amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of pseudomonas strains from a poultry processing plant.molecular typing has been used previously to identify and trace dissemination of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria associated with food processing. amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) is a novel dna fingerprinting technique which is considered highly reproducible and has high discriminatory power. this technique was used to fingerprint 88 pseudomonas fluorescens and pseudomonas putida strains that were previously isolated from plate counts of carcasses at six processing stages and vario ...199910473382
characterization and determination of origin of lactic acid bacteria from a sorghum-based fermented weaning food by analysis of soluble proteins and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting.the group that includes the lactic acid bacteria is one of the most diverse groups of bacteria known, and these organisms have been characterized extensively by using different techniques. in this study, 180 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from sorghum powder (44 strains) and from corresponding fermented (93 strains) and cooked fermented (43 strains) porridge samples that were prepared in 15 households were characterized by using biochemical and physiological methods, as well as by analyz ...200010698775
proposal of xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (pistacia vera).strains of xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of x. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. further investigations, using dna-dna hybridization, gyrb gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the x. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. dn ...200919748753
classification and identification of xanthomonas translucens isolates, including those pathogenic to ornamental asparagus.abstract in order to confirm and refine the current classification scheme of xanthomonas translucens and to identify novel strains from ornamental asparagus, a collection of field and reference strains was analyzed. rep-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) genomic fingerprint profiles were generated from 33 isolates pathogenic to asparagus as well as 61 x. trans-lucens reference strains pathogenic to cereals and grasses. amplified ribo-somal gene restriction analysis profiles were obtained from most ...200618943753
the effect of antibiotics on infection of wheat by xanthomonas translucens. 195613316601
detection and diversity assessment of xylella fastidiosa in field-collected plant and insect samples by using 16s rrna and gyrb sequences.the causal agent of diseases in many economically important plants is attributed to the xylem-limited bacterium xylella fastidiosa. the detection of this plant pathogen has been hampered due to its difficult isolation and slow growth on plates. nearly complete nucleotide sequences of the 16s rrna gene and partial sequences of the gyrb gene were determined for 18 strains of x. fastidiosa isolated from different plant hosts. a phylogenetic analysis, based on gyrb, grouped strains in three clusters ...200312839807
development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide o antigen and the type iv fimbriae of xanthomonas hyacinthi.the objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (mabs). mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type iv fimbriae. hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with x. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with x. translucens pv. graminis or erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. nine mabs recognized fim ...199910473431
serological studies of the genus xanthomonas: ii. xanthomonas translucens group. 194716561304
[xanthomonas translucens affection of wheat]. 1979530107
Pathogenic and Genetic Diversity of Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa in North Dakota.Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, has become more prevalent recently in North Dakota and neighboring states. From five locations in North Dakota, 226 strains of X. translucens pv. undulosa were collected and evaluated for pathogenicity and then selected strains were inoculated on a set of 12 wheat cultivars and other cereal hosts. The genetic diversity of all strains was determined using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and ...201122204654
identification of genes required for pseudomonas aeruginosa carnitine catabolism.carnitine is a quaternary amine compound prevalent in animal tissues, and a potential carbon, nitrogen and energy source for pathogens during infection. characterization of activities in pseudomonas aeruginosa cell lysates has previously shown that carnitine is converted to 3-dehydrocarnitine (3-dhc) which is in turn metabolized to glycine betaine (gb), an intermediate metabolite in the catabolism of carnitine to glycine. however, the identities of the enzymes required for carnitine catabolism w ...200919406895
relationship between phyllosphere population sizes of xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens and bacterial leaf streak severity on wheat seedlings.abstract the relationship between leaf-associated population sizes of xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens on asymptomatic leaves and subsequent bacterial leaf streak (bls) severity was investigated. in three experiments, x. translucens pv. translucens was spray-inoculated onto 10-day-old wheat seedlings over a range of inoculum densities (10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) cfu/ml). lesions developed most rapidly on plants inoculated with higher densities of x. translucens pv. translucens. ...199918944786
evolutionary and experimental assessment of novel markers for detection of xanthomonas euvesicatoria in plant samples.bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (bsx) are quarantine phytopathogenic bacteria responsible for heavy losses in tomato and pepper production. despite the research on improved plant spraying methods and resistant cultivars, the use of healthy plant material is still considered as the most effective bacterial spot control measure. therefore, rapid and efficient detection methods are crucial for an early detection of these phytopathogens.201222655073
chemical and antibiotic control of bacterial leaf streak disease of rice (xanthomonas translucens f. sp. oryzicola). 19744461713
seed and seedling infection of barley, bromegrass, and wheat by xanthomonas translucens var. cerealis. 194620984553
comparison of 16s ribosomal dna sequences of all xanthomonas species.the phylogenetic relationships of all validly described species of the genus xanthomonas and the type strain of stenotrophomonas maltophilia were analyzed by sequencing and comparing 16s ribosomal dnas (rdnas). the two genera exhibited a mean sequence similarity value of 96.6%, corresponding to differences at 50 nucleotide positions on average. the species of the genus xanthomonas exhibited relatively high levels of overall sequence similarity; the mean similarity value was 98.2%, which correspo ...19979103617
azotobacter genomes: the genome of azotobacter chroococcum ncimb 8003 (atcc 4412).the genome of the soil-dwelling heterotrophic n2-fixing gram-negative bacterium azotobacter chroococcum ncimb 8003 (atcc 4412) (ac-8003) has been determined. it consists of 7 circular replicons totalling 5,192,291 bp comprising a circular chromosome of 4,591,803 bp and six plasmids pacx50a, b, c, d, e, f of 10,435 bp, 13,852, 62,783, 69,713, 132,724, and 311,724 bp respectively. the chromosome has a g+c content of 66.27% and the six plasmids have g+c contents of 58.1, 55.3, 56.7, 59.2, 61.9, and ...201526061173
serological studies of the genus xanthomonas; xanthomonas translucens group. 194720238510
genetic diversity and pathogenicity of the grass pathogen xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis.genetic diversity of xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (x.t.g.), the causal agent of bacterial wilt in forage grasses, was assessed using 16s rdna sequencing, aflp analysis and pathogenicity screening on three italian ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) cultivars. the aim of this in depth analysis was to provide insight into geographic variation and race specificity of x.t.g. in order to develop strategies for plant protection and resistance breeding. 16s rdna sequencing of 29 putative x.t.g. isola ...200616464692
comparative genomics of host adaptive traits in xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis.xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among poaceae. as the causal agent of bacterial wilt in italian ryegrass (lolium multiflorum lam.), x. translucens pv. graminis (xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. the genomes of six xtg strains from switzerland, norway, and new zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range. subsequent compara ...201728056815
biochemical characterization of l-carnitine dehydrogenases from rhizobium sp. and xanthomonas translucens.recently, we obtained two l-carnitine dehydrogenases (cdhs) from soil isolates, rhizobium sp. (rs-cdh) and xanthomonas translucens (xt-cdh). the respective molecular masses of rs-cdh and xt-cdh were approximately 50 kda and 37 kda. in this study, the genes encoding both enzymes were cloned. their primary structures exhibited high identities with those of 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenases. in addition, rs-cdh had a 180-residue long extra sequence in its c-terminal region. except for the initial 20 ...201020530902
ethylene responsive factors in the orchestration of stress responses in monocotyledonous plants.the apetala2/ethylene-responsive factor (ap2/erf) superfamily of transcription factors (tfs) regulates physiological, developmental and stress responses. most of the ap2/erf tfs belong to the erf family in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. erfs are implicated in the responses to both biotic and abiotic stress and occasionally impart multiple stress tolerance. studies have revealed that erf gene function is conserved in dicots and monocots. moreover, successful stress tolerance phe ...201526379679
comparative genomics of a cannabis pathogen reveals insight into the evolution of pathogenicity in xanthomonas.pathogenic bacteria in the genus xanthomonas cause diseases on over 350 plant species, including cannabis (cannabis sativa l.). because of regulatory limitations, the biology of the xanthomonas-cannabis pathosystem remains largely unexplored. to gain insight into the evolution of xanthomonas strains pathogenic to cannabis, we sequenced the genomes of two geographically distinct xanthomonas strains, ncppb 3753 and ncppb 2877, which were previously isolated from symptomatic plant tissue in japan a ...201526136759
draft genome sequence analysis of a pseudomonas putida w15oct28 strain with antagonistic activity to gram-positive and pseudomonas sp. pathogens.pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. p. putida w15oct28, isolated from a stream in brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for p. putida. the active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and w ...201425369289
annotale: bioinformatics tools for identification, annotation, and nomenclature of tales from xanthomonas genomic sequences.transcription activator-like effectors (tales) are virulence factors, produced by the bacterial plant-pathogen xanthomonas, that function as gene activators inside plant cells. although the contribution of individual tales to infectivity has been shown, the specific roles of most tales, and the overall tale diversity in xanthomonas spp. is not known. tales possess a highly repetitive dna-binding domain, which is notoriously difficult to sequence. here, we describe an improved method for characte ...201626876161
long read and single molecule dna sequencing simplifies genome assembly and tal effector gene analysis of xanthomonas translucens.the species xanthomonas translucens encompasses a complex of bacterial strains that cause diseases and yield loss on grass species including important cereal crops. three pathovars, x. translucens pv. undulosa, x. translucens pv. translucens and x. translucens pv.cerealis, have been described as pathogens of wheat, barley, and oats. however, no complete genome sequence for a strain of this complex is currently available.201626729225
microbial communities related to biodegradation of dispersed macondo oil at low seawater temperature with norwegian coastal seawater.the deepwater horizon (dwh) accident in 2010 created a deepwater plume of small oil droplets from a deepwater well in the mississippi canyon lease block 252 ('macondo oil'). a novel laboratory system was used in the current study to investigate biodegradation of macondo oil dispersions (10 μm or 30 μm median droplet sizes) at low oil concentrations (2 mg l(-1)) in coastal norwegian seawater at a temperature of 4-5°c. whole metagenome analyses showed that oil biodegradation was associated with th ...201526485443
sensitive detection of xanthomonas oryzae pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is a pcr-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target dna sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. we developed primers highly specific for two globally ...201424837384
effect of three antagonists on the development of bacterial leaf streak of rice.among 11 epiphytic microorganisms one species each of pseudomonas, erwinia, and aspergillus were antagonistic to xanthomonas translucens subsp. oryzicola. symptoms of bacterial leaf streak did not develop when the antagonists were sprayed on rice leaves 24 h before inoculation. although the symptoms developed when the antagonists were applied 24 h after inoculation, the number of lesions and their length was significantly reduced over control. when the mixture of each antagonist and the pathogen ...1978567522
nutritional similarity between leaf-associated nonpathogenic bacteria and the pathogen is not predictive of efficacy in biological control of bacterial spot of has been demonstrated that for a nonpathogenic, leaf-associated bacterium, effectiveness in the control of bacterial speck of tomato is correlated with the similarity in the nutritional needs of the nonpathogenic bacterium and the pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. this relationship was investigated further in this study by using the pathogen xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, the causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato, and a collection of nonpathogenic bacteria isolated from to ...200312788754
phylogenetic analysis of xanthomonas species based upon 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer sequences.phylogenetic relationships of 17 species of xanthomonas were assessed based on analysis of 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer (its) sequences; a higher level of resolution was obtained than that revealed by 16s rdna analysis. its sequences varied in size from 492 to 578 nt within the genus and the similarity among sequences ranged from 63 to 99%. major differences were found for the hyacinthi group, which included xanthomonas albilineans, xanthomonas hyacinthi, xanthomonas sacchari, xanthomonas thei ...200211931143
carnitine in bacterial physiology and metabolism.carnitine is a quaternary amine compound found at high concentration in animal tissues, particularly muscle, and is most well studied for its contribution to fatty acid transport into mitochondria. in bacteria, carnitine is an important osmoprotectant, and can also enhance thermotolerance, cryotolerance and barotolerance. carnitine can be transported into the cell or acquired from metabolic precursors, where it can serve directly as a compatible solute for stress protection or be metabolized thr ...201525787873
transcriptional responses of italian ryegrass during interaction with xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance.xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as italian ryegrass (lolium multiflorum lam.). in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted selection, the partial transcriptomes of two italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after xtg infection. a cdna microarray devel ...201020976589
xanthomonas translucens from small grains: diversity and phytopathological relevance.abstract sixty-eight presumptive xanthomonas translucens strains isolated from 15 small grains or grass species were studied by pathogenicity tests on barley, bread wheat, oat, and bromegrass species, and also by aflp, analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (fame), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of protein extracts. the x. translucens strains were divided into three pathogenicity types based on differences observed on barley and bread wheat. two unspeciated strains p ...199718945007
high-quality draft genome sequence of the xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis pathotype strain cfbp 2541.xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak on true grasses. the genome of the pathotype strain cfbp 2541 was sequenced in order to decipher mechanisms that provoke disease and to elucidate the role of transcription activator-like (tal) type iii effectors in pathogenicity.201525676771
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and sample preparation procedure for sensitive detection of xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry.xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. asymptomatic infection is common and contributes to the difficulties in disease management. the aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay as an efficient method for detection of asymptomatic infections of x. fragariae. in addition, a new method of sample preparation was developed that allows sampling of a larger amount of plant tissue, hence increasing the detection rate ...201626766068
identification of xanthomonas fragariae, xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans with novel markers and using a dot blot platform coupled with automatic data analysis.phytosanitary regulations and the provision of plant health certificates still rely mainly on long and laborious culture-based methods of diagnosis, which are frequently inconclusive. dna-based methods of detection can circumvent many of the limitations of currently used screening methods, allowing a fast and accurate monitoring of samples. the genus xanthomonas includes 13 phytopathogenic quarantine organisms for which improved methods of diagnosis are needed. in this work, we propose 21 new xa ...201121705524
genetic mapping reveals a single major qtl for bacterial wilt resistance in italian ryegrass (lolium multiflorum lam.).bacterial wilt caused by xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (xtg) is a major disease of economically important forage crops such as ryegrasses and fescues. targeted breeding based on seedling inoculation has resulted in cultivars with considerable levels of resistance. however, the mechanisms of inheritance of resistance are poorly understood and further breeding progress is difficult to obtain. this study aimed to assess the relevance of the seedling screening in the glasshouse for adult plan ...200616799808
full genome sequence analysis of two isolates reveals a novel xanthomonas species close to the sugarcane pathogen xanthomonas albilineans.xanthomonas albilineans is the bacterium responsible for leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. within the xanthomonas genus, x. albilineans exhibits distinctive genomic characteristics including the presence of significant genome erosion, a non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (nrps) locus involved in albicidin biosynthesis, and a type 3 secretion system (t3ss) of the salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (spi-1) family. we sequenced two x. albilineans-like strains isolated from unusual environments ...201526213974
complete genome sequence of the barley pathogen xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens dsm 18974t (atcc 19319t).we report here the complete 4.7-mb genome sequence of xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens dsm 18974(t), which causes black chaff disease on barley (hordeum vulgare). genome data of this x. translucens type strain will improve our understanding of this bacterial species.201627908994
genome mining reveals the genus xanthomonas to be a promising reservoir for new bioactive non-ribosomally synthesized peptides.various bacteria can use non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (nrps) to produce peptides or other small molecules. conserved features within the nrps machinery allow the type, and sometimes even the structure, of the synthesized polypeptide to be predicted. thus, bacterial genome mining via in silico analyses of nrps genes offers an attractive opportunity to uncover new bioactive non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. xanthomonas is a large genus of gram-negative bacteria that cause disease in hundred ...201324069909
avrrxo1 is a bifunctional type iii secreted effector and toxin-antitoxin system component with homologs in diverse environmental contexts.toxin-antitoxin (ta) systems are ubiquitous bacterial systems that may function in genome maintenance and metabolic stress management, but are also thought to play a role in virulence by helping pathogens survive stress. we previously demonstrated that the xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola protein avrrxo1 is a type iii-secreted virulence factor that has structural similarities to the zeta family of ta toxins, and is toxic to plants and bacteria in the absence of its predicted chaperone arc1. in t ...201627391081
draft genome sequences of three xanthomonas translucens pathovar reference strains (pv. arrhenatheri, pv. poae and pv. phlei) with different specificities for forage causal agents of bacterial wilt in pastures and meadows, bacteria of the species xanthomonas translucens are a serious issue in forage grass production. so far, only little is known about host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level and the lack of comprehensive genome data impeded targeted breeding strategies towards resistant forage grass cultivars. here we announce the draft genome sequences of three grass-pathogenic xanthomonas translucens pathotype strains, i.e. pv. arrhenatheri lmg ...201627536340
bacteria-triggered systemic immunity in barley is associated with wrky and ethylene responsive factors but not with salicylic acid.leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (psj) or xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (xtc). both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with xtc. in contrast to systemic acquired resistanc ...201425332505
type ii toxin-antitoxin distribution and adaptive aspects on xanthomonas genomes: focus on xanthomonas citri.prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (ta) systems were first described as being designed to prevent plasmid loss in bacteria. however, with the increase in prokaryotic genome sequencing, recently many tas have been found in bacterial chromosomes, having other biological functions, such as environmental stress response. to date, only few studies have focused on ta systems in phytopathogens, and their possible impact on the bacterial fitness. this may be especially important for pathogens like xanthomonas ...201627242687
molecular insights into cold active polygalacturonase enzyme for its potential application in food processing.pectin is a complex structural heteropolysaccharide that require numerous pectinolytic enzymes for its complete degradation. polygalacturonase from mesophilic or thermophilic origin are being widely used in fruit and vegetable processing in the recent decades to degrade pectic substances. recently cold active pectinases are finding added advantages over meso and thermophilic counterparts, to use in industrial scale particularly in food processing industry. they facilitate in conservation of seve ...201426344963
genomic analysis of xanthomonas translucens pathogenic on wheat and barley reveals cross-kingdom gene transfer events and diverse protein delivery comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of xanthomonas translucens isolate dar61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. based on phylogenetic analysis of the atp synthase beta subunit (atpd) gene, dar61454 is most closely related to other x. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting xanthomonas strain ...201424416331
molecular insights into cold active polygalacturonase enzyme for its potential application in food processing.pectin is a complex structural heteropolysaccharide that require numerous pectinolytic enzymes for its complete degradation. polygalacturonase from mesophilic or thermophilic origin are being widely used in fruit and vegetable processing in the recent decades to degrade pectic substances. recently cold active pectinases are finding added advantages over meso and thermophilic counterparts, to use in industrial scale particularly in food processing industry. they facilitate in conservation of seve ...201426344963
multivariate analyses in microbial ecology.environmental microbiology is undergoing a dramatic revolution due to the increasing accumulation of biological information and contextual environmental parameters. this will not only enable a better identification of diversity patterns, but will also shed more light on the associated environmental conditions, spatial locations, and seasonal fluctuations, which could explain such patterns. complex ecological questions may now be addressed using multivariate statistical analyses, which represent ...200717892477
draft genome sequence of xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis pathotype strain cfbp 2053.strains of xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis cause bacterial wilt on several forage grasses. a draft genome sequence of pathotype strain cfbp 2053 was generated to facilitate the discovery of new pathogenicity factors and to develop diagnostic tools for the species x. translucens.201526450740
brachypodium as an emerging model for cereal-pathogen interactions.cereal diseases cause tens of billions of dollars of losses annually and have devastating humanitarian consequences in the developing world. increased understanding of the molecular basis of cereal host-pathogen interactions should facilitate development of novel resistance strategies. however, achieving this in most cereals can be challenging due to large and complex genomes, long generation times and large plant size, as well as quarantine and intellectual property issues that may constrain th ...201525808446
analysis of the type iv fimbrial-subunit gene fima of xanthomonas hyacinthi: application in pcr-mediated detection of yellow disease in hyacinths.a sensitive and specific detection method was developed for xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type iv fimbrial-subunit gene fima from strain s148. the fima gene was amplified by pcr with degenerate dna primers designed by using the n-terminal and c-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of fima. the nucleotide sequence of fima was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type iv ...200111157222
a transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.).single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) are increasingly becoming the dna marker system of choice due to their prevalence in the genome and their ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics-assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated snps are currently available for perennial ryegrass.201222513206
virulence of xanthomonas translucens pv. poae isolated from poa annua.bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. the damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. fifteen isolates of x. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the united states and tested ...201325288933
virus-induced gene silencing of arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought a non-model staple crop like wheat (triticum aestivumi l.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. virus-induced gene silencing (vigs) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. in this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in a ...201323364940
genome-wide association study reveals novel quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of spring wheat.accelerated wheat development and deployment of high-yielding, climate resilient, and disease resistant cultivars can contribute to enhanced food security and sustainable intensification. to facilitate gene discovery, we assembled an association mapping panel of 528 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin for a genome-wide association study (gwas). all accessions were genotyped using an illumina infinium 9k wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) chip and 4781 polymorphic snps wer ...201425268502
what makes xanthomonas albilineans unique amongst xanthomonads?xanthomonas albilineans causes leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. compared to other species of xanthomonas, x. albilineans exhibits distinctive pathogenic mechanisms, ecology and taxonomy. its genome, which has experienced significant erosion, has unique genomic features. it lacks two loci required for pathogenicity in other plant pathogenic species of xanthomonas: the xanthan gum biosynthesis and the hrp-t3ss (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity-type three secretion system) gene c ...201525964795
enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (eric) pcr based genetic diversity of xanthomonas spp. and its relation to xanthan production.the genus xanthomonas is composed of phytopathogenic bacterial species. in addition to causing crops diseases, most of the xanthomonas species especially xanthomonas campestris produce xanthan gum via an aerobic fermentation process. xanthan gum is, an important exopolysaccharide from xanthomonas campestris, mainly used in the food, petroleum and other industries. the purpose of this study was assessment of relationship between genetic diversity and xanthan production in xanthomonas spp.201526644872
visual analysis for detection and quantification of pseudomonas cichorii disease severity in tomato plants.pathogen infection in plants induces complex responses ranging from gene expression to metabolic processes in infected plants. in spite of many studies on biotic stress-related changes in host plants, little is known about the metabolic and phenotypic responses of the host plants to pseudomonas cichorii infection based on image-based analysis. to investigate alterations in tomato plants according to disease severity, we inoculated plants with different cell densities of p. cichorii using dipping ...201627493605
rapid purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa.betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (badh) (ec catalyzes the last, irreversible step in the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline. in pseudomonas aeruginosa this reaction is also an obligatory step in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen when bacteria are growing in choline or choline precursors. we present here a method for the rapid purification to homogeneity of this enzyme by the use of ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies on 2',5'-adp-sepharose, which res ...19999973357
a bacterial type iii secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. although agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. here, we show that a nonpathogenic pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type iii secretion system (t3ss) of p. syringae and the wheat pathogen xanthomonas transluce ...201424156769
[the sensitivity of phytopathogenic bacteria to streptomycin under the influence of pesticides].the results of the streptomycin sensitivity changes of phytopathogenic pseudomonas syringae and xanthomonas translucens bacteria under the action of pesticides are pre- sented. it is demonstrated that phytopathogenic strains show greater changes of strepto- mycin sensitivity compared to epiphytic pantoea agglomerans strain under the pesticides influence. granstar herbicide, tviks and alpha super insecticides increase the number of streptomycin resistant cells of xanthomonas translucens 3164, p s ...201626829841
First report of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme produced by Bacillus pumilus SG2.Bacillus pumilus SG2 isolated from high salinity ecosystem in Iran produces two chitinases (ChiS and ChiL) and secretes them into the medium. In this study, chiS and chiL genes were cloned in pQE-30 expression vector and were expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli strain M15. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA column. The optimum pH and optimum temperature for enzyme activity of ChiS were pH 6, 50°C; those of ChiL were pH 6.5, 40°C. The purified chitinases showed antifun ...201122112904
identification and pathogenicity of bacteria associated with etiolation and decline of creeping bentgrass golf course putting greens.bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass [agrostis stolonifera l. (cbg)] putting green turf. the condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. recent reports have cited bacteria, acidovorax avenae and xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with tur ...201728846056
genomic analysis of xanthomonas oryzae from us rice reveals substantial divergence from known x. oryzae pathovars.the species xanthomonas oryzae is comprised of two designated pathovars, both of which cause economically significant diseases of rice in asia and africa. although x. oryzae is not considered endemic to the united states, an x. oryzae-like bacterium was isolated from us rice and southern cutgrass in the late 1980s. the us strains were weakly pathogenic and genetically distinct from characterized x. oryzae pathovars. in the current study, draft genome sequence from two us xanthomonas strains reve ...201121515727
proteome wide identification of iron binding proteins of xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa: focus on secretory virulent proteins.xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (xtu) causes bacterial leaf streak disease in the staple food crops such as wheat and barley. the survival strategies of pathogen and host are determined by the complex interactions occurring between the host plants and the pathogenic microbes. iron binding proteins are important in the plant-microbe interactions as they are indulged in enzyme catalysis, virulence, metabolic and transport activities. in the presented study, we have identified that ~9.8% of xt ...201728105572
alanine-scanning mutation approach for classification of the roles of conserved residues in the activity and substrate affinity of l-carnitine dehydrogenase.l-carnitine dehydrogenase (cdh) is as an excellent tool for l-carnitine (l-car) estimation. to date, four cdhs have been identified, that share 45 % homology of their proteins. here 42 conserved residues of cdh from xanthomonas translucens (xt-cdh) were substituted successively with alanine. the resultant mutants were analyzed for catalytic activity. active mutants were evaluated for their influence on l-car affinity. twenty-three mutants with reduced affinity toward l-car were subjected to deta ...201424101242
identification of residues essential for the activity and substrate affinity of l-carnitine dehydrogenase.recently, two l-carnitine dehydrogenases from soil isolates rhizobium sp. (rs-cdh) and xanthomonas translucens (xt-cdh) have demonstrated to exhibit mutually differing affinities toward l-carnitine. to identify residues important for affinity to the substrate, we compared the primary structure of xt-cdh and rs-cdh with the recognized 3d structure of 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase (pdb code: 1f0y). then, six residues of xt-cdh (phe143, gly188, ile190, ala191, gly223, and ala224) and the correspo ...201323794271
the noncanonical type iii secretion system of xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis is essential for forage grass infection.xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (xtg) is a gammaproteobacterium that causes bacterial wilt on a wide range of forage grasses. to gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction and to identify the virulence factors of xtg, we compared a draft genome sequence of one isolate (xtg29) with other xanthomonas spp. with sequenced genomes. the type iii secretion system (t3ss) encoding a protein transport system for type iii effector (t3e) proteins represents one of the most important virulence fact ...201323578314
the lipopolysaccharide of the crop pathogen xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens: chemical characterization and determination of signaling events in plant cells. 201728177490
complete genome sequencing and targeted mutagenesis reveal virulence contributions of tal2 and tal4b of xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa icmp11055 in bacterial leaf streak of wheat.bacterial leaf streak caused by xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (xtu) is an important disease of wheat (triticum aestivum) and barley (hordeum vulgare) worldwide. transcription activator-like effectors (tales) play determinative roles in many of the plant diseases caused by the different species and pathovars of xanthomonas, but their role in this disease has not been characterized. icmp11055 is a highly virulent xtu strain from iran. the aim of this study was to better understand genetic d ...201728848509
characterization of the xanthomonas translucens complex using draft genomes, comparative genomics, phylogenetic analysis, and diagnostic lamp assays.prevalence of xanthomonas translucens, which causes cereal leaf streak (cls) in cereal crops and bacterial wilt in forage and turfgrass species, has increased in many regions in recent years. because the pathogen is seedborne in economically important cereals, it is a concern for international and interstate germplasm exchange and, thus, reliable and robust protocols for its detection in seed are needed. however, historical confusion surrounding the taxonomy within the species has complicated th ...201728112596
the lipopolysaccharide of the crop pathogen xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens: chemical characterization and determination of signaling events in plant cells.xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (xtt) is a gram-negative pathogen of crops from the plant family poaceae the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of xtt was isolated and chemically characterized. the analyses revealed the presence of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galacturonic acid, phosphates, 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (kdo) and fatty acids (10:0, 11:0, 11:0(3-oh) i/a, 11:0(3-oh), 12:0(3-oh) i/a, 12:0(3-oh), 12:0, 13:0(3-oh) i, 13:0(3-oh) a, 13:0(3-oh), 14:0(3-oh) i/a, 14:0(3-o ...201627613802
comparative genomics identifies a novel conserved protein, hpat, in proteobacterial type iii secretion systems that do not possess the putative translocon protein hrpf.xanthomonas translucens is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, the most common bacterial disease of wheat and barley. to cause disease, most xanthomonads depend on a highly conserved type iii secretion system, which translocates type iii effectors into host plant cells. mutagenesis of the conserved type iii secretion gene hrct confirmed that the x. translucens type iii secretion system is required to cause disease on the host plant barley and to trigger a non-host hypersensitive response ...201728694803
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