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[candida mycoderma growth inhibition with phenol and the autoselection of resistent forms under continuous ph-stat cultivation].the effect of phenol on the growth rate and respiration was studied with the yeast candida mycoderma cultivated in the ph-static conditions with continuous recording of the principal kinetic parameters of the population. the kinetics of growth inhibition with phenol was studied. adaptation of the culture in terms of the growth rate and the rate of oxygen uptake was detected within 10--15 hours of cultivation. a new strain of c. mycoderma phen. r. isolated using the technique of autoselection upo ...197939228
[the role of polyprenols in sugar moiety transfer (author's transl)]. 197767595
[function of cytochrome c in a mutant of candida mycoderma yeasts lacking in cytochromes b and a+a3].the mutant of candida mycoderma was studied, which lacked cytochromes b and a+a3. the mutant contained only cytochrome c which functioned with cytochrome c peroxidase in the absence of any cytochrome c oxidases.1975169457
food poisoning--four unusual episodes.four unusual outbreaks of food poisoning occurring in the dunedin health district during the period 1971-1973 are described. these involved a contaminated cordial, a death associated with a clostridium perfringens outbreak, salmonellosis and infectious hepatitis in persons eating uncooked shellfish and symptoms associated with the ingestion of a normally edible fish--the trumpeter.1975170567
proceedings: factors affecting glycerol and dihydroxyacetone phosphorylation in acetobacter xylinum. 1975173674
[effect of endogenous respiration of candida mycoderma on the operation of the cytochrome system and the oxidation of glucose, ethanol and acids of the krebs cycle].the kinetics of oxidation of glucose, ethanol, and acids of the krebs cycle was studied in resting cells of candida mycoderma which differed by the level of endogenous respiration (er). the cells with er close to zero oxidized glucose and ethanol almost at once and at a high rate. during oxidation of succinic or other acids of the krebs cycle, qo2 was maximal only after a long period of adaptation (tad); a latent period (tlat) was observed sometimes during which assimilation of oxygen was either ...1975175244
[electron transport chain of the candida mycoderma mutant lacking cytochromes b and a+a3].two electrontransport chains--"oxygen" and "peroxidase"--were found to operate in the mutant of candida mycoderma lacking cytochromes b and a+a3; the terminal acceptors of electrons are oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. the "oxygen" chain lacks cytochromes but contains pyridine nucleotides and flavoproteins; it is inhibited by rotenone and benzhydroxamic acid. the "peroxidase" chain consists of pyridine nucleotides, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c peroxidase; it is inhibited by cyanide.1976187902
[several physiologic characteristics of candida mycoderma yeasts and their mutant lacking cytochromes b and a+a3]. 1977190281
the structure of cellulose-producing bacteria, acetobacter xylinum and acetobacter acetigenus.the structure of the pellicles and cells of the cellulose-producing bacteria, acetobacter xylinum and acetobacter acetigenus, was studied by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections and freeze-etch replicas of glucose-stimulated cell suspensions, quiescent cell suspensions, and discrete pellicles. these bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall in section, with several irregular features superimposed on an otherwise simple, gram-negative morphology. there are no flagella or pili. unfixe ...1977194664
[respiratory chain of candida mycoderma].the respiration chain of the yeast candida mycoderma was studied during its growth on glucose. electrons can be transported from the pyridine nucleotide (pn) pool to oxygen by two pathways, as was shown in experiments with intact cells on the basis of inhibitory analysis of respiration and the extent of reduction of electron carriers. the first pathway is inhibited by cyanide and antimycin a; it includes pn, flavoprotein, (fp) and cytochromes b, c and a + a3. the second pathway of electron trans ...1977198640
[mutagenic treatment of acetobacter suboxydans with athylmethansulfonate (ems) (author's transl)]. 1977201127
[effect of oxygen concentration and the physiological state of cells on the respiration chain of candida mycoderma].the effect of oxygen concentration and limitation of the cultural growth by the substrate to be oxidized on the functionation of the respiration chain and the ratio of cytochromes a : c : b was studied in intact cells of candida mycoderma. as the concentration of oxygen in the medium decreases and the growth of the culture slows down, the cyanide-resistant pathway of electron transport (crpet), which is inhibited by benzhydroxamic acid, is found in the yeast cells. at the same time, the content ...1977202840
the interaction of alpha-chlorohydrin with glycerol kinase.alpha-chlorohydrin has been examined both for its ability to act as a substrate for glycerol kinase and as an inhibitor of the reaction of glycerol with glycerol kinase. using a purified enzyme from candida mycoderma, it was established that alpha-chlorohydrin does not act as a substrate for glycerol kinase, but does act as a competitive inhibitor (ki of 30 mm) of purified glycerol kinase and the enzyme present in a sonicated preparation of ram spermatozoa. neither alpha-chlorohydrin nor alpha-c ...1979225494
aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus in a competitive environment.aspergillus parasiticus nrrl 2999 was grown in the presence of rhizopus nigricans, saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetobacter aceti, or brevibacterium linens and aflatoxin concentration was determined after 3,5,7, and 10 days of incubation at 28c. r. nigricans and s. cerevisiae inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by a. parasiticus. b. linens caused slight inhibition and a. aceti stimulated growth and aflatoxin production by a. parasiticus.1977339094
[evidence of the haptenic nature of peptidomannans from two yeasts: saccharomyces oviformis and candida mycoderma].following the observation that it is not possible to immunize rabbits against peptidomannans, extracted from saccharomyces oviformis and candida mycoderma, these glycopeptides have been coupled to bovine serum albumine in order to make them immunogenic. two methods have been used for the coupling: the cyanogen bromide method and the carbodiimide method. rabbits have been injected intravenously with these conjugates. using different serologic technics: agglutination, immunodiffusion, counterimmun ...1977412102
visualization of pores (export sites) correlated with cellulose production in the envelope of the gram-negative bacterium acetobacter xylinum.the gram-negative bacterium acetobacter xylinum assembles a cellulse ribbon composed of a number of microfibrils in the longitudinal axis of its envelope. the zone of ribbon assembly was investigated by freeze-etch electron microscopy. freeze-etching revealed, beneath the cellulose ribbons, a linear array of pores on the lipopolysaccharide membrane. these pores have a rim diameter of 120--150 a and a central hole or deepening of approximately 35 a. the axes of pore arrays closely coincide with l ...1979457769
complete degradation of carbohydrate to carbon dioxide and methane by syntrophic cultures of acetobacterium woodii and methanosarcina barkeri.methanosarcina barkeri (strain ms) grew and converted acetate to co2 and methane after an adaption period of 20 days. growth and metabolism were rapid with gas production being comparable to that of cells grown on h2 and co2. after an intermediary growth cycle under a h2 and co2 atmosphere acetate-adapted cells were capable of growth on acetate with formation of methane and co2. when acetate-adapted methanosarcina barkeri was co-cultured with acetobacterium woodii on fructose or glucose as subst ...1979464732
polyprenol kinase in acetobacter xylinum. 1976210629
purification and regulatory properties of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase of acetobacter xylinum.the oxaloacetate (oaa) decarboxylase (ec 4.1.1.3) activity of acetobacter xylinum cells grown on glucose or glycerol is the same as that of cells grown on intermediates of the citrate cycle. the enzyme was purified 92-fold from extracts, and its molecular weight was determined to be 100,000 by gel filtration. initial velocity studies revealed marked positive cooperativity for oaa (hill coefficient [n(h)] = 1.8; s(0.5) = 21 mm). the affinity of the enzyme for oaa was markedly increased upon addit ...1978206534
regulation of aspartokinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in acetic acid bacteria.the regulation of aspartokinase and homoserine dehydrogenase has been studied in three acetobacter and two gluconobacter species. both enzymes were regulated by feedback inhibition. aspartokinase was inhibited by l-threonine and concertedly inhibited by l-threonine plus l-lysine. the homoserine dehydrogenase was nadp-specific and was inhibited by l-threonine. separation of the two enzymes by ammonium sulphate fractionation was possible in acetobacter peroxydans, a. rancens and gluconobacter mela ...1975168808
bacterial 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases.enterobacter aerogenes, aeromonas hydrophila, serratia marcescens and staphylococcus aureus possessing l(+)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced mainly meso-butanediol and small amounts of optically active butanediol; acetobacter suboxydans, bacillus polymyxa and erwinia carotovora containing d(-)-butanediol dehydrogenase produced more optically active butanediol than meso-butanediol. resting and growing cells of these organisms oxidezed only one enantiomer of racemic butanediol. the d(-)-butanedio ...197825056
researches to the conversion of sorbit into sorbose by acetobacter suboxydans (author's transl).the production of sorbose by acetobacter suboxydans (4) is closely related to the concentration of sorbit in the medium. an increasing concentration of sorbit gives rise to the inhibition of cell reproduction; followed by a decrease of sorbose content in the culture medium. the decrease of sorbose yield in concentrations of about 15% sorbit in medium indicates the decreasing metabolism rate of the total population of acetobacter suboxydans (4) culture and does not refer to the ability of the ind ...197722208
desugarization of egg white by microorganisms.glucose was eliminated from egg whites, using microorganisms, to prevent melanoidin formation which may damage the product. desugarization was achieved by means of acetobacter xylinum, streptococcus lactis, propionibacterium shermanii, pr. petersonii and propionicacid cocci. optimal conditions of desugarization were found, depending on the physiological characteristics of the above microorganisms. propionibacterium shermanii may be well used to ferment a liquid egg white. these bacteria have no ...197617113
method of determination of the activity of glycerol dehydrogenase in the submerged culture of acetobacter suboxydans.the paper presents a method for assaying activity of glycerol dehydrogenase activity in the submerged culture of acetobacter suboxydans. the effect of substrate concentration, content of the submerged culture in the reaction mixture and ph value on the rate of enzymic oxidation of glycerol to dihygrooxyacetone by a. suboxydans has been studied.197617111
factors affecting the activity of citrate synthase of acetobacter xylinum and its possible regulatory role.the citrate synthase activity of acetobacter xylinum cells grown on glucose was the same as of cells grown on intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. the activity of citrate synthase in extracts is compatible with the overall rate of acetate oxidation in vivo. the enzyme was purified 47-fold from sonic extracts and its molecular weight was determined to be 280000 by gel filtration. it has an optimum activity at ph 8.4. reaction rates with the purified enzyme were hyperbolic functions of b ...19766002
isolation and study of levansaccharase of acetobacter subyoxydans l-1. 19751732
biological value of the biomass and protein isolates from different yeasts.the microbiological analysis with the test-organism tetrahymena pyriformis w can be used successfully to measure the relative nutritive value of the biomass and protein isolates from different yeasts for screening the groups of micro-organisms to choose those of the desired quality. in general, this method is rapid, comparatively cheap and gives the possibility to test large numbers of samples simultaneously. according to the literature and our own results, the relative nutritive value, the perc ...1975818566
additional properties of a soluble polymer of glucose from cultures of acetobacter xylinum.the results of differential, thermal analysis of a soluble, beta (1 leads to 2)-branched, beta (1 leads to 4)-d-glucan isolated from cultures of acetobacter xylinum are consistent with previous conclusions about its structure. the o-acetyl content of the polymer is 8.3% which corresponds to a maximum substitution of one acetyl group per three glucose residues. proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra confirm that all the glycosidic bonds are beta linkages. some preparations of the polymer are c ...1979540240
lipid and fatty acid composition of gluconobacter oxydans before and after intracytoplasmic membrane formation.gluconobacter oxydans differentiates by forming quantities of intracytoplasmic membranes at the end of exponential growth, and this formation occurs concurrently with a 60% increase in cellular lipid. the present study was initiated to determine whether this newly synthesized lipid differed from that extracted before intracytoplasmic membrane synthesis. undifferentiated exponential-phase cells were found to contain 30% phosphatidylcholine, 27.1% caridolipin, 25% phosphatidylethanolamine, 12.5% p ...1978649571
electron microscopic investigation of the hydrogen-oxidizing acetate-forming anaerobic bacterium acetobacterium woodii.acetobacterium woodii is a gram-positive anaerobic nonsporeforming bacterium able to grow on h2 and co2 as sole sources of energy. the product of fermentation is acetic acid. fine structural analysis showed rod-shaped flagellated cells, and coccoid cells without flagella arranged predominantly in pairs and chains. the cell wall was found to be composed of three layers. the cell surface exhibited a periodic array of particles consisting of subunits. the cytoplasmic membrane showed particles eithe ...1977596994
[remarks on ethanol oxidation by an "acetobacter xylinum" microbial electrode (author's transl)].a "microbial electrode" for ethanol assay has been designed using combination of an oxygen probe and cellulosic pellicle of acetobacter xylinum. assay is feasible with an ethanol concentration below 0.4 mm on a ph range of 2,5-7. the formation of acetic acid leds to a competitive inhibition of ethanol oxidation as observed with free cells. pellicle stability at room temperature is good over a ten hours period. at 4 degrees c, film preservation is quite satisfactory over a ten days storage period ...1975239620
the biosynthesis of cellulose by acetobacter xylinum and acetobacter acetigenus. 1977871970
pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase from acetobacter sylinum. 1975237179
regulatory properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex of acetobacter xylinum. in situ studies and localization of the allosteric response in the e1 component. 1978670220
a conjugate of cellulase with fluorescein isothiocyanate: a specific stain for cellulose.a fluorescent technique has been developed for in situ staining of cellulose. the staining agent in conjugate of cellulase and fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc). application of this agent does not disturb intercellular or intracellular substances. the technique depends on the specific binding of the fluorescent labeled enzyme to its substrate. the stain has been tested on cell-free noncellulose polysaccharides similar to cellulose and does not stain them. the technique has been used to localize ...197880840
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex of acetobacter xylinum. purification and regulatory properties.the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex of acetobacter xylinum was purified to homogeneity. it consists of three main polypeptide chains with a total molecular weight of about 2.4 x 10(6). it catalyzes the overall mg2+ and thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent, nad+- and coa-linked oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate, as well as the partial reactions characteristic of the three enzyme components described for the complex from other sources. initial velocity studies revealed marked p ...197716009
fermentation of glucose by acetobacter melanogenus.growing cultures of acetobacter melanogenus atcc 9937 concerted d-glucose to 2,5-diketo-d-gluconic acid with d-gluconic acid and 5-keto-d-gluconic acid as intermediates. the 2,5-diketo-d-gluconic acid was isolated from the fermented medium by treatment with an anion exchange resin.197715673
characterization of the acetyl-coa synthetase of acetobacter aceti.the acetate activating system of acetobacter aceti has been studied. the enzyme responsible, acetyl-coa synthetase, has been purified about 500-fold from crude cell extracts and was approximately 85% pure as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate. the purified enzyme showed optimal activity at ph 7.6 in both tris-hcl and potassium phosphate buffers. in its purest form, the enzyme was stable at 4 degrees-c but denatured upon freezing. the km values for coa, atp an ...197612800
[a new aid in the diagnosis of fungi: microstix - candida test strips (author's transl)].microstix test strips are a new aid in the diagnosis of yeasts which are easy to handle and can be used universally. observations on clinical material (a total of over 1200 test strips inoculated) involving 777 inoculated microstix with material from 6 different nursing areas show that altogether 36% postive findings, only 5.6% unspecifically postive (problem organisms and molds) and only 1.5% negative results were demonstrable with positive cultures of fungi on the control media. positive resul ...1976820970
[functional characteristics of the electron transport chain in candida mycoderma yeasts exposed to benzhydroxamic acid].the effect of antimycin a and benzhydroxamic acid (bha) on functioning of the electron transport system was studied with the resting cells of candida mycoderma grown in a medium containing glucose and collected at the beginning of the deceleration phase. in the original ("control") cells, the processes of oxygen consumption were shown to be mediated mainly by the phosphorylating electron transport chain. when the cells were incubated withe glucose, the cyanide resistant electron transport chain ...1979423810
inhibition by acetylene of conventional hydrogenase in nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 1976778640
beta-1,2-glucosyl transfer by membrane preparations from acetobacter xylinum. 1979499548
distribution of coenzyme f420 and properties of its hydrolytic fragments.the ability of hydrolytic products of coenzyme f420 to substitute for f420 in the hydrogenase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-liniked hydrogenase systems of methanobacterium strain m.o.h. was kinetically determined. the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked hydrogenase system was employed to quantitate the levels of f420 in a number of methanogenic bacteria as well as in some nonmethanogens. methanobacterium ruminantium and methanosarcina barkeri contained low levels ...197940952
oxidation of a branched-chain alditol by acetobacter suboxydans: a stereospecific synthesis of l-dendroketose.a synthesis of l-dendroketose (5) has been achieved by microbiological oxidation by acetobacter suboxydans of the branched-chain alditol 2-c-(hydroxy-methyl)-d-erythro-pentitol (4). treatment of the oxidation product with acetone, copper(ii) sulfate, and sulfuric acid afforded the two di-o-isopropylidene-l-dendro-ketose derivatives 6 and 7. assignment of configuration at the branching carbon atom (c-4) and at the anomeric center in 6 and 7 was made on the basis of the carbon-13 magnetic resonanc ...1977844055
isolation of alpha-glucan and lipopolysaccharide fractions from acetobacter xylinum.a cellular phenol-water extract of acetobacter xylinum nrc 17007 was fractionated on sepharose 4 b. the fraction eluting with the void volume consisted to about 95% of glycogen-like material. the lipopolysaccharide fraction was of lower molecular weight and had the following composition (%, w/w): mannose, 42; glucose, 7; galactose, 3.8; heptose, 2; 2-keto-3-deoxy-octonate, 1.2; glucosamine, 3.3; phosphate, 4.5; total fatty acids, 3.9. among the fatty acids, 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoic acid was prese ...1977603342
[effect of yeast growth limitation on the respiratory chain, the economic coefficient and the critical oxygen concentration for respiration].the effect of the yeast growth limitation by oxygen on the economical coefficient (ec), the operation of the cyanide resistant electron transport pathway (cretp), and the critical for respiration oxygen concentration concentration ([o2]cr) was studied. the operation of cretp was found to differ among various yeasts growing on glucose: it could function during both the exponential phase and limitation of growth (torulopsis candida), or only in the conditions of growth limitation (candida tropical ...1978568709
kinetics of dithionite ion utilization and atp hydrolysis for reactions catalyzed by the nitrogenase complex from azotobacter vinelandii.the kinetics of s2o42-utilization and atp hydrolysis during the nitrogenase-catalyzed h2 evolution and acetylene and nitrogen-reducing reactions were studied using a polarographic technique to monitor-s2o42-concentration. rate constants for both s2o42-utilization and atp hydrolysis were determined as a function of temperature and corresponding activation energies determined. the activation energy for atp hydrolysis differs from that for product formation or s2o42-utilization by 5 kcal/mol above ...1977836787
[systematics of acetic acid bacteria].the method of numerical taxonomy has been used in these studies. fifty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria are characterized in 136 phenotypical features. the coefficients of similarity of the strains were calculated using computer. the nucleotide composition of dna from 21 strains of acetic acid bacteria was determined. the results obtained by the method of numerical taxonomy were discussed basing on this genotypical criterion. the genera acetobacter beijerinck and gluconobacter asai were found ...1979470639
[efficiency of glucose utilization by gluconobacter oxydans].the dynamics of growth and acid production in gluconobacter oxydans cultures at various glucose concentrations has been investigated. dinitrophenol (10-4 m) was shown to have effect on hexonic acids formation by the growing culture and resting cells of g. oxydans, as well as on the values of y0. g. oxydans molar growth yield for glucose have been calculated. oxidative transformation of glucose was shown to be not involved in energy supply of processes connected with the reproduction of g. oxydan ...1979470626
phosphorylation of glycerol and dihydroxyacetone in acetobacter xylinum and its possible regulatory role.extracts of acetobacter xylinum catalyze the phosphorylation of glycerol and dihydroxyacetone (dha) by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (atp) to form, respectively, l-alpha-glycerophosphate and dha phosphate. the ability to promote phosphorylation of glycerol and dha was higher in glycerol-grown cells than in glucose- or succinate-grown cells. the activity of glycerol kinase in extracts is compatible with the overall rate of glycerol oxidation in vivo. the glycerol-dha kinase has been purified 210-fold ...1976956117
[endotoxins: a neglected environmental factor].the effects of bacterial endotoxins are well known form an experimental and clinical point of view. their presence in the environment in general and their possible role for the development of clinical symptoms at low exposure levels has been less studied. experimental and epidemiological evidence for such effects are reviewed with reference to particular environments where this exposure might be present.1977878658
intra- and intergeneric similarities of the rrna cistrons of acetobacter and gluconobacter [proceedings]. 1978655696
tetrahydrofolate enzyme levels in acetobacterium woodii and their implication in the synthesis of acetate from co2.acetate synthesis from co2 by acetobacterium woodii may occur as in homoacetate-fermenting clostridia, as indicated by high levels of enzymes of the tetrahydrofolate pathway and by pyruvate-dependent formation of acetate from methyl-b12 and methyltetrahydrofolate.1978659361
[effect of cultivation conditions on the cytochrome system of candida mycoderma yeasts].the effect of aeration of the medium, the source of carbon, yeast autolysate and its components (amino acids, vitamins, cytochrome precursors) on the biosynthesis of cytochromes and the ratio between them was studied in the cells of candida mycoderma. the content of cytochromes b and c increased in the cells at the stationary phase of growth on the rieder medium regardless of the carbon source and in the presence of elevated concentrations of iron and yeast autolysate (or one of its components, ...1978703641
cellulose saccharification for fermentation industry. applications. 19761000071
cellulose synthesis by acetobacter xylinum. i. low molecular weight compounds present in the region of synthesis.an analysis has been made of the low molecular weight fraction present in the region of cellulose synthesis in acetobacter xylinum suspensions. a number of nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and nucleotides, together with alpha-glucose 1-phosphate and udpg, were detected in various extracts of washed cells supplied with glucose. since glucose-6-p could be detected in extracts of ultrasonically disrupted cells, but not in extracts of whole cells, it was concluded that separate pools of hexose phosph ...1975803380
purification and properties of a soluble polymer of glucose from cultures of acetobacter xylinum.a soluble nondialyzable polymer of glucose was isolated and purified by selective ethanol and ammonium sulfate precipitation from the supernatant of a culture of acetobacter xylinum which was actively producing cellulose. this polymer was heterogeneous in size with an average sedimentation constant s20,w, of the most abundant fraction of 11.1. on drying from dilute solution in water, the polymer(s) showed extended linear fibrils or aggregates of such fibrils by transmission electron microscopy. ...1977912597
formation of an acid-labile maltosyl-lipid by enzyme preparations from acetobacter xylinum. 1977923800
cellulose synthesis by acetobacter xylinum. ii. investigation into the relation between cellulose synthesis and cell envelope components.cell envelope fractions, capable of cellulose synthesis from uridine diphosphate glucose, alpha-glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate and glucose, have been isolated from acetobacter xylinum suspensions and various enzymatic properties examined. essential enzymes were found to be distributed throughout the cell envelope region, with both inner (cytoplasmic) and outer (cell wall) membranes contributing to cellulose synthesis. the central role of udpg in cellulose synthesis was confirmed and th ...1975803381
[a study of the cytochrome composition of microorganisms by their absorption spectra and first derivative spectra].the cytochrome composition of candida mycoderma and torulopsis candida was studied by means of absorption spectra and spectra of the first derivative which were recorded at the temperature of liquid nitrogen and room temperature. the spectrum of the first derivative provided more information concerning the cytochrome composition than absorption spectra; data obtained with the aid of this spectrum at room temperature corresponded to those provided by means of absorption spectra at low temperature ...1976945440
cellulose biosynthesis in acetobacter xylinum: visualization of the site of synthesis and direct measurement of the in vivo process.in vivo synthesis of cellulose by acetobacter xylinum was monitored by darkfield light microscopy. cellulose is synthesized in the form of a ribbon projecting from the pole of the bacterial rod. the ribbon elongates at a rate of 2 mum min-1. the ribbon consists of approximately 46 microfibrils which average 1.6 x 5.8 nm in cross section. the observed microfibrillar elongation rate corresponds to 470 amol of glucose/cell per hr assimilated into cellulose. electron microscopy of the process using ...19761070005
glucose metabolism in acetobacter aceti.acetobacter aceti ncib 8554 grows on a minimal medium with ethanol but not with glucose as carbon and energy source. addition of glucose to a wild type culture on ethanol has no influence on growth of the organism. growth of a glucose sensitive mutant a5 is inhibited by the addition of glucose until all glucose has disappeared from the medium. in order to determine the routes by which glucose is metabolised in wild type and mutant, radiorespirometric, enzymatic, and uptake experiments have been ...1977907428
effect of chlorpromazine on the respiration and hexose monophosphate dehydrogenases of gram-negative bacteria.the drug chlorpromazine inhibits respiration in several gram-negative bacteria. the enzymes glucose-6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from these microorganisms are not affected by the drug.19751090352
cellulose synthesis by acetobacter xylinum. iii. matrix, primer and lipid requirements and heat stability of the cellulose-forming enzymes.the addition of soluble cellodextrins of increasing size to a cell envelope preparation of acetobacter xylinum stimulated cellulose synthesis from udpg. this stimulation was attributed to both acceptor and activator effects. enzymes required for cellulose synthesis were found to be heat-unstable and those required for synthesis of glycosylated lipid components from udpg, heat-stable. both heat-inactivated envelope fragments and supernatant fluid from whole cells were necessary for cellulose synt ...19751111578
isolation of a new restriction enzyme, apaci, an isoschizomer of bamhi produced by acetobacter pasteurianus.a new type ii restriction endonuclease apaci purified from acetobacter pasteurianus is an isoschizomer of bamhi that cleaves at the nucleotide sequence 5'-g/gatcc-3' of double-stranded dna. the single restriction activity present in this strain permits rapidly purified 30,000 units of cleavage activity from 10 g of freshly harvested cells. the resulting apaci preparation is free of contaminant nuclease activities that might interfere with in vitro manipulation of dna.19921493903
oxidation of glycosides by acetobacter suboxydans: synthesis of methyl alpha- and beta-l-threo-pentopyranosid-4-uloses. 1977861970
further characterization of l-leucine-pyruvate transaminase from acetobacter suboxydans.l-leucine-pyruvate transaminase obtained from acetobacter suboxydans exhibited absorbance maxima to 280 and 332 nm. the 332 nm peak was derived from the coenzyme bound to the enzyme protein with the epsilon nh2 of a lysine residue. the transaminase showed reactivity against many l-amino acids. the relation between the reactivity and the structure of the amino donor is discussed. the michaelis constants for l-leucine, pyruvate, l-alanine and alpha-ketoisocaproate were 6.7, 3.1, 7.1 and 0.9 mm, re ...19751156585
nascent stage of cellulose biosynthesis.freeze-etching of never-dried pellicles or of incubated suspensions of both acetobacter xylinum and acetobacter acetigenum show a nascent form of the cellulose microfibril which has a core surrounded by an amorphous sheath. drying of the pellicle or suspension reduces the diameter of the sheath and changes the form of the microfibril to the one usually seen. this nascent form of the cellulose microfibril is consistent with previous postulations of an intermediate polymer or polymers in the biosy ...19751162359
purification of restriction endonuclease from acetobacter aceti ifo 3281 (aatii) and its properties.the restriction endonuclease aatii was purified from cell-free extracts of acetobacter aceti ifo 3281 by streptomycin treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, combined column chromatographies on deae-toyopearl 650s, heparin-sepharose cl-6b and deae-sepharose cl-6b and fplc on mono q and on superose 12 (gel filtration). the purified enzyme was homogeneous on sds-polyacrylamide gel disk electrophoresis. the relative molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 190,000 daltons by gel filtration. the ...19901369309
[cultivation of the yeast mycoderma vini on an ethanol-containing medium and evaluation of the nutritive value of isolated yeast proteins].a stable process of the development of the yeast mycoderma vini is possible during continuous cultivation on the nutrient medium containing 3% ethanol as the only carbon and energy source. the maximum coefficient of ethanol consumption is 65%. the total protein isolated from the yeast biomass is similar to casein in terms of the composition and susceptibility to gastrointestinal enzymes in vitro. this protein shows a low content of nucleic acids.19751168903
isolation, sequencing, and mutagenesis of the gene encoding cytochrome c553i of paracoccus denitrificans and characterization of the mutant strain.the periplasmically located cytochrome c553i of paracoccus denitrificans was purified from cells grown aerobically on choline as the carbon source. the purified protein was digested with trypsin to obtain several protein fragments. the n-terminal regions of these fragments were sequenced. on the basis of one of these sequences, a mix of 17-mer oligonucleotides was synthesized. by using this mix as a probe, the structural gene encoding cytochrome c553i (cycb) was isolated. the nucleotide sequence ...19911657873
novel insertion sequence is1380 from acetobacter pasteurianus is involved in loss of ethanol-oxidizing ability.acetobacter pasteurianus nci1380, a thermophilic strain isolated from the surface culture of acetic acid fermentation, showed genetic instability to produce at high frequency spontaneous mutants which were deficient in ethanol oxidation because of the loss of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. southern hybridization experiments with the cloned alcohol dehydrogenase-cytochrome c gene cluster as the probe showed insertion of an unknown dna fragment into a specific position in the cytochrome c gene in ...19911657877
proceedings: mechanism of action and regulatory behavior of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase from acetobacter xylinum. 19751205750
proceedings: phosphorylated forms of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase from acetobacter xylinum. 19751205752
[biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose from glucose selectively deuterated in position 6: nmr study].d-glucose specifically deuterated at c-6 was prepared and used for the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose with acetobacter xylinum. the material obtained was converted into glucitol hexaacetate and analyzed by 250 mhz n.m.r. and mass spectrometry. these spectra indicated that about 70% of the starting d-glucose was incorporated without modification of deuteriation at the c-6 position. however an explanation is required of the finding that deuterium was also incorporated at the c-2 and c-1 posit ...19751227972
synthesis of polyprenol-monophosphate- beta -galactose by acetobacter xylinum.a particulate enzyme preparation from acetobacter xylinum synthesizes ficaprenol-monophosphate-beta-galactose from ficaprenol monophosphate (fmp) and udp-galactose in the presence of detergent. the product has the same properties as those previously reported for the compound formed with the endogenous acceptor. dolichol-monophosphate (dolmp) is also a good galactose acceptor but the product obtained has different properties. lipid extracts from acetobacter contain galactose acceptor capacity whi ...1977887092
structure of the capsular polysaccharide and the o-side-chain of the lipopolysaccharide from acetobacter methanolicus mb 58/4 (imet 10945), and of oligosaccharides resulting from their degradation by the bacteriophage acml.the capsular polysaccharide (cps) and the o-side-chain of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of acetobacter methanolicus mb 58/4 (imet 10945) have been shown to contain the same disaccharide repeating unit, namely, ----2)-beta-d-galf-(1----3)-beta-d-galp-(1----. degradation of the cps and the lps with the bacteriophage acml gave fragments built up of 1-5 repeating units; the octasaccharide preponderated. the phage-associated depolymerase proved to be a beta-d-galactofuranoside hydrolase.19911811855
letter: nonspecific biosynthesis of hopane triterpenes in a cell-free system from acetobacter rancens. 19761249358
activities of citrate synthase and other enzymes of acetobacter xylinum in situ and in vitro.the activities of a number of enzymes, extracted from acetobacter xylinum, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism may be accounted for in situ in permeabilized cells. the kinetic properties of citrate synthase and glycerokinase observed in vitro are also retained in situ. so is the regulatory sensitivity of these enzymes. both in vitro and in situ, (a) citrate synthase, in contrast with the enzyme for other gram-negative bacteria, is inhibited by atp and is insensitive to nadh, and (b) gly ...19761275900
5-deoxy-5-fluoro-l-sorbose originating from 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucitol by fermentation with acetomonas oxydans.using fermentation with a selected strain of acetomonas oxydans it was possible to convert 2-deoxy-2-fluro-d-glucitol to 5-deoxy-5-fluoro-l-sorbose, in agreement with bertrand's and hudson's rule. the last-named compound was isolated in a yield of 88%. both compounds were little toxic against acetomonas oxydans.1977892670
transformation of acetobacter xylinum with plasmid dna by electroporation.genetic analysis of acetobacter xylinum, a cellulose-synthesizing bacterium, has been limited by lack of a successful transformation method. transformation of a. xylinum was attempted using two broad-host-range plasmids (pucd2 and prk248) and a variety of transformation methods. methods using cacl2, freeze/thaw treatments, and polyethylene glycol were unsuccessful. transformation of a cellulose-negative strain of a. xylinum with plasmid dna has been achieved with high-voltage electroporation. el ...19921461938
nucleotide sequence and expression analysis of the acetobacter xylinum uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase gene.the nucleotide sequence of the acetobacter xylinum uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase gene was determined; this is the first procaryotic uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase gene sequence reported. the sequence data indicated that the gene product consists of 284 amino acids. this finding was consistent with the results obtained by expression analysis in vivo and in vitro in escherichia coli.19911938907
cloning and sequencing of the gene cluster encoding two subunits of membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase from acetobacter polyoxogenes.the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) from acetobacter polyoxogenes nbi1028 is composed of a 72 kda subunit and a 44 kda cytochrome c subunit. the amino acid sequences of the two regions of the 72 kda subunit were determined to prepare oligonucleotides for the purpose of amplification of a dna fragment corresponding to the intermediate region by the polymerase chain reaction. a 0.5 kb dna fragment thus amplified was used as the probe to clone a 7.0 kb psti fragment coding for the whole ...19912001402
susceptibilities of bacterial cellulose containing n-acetylglucosamine residues for cellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes.detailed characterization of enzyme susceptibility of bacterial cellulose containing n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) residues (n-acgbc) which possess high susceptibility for cellulase and lysozyme and slight susceptibility for chitinase was studied. turbidimetric lysozyme assay of n-acgbc showed that (i) the susceptibilities of various n-acgbcs for lysozyme were proportional to glcnac content, and (ii) n-acgbc homogenates were divided into two groups based on the rate of turbidity reduction (not de ...19921476990
cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria.the current model of cellulose biogenesis in plants, as well as bacteria, holds that the membranous cellulose synthase complex polymerizes glucose moieties from udp-glc into beta-1,4-glucan chains which give rise to rigid crystalline fibrils upon extrusion at the outer surface of the cell. the distinct arrangement and degree of association of the polymerizing enzyme units presumably govern extracellular chain assembly in addition to the pattern and width of cellulose fibril deposition. most evid ...19912030672
morphology microstructure, and development of colonies of acetobacter xylinum.development of the morphology and microstructure of colonies of acetobacter xylinum growing on agar was studied by optical microscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. the mass of rapidly dividing cells surrounded by a sheath of cellulose microfibrils passes from a smooth spheroid to a flattened aggregate with a characteristic "pillowed" surface. this morphology is the result of a repeated extrusion of cells from the confirming sheath, followed by regeneration of a new portion ...1978679065
construction of shuttle vectors for cloning in escherichia coli and acetobacter pasteurianus.new cloning vectors were prepared with the aid of a large plasmid isolated from acetobacter pasteurianus and from plasmids pbr322 and puc4-kapa. of the prepared cloning vectors, pack5 contains a gene coding for kanamycin resistance, pact7 and pact71 contain a gene coding for tetracycline resistance and vector pacg3 with a gene coding for both kanamycin and tetracycline resistance. the vectors prepared only contained the beginning of replication from the pac1 plasmid and possessed the ability to ...19921296922
production of cephalexin by gluconobacter oxydans ccrc 10383.intact cells of gluconobacter oxydans ccrc 10383 produced cephalexin from 7-amino-3-deacetoxy cephalosporanic acid (7-adca) and d-alpha-phenylglycine methylester hc1 (pgm). factors affecting the production of cephalexin by g. oxydans ccrc 10383 were studied. the optimum ph and temperature for the synthetic reaction of cephalexin were 6.0 and 42 degrees c, respectively. a higher concentration of pgm than 7-adca was required to obtain a good yield of cephalexin.19921305772
microbiology of 'obiolor': a nigerian fermented non-alcoholic beverage.obiolor is an acidic non-alcoholic beverage prepared by fermenting sorghum and millet malts. the traditional process for the production and microbiological characteristics of the beverage were investigated. bacillus spp., lactobacillus plantarum and streptococcus lactis were the associated micro-organisms most actively involved. yeasts were present in low numbers towards the end of the fermentation. other micro-organisms isolated did not appear to play a role in the fermentation process. variati ...19902123172
methanol and ethanol oxidase respiratory chains of the methylotrophic acetic acid bacterium, acetobacter methanolicus.acetobacter methanolicus is a unique acetic acid bacterium which has a methanol oxidase respiratory chain, as seen in methylotrophs, in addition to its ethanol oxidase respiratory chain. in this study, the relationship between methanol and ethanol oxidase respiratory chains was investigated. the organism is able to grow by oxidizing several carbon sources, including methanol, glycerol, and glucose. cells grown on methanol exhibited a high methanol-oxidizing activity and contained large amounts o ...19921323563
homology in the structure and the prosthetic groups between two different terminal ubiquinol oxidases, cytochrome a1 and cytochrome o, of acetobacter aceti.acetobacter aceti produces two different terminal oxidases dependent on the culture conditions, shaking and static cultures. cells grown on shaking culture contain cytochrome a1, while cytochrome o is present in cells grown on static culture. cytochrome a1 and cytochrome o of a. aceti were compared especially with respect to the protein structure and the prosthetic groups. cytochrome a1 exhibited lower cn sensitivity and higher affinity for o2 than cytochrome o. both terminal oxidases consisted ...19921332965
microbial processes for ascorbic acid biosynthesis: a review.l-ascorbic acid is an important product currently made using the reichstein process, which is mainly chemical. recently, bacteria have been identified that are able to transform in a very efficient way glucose to 2,5-keto-d-gluconic acid and this product to 2-keto-l-idonic acid, precursor of l-ascorbic acid. when the corresponding strains are used together, it is possible to get 2-keto-l-idonic acid directly from glucose. moreover, new strains have been constructed by introducing a gene from a s ...19901366548
[raffinose metabolism in gluconobacter oxydans].metabolism of raffinose has been examined in experiments with the growing culture and washed cells of gluconobacter oxydans l-1. degradtion of the trisaccharide was found to be catalyzed by levansucrase, levan being synthesized, and melibiose and small quantitites of fructose being liberated in the reaction. melibiose is not hydrolyzed and is not used by the bacterium as a source of carbon, but is oxidized to melibionic acid. fructose is assimilated by the bacterium in constructive metabolism, b ...1976933868
expression of the core antigen gene of hepatitis b virus (hbv) in acetobacter methanolicus using broad-host-range vectors.using the broad-host-range promoter probe vector prs201 for cloning of phage acm1 promoters, we established a convenient vector system for expression of heterologous genes in different gram-negative bacteria. the usefulness of this system was demonstrated by expression of the hbv core gene in acetobacter methanolicus. plasmids carrying the hbv core gene downstream of different acm1-phage promoters were transferred to a. methanolicus, a new potential host for recombinant dna expression. using enz ...19911367579
purification, properties and recognition sequence and cleavage site determinations of restriction endonuclease from acetobacter pasteurianus ifo 13753 (apali).a new restriction endonuclease, designated as apali, was purified from cell-free extracts of acetobacter pasteurianus ifo 13753 by streptomycin treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, combined column chromatographies on heparin-sepharose cl-6b and deae-sepharose cl-6b and fast protein liquid chromatography on mono q hr 5/5. the purified enzyme was homogeneous on polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was calculated as 26,000 daltons by gel filtrat ...19901369291
new evidence for an intermediate polymer of glucose in cellulose biosynthesis by acetobacter xylinum.the results of sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation of a cell-free particulate enzyme system from acetobacter xylinum which was incubated with uridine diphosphoglucose indicate that there is a polymeric intermediate in the biosynthesis of cellulose. this intermediate has the properties of an oligomer of glucose, is normally attached to the heaviest particle of the suspension, but, when released by hydrolysis, is preferentially adsorbed to fragments of preformed cellulose. it may form short se ...19751111860
apaci, an isoschizomer of bamhi isolated from acetobacter pasteurianus. 19921630925
cytochrome a1 of acetobacter aceti is a cytochrome ba functioning as ubiquinol oxidase.cytochrome a1 is a classic cytochrome that in the 1930s had already been detected in acetobacter strains and in the 1950s was identified as a terminal oxidase. however, recent studies did not substantiate the previous observations. we have detected a cytochrome a1-like chromophore in acetobacter aceti, which was purified and characterized in this study. the cytochrome was solubilized from membranes of the strain with octyl beta-d-glucopyranoside and was purified by single column chromatography. ...19902263637
phthoxazolin, a specific inhibitor of cellulose biosynthesis, produced by a strain of streptomyces sp. 19902211353
gene expression in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) fiber: cloning of the mrnas.cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. the number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. through differential screening of a fiber cdna library, we isolated five cdna clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. one of the cdna clones, pcke6, corresponded to an abundant mrna in fiber. transcripts for e6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation pro ...19921631059
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