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leukotriene b4 omega-oxidation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes is inhibited by pyocyanin, a phenazine derivative produced by pseudomonas aeruginosa.human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) metabolize the potent chemotaxin leukotriene b4 (ltb4) by omega-oxidation to 20-hydroxyl-ltb4 and 20-carboxy-ltb4. the ability of unstimulated human pmnl to metabolize exogenous ltb4 was found to be inhibited by pyocyanin, a phenazine derivative produced by pseudomonas aeruginosa, in a dose-dependent manner. 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-ohp), a metabolite of pyocyanin, was not inhibitory under identical conditions. the initial enzymic step in the conversion of ...19921316878
tyrosine phosphorylation of a membrane protein from pseudomonas solanacearum.we have investigated a tyrosine kinase activity from pseudomonas solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen. in vitro incubation of membrane fractions with [gamma-32p]atp and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an 85-kda phosphoprotein. phosphorylation of this protein on tyrosine residues was demonstrated by phosphoamino acid analysis of base hydrolysis products and by immunoanalysis of western blots (immunoblots) with antiphosphotyrosine mon ...19921624430
genetic and biochemical characterization of a pseudomonas solanacearum gene cluster required for extracellular polysaccharide production and for virulence.infection of host plants by pseudomonas solanacerum results in wilting, which is thought to be due largely to the occlusion of xylem vessels by the p. solanacearum extracellular polysaccharide (eps) that primarily consists of n-acetylgalactosamine (galnac). by means of tn3 mutagenesis, we identified a 6.5-kb gene cluster that contains five complementation units required for eps production and virulence in this bacterium. there was positive correlation between the amount of eps produced in cultur ...19911999385
a gene cluster required for coordinated biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide also affects virulence of pseudomonas solanacearum.bacterial cell surface components can be important determinants of virulence. at least three gene clusters important for extracellular polysaccharide (eps) biosynthesis have been previously identified in the plant pathogen pseudomonas solanacearum. we have found that one of these gene clusters, named ops, is also required for lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthesis. mutations in any complementation unit of this cluster decreased eps production, prevented the binding of an lps-specific phage, and a ...19911744040
extracellular polysaccharide is required for wild-type virulence of pseudomonas solanacearum.several pseudomonas solanacearum strains which produced no detectable extracellular polysaccharide (eps) in planta had been reported to remain highly virulent when tested at high inoculum concentrations (p. xu, m. iwata, s. leong, and l. sequeira, j. bacteriol. 172:3946-3951, 1990; p. xu, s. leong, and l. sequeira, j. bacteriol. 170:617-622, 1988). two of these mutants, kd700 and kd710, have now been molecularly and genetically mapped to the epsi gene cluster described by denny and baek (mol. pl ...19921732200
differential regulation in tobacco cell suspensions of genes involved in plant-bacteria interactions by pathogen-related signals.six cdna clones whose corresponding mrnas accumulate early during the hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves have been classified into 2 groups according to their maximum levels of accumulation in an incompatible versus a compatible interaction with pseudomonas solanacearum. we present evidence that, at least in the first stages of the interaction, tobacco cell suspensions retain the ability to respond differentially to compatible and incompatible isolates of p. solanacearum. in addition, stu ...19911715785
[glycopolymers of clavibacter michiganense and pseudomonas solanacearum--interferon inducers].a polysaccharide, being an active inductor of gamma-interferon, has been found among glycopolymers of clavibacter michiganense. lipopolysaccharide of pseudomonas solanacearum is shown to display an interferonogenic activity which is analogous to that of the classical interferon inductor, lipopolysaccharide of escherichia coli o55: b5. besides lipid a, core oligosaccharide also contributes much to the interferonogenic activity of p. solanacearum lipopolysaccharide.19901703263
a cloned avirulence gene from pseudomonas solanacearum determines incompatibility on nicotiana tabacum at the host species level.a locus in pseudomonas solanacearum aw1 responsible for the hypersensitive response (hr) on tobacco was cloned by complementation in the tobacco-pathogenic strain p. solanacearum nc252. the nc252 hr+ transconjugants lost pathogenicity on tobacco, indicating that the cloned locus could restrict the host range of nc252. restriction enzyme mapping, transposon mutagenesis, and subcloning showed that, at most, 2.0 kilobases of the cloned dna was required for nc252 transconjugants to elicit hr on toba ...19902203731
chemical studies on purified exopolysaccharide from a virulent strain, icmp 9758 of pseudomonas solanacearum. 19911786975
use of trna consensus primers to indicate subgroups of pseudomonas solanacearum by polymerase chain reaction amplification.polymerase chain reaction amplification of dna from 112 pseudomonas solanacearum strains with the trna consensus primers t3a and t5a divided the species into three fingerprint groups. these groups correspond well with previous divisions made by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. this polymerase chain reaction test is a facile method for rapidly classifying p. solanacearum strains.19921482194
isolation of a pseudomonas solanacearum-specific dna probe by subtraction hybridization and construction of species-specific oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by the polymerase chain reaction.a subtraction hybridization technique was employed to make a library enriched for pseudomonas solanacearum-specific sequences. one cloned fragment, ps2096, hybridized under stringent conditions to dna of 82 p. solanacearum strains representing all subgroups of the species. other plant-associated bacteria, including closely related species such as pseudomonas capacia, pseudomonas picketti, or pseudomonas syzygii, did not hybridize to ps2096. a minimum number of between 4 x 10(5) and 4 x 10(6) p. ...19921482193
the use of subtractive hybridization to obtain a dna probe specific for pseudomonas solanacearum race 3.pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, has been classified into three races based on host range and into five biovars based on physiological properties. strains of race 3 belong exclusively to biovar 2 and primarily affect potatoes. although this race is thought to have originated in the andean highlands, it has unusual physiological properties that make it a potential threat to potatoes grown at the cooler latitudes worldwide. consequently, there is need for a rapid and s ...19911865877
the structure of o-specific polysaccharide from pseudomonas solanacearum icmp 4157. 19921381280
transcriptional organization and expression of the large hrp gene cluster of pseudomonas solanacearum.cloning and localized mutagenesis of the larger cluster of hrp genes of pseudomonas solanacearum strain gmi1000 allowed the definition of the borders of this cluster, which now extends about 2 kb to the left of the insert of the previously described plasmid pvir2 (boucher et al. 1987, j. bacteriol. 169:5626-5632). the size of the cluster has also been expanded 3 kb to the right to include a region previously described as dsp; our present data demonstrate that insertions occurring in these 3 kb l ...19921617200
introduction of bacteriophage mu into pseudomonas solanacearum and rhizobium meliloti using the r factor rp4.phage mu-1 and a thermoinducible derivative, mu-1 cts 62 were inserted into the broad host range r factor rp4. these hybrid plasmids were transferred by conjugation to a phytopathogenic bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum gmi 1000 and a legume-root nodule bacterium rhizobium meliloti 2011. the mu genome is transcribed and tranlated in these new hosts: p. solanacearum (rp4:mu cts) cultures have a spontaneous production of about 5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units ml-1 which is similar to the frequency ...1977319201
evidence that the hrpb gene encodes a positive regulator of pathogenicity genes from pseudomonas solanacearum.the hrp gene cluster of pseudomonas solanacearum gmi1000 strain encodes functions that are essential for pathogenicity on tomato and for the elicitation of the hypersensitive response on tobacco. in this study, we present the nucleotide sequence of one of the hrp genes (hrpb) located at the left-hand end of the cluster and we show that hrpb encodes a positive regulator controlling the expression of hrp genes. hrpb has a coding capacity for a 477-amino-acid polypeptide, which shows significant si ...19921479894
molecular cloning of genes that specify virulence in pseudomonas solanacearum.the suicide plasmid psup2021 was used to introduce tn5 into the pseudomonas solanacearum wild-type strain k60. we isolated eight avirulent mutants after screening 6,000 kanamycin-resistant transconjugants by inoculating eggplant (solanum melongena l. cv. black beauty) and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. cv. bottom special) seedlings. the tn5-containing ecori fragments from the eight mutants were unique, suggesting that numerous genes specify virulence in this species. these ecori fragments were cl ...19882828316
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for bovine immunoglobulin subclass-specific response to brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to follow the bovine response, by immunoglobulin class and subclass, to defined smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides (lps) of brucella abortus. binding to smooth lps of immunoglobulin g1 (igg1) and igg2 in sera from brucella-infected animals was significantly greater than binding in sera from normal uninfected animals. competition or steric blocking among igm, igg1, and igg2 for binding sites on smooth lps was shown to occur. binding of igm to b ...1979115797
reassembly of a fimbrial hemagglutinin from pseudomonas solanacearum after purification of the subunit by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.distilled water homogenates of pseudomonas solanacearum b1, a highly fimbriated strain, strongly agglutinated human group a erythrocytes. the fimbriae and hemagglutinating activity were precipitated from the crude extract with 1% acetic acid, redissolved at ph 10, and precipitated again with 20 mm cacl2 at ph 6.9. ca2+, mg2+, and zn2+ had similar ability to precipitate the fimbrial hemagglutinin, but na+ and k+ were much less effective. the fimbrial protein in the precipitate was purified to hom ...19852866754
molecular cloning and sequencing of a pectinesterase gene from pseudomonas solanacearum.two pectinesterase-positive escherichia coli clones, differing in expression levels, were isolated from a genomic library of pseudomonas solanacearum. both clones contained a common dna fragment which included the pectinesterase-encoding region. the different expression levels found with the two clones could be ascribed to different positioning of the pectinesterase gene with respect to a vector promoter. restriction analysis, subcloning, and further exonuclease deletion mapping revealed that th ...19912045776
bacteriolysis by immobilized enzymes.bacteriolytic enzymes produced by achromobacter lunatus were immobilized in collagen membrane. intact bacteria such as pseudomonas solanacearum, xanthomonas oryzae, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were lyzed with the bacteriolytic enzyme-collagen membrane. relative activity of the bacteriolytic enzyme-collagen membrane against pseu. solanacearum was about 2% of that of native bacteriolytic enzymes. no difference in the optimum ph was observed between immobilized enzymes and nat ...197714747
[the induction of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 under exposure to the glycopolymers isolated from pseudomonas solanacearum and clavibacter michiganense].lipopolysaccharide of pseudomonas solanacearum and acid polysaccharides of clavibacter michiganense are effective inductors of formation of the factor of tumour necrosis (tnf) and interleukin-1 (il-1) by peritoneal macrophages of mice and their activity exceeds that of lipopolysaccharide escherichia coli 055:b5 ("sigma"). o-specific polysaccharide and lipid a are responsible for the capacity of liposaccharide molecule of p. solanacearum to induce tnf and il-1.19902084507
high heterogeneity of the exopolysaccharides of pseudomonas solanacearum strain gmi 1000 and the complete structure of the major polysaccharide.the exopolysaccharide of pseudomonas solanacearum, which is believed to play an important role in bacterial virulence, was considered by most authors as a homogeneous entity essentially composed of n-acetylgalactosamine. the present work demonstrates the high degree of heterogeneity of this exopolysaccharidic material, which consists of a high molecular weight acidic polysaccharide and a mainly noncarbohydrate structure as major subfractions. rhamnose-rich polyoside and glucan fractions are also ...19912022648
minimal region necessary for autonomous replication of ptar.the native 44-kilobase-pair plasmid ptar, discovered in a grapevine strain of agrobacterium tumefaciens, contains a single origin of dna replication confined to a 1.0-kilobase-pair region of the macromolecule. this region (ori) confers functions sufficient for replication in agrobacterium and rhizobium species but not in pseudomonas solanacearum, pseudomonas glumae, pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and escherichia coli. ori contains a repa gene that enc ...19883290199
transcriptional activation of 2 classes of genes during the hypersensitive reaction of tobacco leaves infiltrated with an incompatible isolate of the phytopathogenic bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum.fourteen cdna clones whose corresponding mrnas accumulate during the hypersensitive reaction (hr) of tobacco leaves infiltrated with an incompatible strain of the bacterial pathogen pseudomonas solanacearum have been subdivided by sequence homologies into 6 families. studies on the accumulation of the mrnas encoded by these genes in compatible and incompatible plant-bacterial interactions have been carried out and indicate that the 6 cdna clones can be subdivided into 2 groups. in one group corr ...19902103428
highly virulent strains of pseudomonas solanacearum that are defective in extracellular-polysaccharide production.extracellular polysaccharide (eps) has long been regarded as one of the most important factors involved in wilting of plants by pseudomonas solanacearum. by means of transposon tn5 mutagenesis, we have isolated a class of mutants that have an afluidal colony morphology but retain the ability to cause severe wilting and death of tobacco plants. one such mutant, kd700, was studied in detail. by marker exchange mutagenesis, the altered colony morphology was shown to be the result of a single tn5 in ...19902163393
identification of a locus that regulates multiple functions in pseudomonas solanacearum.when pseudomonas solanacearum k60 carries a multicopy plasmid containing cosmid clone pe6c (from the wild-type strain k60) or pbe6 (from the nonpathogenic strain b1), several phenotypic changes are observed, including the following: loss of virulence, reduced extracellular polysaccharide production, and increased polygalacturonase activity. both cosmids contain a common 8-kilobase dna region that is required for the phenotype shift. saturation mutagenesis of pbe6 with tn3-gus suggested that a si ...19902165483
effect of three nematicides on the growth of some phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.the effect of three nematicides, aldicarb, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos at four concentrations (1, 5, 25, and 125 ppm) was tested on the growth of five bacteria, agrobacterium tumefaciens, corynebacterium fascians, erwinia carotovora, pseudomonas solanacearum, and streptomyces scabies and four fungi, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, fusarium solani, rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotium bataticola. of the bacteria, p. solanacearum was most affected by the chemicals at all concentrations, wh ...1977143857
dna sequence analysis of pgla and mechanism of export of its polygalacturonase product from pseudomonas solanacearum.the pgla gene encodes a 52-kilodalton extracellular polygalacturonase (pga) which is associated with the phytopathogenic virulence of pseudomonas solanacearum. the nucleotide sequence of pgla and the putative amino acid sequence of the pga protein were determined. a computer search identified a 150-residue region of pga which was similar (41%) to the amino acid sequence of a region of the pg-2a polygalacturonase from tomato. comparison of the amino terminus of the pgla open reading frame with th ...19902193922
evidence that extracellular export of the endoglucanase encoded by egl of pseudomonas solanacearum occurs by a two-step process involving a lipoprotein intermediate.pseudomonas solanacearum is an important phytopathogen that produces a variety of extracellular enzymes. previous reports suggested that one of these, a 43-kda beta-1,4-endoglucanase (egl), is initially synthesized with a 45-residue leader sequence that is removed during export. experiments with globomycin presented here also suggest that the primary precursor of egl (ppegl) has a 45-residue leader sequence but that only the first 19 residues of the leader sequence are removed by signal peptidas ...19902195024
the role of motility and aerotaxis in the selective increase of avirulent bacteria in still broth cultures of pseudomonas solanacearum. 19734723067
cloning of wild-type pseudomonas solanacearum phca, a gene that when mutated alters expression of multiple traits that contribute to virulence.pseudomonas solanacearum undergoes a spontaneous mutation that pleiotropically reduces extracellular polysaccharide (eps) production, endoglucanase activity, and virulence and increases motility. we refer to the process that coordinately affects these traits as phenotype conversion (pc) and the resulting mutants as pc types. previous research with the wild-type strain aw1 suggested that inactivation of a single locus could mimic phenotype conversion (t. p. denny, f. w. makini, and s. m. brumbley ...19902211505
xanthomonas campestris contains a cluster of hrp genes related to the larger hrp cluster of pseudomonas solanacearum.all xanthomonas campestris pathovars tested contain dna which hybridizes to the large hrp gene cluster of pseudomonas solanacearum (c.a. boucher, f. van gijsegem, p.a. barberis, m. arlat, and c. zischek, j. bacteriol. 169:5626-5632, 1987). clones carrying these sequences were isolated from genomic libraries of x. campestris pvs. campestris and vitians. mutagenesis of the corresponding genomic regions of both pathovars gave strains defective in both pathogenicity and hypersensitive response induc ...19911666525
hrp genes of pseudomonas solanacearum are homologous to pathogenicity determinants of animal pathogenic bacteria and are conserved among plant pathogenic bacteria.the majority of bacterial plant diseases are caused by members of three bacterial genera, pseudomonas, xanthomonas, and erwinia. the identification and characterization of mutants that have lost the abilities to provoke disease symptoms on a compatible host and to induce a defensive hypersensitive reaction (hr) on an incompatible host have led to the discovery of clusters of hrp genes (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) in phytopathogenic bacteria from each of these genera. here, we repo ...19921472716
[bacterial wilt and its causative agents. pseudomonas solanacearum. review of the current literature]. 19655323041
evidence for the cotransfer of genetic markers in pseudomonas solanacearum strain k60.a procedure in which transfer of genetic information between genetically distinct derivatives of strain k60 of pseudomonas solanacearum occurred is described. genetical analysis of recombinants demonstrated the transfer of an unselected marker, and the linkage of genes determining resistance to streptomycin and rifampicin.1978754879
comparison of the chinese schema and the international antigenic typing system for serotyping pseudomonas aeruginosa.twelve strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa representing 12 serogroups in the serogrouping schema used in the people's republic of china were compared with serogroups in the international antigenic typing system (iats). the first eight groups originated in the people's republic of china, and group ii appears to have a new major antigen that is not found in the iats. groups i, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, and viii correspond to groups 11, 6, 9, 4, 8, 3, and 1, respectively, of the iats. groups ix, x, xi, an ...19873108310
proposal of burkholderia gen. nov. and transfer of seven species of the genus pseudomonas homology group ii to the new genus, with the type species burkholderia cepacia (palleroni and holmes 1981) comb. nov.based on the 16s rrna sequences, dna-dna homology values, cellular lipid and fatty acid composition, and phenotypic characteristics, a new genus burkholderia is proposed for the rna homology group ii of genus pseudomonas. seven species in this group were transferred to the new genus. thus seven new combinations, burkholderia cepacia (palleroni and holmes 1981), burkholderia mallei (zopf 1885), burkholderia pseudomallei (whitmore 1913), burkholderia caryophylli (burkholder 1942), burkholderia gla ...19921283774
production and utilization of extracellular slime by pseudomonas solanacearum and its role on survival at different relative humidities.pseudomonas solanacearum produced maximum slime with glucose and least with glycerol. with increasing concentration of glucose, slime production increased. the maximum slime production was observed in the medium containing 1% glucose. the slime contained sugars, sugar acids and amino acids. the bacterium utilized the slime as a sole source of carbon. the growth on slime was more or less comparable to the growth on 0.1% glucose. the viability of the bacterium in slime increased as the relative hu ...19826188338
bacterial lipopolysaccharides as inducers of disease resistance in tobacco.the cell wall component of pseudomonas solanacearum that induces disease resistance in tobacco was highly heat stable at neutral or alkaline ph but highly labile at acid ph. activity was unaffected by nucleases and proteases but destroyed by a mixture of beta-glycosidases. washing of bacterial cell walls released a lipopolysaccharide (lps) fraction with high inducer activity. purified lps, extracted by a variety of procedures from whole cells, isolated cell walls, and culture filtrates of both s ...197721613
[the lipopolysaccharides of pseudomonas solanacearum i pseudomonas cichorii].structure analysis by the methods of methylation, 1h- and 13c-n. m. r. spectroscopy has shown that o-specific polysaccharides of typical strains of pseudomonas solanacearum (biovar i) and p. cichorii are identical by their structure and constructed of branched pentasaccharide repeating links which include three residues of rhamnose (one of them is in the branching node), one residue of beta-xylose (it occupies terminal position) and one reside of n-acetyl-beta-glucosamine. the other strain of p. ...19902273995
growth of genetically engineered pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere.the effect of the addition of a recombinant plasmid containing the pgla gene encoding an alpha-1,4-endopolygalacturonase from pseudomonas solanacearum on the growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere was determined. despite a high level of polygalacturonase production by genetically engineered p. putida and p. aeruginosa, the results suggest that polygalacturonase production had little effect on the growth of these strains in soil or rhizosphere.19892515805
[the mitogenic activity of the glycopolymers from clavibacter (corynebacterium) michiganense and pseudomonas solanacearum].a comparative study of the mitogenic activity of glycopolymers has shown that the activity of polysaccharides isolated from clavibacter michiganense is higher than that of lipopolysaccharide of escherichia coli, pseudomonas solanacearum and mefenaminic acid (the synthetic mitogen). lipid a and the core oligosaccharide fraction are established to be responsible for the mitogenic activity of the p. solanacearum lipopolysaccharide. o-specific chains and fractions of kdo-phosphates do not manifest t ...19892695796
role of the two-component leader sequence and mature amino acid sequences in extracellular export of endoglucanase egl from pseudomonas solanacearum.the egl gene of pseudomonas solanacearum encodes a 43-kda extracellular endoglucanase (megl) involved in wilt disease caused by this phytopathogen. egl is initially translated with a 45-residue, two-part leader sequence. the first 19 residues are apparently removed by signal peptidase ii during export of egl across the inner membrane (im); the remaining residues of the leader sequence (modified with palmitate) are removed during export across the outer membrane (om). localization of egl-phoa fus ...19921735723
a physical genome map of the burkholderia cepacia type strain.burkholderia cepacia (basonym pseudomonas cepacia), the type species of the new genus burkholderia, is of interest, not only because of its broad catabolic capacity and its ability to antagonize soil-borne plant pathogens, but also because of its causative role in infections in man, which are particularly evident in patients with cystic fibrosis. a physical map of the 8.1 mb genome of the b. cepacia type-strain atcc 25416 was constructed by applying two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophores ...19957476209
heterologous hybridization of bacterial dna to the endoglucanases a and b structural genes cela and celb of clostridium thermocellum.dna from various cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic bacteria was found to hybridize to clostridium thermocellum ncib10682 dna fragments carrying the structural genes cela and celb which code for endoglucanases a and b. homology to cela was detected in agrobacterium rhizogenes, azospirillum brasilense, bacillus subtilis, cellulomonas sp., clostridium stercorarium, erwinia chrysanthemi, pseudomonas solanacearum and streptomyces griseus. homology to celb was detected only in b. subtilis, c. stercora ...19854083831
pseudomonas solanacearum genes controlling both pathogenicity on tomato and hypersensitivity on tobacco are clustered.a plafr3 cosmid clone designated pvir2 containing a 25-kilobase (kb) dna insert was isolated from a wild-type pseudomonas solanacearum gmi1000 genomic library. this cosmid was shown to complement all but one of the nine tn5-induced mutants which have been isolated after random mutagenesis and which have lost both pathogenicity toward tomato and ability to induce hypersensitive reaction (hr) on tobacco (hrp mutants). the insert is colinear with the genome and provides restoration of the hr-induci ...19872824440
cytokinin production by agrobacterium and pseudomonas spp.the production of cytokinins by plant-associated bacteria was examined by radioimmunoassay. strains producing trans-zeatin were identified in the genera agrobacterium and pseudomonas. agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing nopaline tumor-inducing plasmids, a. tumefaciens lippia isolates, and agrobacterium rhizogenes strains produced trans-zeatin in culture at 0.5 to 44 micrograms/liter. pseudomonas solanacearum and pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi produced trans-zeatin at levels of up t ...19873624204
hemagglutinating activity in phytopathogenic bacteria surface compounds.extracellular components of plant pathogenic bacteria were obtained from their culture medium as well as from the whole cells by using nacl 1 m, ph 6.0; 20% sucrose dissolved in 0.03 m tris buffer, ph 8.0; or 0.05 m na2edta. all the extracts from erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli, pseudomonas solanacearum, and erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, were assayed for hemagglutinati ...19873625474
the complete hrp gene cluster of pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 includes two blocks of genes required for harpinpss secretion that are arranged colinearly with yersinia ysc homologs.pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 contains a 25-kb hrp cluster that is sufficient to elicit the hypersensitive response (hr) in nonhost plants. previous studies have shown that mutations in complementation groups viii, ix, and xi in the hrp cluster abolished the ability of the bacterium to cause the hr. the sequence of a 3.7-kb smai-ssti fragment covering groups viii and ix now reveals five open reading frames (orfs) in the same transcript, designated as hrpu, hrpw, hrpo, hrpx, and hrpy, and ...19957579617
the hrp gene locus of pseudomonas solanacearum, which controls the production of a type iii secretion system, encodes eight proteins related to components of the bacterial flagellar biogenesis complex.five transcription units of the pseudomonas solanacearum hrp gene cluster are required for the secretion of the hr-inducing popa1 protein. the nucleotide sequences of two of these, units 1 and 3, have been reported. here, we present the nucleotide sequence of the three other transcription units, units 2, 4 and 7, which are together predicted to code for 15 hrp genes. this brings the total number of hrp proteins encoded by these five transcription units to 20, including hrpb, the positive regulat ...19957623665
tests in vitro and in pots with certain chemicals for inhibition of pseudomonas solanacearum.twenty one isolates of pseudomonas solanacearum e. f. smith (race 3) from various parts of egypt were inhibited in vitro by ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, oxytetracycline. tetracycline, penicillin g, streptomycin, nabam (dithane a-40), maneb (dithane m-22), zinc-ion maneb complex (dithane m-45), and the insecticide chlorthion. on the basis of in vitro-sensitivity to the selected 11 chemicals the 21 isolates could not be separated into different groups. carbendazin (bavistin), benomyl, d ...1978696045
comparative studies of lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide from a virulent strain of pseudomonas solanacearum and from three avirulent mutants.the composition of the pseudomonas solanacearum lipolysaccharide (lps) was found to be similar to that described for the lps of enterobacteria. the lipid a contained fatty acids and glucosamine in a molar ratio of 5:2. the lps fraction contained 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, l-glycero-d-mannoheptose, hexoses (glucose, rhamnose, and glucosamine), and a pentose (xylose). the lpss from the wild-type strain (gmi1000), from the spontaneous rough mutant (gmi2000), and from their respective acridine ...19853988700
structural studies of the o-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide from an avirulent strain (m4s) of pseudomonas solanacearum.the structure of the o-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide from an avirulent strain (m4s) of pseudomonas solanacearum has been investigated by methylation analysis, n.m.r. spectroscopy, and n-deacetylation-deamination, followed by analysis and controlled smith-degradation of the product. these studies demonstrate that the o-antigen is composed of a tetrasaccharide repeating-unit having the following structure: ----3)-alpha-d-glcpnac-(1----2)-alpha-l-rhap-(1----2)-alpha- l-rhap-(1----3)- alpha-l-rh ...19846209012
race identification of pseudomonas solanacearum e. f. smith in egypt.twenty one isolates of pseudomonas solanacearum e. f. smith, which does not occur on hosts other than potato in egypt, obtained from diseased potato tubers, were collected from different localities in egypt and used in this study. these 21 isolates were found pathogenic to potato plants, but they were not pathogenic to tobacco and banana plants. all the 21 isolates caused only a yellowish discoloration of the infiltrated area of tobacco leaves by 48 hrs after inoculation and produced low melanin ...1978696042
phenotypic characterization and deoxyribonucleic acid homologies of pseudomonas solanacearum.twenty-six strains and colony variants of pseudomonas solanacearum belonging to four described biotypes were characterized, by using 169 phenotypic characters previously found useful in distinguishing among strains of other pseudomonas species. deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) hybridization (intra- and interspecific dna-dna hybridizations) was performed by using the in vitro "dna competition" technique. p. solanacearum appears to be a moderately homogeneous species, which is, at most, only remotely r ...19714937783
comparative zone electrophoresis of enzymes of pseudomonas solanacearum and pseudomonas cepacia.the technique of starch-gel electrophoresis with specific staining for a series of enzymes was used to compare 21 pseudomonas strains representing both p. cepacia and p. solanacearum. these experiments produced no evidence for close similarity of the two species. twelve strains of p. solanacearum were compared by means of data obtained from nine different enzymes, and the data indicate that these strains belong in two biotypes. except for the assignment of two strains, these groups are the same ...19715128336
pseudomonas solanacearum: virulence of biochemical mutants. 19744828867
cloning of the egl gene of pseudomonas solanacearum and analysis of its role in phytopathogenicity.the egl gene of pseudomonas solanacearum was cloned on a cosmid and expressed in escherichia coli. restriction endonuclease mapping, transposon mutagenesis, and subclone analysis showed that the egl gene was located on a 2.7-kilobase xhoi-sali p. solanacearum dna fragment. immunoabsorption experiments and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis showed that the egl gene encodes the 43-kilodalton endoglucanase that is the major excreted endoglucanase of p. solanacearum. ...19882832363
suicide vector for transposon mutagenesis in pseudomonas solanacearum.a suicide vector was constructed by cloning the transfer genes of the wide-host-range (incw group) plasmid r388 into the bamhi site of pbr325. this plasmid can deliver tn5 into pseudomonas solanacearum at frequencies ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-9) per recipient.19852993241
regulatory studies on inducible catechol 1,2-dioxygenase in pseudomonas solanacearum. 19853000918
analysis of the pseudomonas solanacearum polygalacturonase encoded by pgla and its involvement in phytopathogenicity.a major endopolygalacturonase excreted by pseudomonas solanacearum was purified to greater than 95% homogeneity and shown to have an isoelectric point of 9.0 and a subunit molecular mass of 52 kilodaltons (kda). the gene encoding this enzyme (pgla) was isolated from a genomic library of p. solanacearum dna based on its expression in escherichia coli and shown to be contained on a 1.8-kilobase dna fragment. the identity of the pgla gene product and the 52-kda polygalacturonase was demonstrated by ...19883049534
surface components involved in bacterial pathogen-plant host recognition.during their initial association with plant hosts, pathogenic bacteria interact with plant cell walls. the results of this interaction appear to determine whether bacterial multiplication will take place. with one group of bacterial plant pathogens (e.g. agrobacterium tumefaciens), attachment to the host surface appears essential for pathogenesis. with another group (e.g. pseudomonas solanacearum), only those strains that do not attach to the host cell wall are able to multiply in the intercellu ...19853867676
excretion of the egl gene product of pseudomonas solanacearum.pseudomonas solanacearum is an important phytopathogen which excretes a variety of extracellular enzymes. pulse-chase experiments showed that one of these enzymes, a beta-1,4-endoglucanase (egl) encoded by the egl gene, is synthesized as a higher-molecular-weight precursor polypeptide (pegl) which is subsequently excreted into the extracellular medium as a 43-kilodalton mature protein. s1 nuclease transcript mapping and dna sequence analysis were used to identify the transcription start site and ...19892738021
yscu, a yersinia enterocolitica inner membrane protein involved in yop secretion.pathogenic yersiniae secrete antihost yop proteins by a recently discovered secretion pathway which is also encountered in several animal and plant pathogens. the components of the export machinery are encoded by the vira (lcra), virb (lcrb), and virc (lcrc) loci of the 70-kb pyv plasmid. in the present paper we describe yscu, the last gene of the virb locus. we determined the dna sequence and mutated the gene on the pyv plasmid. after inactivation of yscu, the mutant strain was unable to secret ...19948045883
identification of legionella pneumophila with commercially available immunofluorescence test. 19863522642
the hrpz proteins of pseudomonas syringae pvs. syringae, glycinea, and tomato are encoded by an operon containing yersinia ysc homologs and elicit the hypersensitive response in tomato but not soybean.the pseudomonas syringae pathovars are composed of host-specific plant pathogens that characteristically elicit the defense-associated hypersensitive response (hr) in nonhost plants. p. s. pv. syringae 61 secretes an hr elicitor, harpinpss (hrpzpss), in a hrp-dependent manner. an internal fragment of the p. s. pv. syringae 61 hrpz gene was used to clone the hrpz locus from p. s. pv. glycinea race 4 (bacterial blight of soybean) and p. s. pv. tomato dc3000 (bacterial speck of tomato). dna sequenc ...19957579616
conservation of the hypersensitivity-pathogenicity regulatory gene hrpx of xanthomonas campestris and x. oryzae.the hrpx gene is essential for pathogenicity of xanthomonas species. loss of hrpx by mutation results in the loss of pathogenicity and a gain in the ability of xanthomonas to cause the hypersensitive response in their respective host plants, suggesting that hrpx confers a means to evade this host defense response. the function of hrpx protein was predicted by sequencing of hrpxc and hrpxo from x. campestris pv. campestris and x. oryzae, respectively. the predicted amino acid sequences of the pro ...19957626786
hrpi of erwinia amylovora functions in secretion of harpin and is a member of a new protein family.hrpi, a 78-kda protein, functions in the secretion of harpin, a proteinaceous elicitor of the hypersensitive response from erwinia amylovora. the predicted amino acid sequence of hrpi is remarkably similar to that of lcrd of yersinia species, the first member of a recently described protein family. other proteins of the family are mixa from shigella flexneri, inva from salmonella typhimurium, flha from caulobacter crescentus, hrpi from pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, hrpo from pseudomonas sol ...19938253684
a unique endoglucanase-encoding gene cloned from the phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.the deduced amino acid sequence derived from a macrophomina phaseolina beta-1,4-endoglucanase-encoding gene revealed 48% identity (over 119 amino acids) with egl1 from the phytopathogen pseudomonas solanacearum. its similarity to saprophyte endoglucanases was not significant. its minimum substrate size, unlike that of any known saprophyte endoglucanase, was cellopentaose. the unique characteristics of m. phaseolina egl1-encoded endoglucanase suggest that it is phytopathogen specific.19957646037
homology between the hrpo protein of pseudomonas solanacearum and bacterial proteins implicated in a signal peptide-independent secretion mechanism.a region of approximately 22 kb of dna defines the large hrp gene cluster of strain gmi1000 of pseudomonas solanacearum. the majority of mutants that map to this region have lost the ability to induce disease symptoms on tomato plants and are no longer able to elicit a hypersensitive reaction (hr) on tobacco, a non-host plant. in this study we present the complementation analysis and nucleotide sequence of a 4772 bp region of this hrp gene cluster. three complete open reading frames (orfs) are p ...19938316211
selective disulphide linkage of plant thionins with other proteins.thionins are shown to form disulphide linkages with other proteins. the reaction with bacterial enzymes beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase ii could be prevented and reversed with dithiothreitol and blocked with n-ethylmaleimide. other cysteine-rich low-molecular-weight toxic peptides from plants (ltp-3 from barley and p19 from potato) did not react as the thionins. certain cysteine-containing proteins, such bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin and cytochrome c, reacted with thionins, ...19957649264
restriction analysis of an amplified polygalacturonase gene fragment differentiates strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum.amplification of a polygalacturonase gene fragment using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) formed a rapid, sensitive and portable method for detecting and differentiating strains of pseudomonas solanacearum, a taxonomically complex bacterial species. primers 5'cag cag aac ccg cgc ctg atc cag 3' and 5'atc gga ctt gat gcg cag gcc gtt 3' were used to amplify a 504 base pair polygalacturonase gene fragment from 57 ps. solanacearum isolates. digestion of these products with hae iii defined groups w ...19937765308
antagonism among strains of pseudomonas solanacearum. 19695799562
[chemical composition of the pseudomonas solanecearum lipopolysaccharide].the structure of pseudomonas solanacearum lipopolysaccharide is similar to those described for the lps of enterobacteria. the lipid a contains fatty acids and glucosamine (5 fatty acids for 2 glucosamine residues). the polysaccharide part contains 2-keto-3-deoxy-octulosonate, l-glycero-d-mannoheptose, hexoses (glucose, rhamnose, glucosamine) and a pentose (xylose). part of 3-hydroxy-myristic acid and the whole 2-hydroxy-octadecenoïc acid are linked to the glucosamine residue by an amide bond.19826807501
antagonistic activity of chainia flava thirum, against pseudomonas solanacearum, causing brown-rot of potato in india. 19836629840
megaplasmids in the plant-associated bacteria rhizobium meliloti and pseudomonas solanacearum.using analytical and preparative methods, we demonstrated the presence of megaplasmids with molecular weight larger than 450 x 10(6) in the two plant-associated bacteria rhizobium meliloti and pseudomonas solanacearum. such giant plasmids were found in 8 of 9 p. solanacearum strains tested and in all of the 18 r. meliloti strains tested.19827061401
developmental and pathogen-induced activation of an msr gene, str 246c, from tobacco involves multiple regulatory elements.a family of genes, the so-called msr genes (multiple stimulus response), has recently been identified on the basis of sequence homology in various plant species. members of this gene family are thought to be regulated by a number of environmental or developmental stimuli, although it is not known whether any one member responds more specifically to one stimulus, or whether each gene member responds to various environmental stimuli. in this report, we address this question by studying the tobacco ...19957770037
molecular characterization of the eps gene cluster of pseudomonas solanacearum and its transcriptional regulation at a single promoter.production of eps i, an unusual exopolysaccharide virulence factor of the phytopathogen pseudomonas solanacearum, requires the 18 kb eps gene cluster. dna sequence analysis of the first seven genes of eps (epsapbcdef), subcellular localization of their products in maxicells, and phoa fusion analysis showed that: (i) epsa, epsb, epse, and epsf encode exported or membrane-associated proteins probably involved in polymerization and/or export of eps i; (ii) epsc and epsd encode soluble enzymes proba ...19957476194
[antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria 38. structure of o-antigens of pseudomonas solanacearum icmp 7942 and icmp 8169].the structures i and ii were established for the o-antigens of pseudomonas solanacearum icmp 7942 and icmp 8169, respectively, by means of nmr-spectroscopy, including 2d homonuclear shift-correlated spectroscopy (cosy), rotating-frame noe spectroscopy (roesy) and heteronuclear 13c, 1h multiquantum correlation spectroscopy (hmqc). in the polysaccharide of the icmp 8169 strain substitution of the main chain by the xylose residue is non-stoichiometric, i.e. this antigen contains also the repeating ...19937506909
cell-associated glucans of burkholderia solanacearum and xanthomonas campestris pv. citri: a new family of periplasmic glucans.the cell-associated glucans produced by burkholderia solanacearum and xanthomonas campestris pv. citri were isolated by trichloroacetic acid treatment and gel permeation chromatography. the compounds obtained were characterized by compositional analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. b. solanacearum synthesizes only a neutral cyclic glucan containing 13 glucose residues, and x. campestris pv. citri synthesizes a ...19968636027
studies of o-specific polysaccharide chains of pseudomonas solanacearum lipopolysaccharides consisting of structurally different repeating units.the structures of the o-antigenic polysaccharide chains of lipopolysaccharides of a number of pseudomonas solanacearum strains were elucidated mainly with the help of methylation analysis and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including a computer-assisted 13c nmr-based analysis. six structurally distinct but related polysaccharides were identified. they have a backbone which is built up of three l-rhamnopyranosyl residues and one 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosyl residue, and is unsubstituted or substitu ...19937510579
comparative carbohydrate catabolism in three different pathogenic strains of pseudomonas solanacearum. 19665920004
structural organization of str 246c and str 246n, plant defense-related genes from nicotiana tabacum.we have previously identified a cdna clone, pnt246, whose corresponding transcripts accumulate in leaves in response to inoculation by compatible and incompatible isolates of the phytopathogenic bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum [19]. we now describe the nucleotide sequence of a genomic clone, str 246c, corresponding to this cdna species, and of a related genomic clone, str 246n, which appears to be a pseudogene with a 5'-end deletion. the nucleotide sequence of the str 246c gene was found to b ...19947948901
bacterial whole cell protein profiles of the rrna group ii pseudomonads.studies on bacterial whole cell protein profiles showed that members of the rrna group ii pseudomonads were distinct from other non-fluorescent and fluorescent pseudomonads, including pseudomonas aeruginosa, the type species of the genus pseudomonas. strains of ps. andropogonis, ps. caryophylli, ps. gladioli pv. gladioli, ps. pickettii, ps. pseudomallei and ps. rubrisubalbicans showed uniform and distinct protein patterns, while strains of ps. solanacearum and ps. cepacia displayed differences w ...19947989257
hsr203j, a tobacco gene whose activation is rapid, highly localized and specific for incompatible plant/pathogen interactions.a novel plant defense gene, hsr203j, whose corresponding mrna accumulates preferentially during the incompatible interaction of tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) with a pathogenic bacterium, pseudomonas solanacearum, has been isolated and sequenced. no sequence homology of the putative product of this gene has been found in data bases. evidence is presented here that the hsr203j gene promoter, when fused to the gus reporter gene, is selectively expressed in response to the hypersensitive response ( ...19948012404
preliminary studies on excretory components of a virulent strain (f-2) of pseudomonas solanacearum.the excretory material (em) was isolated from the culture medium of a virulent strain (f-2) of pseudomonas solanacearum. electrophoretic studies depicted the heterogeneous nature of em and the presence of released lipopolysaccharide in it. both the exopolysaccharide and the released lps contained d-galactose as the major sugar constituent together with d-glucose, n-acetyl-d-galactosamine and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine. in addition, l-rhamnose was present as a constituent sugar of the released lps.19892632367
vsra, a second two-component sensor regulating virulence genes of pseudomonas solanacearum.the wilt-inducing phytopathogen pseudomonas solanacearum produces several extracellular virulence factors, both polysaccharides (eps i) and proteins (exps), which are independently regulated by a lysr-type transcriptional regulator, phca, and a histidine kinase sensor, vsrb. here we characterize a third locus, vsra, which is also required for normal production of eps i, some exps and wilt disease. analysis of eps::lacz reporters in vsra mutants showed that, like vsrb and phca, vsra is required f ...19948152373
characterization of a negative regulator of exopolysaccharide production by the plant-pathogenic bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum.wild-type strains of the bacterial wilt pathogen pseudomonas solanacearum exhibit reduced exopolysaccharide production and virulence when transformed with plasmids carrying the epsr locus. to understand the function of epsr, we used mutagenesis and dna sequencing to identify the gene responsible for the shutoff of exopolysaccharide production. the epsr gene encodes a 236-amino-acid polypeptide that, based on polypeptide sequence homology, has significant similarity to other proteins of the luxr ...19948167363
the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide of pseudomonas solanacearum strain 8089. 19947518744
phenotype conversion in pseudomonas solanacearum due to spontaneous inactivation of phca, a putative lysr transcriptional regulator.phenotype conversion (pc) in pseudomonas solanacearum is the coordinated change in production of extracellular polysaccharide and a variety of extracellular proteins, some of which contribute to virulence. although pc is normally spontaneous, it is mimicked by transposon inactivation of the phca locus (s. m. brumbley and t. p. denny, j. bacteriol. 172:5677-5685, 1990). the dna sequence of a 1.8-kb region from strain aw1 that contains phca revealed one open reading frame that should encode a poly ...19938366033
differentiation of pseudomonas solanacearum, pseudomonas syzygii, pseudomonas pickettii and the blood disease bacterium by partial 16s rrna sequencing: construction of oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by polymerase chain reaction.the sequence of a 292 bp segment of the dna encoding 16s rrna (corresponding to positions 44-337 of the escherichia coli 16s rrna sequence) was determined for each of 40 pseudomonas solanacearum, four banana blood disease bacterium, three p. syzygii and two p. pickettii strains. phylogenetic relationships derived from comparison of these sequences to each other, and to equivalent 16s rrna gene sequences from other bacteria present in the embl databank, conform well with those obtained previously ...19938371118
expression of giant silkmoth cecropin b genes in tobacco.cecropin b is a small antibacterial peptide from the giant silkmoth hyalophora cecropia. to reveal the potential of this peptide for engineering bacterial disease resistance into crops, several cecropin b gene constructs were made either for expression in the cytosol or for secretion. all constructs were cloned in a plant expression vector and introduced in tobacco via agrobacterium tumefaciens. a cdna-derived cecropin b gene construct lacking the amino-terminal signal peptide was poorly express ...19957704053
purification and antipathogenic activity of lipid transfer proteins (ltps) from the leaves of arabidopsis and spinach.two homogeneous proteins active in vitro against the bacterial pathogen clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus were obtained from a crude cell-wall preparation from the leaves of columbia wild-type arabidopsis. the n-terminal amino acid sequences of these proteins allowed their identification as lipid transfer proteins (ltp-a1, ltp-a2); the ltp1-a1 sequence was identical to that deduced from a previously described cdna (embl m80566) and ltp-a2 was quite divergent (44% identical positions). ...19938405465
vsrb, a regulator of virulence genes of pseudomonas solanacearum, is homologous to sensors of the two-component regulator family.pseudomonas solanacearum, an important wilt pathogen of many plants, produces several extracellular proteins (exps) and extracellular polysaccharides (epss) that contribute to its virulence. using tnphoa mutagenesis, we discovered a new gene, vsrb, that when inactivated causes a major reduction in the virulence and production of an eps. analysis of eps::lacz reporters showed that vsrb is required for maximal expression (transcription) of eps, whose products are required for production of eps i, ...19938407789
lipid transfer proteins (nsltps) from barley and maize leaves are potent inhibitors of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens.four homogeneous proteins (cw18, cw20, cw21, cw22) were isolated from etiolated barley leaves by extraction of the insoluble pellet from a tris-hcl (ph 7.5) homogenate with 1.5 m licl and fractionation by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. all 4 proteins inhibited growth of the pathogen clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (ec50s = 1-3 x 10(-7) m) and had closely related n-terminal amino acid sequences. the complete amino acid sequences of proteins cw18 and cw21 were d ...19938420795
nucleotide sequence of the tzs gene from pseudomonas solanacearum strain k60. 19892587241
genetic diversity of burkholderia solanacearum (synonym pseudomonas solanacearum) race 3 in kenya.genetic diversity among isolates of the bacterial plant pathogen burkholderia solanacearum (synonym pseudomonas solanacearum) race 3 biovar ii of kenya was determined by pcr with repetitive sequences (eric and box repetitive primer sets) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic dna digested by rare-cutting restriction endonucleases (rc-pfge). the study comprised 46 isolates collected during 1992 from the major potato-growing regions of kenya (45 were identified as race 3 biovar ii, and 1 ...19958534093
popa1, a protein which induces a hypersensitivity-like response on specific petunia genotypes, is secreted via the hrp pathway of pseudomonas solanacearum.this paper describes the identification of a new class of extracellular bacterial proteins, typified by popa1 and its derivative popa3, which act as specific hypersensitive response (hr) elicitors. these two heat-stable proteins, with hr-like elicitor activities on tobacco (non-host plant) but without activity on tomato (host plant), have been characterized from the supernatant of the plant pathogenic bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum strain gmi1000. these two proteins induced the same pattern ...19948313899
polynucleobacter necessarius, an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of the hypotrichous ciliate euplotes aediculatus, is a member of the beta-subclass of proteobacteria.an almost full length 16s rrna gene of the obligate bacterial endosymbiont polynucleobacter necessarius was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction in combination with site-specific primers. the amplified dna was directly sequenced and compared with other bacterial 16s rrna sequences. p. necessarius belongs to the beta-subclass of proteobacteria and shows the closest relationship to alcaligenes eutrophus, burkholderia solanacearum, and b. pickettii. in proteobacteria and shows the closest ...19968595875
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