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rapid isolation of legionella pneumophila from seeded donor blood.the laboratory isolation of legionella pneumophila from seeded donor blood, using the lysis-centrifugation technique, is described. time to pure culture isolate was 3 to 4 days.1979387807
ultrastructure of legionella pneumophila.eleven lung samples positive for legionnaires' disease, 12 strains of legionella pneumophila cultured on various bacteriological media, and one strain growth in the yolk sac of fertile hens' eggs were examined by negative staining, thin sectioning, and scanning electron microscopy. all organisms studied were ultrastructurally similar irrespective of strain, source, or method of cultivation, presenting mainly as short rods, 0.6 x 1.5 micrometer, with tapered ends, though long forms and filaments ...197994059
rapid presumptive bacteriological diagnosis of legionnaires disease.a simple, relatively rapid silver impregnation stain has been found to stain legionella pneumophila effectively in paraffin-embedded tissue sections while permitting visualization of histological detail. it may also be used to stain the organism in body fluids. the stain is not specific and thus must be confirmed by direct fluorescent-antibody technique or culture, but, in the absence of other bacilli demonstrable by gram or other stain, visualization of typical bacillary forms in a patient with ...197991620
new bacterial agent of pneumonia isolated from renal-transplant recipients.a gram-negative, weakly acid-fast bacillus has been isolated in embryonated eggs and in guineapigs from lung tissue of two renal-transplant recipients with acute purulent pneumonia. culture of infected lung tissue and subculture of the egg isolate on artificial media, including media for legionnaires' disease bacterium (legionella pneumophila), failed to produce growth. ultrastructural analysis showed that the organism is a prokaryote with a cell-wall structure typical of a gram-negative bacillu ...197987963
legionnaires' disease caused by legionella pneumophila serogroup 3. 197987929
inactivation of beta-lactam antibiotics by legionella pneumophila.beta-lactam-inactivating activity has been found in all sero-groups of legionella pneumophila. the beta-lactamase activity could be detected in intact cells and released by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment, indicating that it is located in the periplasmic space. the enzyme acted primarily as a cephalosporinase hydrolyzing cefamandole, cephalothin, cephaloridine, and also penicillin g and ampicillin. cefoxitin and cefuroxime were not hydrolyzed. clavulanic acid and cp-45,899, beta-lactam ...1979316686
isolation of legionella pneumophila from blood.legionella pneumophila has been isolated, with an in-vitro method, from the blood of a patient with fatal legionnaires' disease.197985991
culture of legionella pneumophila. 197985960
easy visualisation of legionella pneumophila by "half-a-gram" stain procedure. 197984922
legionnaires' disease: more on staining and isolation of legionella pneumophila. 197983537
isolation of legionella pneumophila from blood. 197986691
identification of a clinical isolate as legionella pneumophila by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of cellular fatty acids.culture of a bronchial aspirate from an immunosuppressed patient with severe pneumonia yielded a growth of filamentous poorly staining gram-negative rods. fluorescence with legionella pneumophila direct fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugate was equivocal. gas-liquid chromatography (glc) and glc/mass-spectrometry (glc-ms) of the cellular fatty acids of the isolate confirmed that the organism was l. pneumophila. glc and glc-ms constitute a rapid and definitive method for identification of l. pneumo ...197989389
legionnaires' disease caused by legionella pneumophila serogroup 3. 197989463
development of a chemically defined liquid medium for growth of legionella pneumophila.a chemically defined liquid medium has been developed for the study of the physiology and antigen production of the legionnaires disease bacterium. the medium contains basal salts, vitamins, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, pyruvate, 0.05% l-cysteine, 0.05% glutathione, and a mixture of 20 additional amino acids, each of 0.01% final concentration, except serine, which was at 0.1%. the medium in shake culture at 37 degrees c with increased co2 at ph 6.5, supports the maximum rate of growth, the highest c ...197939086
legionnaires' disease: case report with special emphasis on electron microscopy and potential risk of infection at autopsy.a case of legionnaires' disease (ld) is presented in which the diagnosis was made initially by em and later confirmed by specific immunofluorescence of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissue. the possibility of an infection with legionella pneumophila during autopsy is suggested by the fact that the pathologist who performed the post-mortem examination developed signs and symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection 2 weeks afterwards. approximately 4 weeks after the onset of his illn ...1979389772
opportunistic lung infection due to "pittsburgh pneumonia agent".eight immunosuppressed patients had pneumonia due to pittsburgh pneumonia agent (ppa), a gram-negative, weakly acid-fast bacterium cultivatable only in embryonated eggs and guinea pigs and distinct from legionella pneumophila. the diagnosis was established by isolation of the agent from lung or visualization of the organism in lung tissue. the clinical presentations, radiographic abnormalities and pathology were not specific. the most consistent feature associated with the disease was the recent ...1979386116
recent advances in the structure, biochemical and biological aspects of the "legionella pneumophila", the causative agent of legionnaires' disease: a review. 1979384938
isolation of legionella pneumophila from nonepidemic-related aquatic habitats.continuous centrifugation of large volumes of water from natural southeastern lakes allowed quantitative detection of legionella pneumophila by direct immunofluorescent staining. positive samples were injected intraperitoneally into guinea pigs, and the l. pneumophila were isolated and identified by their morphological, cultural, physiological, and serological characteristics.1979384910
detection of legionella pneumonophila antigen in urine by enzyme-linked immunospecific assay.an enzyme-linked immunospecific assay "sandwich" technique was developed for detecting soluble antigen from the legionnaires disease bacterium (legionella pneumophila). with this technique, antigen was detected in urine specimens from guinea pigs inoculated intraperitoneally with heat-killed legionnaires disease bacteria and in urine specimens from three of four patients who attended the american legion convention in philadelphia in 1976. urine from a fifth pneumonia patient who attended the euc ...1979383744
legionnaires' disease: one person's perspective.since july 1976 when an outbreak of severe, acute respiratory disease of unknown origin occurred among attendees at the 58th annual convention of the american legion in philadelphia, great progress has been made, including identification of the causative organism, legionella pneumophila. clinical features include not only respiratory involvement but often abdominal complaints, encephalopathy, renal disease, and rhabdomyolysis. erythromycin appears to be an effective antimicrobial agent. epidemio ...1979373555
serospecificity and opsonic activity of antisera to legionella pneumophila.a high-molecular-weight surface component (f-1 fraction) has been isolated from the four serogroups of legionella pneumophila. antibody raised against live organisms was found by microagglutination assay to be specific for the homologous serogroup. agglutinating activity of antiserum was markedly diminished after absorption with the homologous, but not heterologous, f-1 fraction. in addition, it was found that l. pneumophila organisms were not interiorized by rat alveolar macrophages or mouse pe ...1979121114
confusion of legionella pneumophila and mycobacterium tuberculosis. 1979109752
isolation of legionella pneumophila. 197985129
staining of legionella pneumophila. 197985128
demonstration of legionella pneumophila by "half-a-gram" stain. 197985082
serology of legionnaires disease: comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody, immune adherence hemagglutination, and indirect hemagglutination tests.an immune adherence hemagglutination (iaha) test for the measurement of antibodies to legionella pneumophila was developed and evaluated for the diagnosis of legionnaires disease. its sensitivity was compared to that of the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test and a recently developed indirect hemagglutination (iha) test. the sensitivity of the three tests appeared to be similar, with the ifa test giving slightly higher titers. both the iha and iaha tests appear useful for the serodiagnosis ...1979391816
legionnaires' disease caused by legionella pneumophila serogroup 3. 197988631
[toxic activity of legionella pneumophila: current findings and prospects].the aa. report the personal contributions and the recent findings of other investigators dealing with the toxic activities of legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of legionnaires' disease. from the results of some tests (particularly limulus endotoxin assay, pyrogenic reaction, skin shwartzman reaction) there is an increasing evidence that legionella pneumophila possesses some of the in vitro and in vivo biological properties associated with endotoxins of gram negative bacteria, even if t ...1979399930
in vitro susceptibility of legionella pneumophila, serogroups i-iv. 1979479642
[legionnaires' disease in germany (author's transl)].in february 1979 a 51 year old man fell will in munich, displaying symptoms of an influenza-like illness which developed into pneumonia. the patient died eight days later of circulatory collapse which failed to respond to treatment, accompanied by high temperature, leucopenia and agranulocytosis. typical rods detected in the lung tissue and histological sections by immunofluorescence indicated the possibility of a legionella pneumophila infection. the pathogen isolated from the lung tissue on cy ...1979478655
isolation of legionella pneumophila from blood culture. 1979391338
legionella pneumophila antibody in hospital employees. 1979484980
a newly identified bacterium phenotypically resembling, but genetically distinct from, legionella pneumophila: an isolate in a case of pneumonia.a bacterium with growth characteristics similar to, but genetically distinct from, either legionella pneumophila or wiga (a "rickettsia-like agent") was obtained from a postmortem lung specimen of a patient with fatal atypical pneumonia at the m. d. anderson hospital and tumor institute in houston, texas. this bacterium and wiga have essentially the same cellular fatty acid composition, which is distinct from that of l. pneumophila. deoxyribonucleic acid-reletadness studies show that the isolate ...1979391115
growth of legionnaires disease bacterium (legionella pneumophila) in chemically defined medium.a chemically defined medium containing 21 amino acids and inorganic salts was developed which supported the growth of four isolates of legionnaires disease bacterium (legionella pneumophila). growth in liquid defined medium at 37 degrees c with shaking approximated the generation time and growth kinetics observed for growth in complex media. after a 3-h lag, the culture grew exponentially with a generation time of 6 h and reached a maximum optical density of 230 klett units (170 klett units corr ...1979500795
diagnostic specificity of immunoglobulin m (igm) response in differentiation legionnaires' disease from psittacosis.specific igm and igg antibody responses to legionella pneumophila (ldb) and chlamydia psittaci (psi) in serum specimens from 22 cases of legionnaires' disease (ld) were examined by micro-immunofluorescence (if) tests to explore the diagnostic significance of the igm antibody response. serial samples from 5 patients with ld showed greater than or equal to 4-fold changes in igg antibody against ldb and psi. all 5 patients possessed igm antibodies against ldb but not against psi. in single convales ...1979394307
charcoal-yeast extract agar: primary isolation medium for legionella pneumophila.charcoal-yeast extract agar is a new bacteriological medium that supports excellent growth of the legionella pneumophila. it results from modifications made in an existing l. pneumophila medium, f-g agar. yeast extract, instead of an acid hydrolysate of casein, serves as the protein source. beef extractives and starch are not added. activated charcoal (norit a or norit sg) is included at 0.20% (wt/vol). comparison of charcoal-yeast extract and f-g agars showed that a greater number of colony-for ...1979393713
prevalence of antibody to legionella pneumophila in middle-aged and elderly americans.an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test was used to establish the background prevalence of antibody to legionella pneumophila in single serum specimens from 1,143 persons. the serum specimens had been obtained from volunteers 46 years of age and older who were not acutely ill and who resided in the areas of atlanta, georgia; washington, d.c.; houston, texas; and rochester, new york. the overall prevalence of seropositivity (reciprocal titer, greater than or equal to 64) was 1.7%. the prevale ...1979393779
legionella pneumophila and limulus endotoxin assay: recent findings. 1979511338
measure of immunoglobulin g-, m-, and a-specific titers against legionella pneumophila and inhibition of titers against nonspecific, gram-negative bacterial antigens in the indirect immunofluorescence test for legionellosis.a crude extract of escherichia coli o13:k92:h4 inhibited 97% of positive indirect immunofluorescence titers against a variety of gram-negative bacterial antigens while lowering legionella pneumophila titers in only 6% of sera from patients with suspected legionellosis. legionella-specific titers were the result of immunoglobulins g, m, and a, singly or in combination.1979397223
[legionnaires' disease: an infection caused by legionella pneumophila]. 1979400222
attempts to biological demonstration of endotoxin potency in legionella pneumophila. 1979399167
hemolytic activity of plasma and urine from rabbits experimentally infected with legionella pneumophila.rabbits were infected with legionella pneumophila by intravenous administration of allantoic fluid from eggs infected with this organism. heated plasma from animals with severe illness caused by l. pneumophila lysed erythrocytes from guinea pigs in a radial hemolysis assay. plasma from control rabbits did not lyse guinea pig erythrocytes in parallel assays. urine from two of the infected animals also showed hemolytic activity. attempts to induce illness in rabbits by intranasal administration of ...1979399383
virulent to avirulent conversion of legionnaires' disease bacterium (legionella pneumophila)--its effect on isolation techniques.suspensions of the legionnaries' disease bacterium (legionella pneumophila; ldb) were prepared from the yolk sacs of infected egg embryos, the spleens of infected guinea pigs, and cultures of the organism propagated on enriched mueller-hinton agar. each suspension was titrated to determine the number of bacterial colonies (cfu), yolk sac 50% lethal doses (ysld50), guinea pig 50% infectious doses (gpid50), and guinea pig 50% lethal doses (gpld50) produced by 1 ml of inoculum. the numbers of cfu/y ...1979448196
susceptibility of legionella pneumophila to ultraviolet radiation.distilled water suspensions of legionella pneumophila were found to be sensitive to low doses of germicidal ultraviolet radiation.1979518088
isolation of legionella pneumophila from a transtracheal aspirate.isolation of legionella pneumophila from a transtracheal aspirate was achieved by using simple in vitro culture methods. clinical microbiologists should routinely culture for this organism from appropriate body fluids obtained from normally sterile areas.1979457855
molecular characterization of the 28- and 31-kilodalton subunits of the legionella pneumophila major outer membrane protein.the major outer membrane protein of legionella pneumophila exhibits an apparent molecular mass of 100 kda. previous studies revealed the oligomer to be composed of 28- and 31-kda subunits; the latter subunit is covalently bound to peptidoglycan. these proteins exhibit cross-reactivity with polyclonal anti-31-kda protein serum. in this study, we present evidence to confirm that the 31-kda subunit is a 28-kda subunit containing a bound fragment of peptidoglycan. peptide maps of purified proteins w ...19921310095
clarithromycin and azithromycin: new macrolide antibiotics.the chemistry, mechanism of action, antimicrobial spectrum, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and dosage and administration of clarithromycin and azithromycin are described. clarithromycin and azithromycin are new macrolide antibiotics that are similar in structure to erythromycin. compared with erythromycin, clarithromycin demonstrates increased activity against staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, legionella pneumophila, moraxella catarrhalis, and chlamyd ...19921312921
cefamandole-susceptible strains of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1: implications for diagnosis and utility as an epidemiological marker.the standard selective legionella medium that contains cefamandole failed to grow legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subtype bellingham, from a sputum sample from a patient with nosocomial legionnaires' disease; the isolate did grow on a similar selective medium that substitutes vancomycin for cefamandole. two bellingham isolates from this patient's hospital environment also failed to grow when tested on the cefamandole medium. we tested 106 additional l. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates that b ...19921313043
legionella pneumophila in drinking water of guinea pigs. 1979464488
use of a semiselective medium to culture legionella pneumophila from contaminated lung specimens.legionella pneumophila was successfully isolated, using a semiselective medium, from two of three lung specimens heavily contaminated with other organisms. this medium is composed of charcoal yeast extract agar, supplemented with vancomycin and polymyxin b. l. pneumophila was observed at 8 days on plates containing less than or equal to 40 units of polymyxin b and less than or equal to 1 microgram of vancomycin per ml.1979511984
comparison of ribotyping and restriction enzyme analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for distinguishing legionella pneumophila isolates obtained during a nosocomial outbreak.because of the ubiquity of legionella isolates in aquatic habitats, epidemiologic evaluation of legionella pneumophila strains is important in the investigation and subsequent control of nosocomial outbreaks of legionellosis. in this study, ribotyping and restriction enzyme analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) were used to compare isolates of l. pneumophila obtained from patients and the environment during a nosocomial outbreak with unrelated control strains. restriction enzyme an ...19921320629
nonpneumonic, short-incubation-period legionellosis (pontiac fever) in men who cleaned a steam turbine condenser.pontiac fever affected ten men who had cleaned a steam turbine condenser with compressed air. previous epidemics of pontiac fever and legionnaires' disease--both caused by legionella pneumophila (proposed sp. nov.)--involved "airborne spread" from air-conditioning cooling towers or evaporative condensers. aerosols of contaminated water in heat-rejection systems appear to be important sources of epidemic legionellosis.1979462175
aerosol infectivity of legionella pneumophila. 1979492217
cyclic amp inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced restriction of legionella pneumophila growth in macrophage cultures.the mechanism of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on macrophages in terms of replication of intracellular facultative bacteria is unclear. it was found in the present study that the anti-legionella pneumophila activity induced by lps in macrophages from susceptible a/j mice was reversed in vitro by dibutyryl cyclic amp (dcamp). a 24-h pretreatment of murine thioglycolate-elicited macrophages with lps resulted in an enhanced ability of these cells to inhibit the intracellular growth of l. ...19921314222
phoa gene fusions in legionella pneumophila generated in vivo using a new transposon, mudphoa.to enable effective use of phoa gene fusions in legionella pneumophila, we constructed mudphoa, a derivative of the mini-mu phage mu dii4041, which is capable of generating gene fusions to the escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase gene (ec 3.1.3.1). although an existing fusion-generating transposon, tnphoa, has been a useful tool for studying secreted proteins in other bacteria, this transposon and other tn5 derivatives transpose inefficiently in legionella pneumophila, necessitating the constru ...19921321325
differential morphologic and metabolic alterations in permissive versus nonpermissive murine macrophages infected with legionella pneumophila.legionella pneumophila infection of macrophages from permissive guinea pigs and from a/j mice compared with infection of cells from nonpermissive bdf1 mice was studied by electron microscopy. the cells from the bdf1 mice were nonpermissive for legionella growth in vitro and showed few if any bacteria in phagosomes by electron microscopic examination. similar electron micrographic examination of macrophages from a/j mice permissive for legionella growth showed numerous intact intracellular bacter ...19921322369
double-blind randomized study comparing the efficacies and safeties of a short (3-day) course of azithromycin and a 5-day course of amoxicillin in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.the efficacies and safeties of a three-dose regimen of azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 3 days) and a 15-dose regimen of amoxicillin (500 mg three times daily for 5 days) were compared in a double-blind manner in patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. a total of 92% of patients suffered a type 1 exacerbation. treatment success, defined as cure or major improvement, was achieved in all patients in the azithromycin group by day 5, compared with 23 (92%) of 25 patients in the ...19921324645
transposon mutagenesis in legionella pneumophila. ii.--mutants exhibiting impaired intracellular growth within cultured macrophages and reduced virulence in vivo.transposon tn5 mutants of l. pneumophila were isolated and screened for loss of virulence-associated characteristics. three mutants were found with normal ability to produce putative pathogenicity determinants and to be endocytosed by guinea pig alveolar macrophages in vitro but with a greatly reduced ability to multiply within them. these mutants showed considerable loss of virulence in an authentic animal model of the pneumonia.19921333092
investigation of the in-vitro uptake, intraphagocytic biological activity and effects on neutrophil superoxide generation of dirithromycin compared with erythromycin.the cellular uptake by human neutrophils and the intraphagocytic biological activity of the new macrolide antimicrobial agent dirithromycin (0.01-2 mg/l) compared with erythromycin was investigated in vitro. staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes and legionella pneumophila were used as the test intracellular microbial pathogens. after coincubation (45 min at 37 degrees c) of neutrophils with a fixed concentration of 2 mg/l of each antibiotic the respective intracellular/extracellular rati ...19921337069
[legionnaires' disease (author's transl)].the epidemic of respiratory disease (legionnaires' disease) occurred after the american legion convention between 21-24 july 1976 in philadelphia, usa, similar epidemics occurred previously with unknown etiology in the usa and in england with similar clinical symptoms and pathological findings of the disease, the isolated etiological agent, its morphology culture, pathological findings in laboratory animals, serological and immunofluorescent test, the proposed term for the causative organism (le ...1979554002
endotoxic potency of the legionella pneumophila: recent data. 1979552832
classification of the legionnaires' disease bacterium: legionella pneumophila, genus novum, species nova, of the family legionellaceae, familia nova.deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) relatedness was used to classify strains of the legionnaires' disease (ld) bacterium. these dna comparisons showed that all strains of the ld bacterium were members of the same species. included were strains isolated from the environment and strains with three different o-antigens. the dna from the ld bacterium was not significantly related to dna from any other group of bacteria that was tested. biochemical data, growth characteristics, and guanine-plus-cytosine rati ...1979434652
legionella pneumophila infection. 1979555812
further evidence that genotypically closely related strains of legionella pneumophila can express different serogroup specific antigens.the relationship between serogroup and genotype of legionella pneumophila strains was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) typing with a previously standardised method. of the 51 rflp types identified, 19 comprised strains of more than one serogroup. several rflp types included strains of five or more serogroups. to determine if sharing the same rflp type indicates that strains are genotypically indistinguishable or merely that they are superficially similar, 31 strain ...19921355563
[a case of legionella pneumonia with myelodysplastic syndrome].a 40-year-old man was admitted with high fever and cough. pneumonic shadows of the left middle and lower lung fields increased rapidly, and his blood gases worsened. initial treatment with cefmenoxime, piperacillin, and minocycline was ineffective. administration of rifampicin was started for suspected legionella pneumonia, but it did not control the spread of the pneumonia shadows. after addition of an antifungal agent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, his symptoms gradually improved. isolatio ...19921289632
comparison of culture methods and an immunofluorescence assay for the detection of legionella pneumophila in domestic hot water devices.the objective of this study was to compare an indirect immunofluorescence assay with culture methods for the identification of legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6 in hot water samples taken from domestic environments. hot water samples were obtained from the water heater, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet of 211 private houses. concentrated water samples were inoculated on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (bcye) and on a semi-selective culture medium (gpv). colonies ...19921369187
typing of legionella pneumophila serogroups 2-14 strains by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms.a typing method based on analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms has previously been developed for legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. here data are presented demonstrating the utility of this method for typing strains of all other l. pneumophila serogroups described to date. the method, which is highly discriminatory, should be of considerable value in epidemiological investigations of legionella infections.19901369446
[study on the medium (balm) for isolation of legionella pneumophila].l. pneumophila was apparently using blue algae (cyanobacteria) extracellular products as carbon and energy sources for its proliferation. based on this observation, a medium (balm) in which all chemicals and reagents were made in china for isolation of l. pneumophila was developed. the recoveries of l. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6 standard strains from contaminated air-conditional water and infected guinea pig spleens were evaluated by using two culture media: balm and bcye (buffered charcoal ...19921300253
bactericidal activity of imipenem compared to erythromycin against intracellular legionella pneumophila.pneumonia is the leading cause of death due to nosocomial infections with mortality ranging from 30 to 70%. because imipenem has potent in vitro activity against virtually all major causes of nosocomial pneumonia, including p. aeruginosa, s. aureus, members of the family enterobacteriaceae, and anaerobic organisms, it is used by many physicians as the empirical therapy of choice in severe nosocomial pneumonias. recognition of legionella species as nosocomial pathogens has been increasing. the in ...19921306151
enhanced growth of legionella pneumophila in tetrahydrocannabinol-treated macrophages.legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages, both in vivo and in vitro. tetrahydrocannabinol is a major psychoactive component of marijuana and can affect the functional activity of macrophages. in the present study, it was found that the treatment of macrophage cultures from permissive a/j mice with thc enhanced the growth of legionella in these cells. legionella grew much better in macrophages treated with low doses of thc, which caused no alterat ...19921309398
antimicrobial activities of two investigational fluoroquinolones (ci-960 and e4695) against over 100 legionella sp. isolates.the antimicrobial activities of two investigational fluoroquinolones (ci-960 and e4695) were compared with those of five similar compounds and four comparison drugs against 103 strains of legionella pneumophila and five other legionella species type strains. when concentrations inhibiting 90% of strains tested (mic90s) for l. pneumophila were determined, ci-960 and temafloxacin emerged as the most active (0.015 microgram/ml) and were followed in potency by e4695 (0.03 microgram/ml). this activit ...19921329642
transposon mutagenesis in legionella pneumophila. i.--persistence of suicide and broad host-range plasmids.two of three highly virulent strains of legionella pneumophila could act as recipients at high frequencies in conjugation experiments with escherichia coli donor strains carrying broad host-range plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups n, p and w. all broad host-range and most transposon-delivery plasmids persisted within transconjugants with high stability. only one (psup1021) of several vehicles designed for the delivery of transposons into the chromosome of gram-negative bacteria was fou ...19921333091
fk-506-binding proteins from streptomycetes producing immunosuppressive macrolactones of the fk-506 type.fk-506-binding proteins (fkbps), which in t cells are supposed to mediate the immunosuppressive effects of the compounds fk-506 and rapamycin, have been isolated from streptomyces chrysomallus, s. hygroscopicus subsp. ascomyceticus, and s. hygroscopicus. the latter two strains are producers of ascomycin (the ethyl analog of fk-506) and rapamycin, respectively. like the 12-kda fkbp in eukaryotic organisms such as humans, bovines, and saccharomyces cerevisiae, or the fkbps from gram-positive strep ...19921381710
chromosome mobilization of legionella pneumophila with rk2::mu and tn5-mob.rk2::mu plasmids and transposon tn5-mob were used to mobilize the legionella pneumophila chromosome. plate matings between l. pneumophila donors that contained rk2::mu plasmids and auxotrophic recipients yielded recombinants at frequencies ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-7) per recipient for the markers tested. the presence of a mu insertion in the chromosome of donors that harbored rk2::mu plasmids increased the frequency of chromosome transfer of certain selected markers as compared with strains th ...19921327483
upper limit of normal titer for detection of antibodies to legionella pneumophila by the microagglutination test.an upper limit of normal microagglutination titer for the knoxville strain of legionella pneumophila was determined by testing 830 sera. the upper limit of normal titer was found to be 8; however, we suggest that when applied to single serum specimens a titer of 32 be considered the lowest titer suggestive of infection (not necessarily disease).1979544635
in-vitro activity of rp 59500, a new synergic antibacterial agent, against legionella spp.the in-vitro activity of rp 59500, a new semisynthetic injectable streptogramin, was compared with that of erythromycin, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin against 189 legionella spp. rifampicin was the most active agent tested. rp 59500 was found to be more active than erythromycin against most strains, but less active than ciprofloxacin. legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were more susceptible to rp 59500 than were l. pneumophila serogroups 2, 7, and 8. legionella micdadei was the le ...19921399954
[detection of legionella pneumophila using a nested polymerase chain reaction].we evaluated the usefulness of a nested pcr method for detecting legionella pneumophila. this method resulted in l. pneumophila specific detection as far as we evaluated. the first and second step pcr achieved the sensitivity as small as 10 pg and 10 fg of the target dna, respectively. in the detection from legionella seeded sputa, the method could detect 0.1 cfu/ml of the bacteria, and it took about 12 hours to detect the target dna. we demonstrated that the nested pcr method was superior in se ...19921402113
genetic characterization of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 associated with respiratory disease in australia.techniques were developed for genetic characterization of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 by using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. allozyme analysis provided an index of the discrimination achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism. isolates from human cases of legionellosis were examined by both methods, and their profiles were compared with reference strains of l. pneumophila serogroup 1 obtained from the american type culture collection. eighteen distinct clone ...19921351712
legionella pneumophila infection and cytokine production. 19921414610
isolation of legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 from empyema following esophageal perforation. source of the organism and mode of transmission.a patient undergoing esophageal dilatation for carcinoma of the esophagus suffered esophageal perforation and development of an empyema. culture of pleural fluid yielded multiple organisms, including legionella pneumophila serogroup 5. epidemiologic investigation showed that the source of l pneumophila was a tap used by the nursing personnel to fill patients' water pitchers. whole-cell restriction endonuclease analysis of dna from the clinical and environmental isolates of l pneumophila serogrou ...19921424901
antimicrobial activity of ten macrolide, lincosamine and streptogramin drugs tested against legionella species.rp59500, a semisynthetic pristinamycin combination, and 14 other antimicrobial agents were tested against 108 legionella strains. of the ten macrolide, lincosamine and streptogramin agents tested, the new streptogramin rp59500 ranked seventh in order of activity against legionella pneumophila on the basis of mic90 results as follows: clarithromycin = 14-oh clarithromycin (mic90 0.12 mg/l) > roxithromycin > erythromycin = tylosin = virginiamycin > rp59500 (mic90 1 mg/l) = azithromycin > dirithrom ...19921425738
interactions between macrophages and legionella pneumophila. 19921424783
activity of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid against legionella pneumophila in vitro and in an experimental respiratory infection model.amoxycillin and clavulanic acid show good activity against legionella pneumophila in vitro, and synergy has been observed between the two agents. however, in tissue culture studies, amoxycillin was inactive against intracellular legionellae, whereas clavulanic acid and amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid were as effective as erythromycin in preventing bacterial growth. these latter findings were reflected in the results of therapy of a l. pneumophila pneumonia in the neutropenic rat. amoxycillin wa ...19921362751
legionellosis associated with artesian well excavation.in october 1990 pneumonia due to legionella pneumophila was diagnosed in two employees working in the area of apulia, southern italy, where artesian wells were in construction. although the exposure to excavation has been associated with legionnaires' disease, in our investigation the illness occurred only in those employees who were present when the water emerged from the ground under high pressure. on the basis of this report, water appears as the most likely reservoir of the organism and the ...19921426178
isolation and characterization of a lipopolysaccharide mutant of legionella pneumophila.a mutant unable to bind a monoclonal antibody (mab 1e6) directed against serogroup 1 lipopolysaccharide (lps) was isolated from l. pneumophila strain philadelphia-1. sds-page analysis of isolated lps from the mutant and wild type revealed that there were no obvious structural differences between the two lps. the results from western-blot experiments showed that the mutant lps was unable to bind mab 1e6 but retained the ability to bind polyclonal serogroup 1 antibodies. loss of the lps epitope re ...19921379959
clarithromycin. a review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential.clarithromycin is an acid-stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin. it has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, similar to that of erythromycin and inhibits a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, atypical pathogens and some anaerobes. significantly, clarithromycin demonstrates greater in vitro activity than erythromycin against certain pathogens including bacteroides melaninogenicus, chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydia tracho ...19921379907
mip protein of legionella pneumophila exhibits peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase (pplase) activity.legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite which is able to survive and multiply in human monocytes and alveolar macrophages. the mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) protein has been shown to be an essential virulence factor. a search of translated nucleic acid data bases has shown that the mip protein from strain wadsworth possesses regions homologous to those found in the fk506-binding proteins (fkbps) of several different eukaryotic organisms. fkbps are able to bind to the immun ...19921379319
[update of din 19.643--treatment and disinfection of swimming pool and bathing tub water].german standards specification din 19,643 is at present under revision for health reasons and because of both negative and positive experiences gathered in practice. to enable adaptation of the standards specification to future developments, a part i of the specification is being created comprising the demands to be made on the quality of the water and general demands on the construction and operation of swimming pools and tubs and basins in bath houses, e.g. in spas or municipal swimming pools. ...19921392275
[draft of the swimming pool water regulation. presentation, status: 17 september 1991, according to the federal hearing of 11 december 1991 in bonn].comments are given on the present status of regulations concerning water in swimming pools and baths--1991--(in connection with the kok regulations--1972--and the federal german standard [din] no. 19643-1984-). reference is made to microbiologic limits of legionella pneumophila among others.19921392277
study of cross-reaction between coxiella burnetii and legionella pneumophila using indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblotting.patients with q fever and legionellosis may present identical clinical symptom. differentiation of these diseases is made by serology, mainly the indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). using ifa the authors tested 154 q fever positive sera from 55 patients with acute q fever and 28 patients with chronic q fever for legionella pneumophila antibodies and 57 sera from 57 patients with legionellosis for coxiella burnetii antibodies. of the 211 sera tested, four sera from different patients had ant ...19921364022
[epidemiology of micro-organisms responsible for community-acquired pneumonia].pneumonias occupy a prominent situation among lower respiratory tract infections where they are remarkable for their potential mortality and for our relative knowledge of the responsible micro-organisms. analysis and synthesis of each series published must answer several questions, such as: what are the lung diseases considered? which investigations have been performed? which criteria of imputability have been used? in which patients has the study been carried out? in which place, which period a ...19921439460
comparative in vitro activity of clarithromycin. spanish collaborative group.the activity in vitro of clarithromycin, a new macrolide, was compared to that of various antibiotics in tests using 3,880 clinical isolates. clarithromycin was two times more active than erythromycin against staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, streptococci of groups c, g and f, brucella melitensis, legionella pneumophila and mycoplasma spp., 16 times more active against ureaplasma urealyticum and 2 to 4 times less active against campylobacter spp. in general, cla ...19921468430
chlamydia trachomatis mip-like protein.a 27 kda chlamydia trachomatis mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid c-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. in this paper the entire chlamydia mip-like sequence of c. trachomatis serovar l2 (lymphogranuloma venereum (lgv) biovar) is presented. the sequence shows high similarity to the legionella mip protein and its c-terminal region, like that of the legionella mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryoti ...19921406289
identification of a legionella pneumophila locus required for intracellular multiplication in human macrophages.the legionnaires' disease bacterium, legionella pneumophila, is a facultative intracellular parasite. its interaction with phagocytes has characteristics in common with several other intracellular parasites. critical aspects of l. pneumophila intracellular multiplication are evasion of lysosomal host cell defenses and the presence of a nutritionally appropriate environment. following phagocytosis, wild-type l. pneumophila multiply within a specialized phagosome which does not fuse with secondary ...19921409673
in vitro activity of mc-352, a new 16-membered macrolide.the in vitro activity of mc-352, 3,4'-dideoxy-5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide, was compared with those of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin. the mc-352 mic90 (mic for 90% of isolates) for erythromycin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis was less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, similar to those of the other agents. the mc-352 mic50 for erythromycin-resistant s. aureus was 2 micrograms/ml, similar to that of rokitamycin. the mc-352 mic90 (0.12 micrograms/ml) for ...19921416853
legionella pneumophila species identification using a commercial latex agglutination kit: a potential cross-reaction problem with serogroup 12.seventy-nine strains of legionella spp. and 13 non-legionella isolates were tested using a commercial latex agglutination kit. cross-reactions were observed for all strains of legionella pneumophila serogroup 12 examined between latex particles coated with rabbit antibodies raised against l. pneumophila serogroup 1 and those coated with rabbit antibodies to serogroups 2-14. strains of l. pneumophila serogroup 1 did not cross-react with latex particles directed against l. pneumophila serogroups 2 ...19921487981
identification of 27-oxo-octacosanoic acid and heptacosane-1,27-dioic acid in legionella pneumophila.two long-chain fatty acids, 27-oxo-octacosanoic acid (28:0(27-oxo)) and heptacosane-1,27-dioic acid (27:0-dioic) were identified for the first time in phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether extracts of legionella pneumophila, indicating that they are constituents of lipopolysaccharide. the fatty acids were characterised by combined gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. moreover, minor amounts of 29-oxo-triacontanoic (30:0(29-oxo)) acid and non ...19921426993
recombinant murine interferon-gamma reversibly activates rat alveolar macrophages to kill legionella pneumophila.the interaction of interferon (ifn)-gamma, rat alveolar macrophages, and legionella pneumophila was studied in vitro to define the effector cell potential of alveolar macrophages against an intracellular pathogen in a model in which the efficacy of ifn-gamma could be tested in vivo. alveolar macrophages preincubated with ifn-gamma up-regulated ia antigen and killed 0.5-4 logs of l. pneumophila over 4 days compared with 1-2 logs of bacterial growth in untreated cells. the bactericidal effect was ...19921431253
[mechanism of acquired resistance against legionella--blastogenic responses of murine spleen lymphoid cells following the stimulation with legionella antigens].we have tried to characterize the blastogenic responses of murine spleen lymphoid cells from balb/c mice immunized with legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 (philadelphia 1 strain) and non-treated mice. lymphoid cells from immunized mice showed stronger blastogenic responses following stimulation with concanavalin a or formalin-treated l. pneumophila sg1 whole cell antigen than those showed by lymphoid cells from non-treated mice. these cells from immunized mice also responded strongly when s ...19921431359
[a study on edta antigens for detection of igg antibodies to legionella pneumophila].the edta and sonicate antigens used in elisa for detection of igg antibodies to legionella pneumophila serogroups 1-6 and tatlock was evaluated. sensitivity and specificity of edta antigens were compared with sonicate antigens in three groups of subjects. in two serum samples from healthy employees, the lp1 antibody titers with edta and sonicate antigens were less than or equal to 1:160. testing seven samples from patients indicated that four samples reacted with titers of 1:1280-2560 to lp1 wit ...19921394383
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