new source for positive controls used for the identification of spirochaetes in tissue sections.lyophilized t. pallidum is recontituted or purchased as a suspension, evenly dispersed, made into smears using alcohol-cleaned slides and a bacteriological platinum wire loop. smears are air dried for 15 minutes and fixed in concentrated formaldehyde fumes for 30 minutes and stored at room temperature. these preparations are used as positive controls for conventional silver impregnation techniques recommended for spirochaete detection in tissue sections.197659412
[conditions for maintaining a natural focus of tick-borne spirochetosis in southern tadzhikistan].the spontaneous infection of b. latyshevi population of o. tartakovskyi and its hosts in the foothill zone of southern tadjikistan was studied. a great part of the horsfield's terrapin unsusceptible to the spirochaete in the feeding of the tick's population was established. the foci is apparently maintained on account of the rising number of the redtailed libyan jird. in years of the depression of rodents number the main part in the preservation of the infection belongs to the ticks.1976133321
phagocytosis and digestion of spirochetes by amebocytes of infected brine shrimp. 1975168271
[isolation of nichols strain of spirochaeta pallida with changed sensitivity to penicillin. i]. 1978248233
[isolation of nichols strain of spirochaeta pallida with changed sensitivity to penicillin. ii]. 1978248234
[some biochemical characteristics of oral spirochetes (author's transl)]. 1977268541
[fine structure of oral spirochetes, especially axial fibrils and cyst like structure (author's transl)]. 1977268542
cancrum oris.cancrum oris is a gangrenous infection of the oral cavity. debilitating diseases predispose to the condition. the exact bacteriology is uncertain although vincent's spirochaete and the fusiform bacillus in symbiosis have been considered to be the actual cause of the condition. the presentation of the disease is variable, for the condition may affect the soft tissues of the face or the bones of the facial skeleton or both concurrently. this disease has a high mortality rate. if recovery from toxa ...1979292744
relationship between cell coiling and motility of spirochetes in viscous environments.the lowest viscosity that stops translational motility of cells (minimum immobilizing viscosity [miv] was determined for various spirochetes. the viscous agent used was polyvinylpyrrolidone, the miv for either spirochaeta halophila p1 or spirochaeta aurantia j4t was approximately 1,000 centipoise (cp), and for leptospira interrogans (biflexa) b16 the miv was greater than 500 cp. in comparison, the miv for the flagellated bacteria escherichia coli and spirillum serpens was 60 cp. miv values for t ...1977330506
the spirochetes. 1977334048
motility and chemotaxis of spirochetes. 1978360979
[history of bacteriology in japan (25)]. 1978364099
syphilitic lymphadenitis: immunofluorescent identification of spirochetes from imprints.we are reporting two cases of early syphilis with inguinal buboes which were surgically excised. th clinical impression was lymphoma in one case and inguinal hernia in the other. the correct and specific diagnosis was quickly established by the application of fluorescent antibody technique to imprints of the enlarged lymph node.1979393116
[hideyo noguchi and oral spirochaete]. 1978394992
[serological studies on oral spirochetes by means of gell diffusion method (author's transl)]. 1977408769
[spirochaetal septicemia in newborn infants]. 1979441043
studies on a canine intestinal spirochete: scanning electron microscopy of canine colonic mucosa.a large homogeneous population of spirochetes was observed attached to the colonic mucosa of clinically normal dogs. their association with the colonic mucosa and their mode of attachment resembled those of a spirochete reported in primates.1978669823
[morphological structure of spirochaeta cells. part 3. ultrastructural studies, with special reference to their dynamic structures]. 1978691267
[hemagglutination reaction with an antigen prepared from nichols spirochaete]. 1978693924
a direct fluorescent antibody test for large spirochetes in swine dysentery using hyperimmunized swine serum.a direct fluorescent antibody test was developed for the identification of large spirochetes which are considered to be the cause of swine dysentery. sera from swine which had recovered from swine dysentery and had been hyperimmunized by the intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of filtered spirochetes were used for conjugation with fluorescein isothiocyanate. a bright greenish fluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with the conjugated serum from hyperimmunized pig no. 1 when diluted ...1976793697
immunofluorescence of spirochetes with serum from swine recovered from swine dysentery using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.using an indirect fluorescent antibody test, immunofluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with serum from swine that had recovered from swine dysentery. the spirochetes were obtained from scrapings of the colonic mucosa on the first day of diarrhea which was the time when the spirochete population was observed to be the highest. of 29 exposed nonmedicated swine which developed and recovered from a diarrhea characteristic of swine dysentery 27 had antispirochete serum titers which ranged ...1976793698
[morphological studies of spirochaeta. 1. introduction and light microscopic studies]. 1976794526
effects of sr-spirochete infection on drosophila melanogaster carrying intersex genes.three sex-transforming genes (ix, tra-d, and dsx) in d. melanogaster were examined with respect to possible interactions with the nsr strain sr-spirochetes. the sr-spirochetes exerted a lethal effect on xy but not on xx individuals, regardless of whether they were phenotypically males, intersexes, or females. these results, taken together with those reported by sakaguchi and poulson (1963)on tra and 2x3a intersexes, both of which are resistant to the androcidal action of sr-spirochetes, support ...1975805080
[modern serological diagnosis of syphilis (author's transl)].after discussion of the antigen structure of treponema pallidum it is shown that only reactions with the pallidum antigen can establish a serological diagnosis of syphilis. reactions with reiter antigen are superfluous, reactions with lipoid antigen (cardiolipin) are non-specific and not very sensitive and consequently only conditionally useful as a test reaction. the behavior of the treponema and lipoid antigen reactions is different in the various stages of lues, and consequently permits certa ...1975807840
direct transfer of the phosphoryl moiety of mannitol 1-phosphate to [14c]mannitol catalyzed by the enzyme ii complexes of the phosphoenolpyruvate: mannitol phosphotransferase systems in spirochaeta aurantia and salmonella typhimurium.spirochaeta aurantia possesses a phosphoenolpyruvate:mannitol phosphotransferase system which catalyzes the transmembrane transport and phosphorylation of mannitol. in vitro studies showed that both phosphoenolpyruvate and mannitol 1-phosphate could serve as phosphate donors. the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent reaction required two soluble proteins, enzyme si and hpr, and an integral membrane complex, enzyme sii. only enzyme sii was required for the mannitol 1-phosphate-dependent reaction. enzyme ...1976819432
chemotaxis in spirochaeta aurantia.cell of spirochaeta aurantia m1 suspended in isotropic buffer solution swam in nearly straight lines and appeared to spin around their longitudinal axis. occasionally, cells stopped and flexed, and then resumed translational motility, usually in a different direction. the average cell velocity was 26 micron/s. a quantitative assay for chemotaxis was used to test various chemicals for their ability to attract s. aurantia m1. the cells exhibited a tactic response toward 5 x 10(-2) m d-glucose betw ...1977853032
properties of a phosphoenolpyruvate: mannitol phosphotransferase system in spirochaeta aurantia. 1977925030
morphological characteristics of a spirochete present in activated sludge.a free-living spirochete has been found in the activated sludge of purification plants in amsterdam. a partial enrichment of the spirochete could be obtained with a passage through a thin layer of water agar. the morphology of this spirochetal strain does not fit into one of the described genera in bergey's manual. the cells have many regular primary coils on which broad secondary coils are superimposed and the protoplasmic cylinder is tightly wound around an axistyle,19761009504
diagnosis of swine dysentery: spirochaetes which may be confused with treponema hyodysenteriae.spirochaetes, designated pws, microscopically resembling treponema hyodysenteriae, were isolated from the colon contents of pigs with post-weaning scours from three herds, which on clinical and epidemiological grounds were thought to be free from swine dysentery. one of the isolates was fed to pigs experimentally but no evidence of disease was noted. their cultural characteristics differed from those of t hyodysenteriae but they were similar to those of a non-pathogenic spirachaete (4/71) which ...19761014306
spirochaeta halophila sp. n., a facultative anaerobe from a high-salinity pond.a facultatively anaerobic spirochete isolated from a high-salinity pond grew optimally when 0.75 m nacl, 0.2 m mgso4, and 0.01 m cacl2 were present in media containing yeast extract, peptone, and a carbohydrate. the organism failed to grow when any one of these three salts was omitted from the medium. aerobically-grown colonies of the spirochete were red, whereas anaerobically-grown colonies showed no pigmentation. non-pigmented mutants of the spirochete were isolated. the spirochete used carboh ...19761015946
macrophage migration inhibition test in untreated syphilis.two modifications of macrophage migration inhibition test, one of george and vaughan and the other one of svejcar, were performed on a total of 78 cases of untreated syphilis at various stages. as specific antigens were used: treponema pallidum ultrasonate and cardiolipin. inhibition of migration was observed in 87 percent patients with primary syphillis and in all patients with late and late congenital syphilis. after improving and standardisation of the technique of treponema pallidum antigen- ...19751090263
an in vivo study of an antimicrobial mouth rinse on supragingival and subgingival plaque and calculus antibiotic mouth rinse (cc10232) was used twice a day for one week in human subjects in a supervised double blind clinical and histological study. nylon strips were placed supra and subgingivally for one week and then sectioned, stained and examined. results showed that the rinse containing cc-10232 reduced the amount of plaque and reduced the amount of mineralization in 4 of 5 subjects.also, no spirochetes were found in subjects who utilized this rinse.19751091935
[hard chancre as a manifestation of cellular immunological reactions at the site of entry of spirochaete pallida]. 19751098300
tropical ulcers.we review 230 cases of tropical ulcers, includied reports of 7 cases with squamous cell carcinoma. we think the etiology may be a combination of the hot, humid environment, trauma, local infection, and malnutrition. agressive treatment of these ulcers is advocated, to heal the wounds and to prevent malignant transformation.19751118492
carotenoid pigments of facultatively anaerobic spirochetes.carotenoid pigments were purified from a previously undescribed, red, halophilic spirochete (spirochete rs1), and from spirochaeta aurantia strain j1. both spirochetes are facultative anaerobes and produce pigments when growing aerobically. the major pigments of the two spirochetes were identified by means of chromatographic analysis, absorption spectroscopy, hydride reduction, acetylation and silylation experiments, and mass spectrometry. it was concluded that the major pigment from spirochete ...19751158846
synergism between trichuris suis and the microbial flora of the large intestine causing dysentery in pigs.the role of the microbial flora of the large intestine in experimental trichuris suis infection was studied by comparing the clinical syndrome in conventionally reared (cr) pigs, specific pathogen-free pigs, and gnotobiotic pigs. thedisease in cr pigs was characterized by a severe mucohemorrhagic enteritis; in contrast, a mild catarrhal enteritis was observed in specific pathogen-free and gnotobiotic pigs. spirochaetes and vibrio-like organisms were observed only in cr pigs and increased during ...19751167536
morphology and physiology of spirochaeta aurantia strains isolated from aquatic habitats.1. seven strains of spirochaeta aurantia were isolated from pond and swamp water by means of a selective technique which utilized the ability of these organisms to move through bacterial filters and to diffuse through agar media. although most of the isolations were accomplished when enrichment media low in carbohydrates were used, all seven strains were found to be exclusively saccharolytic. 2. the isolates could be divided into two groups on the basis of cell morphology: a loosely coiled group ...19751190952
possible formation and development of spirochaete attachment sites found on the surface of symbiotic polymastigote flagellates of the termite reticulitermes flavipes.we propose that spirochaete attachment sites arise from peripheral protrusions which appear on the surface of polymastigote flagellates. these protrusions develop into bracket-shaped structures which then form the mature attachment site. next the site becomes detached from the surface of the cell; this latter process may be facilitated by the fusion of vesicles located in the region immediately beneath the spirochaete attachment site. this theory could explain the variability in the number and d ...19751203458
[ultrastructure of spirochaeta anserinum]. 19751216569
the lipids of four unusual non-pathogenic host-associated spirochetes.the lipid compositions of two spirochetes isolated from the human oral cavity and two isolated from pig feces were examined. these isolates were unusual in that they did not require long-chain fatty acids for growth, as do the other host-associated spirochetes, but rather required isobutyric and valeric acids. therefore, they could be cultured in a medium free of serum or fatty acid - albumin supplements. the major fatty acids synthesized were normal and iso fatty acids with 14 and 16 carbons. n ...19751238163
[the "microfiber", the constituent of the outer membrane of spirochaeta]. 19751240188
[formation of spherocytes of oral spirochaeta and their characteristics]. 19751240212
[immunological study of oral spirochaeta with special reference to its localization in the gigival tissue and pca activities]. 19751240311
sequence homology between spirochaete flagellin and human myelin basic protein. 19921382434
polymerase chain reaction for detection of leptospira spp. in clinical samples.a sensitive assay for leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis, was developed on the basis of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a 331-bp sequence from the leptospira interrogans serovar canicola rrs (16s) gene was amplified, and the pcr products were analyzed by dna-dna hybridization by using a 289-bp fragment internal to the amplified dna. specific pcr products also were obtained with dna from the closely related nonpathogenic leptospira biflexa but not with dna from other spiro ...19921400983
cell-bound peptidase activities of treponema denticola atcc 33520 in continuous culture.the oral spirochaete treponema denticola atcc 33520 was grown at a mean generation time of 10 h in anaerobic continuous culture in a serum- and carbohydrate-free medium at ph 7.0. the extracellular proteolytic activities of this spirochaete were then investigated by incubating washed cells with 68 2-naphthylamide derivatives of the extended api system. chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, elastase-like and iminopeptidase activities were demonstrated. the phenylalanine peptidase or chymotrypsin-like ...19921402787
borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes ricinus from habitats in denmark.a total of 2647 ticks of the genus ixodes was sampled by flagging the vegetation in thirty-one sites in eastern jutland, denmark. all ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus linnaeus. a total of 317 ticks (202 nymphs and 115 adults) from three different sites were examined for the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. by indirect fluorescent antibody staining; the frequency of infection varied from 7% to 22%. it is concluded that i. ricinus, known to be the most common tick in denmark, ...19921421487
arthropoda as zoonoses and their implications.some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in mediterranean areas are briefly discussed. selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in europe. finally, the risk of the emergence of lyme borreliosis (borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spr ...19921441188
[acute myelo-meningo-radiculitis caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi].a case of severe myelo-meningo-radiculitis with lyme neuro-borreliosis is described in a patient aged 33 years suffering from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. it is essential to examine the cerebro-spinal fluid for borelia burgdorferi specific intrathecal antibody production if sensory radiculitis persist and, finally, if there are focal motor signs and unexplained lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebro-spinal fluid. early diagnosis is very important in order to shorten the course of the ill ...19921462471
[organization of ribosomal rna genes in spirochetes]. 19921469777
spirochete chemotaxis, motility, and the structure of the spirochetal periplasmic flagella.spirochetes have a unique motility system that is characterized by flagellar filaments contained within the outer membrane sheath. direct evidence using video microscopy has recently been obtained which indicates that these periplasmic flagella (pf) rotate in several spirochetal species. this rotation generates thrust. as shown for one spirochete, spirochaeta aurantia, motility is driven by a proton motive force. spirochete chemotaxis has been most thoroughly studied in s. aurantia. this spiroch ...19921475520
the periplasmic flagella of serpulina (treponema) hyodysenteriae are composed of two sheath proteins and three core proteins.the major components of the periplasmic flagella of the spirochaete serpulina (treponema) hyodysenteriae strain c5 were purified and characterized. we demonstrate that the periplasmic flagella are composed of five major proteins (molecular masses 44, 37, 35, 34 and 32 kda) and present their location, n-terminal amino acid sequence and immunological relationship. the 44 kda and the 35 kda protein are on the sheath of the periplasmic flagellum, whereas the 37, 34 and 32 kda protein reside in the p ...19921487733
an invasive spirochaete associated with interdigital papillomatosis of dairy cattle. 19921546440
glucose catabolism by spirochaeta thermophila ri 19.b1.spirochaeta thermophila ri 19.b1 (dsm 6192) fermented glucose to lactate, acetate, co2, and h2 with concomitant formation of cell material. the cell dry mass yield was 20.0 g/mol of glucose. from the fermentation balance data and knowledge of the fermentation pathway, a yatp of 9.22 g of dry mass per mol of atp was calculated for ph-uncontrolled batch-culture growth on glucose in a mineral medium. measurement of enzyme activities in glucose-grown cells revealed that glucose was taken up by a per ...19921556064
adherence and entry of borrelia burgdorferi in vero cells.adherence to and entry of the parasite into the host is one of the essential elements of microbial pathogenicity. we investigated the adherence to and entry into primate kidney epithelial (vero) cells of borrelia burgdorferi by radiolabelling techniques, immunofluorescence and electronmicroscopy. the attachment to and subsequent entry of both untreated and heat (50 degrees c)-treated b. burgdorferi into vero cells occurred at cell-surface sites associated with aggregated coated pits. in contrast ...19921560445
susceptibility of treponema pallidum and other selected spirochaetes to zidovudine.the antiviral nucleoside derivative zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) previously has been shown to be an effective antibacterial agent in animals infected with escherichia coli or salmonella typhimurium. since hiv infection can alter the course of human syphilis with serious consequences, it was of interest to determine if the noncultivable spirochaetal agent of syphilis, treponema pallidum, is susceptible to this compound. the progression of experimental rabbit syphilis over a three week ...19921607332
cloning and dna sequence analysis of a serpulina (treponema) hyodysenteriae gene encoding a periplasmic flagellar sheath protein.a serpulina (treponema) hyodysenteriae expression library was constructed in vector lambda zap and screened with a polyclonal antiserum raised against s. hyodysenteriae periplasmic flagella. a single immunoreactive plaque was chosen for further analysis. the recombinant phage from this plaque contained a gene encoding the 44-kda protein that is on the outer layer (or sheath) of the periplasmic flagella. dna sequence analysis showed that the gene encodes a protein of 320 amino acids. the protein ...19921612759
[incidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection in isolated facial paralysis. a prospective study].between the causes of facial paralysis, similar to bell's palsy, recently are included those due to some families of spirochaeta (borrelia burgdorferi) transmitted through tick-bite. these bacteria, besides de facial palsy, may produce several degrees of lymphocytic meningitis and subsequently the paralysis of the face, sometimes clumsy or recurrent. the treatment being the antibiotic drugs, never the corticoids. in the paper are explained prospectively the incidence of this disease in the aa's ...19921616069
molecular characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ricinus in northern sweden.ixodes ricinus ticks, harbouring borrelia burgdorferi, were found in an area in northern sweden, not thought to be endemic for lyme borreliosis. this investigation took place at norrbyskär, an island situated in the bothnian gulf, 63 degrees 33'n/19 degrees 52'e. one of 42 nymphal and 8/43 adult i. ricinus ticks collected carried spirochetes as seen by phase contrast microscopy. pure bacterial cultures were obtained from 2 of the ticks. western blot analysis using species-specific monoclonal ant ...19921641595
tick-borne borreliosis in west africa.reported cases of tick-borne relapsing fever due to the spirochaete borrelia crocidurae are rare in west africa, and few epidemiological data are available. to see how common relapsing fever is in senegal thick blood smears from cases of fever of unknown origin and from randomly selected clinic outpatients from a rural dispensary were examined for borrelia. the prevalence of borrelia infections in small mammals was also assessed. borrelia was seen in smears of 12 (0.9%) of 1340 children. all chi ...19911671481
[bicolor peroxidase anti-peroxidase staining]. 19911726370
polymerase chain reaction primers and probes derived from flagellin gene sequences for specific detection of the agents of lyme disease and north american relapsing cloning and sequencing the flagellin gene of borrelia hermsii and comparing this sequence with that of the corresponding gene from b. burgdorferi, i identified a central region within the two genes which showed a reduced level of sequence similarity. oligonucleotide sequences selected from this region produced species-specific amplimers when used in polymerase chain reaction experiments. thus, primers derived from the b. burgdorferi sequence amplified a 276-bp fragment from 22 strains of b. b ...19921734073
[the modification of a medium for culturing and isolating the causative agent of lyme disease].possible use of three types of media (prepared on the basis of 199, rpmi and mem, the rest of receipt being recommended for bsk-ii) for cultivation of the agent of lyme's disease is reviewed. the most satisfactory borrelia burgdorferi growth has been noted on the medium with base 199. using the same medium 5 spirochaete isolates have been obtained from 10 passages of the material from 41 ticks, ixodes persulcatus sch. and i. ricinus l. the results seem promising for further studies on the elabor ...19911770889
perspective on the development of vaccines against lyme disease.lyme disease, the multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi, has emerged as a threat to public health worldwide. it is a particularly vexing problem in the united states where it is growing in range and intensity. in fact, in some hyperendemic regions of new york and new england, lyme disease is now such a threat that it interferes with all sorts of outdoor activities, and has even led to depreciation of real estate values. family dogs in these areas seem to ...19911771965
ixodes (pholeoixodes) hexagonus, an efficient vector of borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory.borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. was first isolated from the midgut of ixodes dammini spielman et al. in the u.s.a. and from the midgut of i.ricinus (l.) in europe. i.ricinus was considered to be the only tick vector of this borrelia, in europe, until i.hexagonus leach, the hedgehog tick, was found to harbour spirochaetes. this paper reports an evaluation of the vector competence of i.hexagonus for the spirochaete b.burgdorferi. transovarial and trans-stadial survival were demonstrated and th ...19911773121
surface markers on bovine fetal lymphocytes and immunoglobulin synthesis in a congenital infection related to epizootic bovine abortion.immunological parameters were studied among 23 late-term bovine fetuses. epizootic bovine abortion (eba) disease was induced in fetuses by feeding ornithodoros coriaceus ticks on pregnant heifers. a spirochaete-like microorganism was detected in the blood of diseased fetuses and in inapparent natural infections in some abattoir-collected fetuses. fetuses were classified according to stages of disease: eba diseased (n = 10), eba infected (n = 7) and normal (n = 6). using flow cytometry, the prese ...19911780574
identification of treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum genes encoding signal peptides and membrane-spanning sequences using a novel alkaline phosphatase expression vector.treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum is a pathogenic spirochaete for which there are no systems of genetic exchange. in order to provide a system for the identification of t. pallidum surface proteins and potential virulence factors, we have developed a novel expression vector which confers the utility of tnphoa transposition. the relevant features of this plasmid vector, termed pmg, include an inducible tac promoter, a polylinker with multiple cloning sites in three reading frames, and an alk ...19911791755
search for eukaryotic motility proteins in spirochetes: immunological detection of a tektin-like protein in spirochaeta halophila.the serial endosymbiotic theory (set) for the spirochete origin of undulipodia (cilia and eukaryotic flagella) predicts that a greater number of axonemal proteins will show homology to spirochete than to other bacterial proteins. to continue testing, the set proteins associated with eukaryotic motility (tektin, centrin and calmodulin) were sought in spirochaeta halophila. western blot immunological detection techniques (for tektin and centrin) and two-dimensional gel analysis (for calmodulin) we ...19911863720
[karl landsteiner (1868-1943) in memoriam].apart from the discovery of the human blood groups and the rhesus factor landsteiner developed the visualization of spirochaeta pallida by the method of dark field microscopy. furthermore, he demonstrated the transmission of poliomyelitis to monkeys, which made it possible to prove the viral origin of this disease. he gave fundamental impulses to the development of immunobiology (e.g. concept of haptens, specificity of antigens etc.).19911903229
phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.the 16s rrna sequences were determined for species of spirochaeta, treponema, borrelia, leptospira, leptonema, and serpula, using a modified sanger method of direct rna sequencing. analysis of aligned 16s rrna sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. the first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. the first treponeme subgroup consisted of treponema pallidum, treponema phagedenis, treponema denticola, a thermo ...19911917844
nucleotide sequence and analysis of a gene encoding anthranilate synthase component i in spirochaeta aurantia.a spirochaeta aurantia dna fragment containing the trpe gene and flanking chromosomal dna was cloned, and the sequence of the trpe structural gene plus 870 bp upstream and 1,257 bp downstream of trpe was determined. the s. aurantia trpe gene codes for a polypeptide of 482 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53,629 that showed sequence similarity to trpe proteins from other organisms. the s. aurantia trpe polypeptide is not more closely related to the other published spiroche ...19911987149
n-terminal amino acid sequences and amino acid compositions of the spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament polypeptides.the amino-terminal sequences and amino acid compositions of the three major and two minor polypeptides constituting the filaments of spirochaeta aurantia periplasmic flagella were determined. the amino-terminal sequence of the major 37.5-kda outer layer polypeptide is identical to the sequence downstream of the proposed signal peptide of the protein encoded by the s. aurantia flaa gene. however, the amino acid composition of the 37.5-kda polypeptide is not in agreement with that inferred from th ...19911991729
[first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme spirochaeta) from ticks in hungary].31 field collected ixodes ricinus adult ticks were investigated for the lyme-disease spirochete. 5/31 ixodes ricinus contained borrelia burgdorferi. the spirochete was successfully cultivated in four cases, and they were found in two ticks by immunofluorescence technique and dark field microscopy, as well. two of the isolated strains were tested by western blot. the antigen pattern in both strains showed marked bands in 41 and 60 kd antigen, but only a week band appeared at 32 kd, with the lack ...19911996203
isolation and characterization of a plasmid from treponema denticola.agarose gel electrophoresis of whole genomic dna of the oral spirochaete treponema denticola has revealed a plasmid-like fraction. purification and restriction enzyme analysis has confirmed the presence of a 2.6-kb circular plasmid, which has been mapped for restriction sites and cloned into the escherichia coli plasmid puc18. southern blot analysis of genomic t. denticola dna, using the plasmid as a probe, has shown that the plasmid is present only as an extra-chromosomal element. no plasmid-co ...19912040428
epidemiological and aetiological evidence for transmission of lyme disease by adult ixodes persulcatus in an endemic area in china.involvement of adult ixodes persulcatus ticks in the transmission of lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, china, is reported. in 1986 from april through august adult i. persulcatus was the dominant tick in this endemic area with an infection rate of 43% for the lyme disease spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi. the incidence of lyme disease cases presenting the symptom of erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) within this area was correlated with the seasonal abundance of adult i. persul ...19902083990
first isolation of bacteriophages for a spirochaete: potential genetic tools for leptospira.three bacteriophages of the saprophytic aquicole bacterium leptospira biflexa were isolated from sewage waters from the outskirts of paris, france. these phages do not infect representative strains of the pathogenic species leptospira interrogans, and their host range is restricted to serovar patoc of the saprophytic species. the phages were found to be lytic and no lysogenic state could be demonstrated. electron micrographs showed that the phages were morphologically identical and had polyhedra ...19902092364
[isolation and identification of oral spirochaetes and fusobacterium in juvenile periodontitis].periodontal pocket specimens of 40 juveniles periodontitis (jp) and specimens from gingival sulcus in 40 normal juveniles (np) were examined. 25 strains of anaerobic oral spirochaete (62.5%) (17 strains were treponema microdentium, 3 strains macrodentium, 2 strains t orale, 3 strains borrelia) and 21 strains of fusobacterium were isolated in 40 jp. in 40 np, 2 strains of spirochaetes (5%) and 3 strains fusobacterium (7.5%) were found. this study shows that there is a relationship between the inf ...19902098228
lyme disease: a the last decade, lyme borreliosis has emerged as a complex new infection whose distribution is worldwide. the multisystem disorder, which primarily affects the skin, joints, heart and nervous system at different stages, is caused by the tick-borne spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. after the first weeks of infection almost all patients have a positive antibody response to the spirochaete and serological determinations are currently the most practical laboratory aid in diagnosis. treatment with ...19902107856
[clinical value of antibody titers to borrelia burgdorferi and titer course in neurologic disease pictures].over a period of 3 years, antibody titres against borrelia burgdorferi in serum were determined for 492 patients with a wide spectrum of neurological diseases. using the elisa technique, we found elevated titres against borrelia burgdorferi in about 20% of these patients. cranial nerve paresis was often the leading symptom of an acute neuroborreliosis. in a number of cases the diagnosis was indicated only by an elevated igg titre in the patient's serum, or a decrease in the titre level following ...19902181331
bovine borreliosis: comparison of simple methods for detection of the spirochaete in the blood.natural borrelia infection occurring in a calf was followed up using stained blood and buffy coat smears and direct observation of blood and buffy coat in order to compare these spirochaete detection methods. direct examination of the platelet-plasma interface of the microhaematocrit capillary tubes after centrifugation allowed detection of two parasitaemias that were not seen in giemsa stained blood smears. an ascending babesia bigemina infection seemed to suppress the borrelia parasitaemia. sp ...19902219454
the benzoylarginine peptidase from treponema denticola (strain aslm), a human oral spirochaete: evidence for active-site carboxyl groups.the benzoylarginine peptidase of treponema denticola (strain aslm; a human oral spirochaete) was progressively and irreversibly inactivated by 1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-ethoxy-1, 2-dihydroquinoline, a carboxyl-group reagent. at acidic ph values, reaction of one mole of the modifier per active site of the enzyme resulted in total inactivation of the enzyme. assuming that this modifier is a specific carboxyl reagent, the data suggest that the inactivation of the t. denticola benzoylarginine peptidase w ...19902280691
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna by the polymerase chain reaction.dna amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to detect dna of the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. primers that specify the amplification of a 145 basepair dna fragment of the ospa gene of b. burgdorferi were used. the amplification product was detected by gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining or by hybridization to a radiolabelled oligonucleotide probe. the hybridization method was found to be more sensitive. as little as 50 fg of purified b. burgd ...19902314397
intestinal spirochaetes in a gulf arab population.spirochaetal bacteria were isolated from the faeces of 11.4% of 1000 hospital patients and 26.7% of 292 healthy local nationals in the muscat area of the sultanate of oman. a case-control study of patient records showed the isolation of the spirochaete to be associated with omani nationality, age in excess of 2 years and attendance at self-referral health-care facilities. no association was found with symptomatic intestinal disease or microscopic abnormalities of the stool.19902323359
[syphilitic arthro-osteitis].we report a black female with past history of sexual promiscuity who developed arthroosteitis of clavicula and sternoclavicular joint and cranial osteitis during secondary syphilis. spirochaeta were identified in the material from osteoarticular biopsy. the patient was treated with benzathine penicillin, 2,400,000 u weekly for three weeks. there was a complete clinical recovery. we emphasize the uncommon occurrence of osteoarticular involvement in secondary syphilis and the exceptional character ...19902355765
articular involvement in european patients with lyme disease. a report of 32 italian patients.lyme disease (ld) is a well recognized multisystem disorder, caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. it involves the skin, nervous system and heart. arthritis is described in 50-60% of american patients but seems to be less common in europe. we studied the pattern of articular involvement in a group of 67 italian patients with ld. thirty-two (48%) of 67 had rheumatological manifestations. the prevalence of arthritis in our patients was 16/67 (24%), the remaining 16 experiencing only arth ...19902357498
antiserum to the 33,000-dalton periplasmic-flagellum protein of "treponema phagedenis" reacts with other treponemes and spirochaeta aurantia."treponema phagedenis" periplasmic flagella (pf) have two major protein bands at molecular weights of 33,000 and 39,800 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (r. j. limberger and n. w. charon, j. bacteriol. 166:105-112, 1986). by use of western blotting and a polyclonal antiserum directed toward the 33,000-molecular-weight pf protein, cell lysates of 12 species of spirochetes were surveyed for reactivity. eight species of treponema as well as spirochaeta aura ...19862430936
serum lipoprotein binding by treponema pallidum: possible role for proteoglycans.acquisition by the syphilis spirochaete, treponema pallidum, of radioiodinated total human plasma lipoprotein and lipoprotein subfractions was examined. time dependent and saturation binding kinetics were observed for total lipoproteins and subfractions, including high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins (ldl), and very low density lipoproteins. all subfractions competed equally well in binding iodinated total lipoproteins and individual subfractions, but apoproteins common to all sub ...19892474485
[incidence of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi in arthropods (arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (vertebrata)].the paper summarizes data on hitherto assembled findings of spirochaeta burgdorferi, the causal agent of lyme disease in arthropods and the incidence of antibodies in birds and mammals. the authors evaluate some vectors and reservoir animals, incl. possible carriers. borrelia burgdorferi was found so far in 30 species of arthropoda, 13 species of mites (acarina), 15 species of flies(diptera), two species of fleas (siphonaptera). the role of insects as vectors was not proved so far. antibodies we ...19892646031
[lyme disease, erythema migrans disease, borreliosis (review)].an increasing rate of infections with borrelia burgdorferi seems to endanger humans and domestic animals. this may be due to increase of the main vectors ixodids, of their infection with borrelia, of exposure of humans in nature, of climate influences, changes of the virulence or resistance et cet. enforcement of research in this spirochaete and information of the public are recommended for diminishing the risk of this disease.19892662959
demonstration of rare protein in the outer membrane of treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum by freeze-fracture analysis.the surface of treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (t. pallidum), the etiologic agent of syphilis, appears antigenically inert and lacks detectable protein, as judged by immunocytochemical and biochemical techniques commonly used to identify the outer membrane (om) constituents of gram-negative bacteria. we examined t. pallidum by freeze-fracture electron microscopy to visualize the architecture of its om. treponema phagedenis biotype reiter (t. phagedenis reiter), a nonpathogenic host-associated ...19892670902
wolinella recta and spirochetes in relation to alteration of probing depth in a population without regular dental care.the purpose of this study was to determine the occurence of spirochetes and wolinella sp. in untreated, nonselected subjects and to relate the presence of these organisms to changes in probing depth over a period of 180 days. clinical parameters were recorded and subgingival microbial samples were taken mesiobuccally on the upper first molars of 120 subjects (mean age 37 +/- 14 years) with a history of no regular dental care. the number of motile rods and spirochetes were determined in the darkf ...19892678458
a clinical and sero-epidemiological study of 190 belgian patients suffering from lyme borreliosis.we present a sero-epidemiological study of 190 belgian cases of lyme borreliosis, a multisystemic disease caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by a tick bite. the whole spectrum of clinical pictures was observed in these patients, including "erythema chronicum migrans" (63%), neurological involvement (47%) and arthritis (22%), frequently in combination. our results are compared to findings in other countries. among the 437 ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the sambre an ...19892683538
molecular analysis of linear plasmid-encoded major surface proteins, ospa and ospb, of the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi.the ospa and ospb genes encode the major outer membrane proteins of the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. the deduced translation products from the ospa and ospb genes were: (ospa) 273 amino acids long with a molecular weight of 29,334, and (ospb) 296 amino acids long with a molecular weight of 31,739. the two osp proteins showed a great degree of sequence similarity indicating a recent evolutionary event. molecular analysis and sequence comparison of ospa and ospb with other protei ...19892761388
is multiple sclerosis caused by an oral spirochaete?evidence of a direct link between chronic sinusitis and multiple sclerosis (ms) prompted examination of the old "spirochaetal hypothesis". this hypothesis has not been shown to be erroneous and a spirochaetal infection of the central nervous system could explain the specific pathological, immunological, and epidemiological features of ms.19862873382
cloning and sequence analysis of flaa, a gene encoding a spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament surface antigen.spirochaeta aurantia dna that coded for an antigenic determinant of the flagellin associated with the filament surface of the periplasmic flagella was isolated. when expressed in escherichia coli, the antigenic polypeptide had an apparent molecular weight of 37,000. sequence analysis of the antigen-encoding dna revealed the presence of an open reading frame that determined a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 31,241. this polypeptide showed a region of identity with the n-amino-ter ...19892921247
association of treponema hyodysenteriae with porcine intestinal mucosa.the association of treponema hyodysenteriae with porcine caecal and colonic mucosal surfaces was studied by electron microscopy after orogastric inoculation of pigs with pure cultures. examination of caecal and colonic mucosa from infected and control animals revealed that large numbers of the spirochaete were associated only with intestinal mucosal surfaces of infected animals. further examination of the intestinal mucosa from infected pigs showed that t. hyodysenteriae colonized two sites pref ...19883221198
early evolution of microtubules and undulipodia.a critique of both autogeneous and symbiotic hypotheses for the origin of microtubules and cilia and eukaryotic flagella (undulipodia) is presented. it is proposed that spirochetes provided the ancient eukaryotic cell with microtubules twice; cytoplasmic microtubules originated from phagocytosed spirochetes whereas axopodial tubules of undulipodia were transformed from ectosymbiotic spirochetes. a role in transport for microtubules in spirochetes together with a detailed scenario by which free-l ...19873300813
new infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.a spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in connecticut and minnesota. after inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected swiss mice and syrian hamsters. this spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of treponema, borrelia, leptospira, and spirochaeta examined.19873305565
retarded growth rate and delayed onset of egg production associated with spirochaete infection in pullets.retarded growth rates and delayed onset of egg production were recorded in 22-week-old pullets reared on deep litter and with indirect contact with pigs. birds reared in cages or transferred to cages were unaffected. spirochaetes were isolated and identified from the intestines of the pullets reared on deep litter but not from those reared in cages. birds kept solely on deep litter were more severely affected, with 24 per cent immature birds and 10 per cent mortality compared with those transfer ...19873307115
cloning structural genes for treponema pallidum immunogens and characterisation of recombinant treponemal surface protein, p2 (p2 star).a genomic library consisting of partially digested 10 to 20 kilobase pair fragments of treponema pallidum deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) was constructed using bacteriophage lambda embl-3 as the vector. positive clones expressing t pallidum antigens were detected with sera from experimentally infected rabbits. treponemal proteins ranging in molecular weight from 37,000 daltons to 120,000 daltons were identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting of phage ...19873315959
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