inhibition of the antibacterial activity of gentamicin by urine.urinary levels of antibiotics determine the outcome of treatment of most urinary tract infections. the antibacterial effect of gentamicin against escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa in urine was studied. with use of urinary constituents in concentrations normally found in human urine, it was shown that urine has an inhibitory effect that is dependent upon the acidity and total osmolality of the urine, as well as upon the presence of individual solutes. up to 40 times as much gentamicin m ...19761450
analysis of an l-histidinol-utilizing mutant of pseudomonas aeruginosa.transductional analysis was applied to the pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant pao14 (hnc-1). this mutant can utilize l-histidinol as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and has a 60-fold increased histidinol dehydrogenase (hdh) content (dhawale, creaser & loper, 1972). transductional analysis was carried out using 18 histidine-requiring mutants to see where the hnc-1 locus maps in relation to the structural genes of histidine biosynthesis. the hnc-1 marker cotransduced with group iv genes at 97 to 100 ...19751461
factors influencing detection and enumeration of pseudomonas aeruginosa by most-probable-number and membrane filtration techniques.most-probable-number (mpn) and membrane filtration (mf) techniques were evaluated with respect to selectivity, sensitivity, and efficiency in recovering pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in hospital fluids and extramural water environments. known numbers of cells of a naturally occurring strain of p. aeruginosa maintained in distilled water or cells subcultured on standard methods agar were added to test samples containing various types and levels of background microbial contamiants. environmental ...19752107
temperature-induced alanine oxidation in a psychrotrophic pseudomonas.a psychrotrophic pseudomonad isolated from iced fish oxidized alanine at temperatures close to 0 degrees c and grew over the range 0 degrees c-35 degrees c. the rate of oxidation of alanine, measured manometrically, by cells grown at 2 degrees c was lower than that of cells grown at 22 degrees c. however, the consumption of oxygen after heat treatment at 35 degrees for 35 min was reduced considerably by 2 degrees c grown cells. alanine oxidase activity was tested in an extract from cells grown a ...19753273
plasmid-mediated penicillin beta-lactamases in pseudomonas aeruginosa.a penicillin beta-lactamase (pcase) was extracted from pseudomonas aeruginosa rms139(+) and purified by means of column chromatography. the isoelectric point of rms139 pcase was 5.7 and its molecular weight was 22,500 +/- 1,000. the optimal ph for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin was 7.0 to 7.5 and the optimal temperature was 45 c, with the pcase also showing high activity against carbenicillin. it is concluded that this enzyme is a new type of penicillin beta-lactamase different from the type ...19764010
studies of introital colonization in women with recurrent urinary infections. v. the inhibitory activity of normal vaginal fluid on proteus mirabilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa.normal vaginal fluid from premenopausal volunteers was inoculated with 10 strains of proteus mirabilis and 14 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa at ph's of 4.3, 4.6 and 4.9. all bacteria were killed at ph 4.3. nine of 10 strains of proteus mirabilis and 12 of 14 pseudomonas aeruginosa were killed at ph 4.6. only 4 of 14 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa were killed at ph 4.9, while 8 of 10 strains of proteus mirabilis were killed at the same ph. we conclude that in comparison to the common 0 grou ...19764631
purification and characterization of butyrylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme from pseudomonas polycolor.a butyrylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme (ec 3.1.1.-) fo pseudomonas polycolor ifo 3918 was purified approximately 9270-fold with a recovery of 9.9% by use of chromatographic techniques. the enzyme preparation appeared to be homogeneous when subjected to electrophoretic and ultracentrifugational analyses. the molecular weight was determined as approximately 59000 by gel filtration. isoelectric focusing electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme had an isoelectric point around ph 5.1. the enzyme catalyz ...19765141
nonspecific bactericidal activity of the lactoperoxidases-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system of milk against escherichia coli and some gram-negative pathogens.two strains of escherichia coli and one strain each of salmonella typhimurium and pseudomonas aeruginosa were killed by the bactericidal activity of the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system in milk and in a synthetic medium. h2o2 was supplied exogenously by glucose oxidase, and glucose was produced at a level which was itself noninhibitory. two phases were distinguished: the first phase was dependent on the oxidation of scn(-) by lactoperoxidase and h2o2, which was reversed by re ...19765374
gentamicin-susceptibility of various pathogens isolated from clinical materials.we studied on the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against various pathogens isolated from clinical materials mainly isolated during 1974 and 1975, comparing with other antibiotics. beta hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci and enterococci are less susceptible to gentamicin than staphylococci. staph, aureus and staph. epidermidis resistant to various antibiotics are very susceptible to gentamicin, and no resistant strain to this drug was found. haemophilus influenzae, h. parainfluenzae and h. ...19765619
formation and isolation of leucocidin from pseudomonas aeruginosa.a toxic substance, which destroyed leucocytes from man but was inactive against erythrocytes, was demonstrated in cultures of four out of 110 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa tested. the toxin, designated 'leucocidin', was cell-bound as a precursor toxin, exhibiting little or no toxicity. it was converted into toxin with maximum activity by various proteases including an endogenous elastase. the production of leucocidin was directly proportional to the number of bacteria and was not influenced ...19766621
the effect of nitrogen limitation on catabolite repression of amidase, histidase and urocanase in pseudomonas pseudomonas aeruginosa, the synthesis of histidase, urocanase and amidase is severly repressed when succinate is added to a culture growing in pyruvate + ammonium salts medium. when growth is nitrogen-limited, catabolite repression by succinate of histidase and urocanase synthesis does not occur but succinate repression of amidase synthesis persists. amidase synthesis is not regulated in the same way as histidase synthesis by the availability of other nitrogen compounds for growth. growth of ...19766623
factors influencing the immune enhancement of intrapulmonary bactericidal mechanisms.the effect of specific immunization on the antibacterial defense mechanisms of the murine lung was assessed against streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus aureus (smith), serratia marcescens, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. immunization by aerosol inhalation significantly enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus mirabilis but not the remaining organisms. with p. mirabilis, systemic immunization induce ...19769364
ionic strength and ph effects on the rates of reduction of blue copper proteins by fe(edta)2- comparison of the reactivities of pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin and bean plastocyanin with various redox agents. 19769439
in vitro antibacterial effects of spectinomycin and penicillin g on neisseria gonorrhoeae singly and in combination (author's transl).the antibacterial effects of spectinomycin and penicillin g on clinical isolates of neisseria gonorrhoeae were studied. the concentrations of penicillin g at which the isolates showed drug sensitivity ranged widely from 0.011 to 6.25 mug/ml. some of the isolates were resistant to penicillin g. sensitivity to spectinomycin was observed at the drug concentrations ranging from 3.13 to 12.5 mug/ml. about 60% of the isolates were sensitive to 6.25 mug/ml of spectinomycin, and those isolates which wer ...19769523
regulatory properties of the pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa. kinetic studies and fluorescence titration.mechanisms involved in the action of the pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa (ec have been investigated by means of kinetic studies and fluorescence titration. our results, as well as those from previous investigations, suggest that the allosteric mwc model (monod, j., wyman, j., and changeux, j. p. (1965), j. mol. biol. 12, 88-118) may be used as a first step for the explanation of the properties of the transhydrogenase. the basic reaction of the enzyme is ...19769983
in vitro study of netilmicin compared with other aminoglycosides.netilmicin (sch 20569) is an ethyl derivative of gentamicin c(1a) that is active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus isolates. among 342 clinical isolates tested, all staphylococci; 92% of escherichia coli, 93% of klebsiella pneumoniae, and 92% of enterobacter were inhibited by 0.8 mug or less of netilmicin per ml, but only 78% of p. aeruginosa were inhibited by 3.1 mug or less per ml. most clinical isolates of enterococci, serratia marcescens, and ...197610829
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
large-scale purification and characterization of the exotoxin of pseudomonas aeruginosa.the exotoxin (pe) of pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified from 50-liter cultures by a simple three-step procedure, yielding 135 mg of essentially homogeneous protein. in ouchterlony gel diffusion, pe produces a single line which does not interact with a diphtheria toxin-antitoxin precipitin line. the protein has a molecular weight of 66,000, an isoelectric point of 5.1, n-terminal arginine, and four disulfide bridges. the amino acid composition shows no apparent similarity to that of diphtheria t ...197611187
in vitro experiments on extracellular proteolytic activity of pseudomonas aeruginosa in connection with phytopathological studies. 197612623
comparative in vitro activity of piribenicillin, ticarcillin, and carbenicillin against pseudomonas aeruginosa.pirbenicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin, showed greater in vitro activity against 68 recent isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa than did ticarcillin or carbenicillin. the median minimum inhibitory concentration of each of these three compounds, respectively, was 3.1, 12.5, and 25 mug/ml when a 10(-4) dilution of an overnight culture (about 10(5) colony-forming units cfu/ml) was used as inoculum, but these differences were less striking when larger inocula were used: at 10(7) cfu/ml these values ...197713704
d-alanine dehydrogenase. its role in the utilisation of alanine isomers as growth substrates by pseudomonas aeruginosa pa01.pseudomonas aeruginosa pa01 was found to utilise both the d- and l-isomers of alpha-alanine and also beta-alanine as sole sources of carbon and energy for growth. enzymological studies of wild-type cultures and comparison with mutants deficient in growth upon one or more isomers of alanine led to the following conclusions: (i) utilisation of d-alanine involved its direct oxidation by an inducible, membrane-bound, cytochrome-linked dehydrogenase; (ii) utilisation of l-alanine required its convers ...197613755
otitis media of guinea pigs.otitis media occurred in 177 of 1373 guinea pigs necropsied during a six-year period. streptococcus pneumoniae (20%), streptococcus zooepidemicus (15%), bordetella bronchiseptica (12%), and pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%) were the most common bacteria isolated from affected tympanic bullae. radiology and otoscopy were tested as means of antemortem screening for affected guinea pigs. radiology gave 96% accuracy in diagnosing otitis media and proved to be a more satisfactory technique than otoscopy.197614279
studies of individual carbon sites of azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa by natural-abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.the environments of the aromatic residues (and of the single arginine residue) of azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa are investigated by means of natural-abundance 13c fourier transform nmr spectroscopy. in the case of the diamagnetic cu(i) azurin, all 17 nonprotonated aromatic carbons (and czota of arg-79) yield narrow resonances. furthermore, a single-carbon amide carbonyl resonance with an unusual chemical shift (peak chi) is observed. the ph dependence of chemical shifts is used to identify ...197714666
bacteriolysis by immobilized enzymes.bacteriolytic enzymes produced by achromobacter lunatus were immobilized in collagen membrane. intact bacteria such as pseudomonas solanacearum, xanthomonas oryzae, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were lyzed with the bacteriolytic enzyme-collagen membrane. relative activity of the bacteriolytic enzyme-collagen membrane against pseu. solanacearum was about 2% of that of native bacteriolytic enzymes. no difference in the optimum ph was observed between immobilized enzymes and nat ...197714747
production of protease and elastase by pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients.using 20 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients, production of protease, elastase, and collagenase was determined by shaking culture in either complex or semisynthetic medium. no collagenase was produced by any strain of p. aeruginosa. according to their production of protease and elastase in different media, the p. aeruginosa strains were divided into three groups: the first group can produce elastase in complex medium and both protease and elastase in semisynthetic medium; th ...197715945
devitalizing effect of jodonal a in vitro on bacteria subject to a short-term a three-minute exposure in vitro jodonal a devitalized a culture of serological group b streptococci in a 2% concentration, staphylococcus aureus in a 16% concentration, pneumococcus in a 4.5% concentration, corynebacterium pyogenes in a 2.5% concentration, pseudomonas aeruginosa in a 3% concentration, and klebsiella pneumoniae in a 2% concentration. hence jodonal a concentrations higher than 16% should be tested for udder teat disinfection after the removal of teat cups.197616378
allohydroxy-d-proline dehydrogenase. an inducible membrane-bound enzyme in pseudomonas aeruginosa pa01.growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa pa01 on isomers of hydroxyproline induced the synthesis of an allohydroxy-d-proline dehydrogenase. the enzyme resembled the d-alanine dehydrogenase of this organism in its association with the particulate fraction and its linkage to oxygen through a cytochrome-containing respiratory chain, but differed from this and other bacterial d-amino acid dehydrogenases in its high substrate specificity and low km.197716578
azlocillin: in vitro studies of a new semisynthetic penicillin.the activity of azlocillin, a new semisynthetic penicillin, was determined against 582 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. over 75% of the isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa were inhibited at a concentration of 12.5 mug or less per ml. azlocillin is also active against indole-negative and -positive proteus spp., inhibiting 98 and 71%, respectively, at a concentration of 12.5 mug or less per ml. isolates of klebsiella spp. and enterobacter spp. showed less suscepti ...197718083
lysine decarboxylase in pseudomonas aeruginosa.the research of lysine, ornithine and arginine decarboxylases has been made for 50 strains of fluorescent pseudomonas (p. aeruginosa, p. fluorescens, p. putida). by thin layer chromatography, all the strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fifth of the strains of p. putida had lysine decarboxylase activity at alcaline ph (optimal ph 8) ; pseudomonas fluorescens did not produce this decarboxylase. arginine and ornithine decarboxylase are absent for all the strains of fluorescent pseudomonas.197719133
ca2+-dependent allosteric regulation of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197719248
enzymatically active peptide from the adenosine diphosphate-ribosylating toxin of pseudomonas aeruginosa.a nontoxic peptide (molecular weight, 26,000), which is active in catalyzing the adenosine diphosphate (adp)-ribosylation of elongation factor 2, has been isolated from the culture supernatant of pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 103 in stationary phase. like fragment a from diphtheria toxin, the active peptide catalyzed the hydrolysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as well as the adp-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 and showed similarities to fragment a in specific activity, kinetic consta ...197719354
inhibitory action of fatty acids on the growth of neisseria gonorrhoeae.fatty acids of various chain lengths (c(1) to c(24)) were examined for their effects on growth, oxygen consumption, and in vitro reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase activity of neisseria gonorrhoeae cs-7. the growth inhibition caused by saturated fatty acids increased with increasing chain length to a maximum with palmitic acid (c(16)). stearic acid (c(18)) and longer saturated fatty acids showed little inhibition of growth. however, unsaturated fatty acids of chain length c(16) to ...197719358
fortimicins a and b, new aminoglycoside antibiotics. iv. in vitro study of fortimicin a compared with other aminoglycosides.the in vitro antimicrobial activity of fortimicin a, the most active member of the fortimicin complex, was compared with that of amikacin, gentamicin, sagamicin and tobramycin against 352 strains of enterobacteriaceae and other medically significant organisms. against most of these organisms fortimicin and amikacin had comparable levels of antimicrobial activity, generally slightly less than that of gentamicin, sagamicin or tobramycin. fortimicin had relatively weak activity against pseudomonas ...197719409
pseudomonas aeruginosa transhydrogenase: affinity of substrates for the regulatory site and possible hysteretic behavior. 197720086
general principles of antimicrobial the initial therapy of life-threatening infections in which a bacterial cause is suspected, the emphasis should be on broad antibiotic coverage in contrast to definitive therapy, which is dependent on microbial isolation and, when indicated, in vitro susceptibility tests. in severe infections, antimicrobial agents should be given parenterally, at least initially. the need for optimal dosage is emphasized. this is particularly important when aminoglycosides are administered, for there is a ten ...197720538
purification and characterization of two aldehyde dehydrogenases from pseudomonas aeruginosa.two soluble aldehyde dehydrogenases isoenzymes have been purified and separated from extracts of a paraffin-assimilating bacterium, pseudomonas aeruginosa. the first one, obtained at an estimated purity of 20% (spec. act. with butanal 0.33 kat/kg) was nad-dependent. it was rapidly inactivated at ph 8.6 but was efficiently protected by nad. it had a molecular weight of 225000 and presented a high affinity for aldehydes of short and middle chain lengths. the second enzyme, obtained in a nearly hom ...197722435
the occurrence of variants of pseudomonas aeruginosa ncts 6750. 197722635
the production of stable defined cultures of mucoid pseudomonas aeruginosa in continuous culture proceedings. 197722702
biochemical properties of a penicillinase from escherichia coli carrying rms 298.we obtained two r plasmids, i.e., rms195 and rms298, from a clinical isolate, e. coli gn5503. penicillin beta-lactamase (pcase) was extracted from ml1410 rms195+ and rms298+, and was purified by chromatography. rms195 pcase was identical to the type i pcase mediated by r-tem, ri and rms212. the isoelectric point of rms298 pcase was 5.9 and its molecular weight was 21,000 +/- 1,000. the substrate profile and physiochemical properties indicate that rms298 pcase belongs to the type iv pcase mediate ...197722803
survival of plasmid-containing strains of escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus in phenylmercuric nitrate and thiomersal.strains of escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus harbouring plasmids that confer mercury resistance grew in nutrient broth containing concentrations of phenylmercuric nitrate (pmn) that were inhibitory to isogenic plasmid-less strains. decimal reduction times of p. aeruginosa and s. aureus in aqueous pmn solution were also increased by the presence of plasmids. the viable count of a plasmid-containing p. aeruginosa strain in davis and mingioli's minimal medium (dm) c ...197824710
an alkaline phosphatase mutant of pseudomonas aeruginosa. 1. effects of regulatory, structural, and environmental shifts on enzyme alkaline phosphatase mutant of pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting both regulatory and catalytic changes was isolated. under repression conditions (i.e. high inorganic phosphate (pi)) the mutant culture produced an alkaline phosphatase (apase) displaying significant activity against both beta-glycerol phosphate (betagp) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pnpp), while the wild type displayed no activity directed towards these substrates under the same conditions. in vivo, the mutant enzyme's ratio of ...197825129
bacteriolytic enzyme induced from pyocinogenic pseudomonas aeruginosa. purification and characterization of pr1-lysozyme.a bacteriolytic enzyme, pr1-lysozyme, has been purified from the lysate of mitomycin c-induced pyocinogenic pseudomonas aeruginosa, by acrinol treatment, amberlite cg-50 chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation, sephadex g-100 gel filtration and two cycles of sp-sephadex c-50 chromatography. homogeneity of the preparation was demonstrated by three electrophoretic techniques. pr1-lysozyme is a basic protein (pi, 9.4) and consists of a single polypeptide chain having a molecular weight of 24 ...197825269
specific agglutination of escherichia coli o128b12 by the mannose-binding proteins of pseudomonas aeruginosa.the mannosephilic haemagglutinins of pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to agglutinate cells of escherichia coli o128b12, to be adsorbed onto them and to attach peroxidase to them. these reactions were specifically inhibited by d-mannose. no agglutination by this pseudomonas haemagglutinin was obtained when several other enteropathogenic types of escherichia coli and some other gram-negative bacteria were examined. concanavalin a, which also reacted with escherichia coli o128b12 cells, interacted ...197725370
bacterial etiology of otitis media during the first six weeks of life.tympanocentesis was performed on 70 infants who had otitis media during the first six weeks of life. the bacteria isolated from their middle-ear effusions were streptococcus pneumoniae (13 patients), neisseria catarrhalis (11 patients), hemophilus influenzae (ten patients), enterobacteriaceae (four patients), staphylococcus aureus (four patients), streptococci (groups a and b) (three patients), and pseudomonas aeruginosa (two patients). thirty patients (42.9%) had middle-ear effusions which did ...197826735
antibiotic therapy of pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: possibilities and limitations. 197826955
1-n hapa gentamicin b, a new aminoglycoside active against gentamicin resistant isolates--activity compared to other aminoglycosides.1-n hapa gentamicin b is a new aminoglycoside active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. among 504 clinical isolates at a concentration of 12.5 microgram/ml all staph. aureus, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus rettgeri, providencia and 78% of pseudomonas, 86% of proteus morganii were inhibited. like other aminoglycosides, the activity was greatest at an alkaline ph and reduced by high cations concentrations. 1-n hapa gentamicin b w ...197827494
the effect of complement depletion on lung clearance of bacteria.we have investigated the effect of hypocomplementemia on early pulmonary clearance of four species of bacteria. the experiments were performed in an inbred animal model to minimize immunologic variability. complement was depleted by cobra venom factor, and activity in serum was monitored with a phagocytic assay. bacterial specific antibodies were examined by an indirect radioimmunoassay, and animals with high levels of activity were excluded from anaysis. 4 h after aerosolization with streptococ ...197827534
piperacillin: in vitro evaluation.the in vitro activity of a new semisynthetic penicillin, piperacillin, was determined against 577 clinical isolates of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. a concentration of 12.5 mug/ml inhibited 92% of isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa, 82% of serratia marcescens, 73% of escherichia coli, 61% of klebsiella spp., and 42% of enterobacter spp. most proteus spp. were extremely susceptible; over 85% were inhibited by 0.10 mug/ml. piperacillin failed to inhibit the growth of gram-negative ...197828694
binding of cholesterol by neisseria gonorrhoeae.the binding of [1,2-3h]cholesterol to neisseria gonorrhoeae cs-7, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and salmonella typhimurium (smooth and rough strains) was investigated. the kinetics of cholesterol binding to n. gonorrhoeae cs-7 demonstrated that binding occurred slowly with maximum binding by 10 h. under optimum conditions, a large percentage (65%) of the added cholesterol was associated with the cells. chemical fractionation revealed that ca. 98% of the labeled cholesterol was associated with the cell ...197832139
differences in antibacterial resistance related to differences in cell envelope structure of pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas cepacia [proceedings]. 197832267
the ph-dependent reactions of pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase with nitric oxide and nitrite. 197833158
1h nmr and esr studies of oxidized cytochrome c551 from pseudomonas aeruginosa.near neutral ph, fe(iii) cytochrome c551 exhibits an esr absorption due primarily to a single species with g values of 3.24, 2.06, and 1.48. these g values are somewhat different from those of horse heart cytochrome c and can be interpreted by the generalizations of brautigan et al. [(1977) j. biol. chem. 252, 574] to be due to fe binding by the imidazole anion of histidine rather than by neutral imidazole. the nmr spectrum of fe(iii) cytochrome c551 exhibits a number of hyperfine-shifted peaks ...197933701
additivity of action between polysorbate 80 and polymyxin b towards spheroplasts of pseudomonas aeruginosa nctc 6750.when polymyxin b and polysorbate 80 were used together against spheroplasts of pseudomonas aeruginosa, the activities were found to be additive. these substances have previously been reported to act synergistically against p. aeruginosa, but little or no intrinsic activity towards intact cells has been attributed to polysorbate 80. we suggest that in addition to enhancing polymyxin b penetration to the cytoplasmic membrane, polysorbate 80 may also act as an antimicrobial agent when polymyxin-ind ...197934692
[modern data on the antibiotic sensitivity of the microflora that is an etiological factor in ent diseases. ii. the antibiotic sensitivity of pneumococci, meningococci, influenza bacilli, klebsiella, enterobacteria, pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus]. 197934945
etiology and antimicrobial therapy of acute maxillary sinusitis.eighty-one adults with symptoms of acute sinusitis were studied by direct needle puncture and aspiration of the maxillary sinus (105 sinuses). fifty-nine bacterial strains were isolated in titers of greater than or equal to 10(4) colony-forming units/ml; streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae accounted for 64% of the isolates. other bacteria recovered included anaerobes (12%), neisseria species (8.5%). streptococcus pyogenes (3%), alpha-hemolytic streptococcus (3%), non-group a beta ...197935571
cefuroxime: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacological properties and therapeutic use.cefuroxime is a new semisynthetic cephalosporin for parenteral administration. it is resistant to destruction by beta-lactamases produced by staphylococci and most gram-negative aerobic bacteria and is active against many bacteria resistant to cephalothin. cefuroxime is the most active of the cephalosporins against gonococci and haemophilus influenzae particularly against beta-lactamase producing strains. given by intramuscular or intravenous injection cefuroxime is effective against a wide vari ...197937064
hairy cell leukemia: differences in phagocytic capacity of cells in vitro.hairy cells from eight patients with hairy cell leukemia were evaluated with both light and transmission electron microscopy for their capacity to phagocytose zymosan, latex, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. in two patients, there was no phagocytosis of any of these substances; cells from three patients phagocytosed only latex; two, all except pseudomonas; and one, all 4 substances. hairy cells became relatively smooth while in culture with staphylococcus, but no surface change ...197937638
partial purification and characterization of thiosulfate oxidase from pseudomonas aeruginosa.soluble thiosulfate oxidase from pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified 85-fold and coverted thiosulfate to tetrathionate by using either ferricyanide or cytochrome c as an electron acceptor.197940955
characteristics of azurin from pseudomonas aeruginosa via 270-mhz 1h nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.assignments of resonances in the 1h nmr spectra of cu(i) azurin to proton groups in the protein are discussed in detail. comparisons are drawn between cu(i), cu(ii), apo, hg(ii), and co(ii) azurin samples. redox titration of cu(i) azurin with k3fe(cn)6, is used to correlate cu(i) and cu(ii) 1h nmr spectral features, and observed line broadenings deriving from cu(ii) paramagnetic effects are used to deduce the distances of assigned proton groups from the copper center. histidine residues are char ...197941026
resistance of gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics in large calf agglomerations.the antibiotic resistance of e. coli, citrobacter, enterobacter-klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from calves was tested. a high proportion of multiresistance was found even in e. coli strains isolated from newborn calves. gram-negative bacteria isolated from animals in three large calfhouses were almost 100% resistant to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulphonamides. multiresistance was general and varied from 5 to 12 antibiotics among different strains. initial high sensitiv ...197941425
anaerobic isolates in chronic recurrent suppurative otitis media. treatment with carbenicillin alone and in combination with gentamicin.tympanocentesis was performed in 32 pediatric patients with chronic recurrent suppurative otitis media. the aspirate was cultured aerobically and anaerobically. aerobes were isolated from ten patients (31.2%); anaerobes from one patient; and both aerobes and anaerobes from 21 patients (65.6%). there were 46 aerobic isolates. the aerobes commonly recovered were pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 isolates) proteus sp. (5) and staphylococcus aureus (3). there were 32 anaerobes isolated including anaerobic ...197941811
biochemical studies on pili isolated from pseudomonas aeruginosa strain pao.pseudomonas aeruginosa strains pao and pak bear polar pili which are flexible filaments having a diameter of 6 nm and an average length of 2500 nm. both types of pili are retractile and promote infection by a number of bacteriophages. the present communication describes the partial biochemical characterization of pao pili isolated from a multipiliated nonretractile mutant of pao. the observed properties are compared to those of pak pili which were characterized previously. pao pili were found to ...197943766
effects of divalent metal cations in the growth medium upon sensitivity of batch-grown pseudomonas aeruginosa to edta or polymyxin b. 197944290
[oxidative degradation of dibenzylsulfide].dibenzylsulfid (dbs) as a model of the organic sulfur compounds in crude oil was converted by a mixed culture (containing pseudomonas aeruginosa) into several water soluble organic substances. whereas these compounds are detectable with dc- and ir-spectroscopic techniques, benzylmercaptoacetic acid (bma) was the only isolated product of dbs utilization. efficiency of degradation, respectively, accumulation of bma were dependent on aeration and ph-regulation.197944589
[bacteriological studies of the intestinal content of aquatic birds, fishes, and frogs with special reference to the presence of non-cholera vibrios (ncv) (author's transl)].in a screening study of surface waters, the authors were successful in culturing ncv in 2/3 of cases. since these organisms are incapable of multiplication in open waters and yet were present in water samples in considerable amounts, it was postulated that they persisted in certain forms of aquatic life. to elucidate this question, the intestinal contents and in some cases, the bile of a total of 110 animals belonging to 17 different bird, fish, and frog species from different habitata were exam ...197944627
serum igg, iga and igm changes during infectious complications induced by facultative pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.igg, iga, and igm concentrations were measured at 40 acute and 9 chronic patients continuously during complications induced by facultative pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, primarily by pseudomonas aeruginosa. on the basis of the results the sudden decrease of ig concentrations at the onset of complications, during shock, and before death was, beside the consuming effect of antigen-antibody reactions, most probably a consequence of increased capillary permeability and haemodinamic disorders due ...197944628
[effect of bacterial infections and antibiotics on tsetse flies (diptera, glossinidae) (author's transl)].the membrane feeding technique (in vitro feeding) used for the rearing of tsetse flies has advantages over the conventional method of feeding the flies on host animals. however, as long as blood remains the sole source of tsetse fly nutrition, the risk remains of blood being contaminated during collection, storage or feeding with bacteria pathogenic to the flies. the resulting high mortality of the tsetse flies endangers the success of this rearing. the experiments described here have shown that ...197944947
basic characterization of a lipid-containing bacteriophage specific for plasmids of the p, n, and w compatibility groups.preliminary studies have shown that bacteriophages pr3 and pr4, originally isolated on pseudomonas aeruginosa, resemble the lipid-containing phage pm2 in appearance. their host range extends intergenerically to species carrying drug-resistance plasmids of the p and n compatibility groups. in this paper, the serological identity of the two isolates is established and it is concluded that they are the same virus, but with some differences in growth characteristics. they contain double-stranded dna ...197546179
fine structure and distribution of extracellular polymer surrounding selected aerobic bacteria.the structure and distribution of extracellular polymer surrounding bacillus circulans, diplococcus (streptococcus) pneumoniae, streptococcus salivarius, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, herella vaginacola (acinetobacter calcoaceticus), and agrobacterium tumefaciens were studied by electron microscopy. a modified ruthenium red staining procedure was used to examine the fine structure of capsule and slime. freeze-etching and critical-point drying were used to ...197546774
letter: pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to gentamicin. 197547050
letter: gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197548089
aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferases i and ii in pseudomonas aeruginosa.aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferases i and ii in three strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied in comparison with those in two strains of r factor-carrying escherichia coli. the strain ti-13 of p. aeruginosa produced the former and strain h-9 the latter. strain b-13 produced the both enzymes. the 3'-phosphotransferases of type i in p. aeruginosa ti-13, b-13 and e. coli k12 j5 r11-2 were different from each other in chromatographic behavior, molecular weight, ph optimum, and ii. the 3'-ph ...197550310
aminoglycoside 6'-n-acetyl-transferase of pseudomonas aeruginosa: structural requirements of substrate. 197550311
5"-amino-3',4',5"-trideoxybutirosin a, a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic.5"-amino-3',4',5"-trideoxybutirosin a (ix) was synthesized through a reaction series starting from 5"-amino-5"-deoxybutirosin a (ic), the key step being the treatment of its tetra-o-acetylpentakis-n-((phenylemthoxy)carbonyl)-3',4'-bis-o-(methylsulfonyl) derivative (vi) with zince-sodium iodide. compound ix inhibits enhanced antibacterial activities, including strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli which are highly resistant to ic, butirosin or gentamicin.197550312
synthesis of aminotrideoxybutirosin a, a chemically modified antibiotic active against butirosin-resistant bacteria.5"-amino-3',4'5"-trideoxybutirosin a (4) was synthesized by two routes starting from the known tri-o-acetyl-tetra-n-benzyloxycarbonyl-3",5"-o-cyclohexylidene-3',4'-di-o-mesylbutirosin a (5). introduction of amino function at c-5" was carried out by displacement of 5"-tosyloxy group with sodium azide either before or after 3',4'-deoxygenation. compound 4 shows outstanding activities against strains including pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli which are highly resistant to butirosin and 5 ...197550313
antigenic heterogeneity among pyocins of pseudomonas aeruginosa.we investigated the effect of feso4 on phagocytosis-associated, increased oxidative metabolism via the hexose monophosphate shunt, with special attention to its effect on h2o2 levels. the availability of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase for h2o2 disposal and hexose monophosphate shunt stimulation also are evaluated. the results show an impairment of phagocytosis-associated hexose monophosphate shunt activity together with an increase both of resting and phagocytosing formate oxid ...197551006
letter: temperature-sensitivity and gentamicin-resistance in pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197551309
alteration of the antibody response to escherichia coli o antigen in mice by prior exposure to various somatic the present study in mice we used the jerne plaque assay to compare the immunity enhancing potential of different gram-negative bacteria with special regard to their endotoxin. the results confirm the recent finding that injection of escherichia coli bacteria of various serotypes may enhance the igg antibody response to the o antigen of a serologically unrelated e. coli strain injected subsequently, but may suppress the igm antibody formation. the o antibodies formed were of low avidity but w ...197551829
evidence for antigenic differences among pyocins of pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197552229
[effect of hemolysin from pseudomonas aeruginosa on cell cultures].hemolysin of pseudomonas aeruginosa has a cytopathic action on blood and tissue culture cells. lysis and disintegration of the architecture of the cell involving membrane and cytoplasm were demonstrated by morphological changes. the hemolytic activity of hemolysin is inhibited by normal sera and by albumin; inhibition is also observed in the action of hemolysin on k.b. cells, but this inhibition is not complete. the hemolytic and cytopathic actions are explained by assuming that they alter the m ...197552388
[use of a furagin medium for isolating pseudomonas pyocyanea]. 197552751
biological activity of fragments derived from the extracellular slime glycolipoprotein of pseudomonas aeruginosa.glycolipoprotein, obtained from the extracellular slime layer of pseudomonas aeruginosa, was purfied and subjected to chemical and enzymatic treatment in an attempt to assign certain of its biological activities to chemical moieties comprising the glycolipoprotein molecule. treatment of the glycolipoprotein with phenol, although removing all detectable protein, yielded a fragment capable to exerting the biological activities associated with the untreated glycolipoprotein (leucopenia, lethality, ...197553201
aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase iii, a new phosphotransferase. resistance mechanism.the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase of pseudomonas aeruginosa 21-75 was purified by affinity chromatography using dibekacin-sephadex 4b or lividomycin a-sepharose 4b followed by deae sephadex a-50 chromatography. it had activities of both the known aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferases i and ii, and transferred phosphate from atp to the 3'-hydroxyl group of kanamycin a, ribostamycin and butirosin a and 5-hydroxyl group of lividomycin a. this enzyme was designated aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotrans ...197553228
letter: gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197553421
2-amino-2-deoxygalacturonic acid in lipopolysaccharides from pseudomonas aerugimosa.2-amino-2-deoxygalacturonic acid was identified as a component of the lipopolysaccharide from pseudomonas aeruginosa n.c.t.c. 8505. the compound probably occurs in the region of polysaccharide responsible for o-antigenic specificity.197554164
bacterial blocking activity of specific igg in chronic pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.a factor has been demonstrated in the serum of some patients with chronic gram-negative infections which specifically blocks bactericidal activity against the infecting organism. sera with this factor, that had been obtained from patients suffering from chronic pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, were fractionated by sephadex g-200 and deae-sephadex column chromatography. blocking activity was detected in the sephadex g-200 '7s' peak and eluted from the deae column along with the serum igg. immun ...197554231
a note on the use of immunofluorescent methods for the detection of pseudomonas aeruginosa in bronchitic immunofluorescent microscopy of sputum from 67 cases of bronchitis pseudomonas aeruginosa was detectable in 14 as compared with nine by cultural methods.197554369
partial characterisation of an inhibitor of streptolysin o produced by bacterial growth in inhibitor of streptolysin o is generated in human and animal sera by the growth of certain organisms. the ability to do this occurs most often in pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus (in 90% and 86% of strains respectively), but in only 32% of staph. epidermidis strains. the inhibitor is not formed in broth. the effect appears slowly on incubation, with maximum activity after 4-7 days. evidence suggests that two enzymes are involved, an esterase which splits ester-bound cholestero ...197554429
gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa and serratia marcescens in a general hospital.from aug. 1, 1974, to july 31, 1975, inclusive, 19-1% of pseudomonas aeruginosa and 50-0% of serratia marcescens isolates from a general hospital were gentamicin resistant as determined by standardised disc testing; 80% of 118 different clinical isolates showed minimum inhibitory concentrations larger than or equal to 16 mug/ml of gentamicin in agar-dilution testing. all gentamicin-resistant s. marcescens and 79% of ps. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to amikacin, while tobramycin and sisom ...197655850
letter: gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197656561
letter: gentamicin-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa. 197657554
[use of synthetic nutrient media with furagin for the isolation of pseudomonas aeruginosa]. 197658130
evaluation of a new technique for the demonstration of gonococci and other micro-organisms in host cells.a method (gram-mgplg) for demonstrating micro-organisms was compared with gram and four other known methods. each method was tested on tissue infected with staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa or neisseria gonorrhoeae, which were then fixed in bouin's formol saline, formol sublimate, or van de grift solutions. gram-positive organisms in tissues were easily seen even at low magnification when stained by several of the methods tested. gram-negative organisms, however, are very difficult t ...197658874
purification and properties of two deoxyribonucleases of pseudomonas aeruginosa.a survey of the major deoxyribonucleases in pseudomonas aeruginosa strain pao was undertaken. two activities predominated in brij-58 lysates of this organism. these have been purified from contaminating nuclease activities, and some of their properties have been elucidated. the first was a nuclease that degraded heat-denatured deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) to mono- and dinucleotides. the activity of this enzyme was confined to single-stranded dna, and 100% of the substrate was hydrolyzed to acid-s ...197660331
pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies in human plasma.plasma samples from healthy adults were examined for antibodies to the common protective antigen (oep) [1] by passive hemagglutination (ha) reaction [2] with the finding that the majority of them had an antibody titer of 60 or lower. 2-mercaptoethanol (2-me) treatment, however, caused a decrease in ha titer down to 16 or lower in most of the cases, suggesting that the oep antibody resides mostly in igm and slightly in igg. the finding was corroborated by gel filtration on sephadex g-200. it appe ...197660502
[experimental studies on the reaction of the immunological system during chronic otitis media and about the course of this disease (author's transl)].during chronic otitis media intact immunoglobulins are split due to the proteolytic activity of extracellular bacterial proteinases into fragments of different molecular weight. the most malignant bacterial proteinases are the proteinases of pseudomonas aeruginosa (pyrocyanea). these proteinases can only be inhibited by alpha-2-macroblobulin of human blood serum. because of its high molecular weight we find this inhibitor only in a very low concentration in the middle ear secretion. the destruct ...197660682
[increase of resistance to pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice caused by staphylococcus aureus].in our study of opportunistic pathogens, we have some indication that staphylococcus aureus can increase resistance in mice against pseudomonas aeruginosa. intraperitoneal injections of sublethal doses of s. aureus had a protective effect in mice against lethal doses of p. aeruginosa, more so if living and coagulase-positive s. aureus strains were injected. this protective effect was obtained both with laboratory and freshly isolated hospital strains. the interval between these infections can be ...197661060
[use of salts of quaternary ammonium base for creation of selective media for pseudomonas aeruginosa]. 197662092
"5-amino-5"-deoxybutirosin, a semisynthetic analogue of butirosin a: antibacterial activity in vitro and in mice.aminodeoxybutirosin (ad-btn), the 5''-amino-5''-deoxy derivative of butirosin (btn), was synthesized to improve on the antibacterial activity of btn by preventing bacterial enzymatic phosphorylation at the 5'' position. ad-btn possesses the spectrum characteristic of btn and gentamicin (gtm) and was active at low levels in vitro against a wide variety of gram-negative species including pseudomonas aeruginosa, indole-positive proteus and serratia marcescens; its action was bactericidal against bo ...197662554
role of ionic strength in salt antagonism of aminoglycoside action on escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa.studies were designed to determine whether ionic strength (mu) is a significant factor in salt inhibition of aminoglycoside action against escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. in both nutrient broth (a low mu medium) and mueller-hinton broth (a relatively high mu medium), protection of e. coli from dihydrostreptomycin or gentamicin action by mgcl2, nacl, or na2so4 was attributed to ionic strength alone. the percentage of protection increased with ionic strength and was independent of the ...197662813
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