sodium ion-proton antiport in a marine bacterium.alteromonas haloplanktis ejected protons in response to a brief respiratory pulse; the rate of decay of the resulting ph change was accelerated when na+ was present in the suspension medium. the addition of an anaerobic nacl solution to an essentially na+-free anaerobic bacterial suspension induced the acidification of the suspension medium. these results and others discussed provide substantial evidence for the existence of an na+-h+ antiporter in this organism.197826666
isolation of yersinia enterocolitica-resembling organisms and alteromonas putrefaciens from vacuum-packed chilled beef cuts. 197939056
site specificity of bleomycin-mediated single-strand scissions and alkali-labile damage in duplex dna.form ii pm2 dna, which contained bleomycin-mediated single-strand breaks, was purified and treated with the extracellular endonuclease from alteromonas bal 31. this enzyme cleaves the phosphodiester backbone opposite a single-strand break to yield a double-strand break. the locations of these double-strand breaks were determined relative to the cleavage sites produced by the restriction enzyme hindiii. the experimental procedure was as follows. form i pm2 dna was treated with bleomycin to produc ...197993064
composition of the fractions separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the lipopolysaccharide of a marine bacterium.the sugar composition of lipopolysaccharide (lps) isolated from whole cells of alteromonas haloplanktis 214 (previously referred to as marine pseudomonas b-16, atcc 19855), variant 3, of the lipid a, core, and side-chain fractions derived from it, and of the lps fractions (lps i, ii, and iii) obtained by subjecting it to preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been determined. conditions optimum for the release of constituent monosaccharides by hydrolysis were e ...1978101510
pathways of d-fructose and d-glucose catabolism in marine species of alcaligenes, pseudomonas marina, and alteromonas communis.cell-free extracts of d-fructose grown cells of marine species of alcaligenes as well as pseudomonas marina contained an activity which catalyzed a p-enolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of d-fructose in the 1-position as well as activities of the following enzymes: 1-p-fructokinase, fructose-1,6-p2 aldolase, ppi-dependent 6-p-fructokinase, fructokinase, glucokinase, p-hexose isomerase, glucose-6-p dehydrogenase, 6-p-gluconate dehydrase, and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-p-gluconate aldolase. the presence ...1977139858
phosphatase activity of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.1115 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were tested for phosphatase activity by a conventional plate method and a microtest. the microtest was devised to allow results to be read after 4 h cultivation. phosphatase activity was found in wide range of species and strains. besides staphylococci, where the test for phosphatase is successfully used, it may be applied as one of the valuable tests for the differentiation of the following species: bacillus cereus, b. licheniformis, ...1978216188
[enterobacteria erroneously identified as salmonella in human faeces (author's transl)].to differentiate citrobacter freundii, enterobacter hafniae, proteus mirabilis and alteromonas putrefaciens from salmonella strains isolated in faeces, the author recommends the use of "hajna-kligler" medium, "nitrate-motility-mannitol" medium, "urease-indole-trytophane desaminase" medium and glycerol peptonated water. the lysis of salmonella and e. hafniae strains by specific phages (felix and callow o: 1 salmonella phage; guinee and valkenburg hafnia phage) is emphasized.1977335345
characterization of some fish and shrimp spoiling bacteria.the classification of some important groups of bacteria involved in fish and shrimp spoilage was studied. trimethylamine is produced by pseudomonas putrefaciens, a "non-defined" group resembling ps. putrefaciens, photobacterium spp. and some moraxella-like bacteria. hypoxanthine is produced by the same groups of bacteria except the last named and also by the "typical shrimp spoilers" (presumptive alteromonas). strong off-odours are produced on fresh fish by ps. putrefaciens, dextrose-oxidative p ...1977341802
new prodigiosin-like pigment from alteromonas rubra.the red prodigiosin-like pigment from alteromonas rubra was shown to be a mixture of prodigiosin (pigment 1) and a new cyclic isomer (pigment 2). the new structure was elucidated by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. careful examinations of the prodigiosins produced by serratia marcescens, vibrio psychoerythrus, and an unidentified red bacterium (ll-100-6) failed to disclose any of the new pigment, pigment 2.1979384909
extracellular nucleases of alteromonas espejiana bal 31.iv. the single strand-specific deoxyriboendonuclease activity as a probe for regions of altered secondary structure in negatively and positively supercoiled closed circular dna.the dependence of the initial rate of introduction of the first single-chain scission (initial nicking rate) into covalently closed circular phage pm2 dna by the single strand-specific nuclease from alteromonas espejiana bal 31 upon the superhelix density (sigma) of the dna has been examined. the initial nicking rate decreases with decreasing numbers of negative superhelical turns (decreasing values of -sigma), which behavior is characteristic of other single strand-specific nucleases as reporte ...1979424296
spoilage of vacuum-packaged dark, firm, dry meat at chill temperatures.the flora of vacuum-packaged dark, firm, dry meat included thred organisms not usually found on vacuum-packaged meat, yersinia enterocolitica, enterobacter liquefaciens, and alteromonas putrefaciens. y. enterocolitica did not affect the meat quality. production of spoilage odors by e. liquefaciens could be prevented by addition of glucose or citrate to the meat. greening of meat could be prevented by addition of glucose or citrate to the meat. greening of meat by a. putrefaciens was not prevente ...1979453817
in vivo assembly of a biological membrane of defined size, shape, and lipid restrictive temperature, mutant ts1 of bacteriophage pm2 makes membrane vesicles inside infected alteromonas espejiana. a shift from restrictive to permissive temperature resulted in rapid maturation to infectious virions. the membrane vesicles were isolated from cellular membranes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. analysis of the unique peak at rho = 1.190 g/cm3 showed spheres of two diameters, 50 nm and 54 nm. the wild-type virus is icosahedral with an average diameter of 60 nm. g ...1979480469
osmotic effects of membrane permeability in a marine bacterium.when cells of alteromonas haloplanktis 214 (atcc 19855) were preloaded with alpha-[(14)c]aminoisobutyric acid or the k(+) in the cells was labeled with (42)k by incubation in a buffered salt solution containing 0.05 m mgso(4), 0.01 m kcl, and 0.3 m nacl, the cells retained their radioactivity when resuspended in the same salt solution. when nacl was omitted from the solution, 80 to 90% of the radioactivity was lost from the cells. cells suspended at intermediate concentrations of nacl also lost ...1978641005
heterogeneity and distribution of lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall of a gram-negative marine bacterium.lipopolysaccharide (lps) extracted from alteromonas haloplanktis 214, variants 1 and 3, separated into three fractions when subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the fractions appeared in the gels as bands which stained for carbohydrate with the periodate-schiff reagent. variant 1, a smooth variant of the organism, and variant 3, a rough colonial variant, produced identical banding patterns. under similar conditions, lps from neisseria meningitidis sdic, escheri ...1978711665
[research technics of enzymes used in the diagnosis of gram negative bacteria (author's transl)].the enzymes used in the identification of gram negative bacteria belonging to the families of enterobacteriaceae, vibrionaceae, parvobacteriaceae, pseudomonadaceae and to the genera alteromonas, xanthomonas, alkaligenes, flavobacterium are classified arbitrarily by the author into enzymes essential for the diagnosis of the family (oxidase, nitratase), enzymes useful in the diagnosis of the genus or the species (onpg-hydrolase, urease, oxidative desaminase, lysine decarboxylase and ornithine, arg ...1978747248
[alteromonas putrefaciens. 25 strains isolated in madagascar].25 strains of alteromonas putrefaciens, most of them from marine medium, isolated in madagascar, are reported. biochemical characters are studied to class them in 2 subspecies. routinely, alteromonas putrefaciens must be chiefly differentiate with h2s-producing enterobacteriaceae. the ecology is recapitulated.1978747448
antibacterial activity of marine violet-pigmented alteromonas with special reference to the production of brominated compounds.the synthesis of several types of antibiotics was investigated in four strains of violet-pigmented bacteria belonging to the species alteromonas luteo-violaceus. two of the strains simultaneously produce an antibiotic polyanionic polysaccharide, weakly bound to the cells and diffusing throughout the medium, and two intracellular brominated bactericidal substances. the third strain only synthesizes the polyanionic antibiotic. the fourth one is totally inactive. the macromolecular antibiotic, prob ...1976974909
modification of bacterial respiration by a macromolecular polyanionic antibiotic produced by a marine alteromonas.a macromolecular polyanionic antibiotic produced by a marine bacterium belonging to the genus alteromonas causes a large modification in bacterial respiration when added to the culture of several bacterial species in their early stage of growth. this antibiotic induces an increase of oxygen uptake and the production of hydrogen peroxide. the latter fact explains the high sensitivity of bacteria with low catalase activity and the antagonistic effect of pure catalase on antibiosis. the antibiotic ...19761259396
morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of some violet-pigmented bacteria isolated from seawater.sixteen violet-pigmented heterotrophic bacilli were isolated from mediterranean coastal waters. morphological and physiological studies showed that they have a number of characteristics specific to the genus chromobacterium. however, the absence of catalase, the presence of oxidase, and, more especially, the low percentage of bases guanine and cytosine in their dna exclude them from the genus. the specificity of some characters assigned to chromobacterium can thus be discussed. several features ...19761260521
a tissue culture assay for direct detection of sodium channel blocking toxins in bacterial culture supernates.a quantitative assay for sodium channel blocking toxins such as tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin has been developed for use with a microtitre plate reader. mouse neuroblastoma cells, which die rapidly in the presence of ouabain and veratridine, were protected by tetrodotoxin; surviving cells were detected by their uptake of the vital dye neutral red which was quantified with a microtitre plate reader at 540 nm. a sigmoidal dose response curve was obtained and tetrodotoxin concentrations were readily m ...19921320584
identification and sequence of a na(+)-linked gene from the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis which functionally complements the daga gene of escherichia coli.a 4.0 kb fragment from a plasmid genomic dna library of the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis atcc 19855 was found in the presence of na+ to complement the daga gene of escherichia coli. we have completely sequenced this fragment and the position of the na(+)-linked d-alanine glycine permease gene (daga) on the fragment has been determined by complementation. the predicted carrier protein consists of 542 amino acid residues (m(r) 58,955). its hydropathy profile suggests it is composed of ...19921447975
purification, properties, and partial amino acid sequence of chitinase from a marine alteromonas sp. strain o-7.chitinase (ec was isolated from the culture supernatant of a marine bacterium, alteromonas sp. strain o-7. the enzyme (chi-a) was purified by anion-exchange chromatography (deae-toyopearl 650 m) and gel filtration (sephadex g-100). the purified enzyme showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the molecular size and pi of chi-a were 70 kda and 3.9, respectively. the optimum ph and temperature of chi-a were 8.0 and 50 degrees c, respectively. chi- ...19921464065
purification, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the thermolabile alpha-amylase from the antarctic psychrotroph alteromonas haloplanctis a23.the alpha-amylase excreted by the antarctic bacterium alteromonas haloplanctis was purified and the corresponding amy gene was cloned and sequenced. n- and c-terminal amino acid sequencing were used to establish the primary structure of the mature a. haloplanctis alpha-amylase which is composed of 453 amino acids with a predicted mr of 49,340 and a pi of 5.5. three ca2+ ions are bound per molecule and its activity is modulated by chloride ions. within the four consensus sequences, asp-174, glu-2 ...19921544904
effect of different holding regimens on the intestinal microflora of herring (clupea harengus) larvae.the aerobic intestinal microflora of 2-week-old herring (clupea harengus) larvae was characterized by using conventional microbiological methods and electron microscopy. larvae were hatched and kept in filtered seawater or in seawater with penicillin and streptomycin. the gastrointestinal tract of herring larvae is essentially a straight tube divided into two compartments. light microscopy revealed bacteria present in a progressively increasing amount throughout the length of the gastrointestina ...19921610170
the reactive site of marinostatin, a proteinase inhibitor from marine alteromonas sp. b-10-31.a new homologue of marinostatin, a peptide proteinase inhibitor, was isolated from marine alteromonas sp. b-10-31 and designated as marinostatin d. its amino acid sequence was determined to be ala-thr-met-arg-tyr-pro-ser-asp-asp-ser-glu. the reactive site of marinostatin d was determined to be met(3)-arg(4) on the basis of the reversible cleavage and regeneration of the scissile bond catalyzed by tlck-chymotrypsin.19911794974
a novel lipopolysaccharide-binding hemagglutinin isolated from hemocytes of the solitary ascidian, halocynthia roretzi: it can agglutinate bacteria.a hemagglutinin was isolated from hemocytes of the ascidian, halocynthia roretzi, by a procedure including extraction and ion-exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose. the molecular weight of the hemagglutinin was estimated to be 120,000 by gel filtration. it was resistant to acid treatment but sensitive to alkali or heat treatment. the hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and lipopolysaccharide (lps), but not by mono- and disaccharides such as n-acetyl-galacto ...19911904830
[detection of aquatic microorganisms from the black sea--producers of restriction endonucleases].300 clones of microorganisms isolated at different stations and from different depths in the black sea were screened for restriction endonucleases production. the production of restriction endonucleases was found in 17 clones screened. three of them were identified to be alteromonas haloplanktis b1. restriction endonuclease ahab1 is an isoshizomer of sau961. an identified alteromonas haloplanktis clone b8 produces ahab8i restriction endonuclease the prototype to which is kpni. of the clones isol ...19901964718
the role of motile aeromonads in the fish disease, ulcerative disease syndrome (uds).ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) is an epizootic fish disease characterized by the presence of severe, open dermal ulcers on the head, midbody, and dorsal regions of the fish. aeromonas hydrophila and a. sobria were recovered more often from uds fish than other bacteria from the genera vibrio, alteromonas and plesiomonas. representative isolates of a. hydrophila, a. sobria, v. anguillarum, v. vulnificus, alteromonas putrefaciens, and p. shigelloides taken from uds and healthy fish were assayed ...19912044697
microbial sensor system for nondestructive evaluation of fish meat quality.a microbial sensor system consisting of the bacterium (alteromonas putrefaciens) immobilized within membranes, a flow cell, an oxygen electrode, peristaltic pumps, a buffer tank, a thermostatically controlled bath and a recorder, was constructed for the nondestructive quality evaluation of bluefin tuna. the chemical compounds on fish meat surfaces which are the indicators of fish meat quality were rapidly determined by using the proposed sensor system. fish meat quality was determined from the r ...19912049168
further study on polyamine compositions in has previously been reported that norspermidine, one of the unusual polyamines, is present in vibrio species. to expand this observation, the cellular polyamine compositions of additional species and strains in the family vibrionaceae (vibrio, photobacterium, listonella, and shewanella) as well as aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides, which have been proposed to be excluded from vibrionacea, were determined by using gas-liquid chromatography. some vibrio species previously reported ...19912059921
[loss of adsorptive ability--the reason for inactivation of the rm2 bacteriophage during storage].the kinetics of bacteriophage pm2 inactivation at storage was compared with the kinetics of bacteriophage adsorption on alteromonas espejiana bal-31 host cells. adsorption ability and infectivity are lost with the same rate at temperatures 4-28 degrees c suggesting the loss of adsorption ability to result in bacteriophage inactivation. at higher temperatures infectivity is lost more rapidly than the ability of adsorption. the single hit kinetics of adsorption ability loss suggests the simple mod ...19902074893
inhibitory effect of halocyamine, an antimicrobial substance from ascidian hemocytes, on the growth of fish viruses and marine bacteria.halocyamine a, an antimicrobial substance isolated from hemocytes of the solitary ascidian halocynthia roretzi, inhibited in vitro the growth of fish rna viruses (infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus). pretreatment of rna virus with halocyamine a reduced the infectivity of the virus toward host cells. the growth of marine bacteria, achromobacter aquamarinus and pseudomonas perfectomarinus, was also inhibited by halocyamine a but that of alteromonas put ...19902121517
direct observation of the phase behavior of the lipid bilayers of phage pm2 and the intact host cells by 1h-31p cross-polarization nmr.a method for obtaining the 31p nmr spectrum of a particular supramolecular structure in an intact biological system was developed by applying the 1h-31p cross-polarization technique to a lipid-containing bacteriophage, pm2, and its host bacterium, alteromonas espejiana. it was shown that 31p nmr spectra of nucleic acids and lipid bilayers can be obtained separately with short and long thermal contact times, respectively. the temperature dependence of the chemical shift anisotropy (delta sigma = ...19902166568
[the marine bacterium alteromonas piscicida--a producer of enzymes with thrombolytic action].the ability of marine bacteria a. piscicida to produce exoproteases that were able to lyse human blood clots has been studied. optimal conditions for biosynthesis of these enzymes have been found. the enzyme has been partially purified. in concentration of 1 mg/ml it has activity corresponding to that of 500 micrograms/l plasmine and 100 micrograms/ml trypsine. the enzyme activity was completely inhibited after incubation in human blood plasma.19902205639
inter- and intrafamilial similarities of rrna cistrons of the pasteurellaceae.we performed hybridizations between labeled rrnas from seven representative members of the family pasteurellaceae and from three other taxa on the one hand and dnas from 53 strains known or presumed to belong to the pasteurellaceae on the other hand. the members of the pasteurellaceae are most closely related to members of the enterobacteriaceae, the vibrionaceae, the aeromonadaceae, and the genus alteromonas. the family pasteurellaceae is very heterogeneous. there are at least seven rrna branch ...19902223605
taxonomy of four marine bacterial strains that produce tetrodotoxin.four strains of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria isolated from a red alga and from pufferfish were characterized. two of these strains are members of the genus listonella macdonell and colwell. the phenotypic characteristics, guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and base sequences of the 16s rrnas of these organisms indicated that they are members of listonella pelagia (vibrio pelagius) biovar ii. the other two strains are members of the genus alteromonas baumann et al. and the genus shewanella macdon ...19902275851
[isolation of alteromonas putrefaciens from secondary-recovery water in the petroleum industry].eight strains obtained from injection water for secondary recovery of oil were isolated and characterized as alteromonas. this species has been reported in a relatively great number in the system, after its treatment with cresylic acid (used as antibacterial agent). it has the property of forming important viscous sediments which are related to biofouling of the injection system.19902287714
precursor-product relationship of larger to smaller molecular forms of the bal 31 nuclease from alteromonas espejiana: preferential removal of duplex exonuclease relative to endonuclease activity by proteolysis.two molecularly and kinetically distinct major species of the extracellular nuclease bal 31 from alteromonas espejiana, previously characterized as the "fast" (f) and "slow" (s) bal 31 nucleases, have been evidenced to derive from proteolysis starting from a still larger (approximately 120 kda) precursor nuclease. the expected protease activity in the culture fluid has been confirmed and is strongly dependent on the cell growth phase. the disappearance of the largest nuclease species with the co ...19902306107
mechanism of exonuclease action of bal 31 nuclease.two kinetically and molecularly distinct forms ('fast' (f) and 'slow' (s] of nuclease bal 31 from alteromonas espejiana effect the length reduction of linear duplex dnas through a 3'----5'-directed exonuclease activity in conjunction with an endonuclease activity against the 5'-terminated single-stranded tails generated by the exonuclease activity. no evidence for a 5'----3' mode of exonuclease action was seen. single-stranded dna is degraded predominantly by the 3'----5' exonuclease action. the ...19902357468
membrane morphogenesis from cloned fragments of bacteriophage pm2 dna that contain the sp6.6 gene.the formation of new membrane vesicles normally occurs during eukaryotic organellogenesis and maturation of bacteriophage pm2. this virus was studied as a simple model for membrane morphogenesis. previous biochemical and genetic studies suggest that a major structural protein of pm2, sp6.6, is an integral membrane protein involved in viral membrane morphogenesis. to establish the necessity of sp6.6 in membrane formation, restriction fragments of pm2 that contained the sp6.6 coding sequence were ...19902407591
nucleotide sequences of 5s ribosomal rnas from three marine eubacteria: shewanella hanedai, alteromonas colwelliana and vibrio mediterranei. 19892473444
purification and characterization of an antibacterial substance produced by a marine alteromonas extracellular inhibitory substance produced by the marine alteromonas strain p-31 (ncmb 2144) was isolated and purified. the inhibitor was a macromolecule with a molecular weight of 90,000 estimated by sephadex g-100 chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the inhibitory activity was antagonized by proteinase k and beta-amylase and inactivated by heating at 80 degrees c for 30 min. the purified substance exhibited two typical absorption bands in the infra ...19892589840
the sodium cycle: a novel type of bacterial energetics.the progress of bioenergetic studies on the role of na+ in bacteria is reviewed. experiments performed over the past decade on several bacterial species of quite different taxonomic positions show that na+ can, under certain conditions, substitute for h+ as the coupling ion. various primary na+ pumps (delta mu na+ generators) are described, i.e., na+ -motive decarboxylases, nadh-quinone reductase, terminal oxidase, and atpase. the delta mu na+ formed is shown to be consumed by na+ driven atp-syn ...19892687258
respiratory na+ pump and na+-dependent energetics in vibrio alginolyticus.the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus was found to possess the respiratory na+ pump that generates an electrochemical potential of na+, which plays a central role in bioenergetics of v. alginolyticus, as a direct result of respiration. mutants defective in the na+ pump revealed that one of the two kinds of nadh: quinone oxidoreductase requires na+ for activity and functions as the na+ pump. the na+ pump composed of three subunits was purified and reconstituted into liposomes. generation of m ...19892687261
volatile compounds associated with microbial growth on normal and high ph beef stored at chill temperatures.volatile compounds produced by pseudomonas fragi and mixed, natural floras on beef of normal ph (5.5-5.8; glucose greater than 1500 micrograms/g) and high ph (6.3-6.8; glucose less than 10 micrograms/g) included a range of alkyl esters and a number of sulphur-containing compounds including dimethylsulphide but not hydrogen sulphide. production of the last was a property common to the other gram-negative organisms tested viz. hafnia alvei, enterobacter agglomerans, serratia liquefaciens, alteromo ...19892753835
symbiotic marine bacteria chemically defend crustacean embryos from a pathogenic fungus.embryos of the shrimp palaemon macrodactylus are remarkably resistant to infection by the fungus lagenidium callinectes, a recognized pathogen of many crustaceans. an alteromonas sp. bacterial strain consistently isolated from the surface of the embryos, produces 2,3-indolinedione (isatin), a compound that inhibits the pathogenic fungus. if exposed to the fungus, bacteria-free embryos quickly die, whereas similar embryos reinoculated with the bacteria or treated only with 2,3-indolinedione live ...19892781297
the recent evolutionary origin of the phenylalanine-sensitive isozyme of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase in the enteric lineage of bacteria.evolutionary events that generated the three regulatory isozymes of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (dahp) synthase present in contemporary strains of escherichia coli have been proposed recently [ahmad et al. (1986) j bacteriol 165:146-154]. the phylogenetic subdivision of gram-negative prokaryotes studied (superfamily b) includes enteric bacteria, an oceanospirillum cluster, pseudomonad group i (e.g., pseudomonas aeruginosa), pseudomonad group v (e.g., xanthomonas), and the acineto ...19872888901
bisucaberin, a new siderophore, sensitizing tumor cells to macrophage-mediated cytolysis. i. taxonomy of the producing organism, isolation and biological properties.alteromonas haloplanktis strain sb-1123 isolated from deep-sea mud produced a new siderophore, bisucaberin. bisucaberin rendered tumor cells susceptible to cytolysis mediated by murine peritoneal macrophages which were elicited by proteose peptone and not yet activated by lymphokine. bisucaberin exerted its sensitizing activity by both the preincubation with tumor cells and the addition to co-culture of macrophages and tumor cells. the activity of bisucaberin was specifically inhibited by ferric ...19872962972
sensitivity of some marine bacteria, a moderate halophile, and escherichia coli to uncouplers at alkaline ph.the inhibitory effects of uncouplers on amino acid transport into three marine bacteria, vibrio alginolyticus 118, vibrio parahaemolyticus 113, and alteromonas haloplanktis 214, into a moderate halophile, vibrio costicola nrc 37001, and into escherichia coli k-12 were found to vary depending upon the uncoupler tested, its concentration, and the ph. higher concentrations of all of the uncouplers were required to inhibit transport at ph 8.5 than at ph 7.0. the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlor ...19883045092
residual effect of storage in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere on the microbial flora of rock cod (sebastes spp.).a residual inhibitory effect on microbial growth due to modified-atmosphere (ma) storage (ma, 80% co2-20% air) was demonstrated for rock cod fillets stored in ma and transferred to air at 4 degrees c. results of measurements of co2 concentrations of the fillets suggested that the residual effect after transfer from ma to air was not due to retention of co2 at the surface of the fillets but was probably due to the microbial ecology of the system. lactobacillus spp. and tan alteromonas spp. (tan) ...19863096204
circular intermediates with missing nucleotides in the conversion of supercoiled or nicked circular to linear duplex dna catalyzed by two species of bal 31 nuclease.the extracellular nucleases from alteromonas espejiana bal 31 can catalyze the endonucleolytic and/or exonucleolytic hydrolysis of duplex dna in response to a variety of alterations, either covalent or noncovalent, in dna structure. the nuclease can exist as at least two kinetically and molecularly distinct protein species. the two species that have been studied, called the 'fast' (f) and 'slow' (s) nucleases, both readily convert negatively supercoiled dnas to linear duplex molecules and accomp ...19883275464
the phylogenetic origin of the bifunctional tyrosine-pathway protein in the enteric lineage of bacteria.because bifunctional enzymes are distinctive and highly conserved products of relatively infrequent gene-fusion events, they are particularly useful markers to identify clusters of organisms at different hierarchical levels of a phylogenetic tree. within the subdivision of gram-negative bacteria known as superfamily b, there are two distinctive types of tyrosine-pathway dehydrogenases: (1) a broad-specificity dehydrogenase (recently termed cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase [cdh]) that can utilize ei ...19883386529
distribution and significance of heterotrophic marine bacteria with antibacterial activity.bacteria with antibacterial activity were isolated from seawater, sediments, phytoplankton, and zooplankton of suruga, sagami, and tokyo bays and from soft corals and sponges collected from the taiwan coast. of the 726 strains isolated, 37 showed antibacterial activity against either vibrio parahaemolyticus (atcc 17802) or staphylococcus aureus (p209). sediment harbored the lowest number of these forms of bacteria, and those from tokyo bay did not show any activity. attached isolates showed grea ...19873435149
cloning in escherichia coli k-12 of a na+-dependent transport system from a marine bacterium.the transport of d-alanine by escherichia coli k-12 neither requires nor is stimulated by na+. the transport of d-alanine by the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 requires na+ specifically. mutants of e. coli which were unable to transport d-alanine were isolated by enrichment for d-cycloserine resistance. one of the mutants was transformed with a gene bank of a. haloplanktis chromosomal dna. two transformants, e. coli rm1(ppm1) and e. coli rm1(ppm2) were able to transport d-alanine ...19863512524
[profiles of enzymatic activities of the genera agrobacterium, alcaligenes, alteromonas, flavobacterium and pseudomonas].profiles of enzymatic activities were studied using 19 chromogenic substrates for 22 species (211 strains) belonging to the genera agrobacterium, alcaligenes, alteromonas, flavobacterium and pseudomonas. the observed patterns of reactions may be useful as an aid in identification of these species and for epidemiological studies.19873620200
inhibition of paramecium caudatum by an alteromonas luteoviolacea antibiotic factor obtained from alteromonas luteoviolacea was shown to kill paramecium caudatum. this substance was shown to be destroyed by boiling, sonication, or freezing. it passed through a 0.45-micron-pore-size filter and was not precipitated from a culture supernatant with ethyl alcohol. its production varied with a. luteoviolacea strains and medium constituents. it was also shown to be distinct from the a. luteoviolacea antibiotic that affects bacterial cells.19863767343
expression of genes from the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 in escherichia coli k-12.dna from the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 was partially digested with sau 3a and inserted into the bam hi site of the cloning vector pbr322. the ligation mixture was used to transform escherichia coli hb101. the gene bank plasmid preparation obtained was used to transform escherichia coli k-12 strain eo2717, an organism auxotrophic for histidine, arginine, adenine, uracil and thiamin. prototrophic transformants for each of the five metabolites were isolated using appropriate min ...19853899044
bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide.trimethylamine oxide, which is found in relatively high concentrations in the tissues of marine animals, serves as an electron acceptor in the anaerobic metabolism of a number of bacteria associated primarily with three environments: the marine environment (e.g. alteromonas and vibrio), the brackish pond (nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria), and animal intestines (enterobacteriaceae). its reduction to trimethylamine by such bacteria can constitute a major spoilage reaction during the storage of m ...19853904597
quantitative and qualitative aspects of bacterial flora of karachi coastal water shrimp (penaeus merguiensis and metapenaeus monoceros).bacterial counts were made over a period of two years of two important commercial shrimp varieties of karachi coastal waters. bacteria were also isolated and identified. total number of bacteria were found to be remarkably equal at 37 degrees, 30 degrees and 25 degrees c. aerobic plate count of penaeus merguiensis at 37 degrees c ranged from 1.2 x 10(5) to 6.0 x 10(7) cfu/g (median 1.8 x 10(6) cfu/g), and were predominantly vibrio, micrococcus, pseudomonas, staphylococcus, bacillus, and flavobac ...19853913252
[characteristics of phenotypes of alteromonas putrefaciens. study of 123 strains].the phenotypic characteristics of 124 strains of alteromonas putrefaciens, a bacterium that produces large quantities of hydrogen sulfide, were studied. the strains were isolated from man, warm and cold-blooded animals (especially fish and shellfish), marine and fresh waters. two phenetic groups were differentiated: group a strains grew at 42 degrees c, but not at 4 degrees c, tolerated 6 p. cent nacl and did not utilize glucose or maltose, unlike group b strains. each group could be divided int ...19854091319
taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria.two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. all the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. a wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. the strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. some strains ...19724552999
methylation of ribosomal proteins in bacteria: evidence of conserved modification of the eubacterial 50s subunit.methylation of the 50s ribosomal proteins from bacillus stearothermophilus, bacillus subtilis, alteromonas espejiana, and halobacterium cutirubrum was measured after the cells were grown in the presence of [1-14c]methionine or [methyl-3h]methionine or both. two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed, in general, similar relative electrophoretic mobilities of the methylated proteins from each eubacterium studied. proteins known to be structurally and functionally homolog ...19846425271
effect of temperature on the microbial flora of herring fillets stored in air or carbon dioxide.the microbial development on fillets of herring from the baltic sea was studied at temperatures from 0-15 c in air or 100% carbon dioxide (96-100% co2). the shelf-life of the fillets , defined as the time for the 'total aerobic count' to reach 1 x 10(7) c.f.u./g increased with decreased temperature from 1 d at 15 degrees c to 7 d at 0 degrees c (air). the corresponding values in co2 were 3 d and 33 d, respectively. the initial flora of the herring fillets was dominated by alteromonas putrefacien ...19846427171
trimethylamine oxide respiration of alteromonas putrefaciens ncmb 1735: na+-stimulated anaerobic transport in cells and membrane vesicles.alteromonas putrefaciens ncmb 1735 required the presence of nacl for anaerobic growth with serine, cysteine, and formate as substrate and trimethylamine oxide ( tmao ) as external electron acceptor. when lactate was substrate, the organism grew equally well in the absence of nacl. anaerobic uptake of glutamate, aspartate, serine, cysteine, and lactate in resting cells was strongly stimulated with nacl, and cytoplasmic membrane vesicles energized by electron transfer from formate to tmao displaye ...19846430228
energy coupling to k+ transport in a marine bacterium.cells of the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 atcc 19855 (previously referred to as marine pseudomonad b-16) were depleted of k+ by washing with 0.1 m mgso4. washing with 0.05 m mgso4 lowered the vmax for k+ transport compared with washing with 0.1 m with 0.05 but did not change the km, while washing with lower concentrations of mgso4 caused loss of ultraviolet-absorbing material from the cells. k+ uptake was a strictly aerobic process and was accompanied by proton release. when an ...19806450627
a single apurinic site can elicit bal 31 nuclease-catalyzed cleavage in duplex dna.the extracellular nuclease from alteromonas espejiana bal 31 is a highly sensitive endonucleolytic probe for lesions that distort the helical structure of duplex dna. the nuclease can be isolated as two distinct molecular species, the 'fast' (f) and 'slow' (s) species, which have different kinetic properties. when nonsupercoiled, covalently closed circular phage pm2 dna containing apurinic sites introduced by heating at acid ph was incubated with individual fractions from a chromatographic colum ...19846477917
terminally directed hydrolysis of duplex ribonucleic acid catalyzed by a species of the bal 31 nuclease from alteromonas espejiana.the extracellular nuclease activities of alteromonas espejiana sp. bal 31 are mediated by at least two distinct protein species that differ in molecular weights and catalytic properties. the two species that have been purified to homogeneity and characterized, the "fast" (f) and "slow" (s) enzymes, both possess an exonuclease activity that shortens both strands of duplex dna, with the f nuclease displaying a much greater (approximately 19-fold) turnover number for this degradation than the s spe ...19846490665
the presence of phospholipase a and lysophospholipase activities in culture supernatant fluid from alteromonas espejiana.culture supernatants from late log phase cultures of alteromonas espejiana hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol to glycerylphosphorylinositol and free fatty acid. no lysophosphatidylimositol was detected. the phospholipase activity degraded up to 50% of the substrate and displayed a broad ph optimum from 6.5-8.5. the activity was slightly stimulated in the presence of either mg2+ or ca2+, but was not inhibited by edta. the apparent km for phosphatidylinositol was 1.5 mm. culture supernatants also con ...19836617959
accessibility of phosphatidylethanolamine in bacteriophage pm2 and in its gram-negative host.the reaction of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid with phosphatidylethanolamine in the cytoplasmic membrane of alteromonas espejiana suggests that 50% of this lipid occupies the outer lamella. in pm2, similar analysis suggests that 56% of this lipid populates the outer lamella of the membrane, the surface of which accounts for 60% of the membrane area.19836632086
isolation and comparison of two molecular species of the bal 31 nuclease from alteromonas espejiana with distinct kinetic properties.the extracellular nuclease from alteromonas espejiana sp. bal 31 can be isolated as two distinct proteins, the "fast" (f) and "slow" (s) species, both of which have been purified to homogeneity. the f and s species of the nuclease have molecular weights, respectively, of 109 x 10(3) and 85 x 10(3), and both are single polypeptide chains with an isoelectric ph near 4.2. both species catalyze the degradation of single-stranded and linear duplex dnas to 5'-mononucleotides. the degradation of linear ...19836643438
relationship between ion requirements for respiration and membrane transport in a marine bacterium.intact cells of the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 oxidized nadh, added to the suspending medium, by a process which was stimulated by na+ or li+ but not k+. toluene-treated cells oxidized nadh at three times the rate of untreated cells by a mechanism activated by na+ but not by li+ or k+. in the latter reaction, k+ spared the requirement for na+. intact cells of a. haloplanktis oxidized ethanol by a mechanism stimulated by either na+ or li+. the uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric ac ...19846690427
repair-defective mutants of alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage pm2.the in vivo repair processes of alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage pm2, were characterized, and uv- and methyl methanesulfonate (mms)-sensitive mutants were isolated. wild-type a. espejiana cells were capable of photoreactivation, excision, recombination, and inducible repair. there was no detectable pyrimidine dimer-dna n-glycosylase activity, and pyrimidine dimer removal appeared to occur by a pathway analogous to the escherichia coli uvr pathway. the uv- and mms-sensitive mutan ...19846693349
amino acid and lactate catabolism in trimethylamine oxide respiration of alteromonas putrefaciens ncmb 1735.the nonfermentative alteromonas putrefaciens ncmb 1735 grew anaerobically in defined media with trimethylamine oxide as external electron acceptor. all amino acids tested, except taurine and those with a cyclic or aromatic side chain, were utilized during trimethylamine oxide-dependent anaerobic growth. lactate, serine, and cysteine (which are easily converted to pyruvate) and glutamate and aspartate (which are easily converted to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) were metabolized at the f ...19846742826
the extracellular nuclease from alteromonas espejiana: an enzyme highly specific for nonduplex structure in nominally duplex dna. 19816765647
mutant ts1 of bacteriophage pm2 is defective in the major capsid protein and fails to package its dna.infection of alteromonas espejiana at restrictive temperature with mutant ts1 of bacteriophage pm2 resulted in the intracellular accumulation of virus-sized empty-appearing membrane vesicles. the dna associated with purified vesicles was fully susceptible to digestion with dnase. sedimentation analysis and electron microscopy suggested a full-length linear form of the normally circular viral genome. a pulse-chase-shift experiment suggested that [3h]thymidine-labeled dna made under restrictive co ...19836823014
relative incidence of alteromonas putrefaciens and pseudomonas putrefaciens in ground beef.of 65 h(2)s-producing isolates from seven samples of ground beef, 64 were found to be alteromonas putrefaciens. isolates of pseudomonas putrefaciens were not encountered. the mean guanine-plus-cytosine content of dnas from 10 of the representative isolates, obtained from thermal denaturation determinations, was 46.5 +/- 1.0 mol%, which is consistent with the designation a. putrefaciens.19836847186
kinetics and characterization of the proteins synthesized during infection by bacteriophage pm2.using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have examined the proteins whose synthesis is stimulated in alteromonas espejiana by infection with the membrane-containing bacteriophage pm2. in addition to four virus structural proteins, 11 non-structural proteins have been resolved and identified by their apparent isoelectric points and molecular weights. the relative rate of synthesis of each of the proteins was determined during the course of infection. synthesis of the earliest proteins began ...19827097247
numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic pseudomonads.the taxonomy of 218 psychrotrophic pseudomonad strains (200 field strains from meat and 18 type and reference strains) was numerically studied by 174 biochemical and physiological tests. all strains were gram-negative rods, oxidative positive and motile by means of one or more polar flagella. the strains clustered into 15 groups, of which 9 were regarded as major clusters. the major clusters were designated as pseudomonas fragi (112 strains), p. fluorescens biotype iii (7 strains), p. fluorescen ...19827119735
dna supercoiling, shortening, and induction of single-strand regions by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii).cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii) was found to bind to covalently closed circular supercoiled, covalently closed circular nonsupercoiled, and single-strand broken relaxed pm2 dna and induce different types of dna conformational changes. using kleinschmidt's technique, it was found that binding of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii) decreased the dna length to 75% of the original single-strand broken relaxed dna without inducing superhelical conformational changes. cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii) al ...19817197192
growth characteristics af low na+ concentration and the stability of the na+ requirement of a marine bacterium.studies of the marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 (formerly referred to as marine pseudomonad b-16) showed that as the na+ concentration in the growth medium decreased from 230 to 34 mm, the lowest concentration permitting growth, the length of the lag period preceding exponential growth increased. once growth had begun, except for a slight reduction in rate of growth at 34 mm na+, the generation time and extent of growth remained essentially constant over the range of na+ concentrati ...19817237281
effect of growth at low na+ concentrations on the capacity of a marine bacterium to establish ion gradients and transport alpha-aminoisobutyric acid.cells of a histidine-auxotrophic, streptomycin-resistant mutant of marine bacterium alteromonas haloplanktis 214 were grown at or near the lowest concentration of na+ permitting growth (30-33 mm na+). when suspended in solutions containing 10 mmkcl and either 30, 100, or 300 mm nacl, the intracellular to extracellular k+ ratios were similar to those obtained with cells of the parent organism grown at more nearly optimum na+ concentrations, whereas the na+ ratios were somewhat larger. cells of th ...19817237282
assimilatory sulfur metabolism in marine microorganisms: characteristics and regulation of sulfate transport in pseudomonas halodurans and alteromonas luteo-violaceus.sulfate transport capacity was not regulated by cysteine, methionine, or glutathione in pseudomonas halodurans, but growth on sulfate or thiosulfate suppressed transport. subsequent sulfur starvation of cultures grown on all sulfur sources except glutathione stimulated uptake. only methionine failed to regulate sulfate transport in alteromonas luteo-violaceus, and sulfur starvation of all cultures enhanced transport capacity. during sulfur starvation of sulfate-grown cultures of both bacteria, t ...19817263610
assimilatory sulfur metabolism in marine microorganisms: a novel sulfate transport system in alteromonas luteo-violaceus.the sulfate transport mechanism of a marine bacterium, alteromonas luteo-violaceus, was unique among microorganisms in its extremely low affinity for the sulfate analog thiosulfate. distinguishing characteristics included weak inhibition of sulfate transport by thiosulfate, inability to transport thiosulfate effectively, poor growth using thiosulfate as the sole source of sulfur, and a mild effect of the sulfhydryl reagent para-hydroxymercuribenzoate. in contrast, sulfate transport by a marine p ...19817263611
[alteromonas putrefaciens. taxonomy and cultivation (author's transl)].the morphology and biochemical activity of pseudomonas/alteromonas putrefaciens is described. features indicating the uncertain taxonomic position of the organism are discussed, and it is pointed out why a. putrefaciens does not fit into neither pseudomonas nor alteromonas, but should be considered as a separate unit or group. table i shows criteria which can be used for differentiation between a. putrefaciens and the genera pseudomonas, alcaligenes and alteromonas. essential characteristics are ...19817322860
sodium ion-substrate symport in a marine bacterium.anaerobic suspensions of alteromonas haloplanktis accumulated alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, by a sodium-dependent process, in response to an artificially imposed membrane potential in the presence or absence of a transmembrane chemical gradient of sodium. these results suggest that the transport of alpha-aminoisobutyrate by this organism occurs via na+-substrate symport.19807380801
lipid composition and chemotaxonomy of pseudomonas putrefaciens (alteromonas putrefaciens).the major polar lipids in cells of pseudomonas putrefaciens ncib 10472 grown on nutrient agar were phosphatidylethanolamine, phoisphatidylglycerol, a glucosyldiacylglycerol, a glucuronosyldiacylglycerol and an ornithine amide lipid. an additional phospholipid, tentatively identified as acyl phosphatidylglycerol or bis-phosphatidic acid, was a trace component of the wall lipids from broth cultures, which lacked the glycolipids and the ornithine amide lipid. the wall lipids from broth cultures of ...19807441198
the 16s rrna sequence and genome sizing of tributyltin resistant marine bacterium, strain m-1.the 16s rrna of the tributyltin resistant marine bacterium, strain m-1, was partly sequenced to confirm the taxonomic status. the results indicated that this bacterium should be classified under the genus alteromonas, instead of a previous report in which this strain was identified as a vibrio. the genome size of this strain was also measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using a contoureclamped homogeneous electric field. the strain was found to contain a genome size of 2,240 kilo ...19947512189
phylogenetic analysis and assessment of the genera vibrio, photobacterium, aeromonas, and plesiomonas deduced from small-subunit rrna sequences.we sequenced nearly complete small-subunit rrnas of 54 reference strains belonging to the genera vibrio, photobacterium, aeromonas, and plesiomonas. we then performed a phylogenetic analysis by comparing the sequences which we obtained with all other known sequences for bacteria belonging to the gamma subgroup of the proteobacteria (thus providing a data base consisting of 70 sequences for the genera investigated), using methods such as neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony ...19947520733
phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, loihi seamount, hawaii.the phylogenetic diversity of small-subunit rrna genes associated with the domain bacteria was examined (by using previously defined operational taxonomic units [c. l. moyer, f.c. dobbs, and d. m. karl, appl. environ. microbiol. 60:871-879, 1994]; those for pele's vents bacteria are hereafter abbreviated pvb otus) with samples from a microbial mat at an active, deep-sea hydrothermal vent system. a cluster of phylogenetically related pvb otus (otus 2, 3, 6, and 8) was closely affiliated with thio ...19957538279
phylogenetic analysis of the genera alteromonas, shewanella, and moritella using genes coding for small-subunit rrna sequences and division of the genus alteromonas into two genera, alteromonas (emended) and pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations.small-subunit ribosomal dna sequences were determined for 17 strains belonging to the genera alteromonas, shewanella, vibrio, and pseudomonas, and these sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic methods. the resulting data confirmed the existence of the genera shewanella and moritella, but suggested that the genus alteromonas should be split into two genera. we propose that a new genus, the genus pseudoalteromonas, should be created to accommodate 11 species that were previously alteromonas specie ...19957547295
comparison of the fatty acids of the tunicate botryllus schlosseri from the black sea with two associated bacterial strains.the fatty acid composition of the tunicate botryllus schlosseri and of two bacterial strains found within the tunicate, namely vibrio parahaemolyticus and of an associated but previously unreported gram positive cocci were studied. the polyunsaturated fatty acids 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid, 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid, and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid were particularly abundant in b. schlosseri and were not detected in the two bacterial strains found in the tunicate. the iso/ant ...19957564924
molecular cloning of the gene which encodes beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from a marine bacterium, alteromonas sp. strain o-7.the gene encoding the periplasmic beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase (glcnacase b) from a marine alteromonas sp. strain, o-7, was cloned and sequenced. the protein sequence of glcnacase b revealed a highly significant homology with vibrio glcnacase and alpha- and beta-chains of human beta-hexosaminidase.19957574618
structure of the capsular polysaccharide from alteromonas sp. cmm 155.capsular polysaccharide (cps) was obtained by water-saline extraction of the alteromonas sp. cmm 155. on the basis of solvolysis with anhydrous hf and 1h- and 13c-nmr spectral data, including noe experiments, it was concluded that the capsular polysaccharide had the following structure containing novel n-acyl-amino sugar and bacillosamine residues: --> 3)-alpha-d-galpnac-(1 --> 4)-alpha-l-galapnac(1 --> 3)- alpha-d-quipnac4nac-(1 --> 3)-beta-d-quip4nalaac-(1 -->19957585719
in situ biodegradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in natural waters.the biodegradation of samples of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(p(3hb)), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-10%-3-hydroxyvalerate)(p(3hb-co-10 %-3hv)), and poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-20%-3-hydroxyvalerate)(p(3hb-co-20%- 3hv)) was investigated in situ in natural waters. the degradation was studied by decrease in mass, molecular weight, and tensile strength. in two freshwater ponds the polymers were slowly degraded. after half a year of submersion the mass loss was less than 7%. after 358 days in a freshwater cana ...19957606659
purification and characterization of beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from alteromonas sp. strain o-7.beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase (ec was purified from the outer membrane of a marine bacterium, alteromonas sp. strain o-7. the enzyme (glcnacase a) was purified by successive column chromatographies. the purified enzyme was found to be homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the molecular mass and pi of glcnacase a were 92kda and 4.9, respectively. the optimum ph and temperature were 6.0-7.0 and 45 degrees c, respectively. glcnacase a was stable up to 40 ...19957613001
kinetics and mechanism of bal 31 nuclease action on small substrates and single-stranded dna.kinetic and mechanistic aspects of the action of two forms of the bal 31 nuclease (ec 3.1.11) from alteromonas espejiana on model substrates, small oligonucleotides, larger oligonucleotides and poly[d(a)] have been examined. the minimal oligonucleotide substrate is a 5'-phosphorylated dinucleotide and a phosphodiester not containing a nucleotide residue is not cleaved. both forms act predominantly in an exonucleolytic fashion on single-stranded dna polymers in a highly processive manner; however ...19957669801
in vitro activity of bms-181139, a new carbapenem with potent antipseudomonal activity.the in vitro activities of the carbapenem bms-181139 were determined in comparison with those of imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. bms-181139 was the most active against species of pseudomonas and related genera alteromonas and burkholderia, with mics for 147 of 149 isolates of < 4 micrograms/ml. of 22 imipenem-resistant (mic > 8 micrograms/ml) p. aeruginosa strains, only 1 required an mic of bms-181139 of > 4 micrograms/ml, compared with 14 requiring the same mero ...19957726502
processing and hydrolytic mechanism of the cgka-encoded kappa-carrageenase of alteromonas carrageenovora.the cgka gene of alteromonas carrageenovora encodes a kappa-carrageenase with a predicted mass of 44212 da, much larger than the 35 kda estimated from sds/page of the protein purified from culture supernatants. immunoblotting experiments showed the presence of a protein of 44 +/- 2 kda in both native and recombinant bacterial intracellular extracts, suggesting that the kappa-carrageenase is produced as a preproprotein which undergoes proteolytic processing twice during secretion. to determine th ...19957737202
site-directed mutagenesis of chitinase from alteromonas sp. strain o-7.chitinase (chi85) from alteromonas sp. strain o-7 contains the two conserved regions common to microbial and plant chitinases. we did site-directed mutagenesis of chi85 to investigate the effects of the conserved amino acid residues on chitinase activity. we suggest that asp-290 and glu-292 of chi85 may be the essential amino acid residues for the cleavage of beta-glycosidic linkage of chitin.19937764022
tributyltin-resistant marine bacteria: a summary of recent work.a tributyltin chloride (tbtcl)-resistant bacterium, alteromonas sp. m-1, was isolated from coastal seawater. this bacterium grew in medium containing 125 microm tbtcl. tbtcl added to the medium was taken up by this bacterium, however, the amount of tbtcl in the cellular fraction was low after the logarithmic phase, suggesting the existence of a tbtcl-efflux system. a genetic library was constructed using plasmid vector puc 19. three positive clones were obtained, by which e. coli was transformed ...19957766207
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