among teen-aged epidemic follicular conjunctivitis affecting teen-aged females has been studied. moraxella lacunata was isolated from 11% of the patients, a frequency far above the rate found in other types of chronic conjunctivitis. the condition is suggested to be the chronic follicular conjunctivitis (axenfeld) due to moraxella lacunata.19853901656
ultrastructure of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of gram-negative bacteria with different fixation techniques.the ultrastructure of the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall of two strains of escherichia coli, proteus morganii, p. vulgaris, acinetobacter anitratum, moraxella lacunata, erwinia amylovora, acinetobacter sp., and of a plant pathogen, unclassified gram-negative, fixed by the ryter-kellenberger procedure, was found to be significantly affected by the use or omission of the uranyl postfixation included in that procedure, and by the presence or absence of calcium in the oso(4) fixative. the omissi ...19734120570
preparation and characterization of neisseria meningitidis mutants deficient in production of the human lactoferrin-binding proteins lbpa and lbpb.pathogenic members of the family neisseriaceae produce specific receptors facilitating iron acquisition from transferrin (tf) and lactoferrin (lf) of their mammalian host. tf receptors are composed of two outer membrane proteins, tf-binding proteins a and b (tbpa and tbpb; formerly designated tbp1 and tbp2, respectively). although only a single lf-binding protein, lbpa (formerly designated lbp1), had previously been recognized, we recently identified additional bacterial lf-binding proteins in t ...19989620956
transcriptional regulation of type 4 pilin genes and the site-specific recombinase gene, piv, in moraxella lacunata and moraxella bovis.moraxella lacunata and moraxella bovis use type 4 pili to adhere to epithelial tissues of the cornea and conjunctiva. primer extension analyses were used to map the transcriptional start sites for the genes encoding the major pilin subunits (tfpq/i) and the dna invertase (piv), which determines pilin type expression. tfpq/i transcription starts at a sigma54-dependent promoter (tfpq/ip2) and, under certain growth conditions, this transcription is accompanied by weaker upstream transcription that ...19979393693
[endocarditis caused by moraxella lacunata on the natural and prosthetic valves. an unusual pathogenesis]. 19989763750
genetic variation of the borrelia burgdorferi gene vlse involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlse) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlse cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. despite promiscuous recombination within the vlse cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlse that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation du ...19989673251
phylogenetic analysis of culturable dimethyl sulfide-producing bacteria from a spartina-dominated salt marsh and estuarine water.dimethylsulfoniopropionate (dmsp), an abundant osmoprotectant found in marine algae and salt marsh cordgrass, can be metabolized to dimethyl sulfide (dms) and acrylate by microbes having the enzyme dmsp lyase. a suite of dms-producing bacteria isolated from a salt marsh and adjacent estuarine water on dmsp agar plates differed markedly from the pelagic strains currently in culture. while many of the salt marsh and estuarine isolates produced dms and methanethiol from methionine and dimethyl sulf ...200111229912
inversion of moraxella lacunata type 4 pilin gene sequences by a neisseria gonorrhoeae site-specific recombinase.a plasmid library of neisseria gonorrhoeae sequences was screened for the ability to mediate recombinations on a sequence containing the moraxella lacunata type 4 pilin gene invertible region in escherichia coli. a plasmid containing the n. gonorrhoeae sequence encoding the putative recombinase (gcr) was identified and sequenced. plasmids containing gcr were able to mediate site-specific recombinations despite a weak amino acid homology to piv, the native m. lacunata pilin gene invertase. the gc ...19979079926
substrate recognition properties of oligopeptidase b from salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.oligopeptidase b (opdb) is a serine peptidase broadly distributed among unicellular eukaryotes, gram-negative bacteria, and spirochetes which has emerged as an important virulence factor and potential therapeutic target in infectious diseases. we report here the cloning and expression of the opdb homologue from salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and demonstrate that it exhibits amidolytic activity exclusively against substrates with basic residues in p(1). while similar to its eukaryotic ho ...200212029050
[microbial associations in trichomonas urethritis].the results on isolation of associated microflora from 190 patients suffering from trichomonas urethritis are given. microorganisms belonged to the species: mycoplasma hominis. ureaplasma urealyticum. streptococcus pyogenes. escherichia coli. klebsiella pneumoniae. proteus mirabilis. moraxella lacunata. acinetobacter calcoaceticus and candida. staphylococcus cultures which were isolated from 100% patients belonged to 8 species: staphylococcus aureus, s. intermedius, s. haemolyticus, s. epidermid ...19968983524
relatedness of three species of "false neisseriae," neisseria caviae, neisseria cuniculi, and neisseria ovis, by dna-dna hybridizations and fatty acid analysis.dna-dna hybridization was used to determine the levels of genomic relatedness of the three species of "false neisseriae," neisseria caviae, neisseria cuniculi, and neisseria ovis. the reference strains of these species exhibited high levels of intraspecies relatedness (93 to 100% for n. caviae, 79 to 100% for n. cuniculi, and 68 to 100% for n. ovis) but low levels of interspecific relatedness (less than 34%) to each other and to various species belonging to the beta subclass of the proteobacteri ...19938494736
amino acid sequence homology between piv, an essential protein in site-specific dna inversion in moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.deletion analysis of the subcloned dna inversion region of moraxella lacunata indicates that piv is the only m. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpq/tfpi pilin segment. the predicted amino acid sequence of piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that piv is a novel site-specific recombinase.19948021196
the envelope structure of branhamella catarrhalis as studied by transmission electron microscopy.the envelope structure of branhamella catarrhalis was studied by electron microscopy and compared with that of other bacteria of the family neisseriaceae, such as moraxella lacunata subsp. liquefaciens and neisseria gonorrhoeae. negative staining of b. catarrhalis showed a mamilliform surface similar to that of moraxella. on thin sections, the cell wall appeared to be made up of a wavy outer membrane tightly linked to a straight peptidoglycan layer. spicule-like structures protruded from the cel ...19882472827
[a case of acute meningitis due to moraxella lacunata]. 195313060862
rpob gene sequence-based identification of aerobic gram-positive cocci of the genera streptococcus, enterococcus, gemella, abiotrophia, and granulicatella.we developed a new molecular tool based on rpob gene (encoding the beta subunit of rna polymerase) sequencing to identify streptococci. we first sequenced the complete rpob gene for streptococcus anginosus, s. equinus, and abiotrophia defectiva. sequences were aligned with these of s. pyogenes, s. agalactiae, and s. pneumoniae available in genbank. using an in-house analysis program (svarap), we identified a 740-bp variable region surrounded by conserved, 20-bp zones and, by using these conserve ...200414766807
detection of haemophilus influenzae type b by real-time pcr.a real-time pcr assay targeting the capsulation locus of haemophilus influenzae type b (hib) was developed. the linear detection range was from 1 to 10(6) microorganisms per reaction mixture. no h. influenzae other than hib or any other control bacteria typically found in the upper respiratory tract was detected.200415297536
interesting sequence differences between the pilin gene inversion regions of moraxella lacunata atcc 17956 and moraxella bovis epp63.the bacterium moraxella lacunata is a causative agent of human conjunctivitis and keratitis. we have previously reported construction of plasmid pmxl1, which includes a 5.9-kb fragment on which the pilin gene inversion region of m. lacunata resides. the inversion region of pmxl1 was shown to invert when pmxl1 was in an escherichia coli host cell. in this report, we present western immunoblot analysis using moraxella bovis epp63 anti-i and anti-q pilin sera which demonstrate that pmxl1 makes pili ...19912061282
moraxella lacunata infectious arthritis. 19911744856
tsukamurella conjunctivitis: a novel clinical this report, we describe the first three cases of tsukamurella conjunctivitis in the literature. all three patients presented with congestion of one eye with small amounts of serous discharge for 1 to 2 days. all three recovered after 10 days of treatment with polymyxin b-neomycin or chloramphenicol eyedrops. sequencing of the 16s rrna genes of the three isolates recovered from the serous discharge of the three patients showed that they were all tsukamurella species. the phenotypic characteri ...200312843095
rates of detection of neisseria meningitidis in tonsils differ in relation to local incidence of invasive disease.nasopharyngeal swabbing substantially underestimates carriage of neisseria meningitidis. real-time pcr assays were employed to examine the presence of a broad range of bacteria and of n. meningitidis groups b and c, respectively, in tonsils from 26 individuals from oxford, england, and 72 individuals from zurich, switzerland. the detection limit of each pcr system was dna from one bacterial cell per reaction mixture. tonsillar dna did not inhibit amplification of meningococcal gene sequences, an ...200212409352
identification of moraxella bovis and related species from calves with ibk and goats by qualitative genetic transformation assay.eight moraxella bovis strains isolated from bovine pink eye, 16 moraxella bovis related strains isolated from healthy goats nasal flora, one nonhemolytic moraxella sp. isolated from bovine conjunctivitis and different collection strains of moraxella and branhamella genus were studied through the combined use of qualitative genetic transformation assay and the ability to grow on a moraxella bovis defined medium (medium mb). crude dna extracted from the strains studied were used to transform two m ...19947839756
quantitative detection of moraxella catarrhalis in nasopharyngeal secretions by real-time pcr.the recognition of moraxella catarrhalis as an important cause of respiratory tract infections has been protracted, mainly because it is a frequent commensal organism of the upper respiratory tract and the diagnostic sensitivity of blood or pleural fluid culture is low. given that the amount of m. catarrhalis bacteria in the upper respiratory tract may change during infection, quantification of these bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions (npss) by real-time pcr may offer a suitable diagnostic ap ...200312682118
a novel is element, is621, of the is110/is492 family transposes to a specific site in repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences in escherichia escherichia coli strain, ecor28, was found to have insertions of an identical sequence (1,279 bp in length) at 10 loci in its genome. this insertion sequence (named is621) has one large open reading frame encoding a putative protein that is 326 amino acids in length. a computer-aided homology search using the dna sequence as the query revealed that is621 was homologous to the piv genes, encoding pilin gene invertase (piv). a homology search using the amino acid sequence of the putative protei ...200312897009
protease ii from moraxella lacunata: cloning, sequencing, and expression of the enzyme gene, and crystallization of the expressed enzyme.a gene coding for protease ii (basic amino acid specific oligoendopeptidase) from moraxella lacunata was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli dh1. the transformant harboring a hybrid plasmid, pmproii-12, with a 3.0-kbp insert at the pvuii-saci site in puc19, showed 23-fold higher enzyme activity than m. lacunata. the expressed enzyme from e. coli dh1/pmproii-12 was purified by 40-80% ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on deae-toyopearl, and sephadex g-150 gel filtration. the enzy ...19957629037
the is1111 family members is4321 and is5075 have subterminal inverted repeats and target the terminal inverted repeats of tn21 family transposons.is5075 and is4321 are closely related (93.1% identical) members of the is1111 family that target a specific position in the 38-bp terminal inverted repeats of tn21 family transposons and that are inserted in only one orientation. they are 1,327 bp long and have identical ends consisting of short inverted repeats of 12 bp with an additional 7 bp (taatgag) or 6 bp (aatgag) to the left of the left inverted repeats and 3 bp (aga) or 4 bp (agat) to the right of the right inverted repeat. circular for ...200314563872
[frequency of clinical isolation of glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods and their susceptibilities to antibacterial agents].a comparison was made for frequencies of isolation o glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods ((g)nf-gnr) from clinical specimens during a period from july, 1986 to june, 1987 (the first period) and that from january, 1994 to december, 1994 (the second period). also, minimum inhibitory concentrations of principal drugs were determined against these isolates. the obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. thirty four (34) species of (g)nf-gnr were found from 35,200 clinical specimens in th ...19957474336
comparison of automated and nonautomated systems for identification of burkholderia pseudomallei.the identification of burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is usually not difficult in laboratories in areas where it is endemic. with the increase in international travel and the threat of bioterrorism, it has become more likely that laboratories in areas where it is not endemic could encounter this organism. the increase in the use of and dependence upon automated identification systems makes accurate identification of uncommonly encountered organisms such as b. pseud ...200212454163
first reported infections caused by three newly described genera in the family xanthomonadaceae.members of the family of xanthomonadaceae are typically characterized as environmental organisms. with the exception of stenotrophomonas maltophilia, these organisms are infrequently implicated as human pathogens. we describe three cases of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections caused by dokdonella koreensis, aquimonas voraii, and a luteibacter sp., all newly named genera within the family xanthomonadaceae. the three patients all had histories of underlying hematological diso ...200717122001
single-residue changes in the c-terminal disulfide-bonded loop of the pseudomonas aeruginosa type iv pilin influence pilus assembly and twitching motility.pila, the major pilin subunit of pseudomonas aeruginosa type iv pili (t4p), is a principal structural component. pila has a conserved c-terminal disulfide-bonded loop (dsl) that has been implicated as the pilus adhesinotope. structural studies have suggested that dsl is involved in intersubunit interactions within the pilus fiber. pila mutants with single-residue substitutions, insertions, or deletions in the dsl were tested for pilin stability, pilus assembly, and t4p function. mutation of eith ...200919717595
moraxella lacunata septic arthritis in a patient with lupus nephritis.moraxella lacunata is a rare, usually commensal gram-negative rod most commonly associated with eye infections. we report a unique case of noniatrogenic m. lacunata bacteremia and septic knee arthritis in a patient with class iii-iv lupus nephritis and speculate on the association between invasive moraxella infection and renal impairment.200919794049
high-throughput identification of bacteria and yeast by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in conventional medical microbiology laboratories.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. first, we evaluated maldi-tof ms using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (vitek-ii, api, and biochemical tests). discre ...201020053859
presumed endocarditis caused by bro beta-lactamase-producing moraxella lacunata in an infant with fallot's tetrad.a case of presumed endocarditis caused by moraxella lacunata in a 15-month-old male infant with fallot's tetrad is described. this infection may have occurred as the result of transmission of this organism between the father and his son. this is the first report of bro beta-lactamase-producing m. lacunata causing presumed endocarditis.200314605192
characterization of a moraxella species that causes epistaxis in macaques.bacteria of the genus moraxella have been isolated from a variety of mammalian hosts. in a prior survey of bacteria that colonize the rhesus macaque nasopharynx, performed at the tulane national primate research center, organisms of the moraxella genus were isolated from animals with epistaxis, or "bloody nose syndrome." they were biochemically identified as moraxella catarrhalis, and cryopreserved. another isolate was obtained from an epistatic cynomolgus macaque at the u.s. army medical resear ...201120667430
chromosomal context directs high-frequency precise excision of is492 in pseudoalteromonas atlantica.dna rearrangements, including insertions, deletions, and inversions, control gene expression in numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, ranging from phase variation of surface antigens in pathogenic bacteria to generation of ig diversity in human b cells. we report here that precise excision of the mobile element is492 from one site on the pseudoalteromonas atlantica chromosome directly correlates with phase variation of peripheral extracellular polysaccharide ((p)eps) production from off ( ...200717264213
invasive infection due to moraxella lacunata, an unusual pathogen.moraxella lacunata, a commensal bacterium, is associated with serious invasive disease. we describe a patient with diabetic nephropathy who developed septicemia with metastatic abscesses in the liver and spleen due to moraxella lacunata. the patient also had multiple ring enhancing lesions in both the cerebral hemispheres, possibly due to the same organism.200617333775
specific response of a novel and abundant lactobacillus amylovorus-like phylotype to dietary prebiotics in the guts of weaning piglets.using 16s rrna gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). an enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable carbohydrates were fed to piglets for 4 days (n = 48), and 10 days (n = 48), and the lumen-associated microbiota were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) analysis of amplified ...200415240251
the use of pcr/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (pcr/esi-tof-ms) to detect bacterial and fungal colonization in healthy military service members.the role of microbial colonization in disease is complex. novel molecular tools to detect colonization offer theoretical improvements over traditional methods. we evaluated pcr/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (pcr/esi-tof-ms) as a screening tool to study colonization of healthy military service members.201627448413
expression of type iv pili by moraxella catarrhalis is essential for natural competence and is affected by iron limitation.type iv pili, filamentous surface appendages primarily composed of a single protein subunit termed pilin, play a crucial role in the initiation of disease by a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. although previous electron microscopic studies suggested that pili might be present on the surface of moraxella catarrhalis isolates, detailed molecular and phenotypic analyses of these structures have not been reported to date. we identified and cloned the m. catarrhalis genes encoding pila, the major p ...200415501752
infective endocarditis due to moraxella lacunata: report of 4 patients and review of published cases of moraxella endocarditis.moraxella is an aerobic, oxidase-positive, gram-negative coccobacillus, which is rarely associated with serious and invasive infections. we describe 4 cases of moraxella lacunata endocarditis and review 12 previously published cases of moraxella endocarditis, including 1 further case with m. lacunata, 5 with m. catarrhalis, 2 with m. phenylperuvica and the remainder consisting of 1 case each of m. liquefaciens, m. osloensis, m. nonliquefaciens and 1 non-specified. of these 16 patients, 5 had pro ...200415764178
spectrum and sensitivity of bacterial keratitis isolates in auckland.background. the bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. objectives. to identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in auckland, new zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. methods. hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between january 2013 and december 2014 were identified. laboratory ...201627213052
automated identification of medically important bacteria by 16s rrna gene sequencing using a novel comprehensive database, 16spathdb.despite the increasing use of 16s rrna gene sequencing, interpretation of 16s rrna gene sequence results is one of the most difficult problems faced by clinical microbiologists and technicians. to overcome the problems we encountered in the existing databases during 16s rrna gene sequence interpretation, we built a comprehensive database, 16spathdb ( based on the 16s rrna gene sequences of all medically important bacteria listed in the manual of clinical microbiology ...201121389154
low-level pilin expression allows for substantial dna transformation competence in neisseria gonorrhoeae.the gonococcal pilus is a major virulence factor that has well-established roles in mediating epithelial cell adherence and dna transformation. gonococci expressing four gonococcal pilin variants with distinct piliation properties under control of the lac regulatory system were grown in different levels of the inducer isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (iptg). these pilin variants expressed various levels of pilin message and pilin protein in response to the level of iptg in the growth mediu ...200314573647
superiority of molecular techniques for identification of gram-negative, oxidase-positive rods, including morphologically nontypical pseudomonas aeruginosa, from patients with cystic fibrosis.phenotypic identification of gram-negative bacteria from cystic fibrosis (cf) patients carries a high risk of misidentification. therefore, we compared the results of biochemical identification by api 20ne with 16s rrna gene sequencing in 88 gram-negative, oxidase-positive rods, other than morphologically and biochemically typical p. aeruginosa, from respiratory secretions of cf patients. the api 20ne allowed correct identification of the bacterial species in 15 out of 88 (17%) isolates investig ...200516081953
plasticity of the p junc promoter of isec11, a new insertion sequence of the is1111 family.we describe identification and functional characterization of isec11, a new insertion sequence that is widespread in enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), in which it is always present on the virulence plasmid (pinv) and very frequently also present on the chromosome. isec11 is flanked by subterminal 13-bp inverted repeats (irs) and is bounded by 3-bp terminal sequences, and it transposes with target specificity without generating duplication of the target site. isec11 is characterized by an atypical t ...200616788177
piv site-specific invertase requires a dedd motif analogous to the catalytic center of the ruvc holliday junction resolvases.piv, a unique prokaryotic site-specific dna invertase, is related to transposases of the insertion elements from the is110/is492 family and shows no similarity to the site-specific recombinases of the tyrosine- or serine-recombinase families. piv tertiary structure is predicted to include the rnase h-like fold that typically encompasses the catalytic site of the recombinases or nucleases of the retroviral integrase superfamily, including transposases and ruvc-like holliday junction resolvases. a ...200515866929
real-time pcr for determining capsular serotypes of haemophilus influenzae.a two-step real-time pcr assay targeting all six capsulation loci of haemophilus influenzae (i.e., serotypes a to f) was developed and compared with a previously published qualitative pcr assay by using 131 h. influenzae clinical isolates. there was a 98.5% concordance between the two tests. the sensitivity of detection of capsular type-specific reference strains of h. influenzae a to c (10(1) cfu/pcr) was higher than that for type e (10(3) cfu/pcr) and types d and f (10(4) cfu/pcr), and a broad ...200717507524
rapid real-time pcr assays for detection of klebsiella pneumoniae with the rmpa or maga genes associated with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype: screening of nonhuman primates.the relationship of mucoviscosity-associated (maga) and/or regulator of mucoid phenotype (rmpa) genes to the klebsiella pneumoniae hypermucoviscosity (hmv) phenotype has been reported. we previously demonstrated that rmpa+ k. pneumoniae can cause serious disease in african green monkeys and isolated rmpa+ and maga+ hmv k. pneumoniae from other species of non-human primates. to rapidly screen african green monkeys/non-human primates for these infections, we developed three real-time pcr assays. t ...200919644019
"moraxella lacunata" endocarditis treated with penicillin.the case report of a young male with endocarditis caused by moraxella lacunata is presented. although a well recognized cause of keratitis, conjunctivitis, and sinusitis; very few cases of endocarditis by this rare pathogen are reported in literature. patient showed a prompt response when empirical therapy was de-escalated to penicillin, after receiving culture and sensitivity report from microbiology department.200818988396
first reported infections caused by three newly described genera in the family xanthomonadaceae.members of the family of xanthomonadaceae are typically characterized as environmental organisms. with the exception of stenotrophomonas maltophilia, these organisms are infrequently implicated as human pathogens. we describe three cases of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections caused by dokdonella koreensis, aquimonas voraii, and a luteibacter sp., all newly named genera within the family xanthomonadaceae. the three patients all had histories of underlying hematological diso ...200717122001
evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting gram-negative evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (pyr) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (nfgnr), 293 isolates were tested. a 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. from this a 108-109 cfu/ml suspension was added to 0.25 ml of sterile physiologic solution. a pyr disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees c, at environmental atmosphere. reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. strain ...200716822636
[spondylodiscitis due to moraxella lacunata].infectious spondylodiscitis is an uncommon disease, often diagnosed late. the main pathogen is staphylococcus aureus. we report a case of spondylodiscitis diagnosed early, caused by moraxella lacunata, a gram-negative bacillus of usually low pathogenicity for man. a combination of amoxicillin 12 g/day iv then per os, and ciprofloxacine 1,500 mg/day per os was given for 8 weeks. evolution was favorable.200717336012
moraxella lacunata: a rare cause of infective endocarditis.we describe the first case of moraxella lacunata definite native valve endocarditis in a patient with previously normal mitral valves. the disease was complicated with embolizations of the brain and spleen. after 6 weeks of antimicrobial treatment, valvular replacement was performed. the clinical course and diagnostic findings suggest that moraxella lacunata possesses high aggressiveness leading to progressive valvular destruction and embolizations.200717852895
expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of oligopeptidase b from trypanosoma brucei.african sleeping sickness, also called trypanosomiasis, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-saharan africa. peptidases from trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent, include the serine peptidase oligopeptidase b, a documented virulence factor and therapeutic target. determination of the three-dimensional structure of oligopeptidase b is desirable to facilitate the development of novel inhibitors. oligopeptidase b was overexpressed in escherichia coli as an n-terminally hexahi ...200616880564
characterization of a moraxella species that causes epistaxis in macaques.bacteria of the genus moraxella have been isolated from a variety of mammalian hosts. in a prior survey of bacteria that colonize the rhesus macaque nasopharynx, performed at the tulane national primate research center, organisms of the moraxella genus were isolated from animals with epistaxis, or "bloody nose syndrome." they were biochemically identified as moraxella catarrhalis, and cryopreserved. another isolate was obtained from an epistatic cynomolgus macaque at the u.s. army medical resear ...201120667430
besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. however, the rise in ocular methicillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial ...201020463787
bacterial repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences are dna targets for insertion sequence elements are involved in genomic rearrangements and virulence acquisition, and hence, are important elements in bacterial genome evolution. the insertion of some specific insertion sequences had been associated with repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep) elements. considering that there are a sufficient number of available genomes with described reps, and exploiting the advantage of the traceability of transposition events in genomes, we decided to exhaustively analyze the relationship b ...200616563168
bacterial contamination of water in dental unit reservoirs.the aim of this study was bacteriological assessment of water in dental unit reservoirs--concentration and composition of the aerobe and facultative anaerobe bacterial microflora. reservoir water samples were taken from 25 units. bacterial flora were determined with the plate culture method. bacteria were identified with biochemical microtests: api 20e, api 20ne (biomérieux, france) and gp2 microplatetm (biolog, usa). the concentration of total bacteria isolated from one site was 201,039 cfu/ml, ...200717655191
draft genome sequence of moraxella bovoculi strain 237t (atcc baa-1259t) isolated from a calf with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.moraxella bovoculi is a recently identified species, recovered from the bovine eye, which is under investigation as an etiological agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. a draft genome sequence of the moraxella bovoculi type strain 237(t) has been determined to identify features that may be important during host colonization.201424970830
bacterial spectrum and antibiotic resistance patterns of ocular infection: differences between external and intraocular diseases.this study aimed to compare the differences of microbial spectrum and antibiotic resistance patterns between external and intraocular bacterial infections in an eye hospital in south china. a total of 737 bacteria isolates from suspected ocular infections were included in this retrospective study covering the period 2010-2013. the organisms cultured from the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva) accounted for the majority of the isolates (82.77%, n = 610), followed by the intraocular (aqueous hum ...201526576294
the delta high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio: a novel parameter for gram-negative study changes in blood lipid metabolism in sepsis patients, especially high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (hdl-c) changes in the diagnosis of sepsis and the type of bacteria involved.201627462492
compartmental syndrome of the upper limb due to moraxella lacunata infection: a link to patera foot syndrome?we report a case of compartmental syndrome of the left upper limb secondary to a severe moraxella lacunata infection, an unusual pathogen, occurring in a young black male immigrant to the island of gran canaria, spain. we propose a pathophysiological relationship with patera foot syndrome.201020627787
evaluation of different wastewater treatment processes and development of a modified attached growth bioreactor as a decentralized approach for small communities.this study was undertaken to evaluate the potential future use of three biological processes in order to designate the most desired solution for on-site treatment of wastewater from residential complexes, that is, conventional activated sludge process (casp), moving-bed biofilm reactor (mbbr), and packed-bed biofilm reactor (pbbr). hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 6, 3, and 2 h can be achieved in casp, mbbr, and pbbr, respectively. the pbbr dealt with a particular arrangement to prevent the res ...201324327802
insertion sequences.insertion sequences (iss) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. over 500 individual iss have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. the last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic e ...19989729608
accurate identification of fastidious gram-negative rods: integration of both conventional phenotypic methods and 16s rrna gene analysis.accurate identification of fastidious gram-negative rods (gnr) by conventional phenotypic characteristics is a challenge for diagnostic microbiology. the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular methods, e.g., 16s rrna gene sequence analysis for identification of fastidious gnr in the clinical microbiology laboratory.201323855986
type iv pilin proteins: versatile molecular modules.type iv pili (t4p) are multifunctional protein fibers produced on the surfaces of a wide variety of bacteria and archaea. the major subunit of t4p is the type iv pilin, and structurally related proteins are found as components of the type ii secretion (t2s) system, where they are called pseudopilins; of dna uptake/competence systems in both gram-negative and gram-positive species; and of flagella, pili, and sugar-binding systems in the archaea. this broad distribution of a single protein family ...201223204365
in vitro comparison of combination and monotherapy for the empiric and optimal coverage of bacterial keratitis based on incidence of infection.cefazolin/tobramycin, cefuroxime/gentamicin, and moxifloxacin were compared using bacterial keratitis isolates to determine whether empiric therapy constituted optimal antibacterial treatment.201323132444
a population-based acute meningitis and encephalitis syndromes surveillance in guangxi, china, may 2007-june 2012.acute meningitis and encephalitis (ame) are common diseases with the main pathogens being viruses and bacteria. as specific treatments are different, it is important to develop clinical prediction rules to distinguish aseptic from bacterial or fungal infection. in this study we evaluated the incidence rates, seasonal variety and the main etiologic agents of ame, and identified factors that could be used to predict the etiologic agents.201526633824
types and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from eye discharge samples at gondar university hospital, northwest ethiopia.the type and pattern of organisms that cause ocular infection changes over time. moreover, the causative organisms have developed increased drug resistance. therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalent bacterial agents of eye discharge and their drug susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobial agents.201424885599
site-specific insertion of is492 in pseudoalteromonas atlantica.reversible insertion of is492 at a site within epsg on the pseudoalteromonas atlantica chromosome controls peripheral extracellular polysaccharide production and biofilm formation by p. atlantica. high-frequency precise excision of is492 from epsg requires 5 and 7 bp of flanking dna, suggesting that is492 transposition involves a site-specific recombination mechanism. the site specificity of is492 insertion was examined in p. atlantica and shown to be specific for a 7-bp target, 5'-cttgtta-3'. c ...200919684137
impact of antibiotic resistance in the management of ocular infections: the role of current and future antibiotics.this article reviews the effects of the increase in bacterial resistance on the treatment of ocular infections.200919789660
new drugs approved in 2009. 201021240318
a european perspective on topical ophthalmic antibiotics: current and evolving options.eye infections can be vision-threatening and must be treated effectively by appropriate and safe use of topical ophthalmic anti-infectives. this review will essentially consider the current and evolving treatment options for the various types of bacterial eye infections. ocular surface bacterial infections affect subjects of all ages with a high frequency in newborns and children.201123861622
role of cognitive parameters in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.dengue is becoming recognized as one of the most important vector-borne human diseases. it is predominant in tropical and subtropical zones but its geographical distribution is progressively expanding, making it an escalating global health problem of today. dengue presents with spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, undifferentiated mild fever, dengue fever (df), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) with or without shock (dss), a life-threatening illness characterized by pl ...201324305068
nasopharyngeal microbiota in healthy children and pneumonia patients.our study is the first to compare the nasopharyngeal microbiota of pediatric pneumonia patients and control children by 454 pyrosequencing. a distinct microbiota was associated with different pneumonia etiologies. viral pneumonia was associated with a high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit (otu) corresponding to moraxella lacunata. patients with nonviral pneumonia showed high abundances of otus of three typical bacterial pathogens, streptococcus pneumoniae complex, haemophilus influenz ...201424599973
a rare case of moraxella lacunata producing combined native mitral and aortic valve endocarditis.we describe a case of infective endocarditis due to moraxella lacunata involving the native mitral and aortic valves, complicated by cerebral emboli and resultant hemiparesis. the patient was treated with ceftriaxone and gentamicin and improved. this appears to be the first case reported in the medical literature of native multivalvular endocarditis produced by this rare organism.201123393524
fatal staphylococcal infection following classic dengue fever.dengue represents an important public health issue in many tropical areas, leading to high morbidity and the employment of substantial health resources. even though the number of fatalities related to dengue is unknown, several reports warn about the potential occurrence of severe infections and even death. the clinical spectrum of dengue is highly variable, ranging from a mild flu-like syndrome to severe disease, with shock and hemorrhage. the occurrence of bacterial superinfection, or coinfect ...201020810838
conservative approach in the management of severe acute pancreatitis: eight-year experience in a single institution.recognition of severe acute pancreatitis (sap), intensive care, shifting away from early surgical treatment, and monitoring of the intra-abdominal pressure (iap) is important in the management of sap. the aim of our study was retrospective evaluation and critical assessment of the experience with sap management protocol involving new strategy in the university hospital.200818982151
development of a simple clinical risk score for early prediction of severe dengue in adult patients.we aimed to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients at high risk of severe dengue (sd) (i.e. severe plasma leakage with shock or respiratory distress, or severe bleeding or organ impairment). we retrospectively analyzed data of 1184 non-sd patients at hospital presentation and 69 sd patients before sd onset. we fit a logistic regression model using 85% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk sco ...201627138448
diagnosis and assessment of trachoma.trachoma is caused by chlamydia trachomatis. clinical grading with the who simplified system can be highly repeatable provided graders are adequately trained and standardized. at the community level, rapid assessments are useful for confirming the absence of trachoma but do not determine the magnitude of the problem in communities where trachoma is present. new rapid assessment protocols incorporating techniques for obtaining representative population samples (without census preparation) may giv ...200415489358
evaluation of the bruker maldi biotyper for identification of fastidious gram-negative rods.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has entered clinical laboratories, facilitating identification of bacteria. here, we evaluated the maldi biotyper (bruker daltonics) for the identification of fastidious gram-negative rods (gnr). three sample preparation methods, direct colony transfer, direct transfer plus on-target formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction, were analyzed for 151 clinical isolates. direct colony transfe ...201626659214
draft genome sequence of psychrobacter sp. ennn9_iii, a strain isolated from water in a polluted temperate estuarine system (ria de aveiro, portugal).the genus psychrobacter includes gram-negative coccobacilli that are non-pigmented, oxidase-positive, non-motile, psychrophilic or psychrotolerant, and halotolerant. psychrobacter strain ennn9_iii was isolated from water in a polluted temperate estuarine system, contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals. the genome has a g + c content of 42.7%, 2618 open reading frames (orfs), three copies of the rrnas operon, and 29 trna genes. twenty-five sequences related to the degradation of aromatic ...201627114904
analysis of the piv recombinase-related gene family of neisseria gonorrhoeae.neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the disease gonorrhea. the gonococcal pilus undergoes antigenic variation through high-frequency recombination events between unexpressed pils silent copies and the pilin expression locus pile. the machinery involved in pilin antigenic variation identified to date is composed primarily of genes involved in homologous recombination. however, a number of characteristics of antigenic variation suggest th ...200515687191
intensive care unit-acquired bacteremia in mechanically ventilated patients: clinical features and outcomes.intensive care unit (icu)-acquired bacteremia (iab) is associated with high medical expenditure and mortality. mechanically ventilated patients represent one third of all patients admitted to icu, but the clinical features and outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients who develop iab remain unknown. we conducted a 3-year retrospective observational cohort study, and 1,453 patients who received mechanical ventilation on icu admission were enrolled. among patients enrolled, 126 patients who had ...201324376683
integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: etiology of bacterial conjunctivitis and antibacterial susceptibility profile.the purpose of this paper is to report on the bacterial species isolated from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis participating in three clinical trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, and their in vitro antibacterial susceptibility profiles.201122034556
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