an improved assay for bacterial methane mono-oxygenase: some properties of the enzyme from methylomonas methanica.extracts of methylomonas methanica catalyse the o2-and nad(p)h-dependent disappearance of bromomethane. the activity is unstable at 2 degrees c but is stable at --70 degrees c for several weeks. bromomethane mono-oxygenase is particulate and is inhibited by metal-binding reagents, by compounds skf 525a and lilly 53325, by some metal ions and by acetylene. evidence is presented that indicates that bromomethane mono-oxygenase is the enzyme responsible for methane oxidation in vivo.19753171
purification and properties of 3-hexulosephosphate synthase from methylomonas m 15.3-hexulosephosphate synthase, the first enzyme of the ribulose monophosphate cycle, was purified 15-fold from methanol-grown methylomonas m 15. the purification procedure involved chromatography on deae-cellulose, sephadex g-75, and deae-sephadex a-50. the purified enzyme was more than 95% pure as judged by analytical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the molecular weight was calculated to be 43000 from sedimentation equilibrium experiments. electrophoresis in sodium dodecylsulfate gels gave a ...19768315
methylamine dehydrogenase from the obligate methylotroph methylomonas obligate methyltroph methylomonas methylovora oxidized methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate. enzymes oxidizing these substrates were detected in a cell-free system. phenazine methosulfate-linked methylamine dehydrogenase was purified 21-fold. the enzyme had optimum activity at ph 7.5 and was stable at 60 degrees c for 5 min. the enzyme activity was inhibited by parachloromercuric benzoate, isonicotinic acid hydrazide, mercuric chloride, and sodium borate.197716690
microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: purification and properties of a heme-containing aldehyde dehydrogenase from methylomonas methylovora.procedures for the purification of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from extracts of the obligate methylotroph, methylomonas methylovora are described. the purified enzyme is homogeneous as judged from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. in the presence of an artificial electron acceptor (phenazine methosulfate), the purified enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of straight chain aldehydes (c1--c10 tested), aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde), glyoxylate, and glyceraldehyde. biological electro ...197944458
fluorescent pigments in the newly isolated methylotrophs: pseudomonas j16 and methylomonas pl1.the pigments showing fluorescence maxima at 390, 366, 450-460 and 520 nm at excitation wavelength 254, 366 and 450 nm respectively, were detected in the cells and culture media of the obligate methylotroph methylomonas pl1 and facultative methylotroph pseudomonas j26. the maximum at 520 nm is associated with the occurrence of a flavin pigment enabling growth of lactobacillus casei e atcc-7469 on the vitamin b2 deficient medium. the remaining fluorescence maxima are related to the prosthetic grou ...197881599
occurrence of squalene in methanol-grown bacteria.the nonpolar lipids of methanol-grown bacteria which utilize one-carbon (c1) compounds via the rmp pathway (pseudomonas c, pseudomonas methylotropha, and methylomonas methanolica) were found to contain squalene in concentrations between 0.1 to 1.16 mg/g of cell (dry weight). squalene could not be detected in lipid extracts of methanol-grown bacteria which utilize c1 compounds via the serine pathway.197898521
[formation of the taxa of methane-oxidizing bacteria by numerical analysis methods].obligate methane oxidizing bacteria were classified within groups using numerical analysis and computer techniques. employment of properties coinciding for all the species of the bacterial group under study was found to result in an insignificant (5--10%) change in the degree of similarity rather than in the redistribution of interrelationship; it had no effect on the formation of phenons. the smirnov taxonomical analysis according to which the weight of a property is inversely proportional to i ...1978101743
[nomenclature of obligate methylotrophs].the nomenclature of obligate methylotrophs, i. e. bacteria using only reduced monocarbon compounds (methane, methanol, methylamines) as a carbon source, is dicussed. the chronology of naming taxons of methane oxidizing bacteria is presented and the rightfulness of their names is analyzed according to the rules of the international codex of bacterial nomenclature. such names as methylomonas and others which are employed while describing various physiological groups of bacteria are used in the nom ...1978106220
a comparison of the substrate and electron-donor specificities of the methane mono-oxygenases from three strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria.1. methane mono-oxygenase from methylosinus trichosporium has the same broad substrate specificity as the analogous enzyme from methylococcus capsulatus (bath); the enzyme from methylomonas methanica is more specific. 2. contrary to previous reports, nad(p)h and not ascorbate is the required electron donor for the enzyme from methylosinus trichosporium. 3. it is concluded that these three bacteria contain similar methane mono-oxygenases.1979106847
[pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in methylotrophs].the activity of pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases was determined in cell extracts of obligate and facultative methylotrophs which metabolized monocarbon reduced compounds via different pathways. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was found to be the only enzyme responsible for the high level of co2 fixation by methylotrophs with the serine pathway (methylosinus trichosporium, hyphomicrobium vulgare, pseudomonas methylica). methylotrophs with the hexulose phosphate pathway mehylobacter c ...1979108526
tricarboxylic acid-cycle enzymes and atp pool in facultative and obligate methylotrophs: pseudomonas j26 and methylomonas pl1.1. no essential differences were found in the activities of tricarboxylic acid-cycle enzymes in the newly isolated facultative methylotroph pseudomonas j26 and obligate methylotroph methylomonas pl1. 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase were absent in methylomonas pl1; in pseudomonas j26 the functioning of the cycle was imparied only on the methanol medium. citrate synthase of both organisms showed low sensitivity to 2-oxoglutarate, nadh and atp. 2. in both methylotrophs, met ...1979121007
[localization of energy generators in methane oxidizing bacteria].cytochromes a, b and c, and their quantitative distribution in the cells, were studied by means of differential spectra in obligate methane oxidizing bacteria, methylosinus trichosporium with the serine pathway of methane carbon assimilation and methylomonas agile with the ribulose phosphate pathway of methane carbon assimilation, and different types of topography of intracytoplasmic membranes. the membranes are involved in processes of coupled respiration which was confirmed by cytochemical rea ...1976185500
[ability of obligate methylotrophs to perform nitrogen fixation].the ability for nitrification was studied among mesophilic and thermophilic cultures of obligate methylotrophs methylobacter ucrainicus, methylomonas methanica, and methylococcus thermophilus. the strains were almost incapable of nitrification under autotrophic conditions. in the presence of methane, however, they oxidized nh+4 to no-2: over 150 mg/litre no-2 nitrogen was found in the cultural broth. therefore, obligate methylotrophs are capable of heterotrophic nitrification. the level of nitri ...1977404513
the soluble methane mono-oxygenase of methylococcus capsulatus (bath). its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.1. methane mono-oxygenase of methylococcus capsulatus (bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. it is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in methylosinus trichosporium and methylomonas albus. 3. co is oxidized to co2. 4. c1-c8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohol ...1977411486
the respiratory chain of a newly isolated methylomonas pl1.1. whole cells of methylomonas pl1 contained ubiquinone, identified as ubiquinone-8. no naphthaquinone was detected. ubiquinone was located predominantly in the particulate fraction, which also contained most of the nadh oxidase activity. 2. aerobic incubation of cells with formaldehyde or methanol resulted in about 20% reduction of ubiquinone, irrespective of the presence or absence of dinitrophenol. on inhibition of the respiration by cyanide, ubiquinone became partly reduced by endogenous sub ...1977413543
microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: crystallization of methanol dehydrogenase and properties of holo- and apomethanol dehydrogenase from methylomonas methanica.procedures are described for the purification and crystallization of methanol dehydrogenase from the soluble fraction of the type i obligate methylotroph methylomonas methanica strain s1. the crystallized enzyme is homogeneous as judged by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. the enzyme had a high ph optimum (9.5) and required ammonium salt as an activator. in the presence of phenazine methosulfate as an electron acceptor, the enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of primary alcohols ...1978415046
[methanolbacteria (methylomonas methylotropa) as a source of protein in the nutrition of piglets]. 1977416616
[refinement of the diagnosis of the genera and species of methane-using bacteria].the diagnoses of taxons have been corrected for methane assimilating bacteria of the family methylomonadaceae leadbetter 1974, of the genera methylomonas leadbetter 1974. methylococcus foster a. davis 1966, methylosinus whittenbury. phillips a. wilkinson 1970, methylocytis whittenbury, phillips a. wilkinson 1970, and of 16 species. the diagnosis of the species methylomonas rubra whittenbury, phillips a. wilkinson 1970 has been completed, and the new species methylomonas gracilis sp. nov. and met ...1978418311
3-hexulosephosphate synthase from methylomonas aminofaciens 77a. purification, properties and kinetics.3-hexulosephosphate synthase (d-arabino-3-hexulose 6-phosphate formaldehyde lyase) was purified from an obligate methylotroph, methylomonas aminofaciens, to homogeneity as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation. the molecular weight was determined to be 45 000-47 000 by sedimentation velocity and gel filtration. the enzyme appears to be composed of two identical subunits (mr = 23 000). a bivalent cation is required for the activation and stabilization of ...1978564713
purification and regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from obligate methanol-utilizing bacterium methylomonas m15. 1978668701
[submicroscopic structure of the membrane apparatus of methanotrophic bakteria].the fine structure of the membrane apparatus in obligate methanotrophic bacteria, methylomonas methanica, methylomonas rubrum 15 and methylobacter bovis 53b was studied. complex intracytoplasmic membrane systems of the i type were found in all cultures, but they differed by their structure and spatial organization depending on microorganisms. the cytoplasmic membrane was shown to be involved in the formation of complex membrane structures. a scheme of the spatial organization of the intracytopla ...1976826763
[isolation of bacteriophages of methane oxidizing bacteria and study of their properties].five strains of bacteriophages were isolated for the first time in the ussr from the water of ponds, the paste of methane oxidizing bacteria and the cultural broth of the experimental plant. the strains are specific of the following species: methylostinus sporium, methylosinus trichosporium, and flavobacterium gasotypicum. bacteriophages lysing methylocystis impression. methylomonas agile and methylococcus capsulatus were not isolated so far. the fine structure of the phages, the shape of negati ...1976827665
oxidation of methanol by facultative and obligate methylotrophs.1. the newly isolated methanol obligate methylomonas sp. and the methanol facultative pseudomonas sp. oxidize methanol at an unchanged rate over concentration range from 0.1 to 600 mm; the oxidation rate by the obligate methylotroph is 2.5 times higher (300 nmoles o2/min/mg dry wt.). low-molecular alcohols, formaldehyde and formate serve as respiratory substrates for the intact cells of both methylotrophs. 2. methanol dehydrogenase of both methylotrophs isolated should be classified as the phena ...1976827889
[isotopic effect in enzymatic oxidation of methane].the isotopic effect during oxidation of methane and deuteromethane by a suspension of methylomonas rubrum cells, for which methane is the only source of carbon, was observed. the rate of ch4 oxidation is 12.5 times higher than that of ch4 oxidation. it is demonstrated that cd4 is a competitive inhibitor of ch4 oxidation. the results obtained suggest that the disruption of the c-h bond is the limiting step of enzymatic oxidation of methane.19761024583
[isolation of pure methanotrophic cultures and their properties].pure cultures of obligate methanotrophic bacteria were isolated from natural habitats and cultivated on media containing silica gel which provided more elective conditions than media with agar. according to their morphology, fine structure, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties, the bacteria were identified as methylosinus trichosporium, methylosinus trichosporium var. methanolicum, methylocystis parvus, methylocytis parvus var. fuscus, methylomonas methanica.19751107760
screening for restriction endonucleases in methane-oxidizing bacteria.51 methane-oxidizing bacteria strains such as methylomonas methanica, m. rubra, methylococcus capsulatus, m. thermophilus, m. luteus, m. ucrainicus, m. whittenburyi, methylosinus trichosporium, m. sporium, methylocystis parvus isolated from various ecological niches and geographical regions of the ukraine and also the strains received from r. whittenbury and y. heyer were screened for restriction endonucleases. type ii restriction endonucleases were detected in imv b-3112 (= 12 b), imv b-3027 (= ...19921338116
localization of methanol dehydrogenase in two strains of methylotrophic bacteria detected by immunogold labeling.antibodies to methanol dehydrogenase purified from methylobacterium sp. strain am1 and methylomonas sp. strain a4 were raised. the antibody preparations were used in indirect immunogold labeling studies. with this approach, methanol dehydrogenase was found to be preferentially localized to the periplasmic region of the methylotroph methylobacterium sp. strain am1 and to the intracytoplasmic membrane of the methanotroph methylomonas sp. strain a4. antibody cross-reactivity to other methylotrophic ...19921365400
molecular cloning and characterization of the reca gene of methylomonas clara and construction of reca deficient mutant.the reca gene of the methylotrophic bacterium methylomonas clara has been isolated from a genomic library by hybridization with the escherichia coli reca gene. its complete nucleotide sequence consists of 1029 bp encoding a polypeptide of 342 amino acids. nucleotide sequence analysis of the m. clara reca gene revealed extensive homologies to reca genes from e. coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. part of the physiological activity of the m. clara reca protein has become evident in that e. coli reca ...19911367275
the replication origin of the methylomonas clara plasmid pbe-2.the methylomonas clara narrow host range plasmids pbe-2 and pbe-3 belong to the class of plasmids encoding a trans acting replication initiation factor. characteristically for such plasmids, the sequence of the origin of pbe-2 and pbe-3 contains a number of large direct repeats (8 and a half iterons of 19 bp), which by analogy are putative binding sites of the trans acting replication factor. several additional features typical for the majority of e. coli plasmids were found in the m. clara orig ...19921472708
16s ribosomal rna sequence analysis for determination of phylogenetic relationship among methylotrophs.16s ribosomal rnas (rrna) of 12 methylotrophic bacteria have been almost completely sequenced to establish their phylogenetic relationships. methylotrophs that are physiologically related are phylogenetically diverse and are scattered among the purple eubacteria (class proteobacteria). group i methylotrophs can be classified in the beta- and the gamma-subdivisions and group ii methylotrophs in the alpha-subdivision of the purple eubacteria, respectively. pink-pigmented facultative and non-pigmen ...19901693657
characterization of new plasmids from methylotrophic bacteria.several tens of methanol-utilizing bacterial strains isolated from soil were screened for the presence of plasmids. from the obligate methylotroph methylomonas sp. strain r103a plasmid pih36 (36 kb) was isolated and its restriction map was constructed. in pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (ppfm), belonging to the genus methylobacterium four plasmids were detected: plasmids pib200 (200 kb) and pib14 (14 kb) in the strain r15d and plasmids pwu14 (14 kb) and pwu7 (7.8 kb) in the strain m17. ...19911796807
iron- and manganese-containing superoxide dismutases from methylomonas j: identity of the protein moiety and amino acid dismutase (sod) and fe-sod were isolated from methylomonas j, an aerobic methylotrophic bacterium, grown in methylamine media containing either manganese (mn-rich medium) or iron (fe-rich medium), respectively. the specific activity of the mn-sod was 2250 units mg-1 (mol of mn)-1 (mol of dimer)-1, and the metal content of the enzyme was 0.98 mol of mn and 0.12 mol of fe per mole of dimer, while those of fe-sod were 88.5 units mg-1 (mol of fe)-1 (mol of dimer)-1 and 1.04 mol of fe a ...19911848999
isolation of mn-sod and low active fe-sod from methylomonas j; consisting of identical proteins.cultures of methylomonas j, an aerobic methylotrophic bacterium, were grown both in mn-rich and fe-rich media. crude extracts of the cultures from the mn-rich and fe-rich medium showed a specific activity of 12.2 and 0.6 units/mg by a cytochrome c-xanthine oxidase method and 19.4 and 1.3 units/mg by an esr method, respectively. we isolated mn-sod and fe-sod from the bacteria grown in the mn-rich and fe-rich mediums, respectively. specific activity and metal contents of the mn-enzyme were 2,250 u ...19911906419
inhibition of trichloroethylene oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide.inhibition of trichloroethylene (tce) oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide (co) was evaluated with the aquifer methanotroph methylomonas sp. strain mm2. co was a tce transformation intermediate. during tce oxidation, approximately 9 mol% of the tce was transformed to co. co was oxidized by methylomonas sp. strain mm2, and when formate was provided as an electron donor, the co oxidation rate doubled. the rate of co oxidation without formate was 4.6 liter mg (dry weight)-1 ...19911908211
influence of endogenous and exogenous electron donors and trichloroethylene oxidation toxicity on trichloroethylene oxidation by methanotrophic cultures from a groundwater aquifer.trichloroethylene (tce)-transforming aquifer methanotrophs were evaluated for the influence of tce oxidation toxicity and the effect of reductant availability on tce transformation rates during methane starvation. tce oxidation at relatively low (6 mg liter-1) tce concentrations significantly reduced subsequent methane utilization in mixed and pure cultures tested and reduced the number of viable cells in the pure culture methylomonas sp. strain mm2 by an order of magnitude. perchloroethylene, t ...19912036010
effect of fixation-resin combinations and ruthenium red on elucidating outer envelope structure and surface morphology of two methanotrophic bacteria.we examined the ultrastructure of the cell envelope in type i, methylomonas albus (bg8), and type ii, methylosinus trichosporium (ob3b), methane-oxidizing bacteria by using different fixatives, ruthenium red (rr) combinations and resins. we compared lr white and spurr embedments with the following fixations: glutaraldehyde/oso4, two glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde, and two different en bloc ruthenium red procedures, one utilizing oso4 and the other with glutaraldehyde/oso4 in sequential fixation ...19902105383
preparative slab electrofocusing of methane monooxygenase from a type i methanotroph methylomonas gyj3.the isolation and purification of methane monooxygenase from a type i methanotroph methylomonas gyj3 to near homogeneity is reported. the isoelectric focusing in flat-bed granulated gels has resolved the methane monooxygenase into three protein components. the specific activity of the enzyme is 198.4 n mol per min per mg protein, degree of purification 4.13-fold. recovery of the focused proteins is high and elution simple. several purification steps may be omitted from the previously published s ...19902128599
genetics of carbon metabolism in methylotrophic bacteria.the application of genetic techniques to the methylotrophic bacteria has greatly enhanced studies of these important organisms. two methylotrophic systems have been studied in some detail, the serine cycle for formaldehyde assimilation and the methanol oxidation system. in both cases, genes have been cloned and mapped in methylobacterium species (facultative serine cycle methanol-utilizers). in addition, methanol oxidation genes have been studied in an autotrophic methanol-utilizer (paracoccus d ...19902128803
soluble cytochromes from the marine methanotroph methylomonas sp. strain a4.soluble c-type cytochromes are central to metabolism of c1 compounds in methylotrophic bacteria. in order to characterize the role of c-type cytochromes in methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs), we have purified four different cytochromes, cytochromes c-554, c-553, c-552, and c-551, from the marine methanotroph methylomonas sp. strain a4. the two major species, cytochromes c-554 and c-552, were monoheme cytochromes and accounted for 57 and 26%, respectively, of the soluble c-heme. the appro ...19902168380
soluble cytochromes c from methylomonas a4. 19902177821
[analysis of dna-dna homologies in obligate methylotrophic bacteria].the genotypic affinity of 19 bacterial strains obligately dependent on methanol or methylamine as carbon and energy sources was studied by techniques of molecular dna hybridization. the high homology level (35-88%) between motile strain methylophilus methanolovorus v-1447d and nonmotile strain methylobacillus sp. vsb-792 as well as other motile strains (pseudomonas methanolica atcc 21704, methylomonas methanolica nrrl 5458, pseudomonas sp. w6, strain a3) indicates that all of them belong to one ...19882463459
two distinct azurins function in the electron-transport chain of the obligate methylotroph methylomonas j.methylomonas j is an obligate methylotroph although it is unable to grow on methane. like pseudomonas am1, it produces two blue copper proteins when growing on methylamine, one of which is the recipient of electrons from the methylamine dehydrogenase. when grown on methanol, only the other blue copper protein is produced. we have determined the amino acid sequences of these blue copper proteins, and show that they are both true azurins. the sequences are clearly homologous to those of the protei ...19892505762
determination and in vivo characterization of the basic replicon of natural plasmids of methylomonas clara.the basic replicon of the endogenous methylomonas clara plasmid pbe-2 and its derivatives was defined to a region of 2.7 kb by in vivo deletions and conjugative transfer experiments using escherichia coli-m. clara hybrid plasmids. origin activity was found to be confined to a maximal length of 1.3 kb. the origin consists of two fragments which can be separated more than 4 kb by the integration of foreign dna fragments without loss of function. a fragment having a maximum size of 2.1 kb supports ...19892517346
isolation and characterization of a blue copper protein from thiobacillus versutus.the blue copper protein induced during growth of thiobacillus versutus on methylamine was purified and characterized. it is an acidic protein (isoelectric point 4.7), contains one cu2+ ion/enzyme molecule, is a monomeric protein (molecular mass about 14 kda), has a maximum in its absorption spectrum at 596 nm (molar absorption coefficient 3.9 x 10(3) m-1 cm-1), shows an axial type-i electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum (g parallel = 2.239, g perpendicular = 2.046 and a parallel = 5.6 mt) and ...19852998794
[immunological characteristics of methylomonas methanica membranes].immune sera were prepared against the antigenic complexes in the fractions of methylomonas methanica cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane and intracytoplasmic membranes. the membrane fractions were studied immunologically in the reactions of agglutination, immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion. some common features as well as differences were found among the membrane fractions in the antigenic structure. the membranes of m. methanica were shown to contain species-, genera- and type-specific antigens ...19863102906
identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxf) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxf genes from methylococcus capsulatus bath and methylomonas albus open-reading-frame fragment of a methylobacterium sp. strain am1 gene (moxf) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. this hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxf genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, methylococcus capsulatus bath and methylomonas albus bg8. the identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. a t7 expres ...19883129400
[typing of methylomonas methanolica strains with specific bacteriophages]. 19853929567
novel hopanoids from the methylotrophic bacteria methylococcus capsulatus and methylomonas methanica. (22s)-35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol and (22s)-35-amino-3 beta-methylbacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol.the major hopanoid of the methylotrophic bacteria methylococcus capsulatus and methylomonas methanica was identified by spectroscopic methods as (22s)-35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol. minor companions were, in both bacteria, 35-aminobacteriohopane-31,32,33,34-tetrol and in methylomonas methanica, 35-aminobacteriohopane-32,33,34-triol. in methylococcus capsulatus the aminopentol and the aminotetrol were accompanied by their homologues possessing an extra methyl group at c-3. bacteria ...19853935106
[immobilization of methane-oxidizing bacterial cells].the purpose of this work was to study how the conditions for immobilizing the cells of the methane oxidizing bacterium methylomonas rubra using chemical and physical techniques influence their functional catalytical properties. these properties were found to depend on the chemical nature of a matrix and the mode of binding the cells to the carrier. the best carriers were shown to be silochrome with introduced carboxy groups and agar gel.19806250014
methanol dehydrogenase of methylomonas j: purification, crystallization, and some properties.a methanol dehydrogenase [ec] was purified and crystallized from methanol-grown methylomonas j (formerly pseudomonas sp. j), an obligate methylotroph. its molecular weight was estimated to be 135,000 by gel chromatography. the sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two bands and their molecular weights were approximately 60,000 and 10,000. the enzyme was relatively stable at ph 6 and 10, and was unstable at ph 8. the enzyme activity was lost at ph 4.0; ...19816270077
two cytochromes c of methylomonas j.two kinds of c-type cytochromes, cytochrome c-551 (i), and cytochrome c-551 (ii), were highly purified and crystallized from cell-free extract of methanol-grown methylomonas j (formerly pseudomonas sp. j) and their physiochemical and biochemical properties were studied. cytochrome c-551 (i) had an absorption peak at 409 nm in the oxidized form and peaks at 417, 523, 551 nm, and a shoulder at 532 nm in the reduced form. the millimolar extinction coefficient of the alpha-peak of the reduced form w ...19816270078
plasmids in methanotrophic bacteria: isolation, characterization and dna hybridization analysis.ten strains of obligate methanotrophs were screened for the presence of plasmid dna using a variety of methods. plasmids were detected in all strains except methylococcus capsulatus bath. no significant similarity between plasmids was observed with respect to size or restriction digest patterns except for three strains of methylosinus trichosporium, which appeared to contain the same three plasmids. nitrocellulose filter hybridization revealed that the plasmid dna from the m. trichosporium strai ...19846442554
a critical analysis of kinetic data of 3-hexulosephosphate synthases. michaelis-menten or complex characteristics.investigations of the 3-hexulosephosphate synthase (hps) from different methylotrophic bacteria have revealed apparent discrepancies in kinetic behaviour. in all methanol-utilizing species investigated by us the kinetic characteristics showed intermediary plateau regions. therefore, this behaviour is assumed to be a general feature of the hps from all non-methane-utilizing methylotrophic bacteria. however, this assumption is in contrast to the results of other authors. both for methylomonas m15 ...19806775423
methylamine dehydrogenases of methylomonas j and pseudomonas am1. hybridization of light and heavy subunits and some properties of an isolated hybrid enzyme.hybridization reactions were carried out in vitro between the light and heavy subunits of two methylamine dehydrogenases obtained from methylomonas j (formerly pseudomonas sp. j) and pseudomonas am1. enzymatic activity was restored with a combination of l3(mw: 13,000) and ha(mw: 40,000) but not with la(mw: 13,000) and hj(nw: 40,000). this active hybrid enzyme was isolated with a sephadex g-150 column after incubation of lj and ha. its molecular weight was nearly identical to that of the two nati ...19806778856
[isolation and identification of methylomonas methanica membranes].the crude membrane preparation of methylomonas methanica was fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and in an aqueous dextran -- polyethylene glycol two-phase system. fractions of a higher purity were prepared by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. two subcellular fractions were isolated and characterized. one of them enriched in lipopolysaccharides was represented by the cell wall debris; the other possessing greater specific activities of the enzymes contained mainly intr ...19806782437
ethane oxidation by methane-oxidizing bacteria.the relationship between the rates of methane and ethane oxidation by washed suspensions of methane-oxidizing bacteria has been investigated. considerable differences between bacterial strains were observed. two closely related methylomonas strains which differed in their oxidizing capacity were further investigated. the low ethane oxidation rate of one strain could be strongly stimulated by the addition of oxidizable co-substrates and the presence of ethane stimulated formate oxidation. the oth ...19806786213
[numerical analysis of the protein electrophoregrams of obligate methanotrophic bacteria].the protein spectra for 70 strains of obligate methanotrophic bacteria were studied using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulphate. the protein spectra of methylomonas methanica 12 and methylosinus trichosporium 44 did not change in the course of the culture growth. basing on the data obtained, the similarity coefficients were calculated for these strains. the numerical analysis of the similarity coefficients was done, and a dendrogram presenting the phylogenetic relati ...19816799757
3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase from methylomonas (methylococcus) capsulatus. 19826818422
3-hexulose-phosphate synthase from methylomonas m15. 19826818423
single cell protein as an occupational hazard.single cell protein (scp) intended for animal feed purposes was produced in a pilot plant. the scp consisted of methylomonas methanolica, a pseudomonas species which is an obligate methanol user. the scp was cultured in fermenters and later dewatered and dried in a spray-drier. seven of eight research workers had febrile reactions 6-12 hours after exposure to scp dust. all workers had high titres of igg and igm antibodies against the pseudomonas species as measured with indirect elisa and passiv ...19836830720
[isolation and characterization of membranes from methylomonas methanica].the cell wall (cw), cytoplasmic (cm) and intracytoplasmic membrane (icm) fractions were obtained by sucrose linear gradient centrifugation of membrane preparations of methylomonas methanica. the cw fraction represented by large open fragments with 5-layer structure is enriched in lipopolysaccharides and is similar in its protein composition to the cw fractions of other gram-negative bacteria. the cm vesicles are surrounded with a unit membrane, have high activities of marker enzymes (nadh dehydr ...19817332669
in situ identification of legionellaceae using 16s rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probes and confocal laser scanning microscopy.bacteria of the family legionellaceae form a monophyletic group within the gamma-subclass of proteobacteria. based on comparative sequence analysis we constructed two oligonucleotide probes complementary to regions of 16s rrna characteristic for legionellaceae. probe specificities were tested by whole-cell or dot-blot hybridization against 14 serogroups of legionella pneumophila, 22 different legionella spp. and 72 non-legionellae reference strains. using optimized conditions both probes hybridi ...19957534589
detection of novel marine methanotrophs using phylogenetic and functional gene probes after methane enrichment.a major limitation of rrna-targeted group-specific probes is that they may cross-react with organisms of other physiological, or even phylogenetic groups when applied to environmental samples containing unknown sequences. we have exploited the restricted physiology of methane-oxidizing bacteria to assess the specificity and efficiency of probes for this physiological type which target the 16s rrna or genes involved in methanotroph physiology. seawater samples were enriched for methanotrophs by a ...19957551057
evidence for two distinct azurins in alcaligenes xylosoxidans (ncimb 11015): potential electron donors to nitrite reductase.we have isolated two type 1 copper-containing proteins (m(r) approximately 13k) from alcaligenes xylosoxidans (ncimb 11015) grown under denitrifying conditions. amino acid sequence analysis of these two proteins shows one to be the previously identified azurin (ambler, 1971), which we shall call azurin i, and the other to be a related, but previously undescribed, blue copper protein which we show to also be an azurin and propose to call azurin ii. thus, ncimb 11015 becomes the second system wher ...19957640272
methanol oxidation genes in the marine methanotroph methylomonas sp. strain a4.methanol dehydrogenase has been purified from the type i marine methanotroph methylomonas sp. strain a4 and found to be similar to other methanol dehydrogenase enzymes in subunit composition, molecular mass, and n-terminal sequence of the two subunits. a heterologous gene probe and a homologous oligonucleotide have been used to identify a dna fragment from methylomonas sp. strain a4 which contains moxf, the gene encoding the large subunit of methanol dehydrogenase. protein expression experiments ...19937685335
cycloclasticus pugetii gen. nov., sp. nov., an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from marine sediments.three heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from different locations in puget sound, washington, by using biphenyl as the principal carbon source. these strains grow by using a limited number of organic compounds, including the aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and toluene, as sole carbon sources. these aerobic, gram-negative rods are motile by means of single polar flagella. their 16s rrna sequences indicate that they are all members of the gamma subdivision o ...19957857792
cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase from the methylotrophic bacterium, methylomonas aminofaciens 77a, and its expression in escherichia coli.a dna fragment of 550 bp was specifically amplified by pcr with primers based on the n-terminal sequence of the purified 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase from methylomonas aminofaciens 77a and on that of a lysyl endopeptidase-derived peptide. using this pcr product as a probe, a gene coding for 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase in m. aminofaciens 77a chromosomal dna was cloned in escherichia coli jm109. sequencing analysis revealed that the gene encoding 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase contained a ...19968595859
a secretory protein involved in the antagonistic interactions between methanotrophic bacteria.antagonistic interactions in mixed culture of methanotrophic bacteria methylomonas methanica 12 and methylocystis minimus 33 were investigated. the inhibitory action of mcs. minimus exometabolites against mm. methanica grown in liquid medium was found to be specific. ultrafiltration established that the molecular weight of the substance having inhibitory activity lies within the range 2-10 kd. the activity is protease sensitive and relatively stable to heating. electrophoretic analysis showed th ...19979275277
direct evidence for a soluble methane monooxygenase from type i methanotrophic bacteria: purification and properties of a soluble methane monooxygenase from methylomonas sp. gyj3.the hydroxylase and reductase components of a soluble methane monooxygenase from type i methanotrophs--methylomonas sp. gyj3--were purified by a multiple-step lc procedure. the hydroxylase (approximately 240 kda, determined by an hplc-size exclusion chromatography method) has three subunits with molecular masses of 56, 43, and 27 kda, suggesting that the enzyme has an (alphabeta gamma)2 subunit structure. the hplc method was developed to purify the hydroxylase component, and the purified protein ...19979308893
analysis of 16s rrna and methane monooxygenase gene sequences reveals a novel group of thermotolerant and thermophilic methanotrophs, methylocaldum gen. nov.two methanotrophic bacteria with optimum growth temperatures above 40 degrees c were isolated. thermotolerant strain lk6 was isolated from agricultural soil, and the moderately thermophilic strain or2 was isolated from the effluent of an underground hot spring. when compared to the described thermophilic methanotrophs methylococcus capsulatus and methylococcus thermophilus, these strains are phenotypically similar to methylococcus thermophilus. however, their 16s rrna gene sequences are markedly ...19979385141
cloning and characterization of the azurin iso-1 gene, concerned with the electron transport chain involved in methylamine/methanol oxidation in the obligate methylotroph methylomonas sp. strain j.two azurin-type blue copper proteins, which is concerned with the electron transport chain involved in methylamine/methanol oxidation, have been found in the obligate methylotroph methylomonas sp. strain j. the azurin iso-1 gene was cloned and sequenced to analyze the role in the electron transport chain. pcr products synthesized with primers based on the n- and c-terminal amino acid sequences of azurin iso-1 were used as probes for cloning. one complete open reading frame (the azurin iso-1 gene ...19989648216
cytochrome p460 genes from the methanotroph methylococcus capsulatus bath.p460 cytochromes catalyze the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. they have been isolated from the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium nitrosomonas europaea (r. h. erickson and a. b. hooper, biochim. biophys. acta 275:231-244, 1972) and the methane-oxidizing bacterium methylococcus capsulatus bath (j. a. zahn et al., j. bacteriol. 176:5879-5887, 1994). a degenerate oligonucleotide probe was synthesized based on the n-terminal amino acid sequence of cytochrome p460 and used to identify a dna fragment ...19989851984
effect of exogenous electron donors and water-soluble polymers on the propene-epoxidizing activity of methylomonas z201 cells. 19989928140
crystallization and preliminary x-ray study of iso-2 azurin from the methylotrophic bacterium, methylomonas j.the obligate methylotroph methylomonas j possesses two distinct azurins. the iso-2 azurin, which functions as an electron acceptor for methylamine dehydrogenase, has been crystallized using two kinds of precipitants: peg 4000 and ammonium sulfate. the crystals precipitated with peg belong to the monoclinic system, space group p21, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.96, b = 33.67, c = 47.34 a and beta = 101.35 degrees. the crystals precipitated with ammonium sulfate belong to the orthorhombic syste ...199910089434
some characteristics of bacteria found in a bioreactor to treat trichloroethylene-contaminated groundwater.a mixture of bacteria, having a methane-utilizing ability, was separated from a bioreactor supplied with air and methane gas. the bioreactor was operated to treat trichloroethylene (tce)-contaminated groundwater. the mixture was composed of an obligate methane-utilizing bacterium and a heterotroph, identified as methylomonas methanica and pseudomonas sp., respectively. the mixed culture of these two strains removed tce. in addition, it appeared that a cooperative metabolic interaction of these s ...199910331207
organization of the genes involved in the ribulose monophosphate pathway in an obligate methylotrophic bacterium, methylomonas aminofaciens 77a.the 4.4-kb psti fragment harboring the gene encoding 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase, rmpa, which was previously cloned from the chromosome of an obligate methylotroph, methylomonas aminofaciens 77a, was investigated in detail. in addition to the rmpa gene, the fragment contained three open reading frames encoding transaldolase (rmpd), is10-r (rmpi), and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (phi) (rmpb). the rmpb gene product was overproduced in escherichia coli cells, purified to homogeneity, and then e ...199910418139
evaluation and optimization of dna extraction and purification procedures for soil and sediment samples.we compared and statistically evaluated the effectiveness of nine dna extraction procedures by using frozen and dried samples of two silt loam soils and a silt loam wetland sediment with different organic matter contents. the effects of different chemical extractants (sodium dodecyl sulfate [sds], chloroform, phenol, chelex 100, and guanadinium isothiocyanate), different physical disruption methods (bead mill homogenization and freeze-thaw lysis), and lysozyme digestion were evaluated based on t ...199910543776
methanotroph diversity in landfill soil: isolation of novel type i and type ii methanotrophs whose presence was suggested by culture-independent 16s ribosomal dna analysis.the diversity of the methanotrophic community in mildly acidic landfill cover soil was assessed by three methods: two culture-independent molecular approaches and a traditional culture-based approach. for the first of the molecular studies, two primer pairs specific for the 16s rrna gene of validly published type i (including the former type x) and type ii methanotrophs were identified and tested. these primers were used to amplify directly extracted soil dna, and the products were used to const ...199910543800
molecular characterization of functional and phylogenetic genes from natural populations of methanotrophs in lake sediments.the 16s rrna and pmoa genes from natural populations of methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) were pcr amplified from total community dna extracted from lake washington sediments obtained from the area where peak methane oxidation occurred. clone libraries were constructed for each of the genes, and approximately 200 clones from each library were analyzed by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and the tetrameric restriction enzymes mspi, haeiii, and hhai. the pcr products ...199910543824
soluble methane monooxygenase gene clusters from trichloroethylene-degrading methylomonas sp. strains and detection of methanotrophs during in situ bioremediation.the soluble mmo (smmo) gene clusters from group i methanotrophs were characterized. an 8.1-kb kpni fragment from methylomonas sp. strain kswiii and a 7.5-kb sali fragment from methylomonas sp. strain kspiii which contained the smmo gene clusters were cloned and sequenced. the sequences of these two fragments were almost identical. the smmo gene clusters in the fragment consisted of six open reading frames which were 52 to 79% similar to the corresponding genes of previously described smmo gene c ...199910583965
bacterial triterpenoids of the hopane series from the methanotrophic bacteria methylocaldum spp.: phylogenetic implications and first evidence for an unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepolyol.the hopanoid content of the two methanotrophic bacteria methylocaldum szegediense and methylocaldum tepidum was investigated. 35-aminobacteriohopane-30r,31r,32r,33s, 34s-pentol and its 3beta-methyl homologue were present in both strains. in m. tepidum, they were accompanied by 35-aminobacteriohopane-31r,32r,33s, 34s-tetrol and its 3beta-methyl homologue. the side chain structure was identical to those previously reported from two other obligate methanotrophs, methylococcus capsulatus and methylo ...200010620693
spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of two azurins (az-iso1 and az-iso2) from the obligate methylotroph methylomonas sp. strain j and the structure of novel az-iso2.two azurin-type blue copper proteins, which are related to the electron-transfer processes involving methylamine/methanol oxidation, have been spectroscopically and electrochemically characterized. the obligate methylotroph methylomonas sp. strain j gives rise to two azurins (az-isol and az-iso2) with methylamine dehydrogenase (madh-mj). the intense blue bands characteristic of az-iso1 and az-iso2 are observed at 621 and 616 nm in the visible absorption spectra respectively, being revealed at 62 ...199910631606
methylomonas scandinavica sp. nov., a new methanotrophic psychrotrophic bacterium isolated from deep igneous rock ground water of sweden.methane-utilizing bacteria were enriched from deep igneous rock environments and affiliated by amplification of functional and phylogenetic gene probes. type i methanotrophs belonging to the genera methylomonas and methylobacter dominated in enrichment cultures from depths below 400 m. a pure culture of an obligate methanotroph (strain sr5) was isolated and characterized. pink-pigmented motile rods of the new isolate contained intracytoplasmic membranes as stacks of vesicles, assimilated methane ...199910794145
an obligate methylotrophic, methane-oxidizing methylomicrobium species from a highly alkaline environment.a new, obligately methylotrophic, methane-oxidizing bacterium, strain amo 1, was isolated from a mixed sample of sediments from five highly alkaline soda lakes (kenya). based on its cell ultrastructure and high activity of the hexulose-6-phosphate synthase, the new isolate belongs to the type i methanotrophs. it differed, however, from the known neutrophilic methanotrophs by the ability to grow and oxidize methane at high ph values. the bacterium grew optimally with methane at ph 9-10. the oxida ...200010879559
molecular analysis of an outer membrane protein, mopb, of methylococcus capsulatus (bath) and structural comparisons with proteins of the ompa family.the gene encoding a major outer membrane protein (mopb) of the methanotroph methylococcus capsulatus (bath) was cloned and sequenced. the cloned dna contained an open reading frame of 1044 bp coding for a 348-amino-acid polypeptide with a 21-amino-acid leader peptide. comparative sequence analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed that the c-terminal part of mopb possessed sequences that are conserved in the ompa family of proteins. the n-terminal half of the protein had no significa ...200010896213
characterization of methanotrophic bacteria on the basis of intact phospholipid profiles.the intact phospholipid profiles (ipps) of seven species of methanotrophs from all three physiological groups, type i, ii and x, were determined using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. in these methanotrophs, two major classes of phospholipids were found, phosphatidylglycerol (pg) and phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) as well as its derivatives phosphatidylmethylethanolamine (pme) and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine (pdme). specifically, the type i methanotrophs, meth ...200010913867
[characteristics of hemagglutination reaction in methanotrophic bacteria].the reaction of hemagglutination with trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes was used to reveal lectins on the cell surface of methanotrophic bacteria and in their culture liquids. by this method, no lectins were detected on the cell surface of methylococcus capsulatus imv b-3001 and methylomonas rubra imv b-3075 or in the culture liquid of any of the species studied. with intact cells of methylocystis parvus imv b-3491, the positive hemagglutination reaction observed was nonspecific and most proba ...200010920812
molecular characterization of methanotrophic isolates from freshwater lake sediment.profiles of dissolved o(2) and methane with increasing depth were generated for lake washington sediment, which suggested the zone of methane oxidation is limited to the top 0.8 cm of the sediment. methane oxidation potentials were measured for 0.5-cm layers down to 1.5 cm and found to be relatively constant at 270 to 350 micromol/liter of sediment/h. approximately 65% of the methane was oxidized to cell material or metabolites, a signature suggestive of type i methanotrophs. eleven methanotroph ...200011097900
polyclonal antibodies recognizing the amob protein of ammonia oxidizers of the beta-subclass of the class proteobacteria.a 41-kda protein of nitrosomonas eutropha was purified, and the n-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be nearly identical with the sequence of amob, a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. this protein was used to develop polyclonal antibodies, which were highly specific for the detection of the four genera of ammonia oxidizers of the beta-subclass of proteobacteria (nitrosomonas, including nitrosococcus mobilis, which belongs phylogenetically to nitrosomonas; nitrosospira; nitrosolobus; and n ...200111133435
differential inhibition in vivo of ammonia monooxygenase, soluble methane monooxygenase and membrane-associated methane monoxygenase by phenylacetylene.phenylacetylene was investigated as a differential inhibitor of ammonia monooxygenase (amo), soluble methane monooxygenase (smmo) and membrane-associated or particulate methane monooxygenase (pmmo) in vivo. at phenylacetylene concentrations > 1 microm, whole-cell amo activity in nitrosomonas europaea was completely inhibited. phenylacetylene concentrations above 100 microm inhibited more than 90% of smmo activity in methylococcus capsulatus bath and methylosinus trichosporium ob3b. in contrast, ...200011233157
bacterial populations occuring in a trichloroethylene-contaminated aquifer during methane injection.soil core samples were obtained from a trichloroethylene (tce)-contaminated aquifer before and after the start of methane biostimulation. dna was extracted directly from the soil samples, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) was used to analyse bacterial 16s ribosomal dna fragments that were pcr amplified from these dna samples. this analysis consistently detected two phylotypes in the methane-injected samples. these phylotypes were closely related to methylobacter and methylomonas ...200111321535
improved method for detection of methanotrophic bacteria in forest soils by pcr.a primer set was designed for the specific detection of methanotrophic bacteria in forest soils by pcr. the primer sequences were derived from highly conservative regions of the pmoa gene, encoding the alpha-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase present in all methanotrophs. in control experiments with genomic dna from a collection of different type i, ii, and x methanotrophs, it could be demonstrated that the new primers were specific for members of the genera methylosinus, methylocy ...200111400051
nifh sequences and nitrogen fixation in type i and type ii methanotrophs.some methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are known to be capable of expressing nitrogenase and utilizing n2 as a nitrogen source. however, no sequences are available for nif genes in these strains, and the known nitrogen-fixing methanotrophs are confined mainly to a few genera. the purpose of this work was to assess the nitrogen-fixing capabilities of a variety of methanotroph strains. nifh gene fragments from four type i methanotrophs and seven type ii methanotrophs were pcr amplified an ...200111525998
detection of methanotroph diversity on roots of submerged rice plants by molecular retrieval of pmoa, mmox, mxaf, and 16s rrna and ribosomal dna, including pmoa-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling.the diversity of methanotrophic bacteria associated with roots of submerged rice plants was assessed using cultivation-independent techniques. the research focused mainly on the retrieval of pmoa, which encodes the alpha subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase. a novel methanotroph-specific community-profiling method was established using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp) technique. the t-rflp profiles clearly revealed a more complex root-associated methanot ...200111526021
carbon isotopic fractionation in lipids from methanotrophic bacteria: relevance for interpretation of the geochemical record of biomarkers.experiments with cultured aerobic methane oxidising bacteria confirm that their biomarker lipids will be significantly depleted in 13c compared to the substrate. the methanotrophic bacteria methylococcus capsulatus and methylomonas methanica, grown on methane and using the rump cycle for carbon assimilation, show maximum 13c fractionation of approximately 30% in the resultant biomass. in m. capsulatus, the maximum fractionation is observed in the earliest part of the exponential growth stage an ...199411540111
[growth of mesophilic methanotrophs at low temperatures].the optimal growth of mesophilic methanotrophic bacteria (collection strains of the genera methylocystis, methylomonas, methylosinus, and methylobacter) occurred within temperature ranges of 31-34 degrees c and 23-25 degrees c. none of the strains studied were able to grow at 1.5 or 4 degrees c. representatives of six methanotrophic species (strains mcs. echinoides 2, mm. methanica 12, mb. bovis 89, mcs. pyriformis 14, mb. chroococcum 90, and mb. vinelandii 87) could grow at 10 degrees c (with a ...200111558268
family- and genus-level 16s rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probes for ecological studies of methanotrophic bacteria.methanotrophic bacteria play a major role in the global carbon cycle, degrade xenobiotic pollutants, and have the potential for a variety of biotechnological applications. to facilitate ecological studies of these important organisms, we developed a suite of oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of methanotroph-specific 16s rrna from environmental samples. two probes target methanotrophs in the family methylocystaceae (type ii methanotrophs) as a group. no oligonucleotide signatures t ...200111571178
[search for methanotrophic producers of exopolysaccharides].bacteria that produce exopolysaccharides (eps) and use methane as the only source of carbon were selected by studying a collection of methanotroph strains: methylococcus capsulatus e 494, 874, and 3009; m. thermophilus 111p, 112p, and 119p; methylobacter ucrainicus 159 and 161; m. luteus 57v and 12b; methylobacter sp. 100; methylomonas rubra 15 sh and sk-32; methylosinus trichosporium ov3b, ov5b and 4e; m. sporium 5, 12, a20d, and 90v; and methylocystis parvus ovvp. mesophilic methanotroph strai ...200111771325
biology of extremophilic and extremotolerant methanotrophs.this review summarizes recent findings on the biology of obligate methanotrophic bacteria living in various extreme environments. by using molecular ecology techniques, it has become clear that obligate methanotrophs are ubiquitous in nature and well adapted to high or low temperature, ph and salinity. the isolation and characterization of pure cultures has led to the discovery of several new genera and species of extremophilic/tolerant methanotrophs. their major physiological role is participat ...200211807561
nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of obligate methanol utilizing a screening program, a number of different bacterial strains with the ability to utilize methanol as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated and described. they are well known methanol utilizing genera pseudomonas, klebsiella, micrococcus, methylomonas or, on the contrary, the new, unknown genera and species of methylotrophic bacteria. in the last category, acinetobacter and alcaligenes are the new reported genera of organisms able to use methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. the ...199911845445
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