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tick-borne diseases of domestic animals in northern nigeria. ii. research summary, 1966 to 1976.during the first 10 years of its existence, the department of parasitology and entomology of the faculty of veterinary medicine, ahmadu bello university in zaria, nigeria, confirmed or described for the first time the occurrence of 25 different tick-borne parasites of domestic animals in the northern part of the country. most of these organisms occur as inapparent infections but may serve as complicating factors in any adverse host condition. the transmission of babesia bigemina by boophilus dec ...1977339447
avian spirochetosis: natural transmission by argas (persicargas) sanchezi (ixodoidea: argasidae) and existence of different serologic and immunologic types of borrelia anserina in the united states.a mild strain of borrelia anserina was transmitted to chicks by an argasid tick identified as argas (persicargas)sanchezi dugès, 1887. disease was transmitted regularly to chicks less than 2 to 3 weeks old, and rarely to chicks 4 weeks old or older. this spirochete isolate was demonstrated to be immunologically and serologically diverse from an isolate obtained earlier in arizona. this is the first report of transmission of b anserina by a(p) sanchezi and of the presence of different serologic a ...1979453680
avian spirochaetosis: enhanced recognition of mild strains of borrelia anserina with bursectomized- and dexamethasone-treated chickens. 1979528695
[antimicrobial and antispirochetal activity of pharmachem's tylosin].studies are the following preparations, produced by "pharmachim": tylosine-base (tylosine-50), tylosine tartarate (tylosine pulvis) and tylosine phosphate (substance and granules) and their analogues: tylosine-base (tylan-50), tylosine tartarate (tylan soluble) and tylosine phosphate (tylan af 99), produced by the "elanco" company. the biological activity of the preparation was determined by means of the microbiological method of diffusion in agar. in the case of all experimental treatments, the ...1978751322
[study of the antigenic makeup of strains of borrelia anserina, sakharoff, 1891, of the surnevo and pamoukchii serotypes].an antigen analysis of borrelia anserina strains, belonging to two serotypes, was carried out for the first time by means of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, gel diffusion after ouchterlony, immunoelectrophoresis as modified by scheidegger, and whole serum macroagglutination reaction. it was found that the spirochetes of the strain rouen of pamoukchii serotype possess eight surface antigens, and those of strain surnevo i of the same serotype have 6. the two strains were found to have as man ...1975814698
an experimental study of borrelia anserina in four species of argas ticks. 1. spirochete localization and densities. 1977919696
an experimental study of borrelia anserina in four species of argas ticks. 2. transstadial survival and transovarial transmission. 1977919697
[effectiveness of sodium arsamilate and its effect on the immunity of hens experimentally infected with borrelia anserina].the toxicity of sodium arsanilate for chickens was determined following a six-day oral application. doses higher than 0.15/kg body weight led to symptoms of intoxication and death, especially when the intake of water was restricted. no spirochetemia, clinical signs of spirochetosis, and death cases were noted in birds infected subcutaneously with a lethal dose of borrelia anserina simultaneously treated (orally) in the course of three days with sodium arsanilate either in solution or in tablets ...19761030868
borrelia anserina in chickens previously exposed to borrelia theileri.exposure of 10-week-old white leghorn chickens to sheep blood containing borrelia theileri neither resulted in infection nor conferred protection against b. anserina.19751120034
[biochemical changes in the blood of geese infected with borrelia anserina].studied were the changes in the values of some hematologic indices (hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocites) as well as the values of some biochemical (total protein and protein fractions, urea, total lipids, bilirubin, inorganic, phosphorus calcium) and enzyme factors (lactatedehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase, aldolase, amino transferrases, creatinephosphokinase) in geese prior to and after experimental infection of borrelia anserina. it was found that in the peak stage of spirochetemia ...19751179637
[comparative study of the antigenic composition of strains of borrelia anserina. 2. antigenic structure and immunobiologic relationships of a newly isolated strain].agar immunoelectrophoresis and an immunofluorescence method were used to analyse antigenically a newly isolated spirochete strain of the borrelia anserina species. it was established that by its antigen structure it could not be classified under the already described two serologic types, surnevo i and pamoukchii. the strain possesses five antigens common to serotype surnevo i and four antigens common to serotype pamoukchii. besides, it has also one typespecific antigen. this strain was said to b ...19751226699
characterization of borrelia coriaceae antigens with monoclonal antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies (f6f3, f6b11, and f6b3) were developed against borrelia coriaceae antigens. all three antibodies appeared to be specific for this species and did not cross-react with borrelia burgdorferi (strains b31 and irs), borrelia hermsii, borrelia anserina, leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, or treponema hyodysenteriae, as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western immunoblot analysis. only one of these antibodies, f ...19911855995
comparison of in vitro culture and polymerase chain reaction for detection of borrelia burgdorferi in tissue from experimentally infected animals.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed for identification of borrelia burgdorferi in biological specimens. the diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of in vitro culture. a primer set specifying a 791-bp dna fragment of the b. burgdorferi b31 flagellin gene was used. amplified dna sequences were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the identity of amplified dna was confirmed by restriction enzyme cleavage and southern blot hybridization with a 32p-labeled probe. by using p ...19911890174
phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.the 16s rrna sequences were determined for species of spirochaeta, treponema, borrelia, leptospira, leptonema, and serpula, using a modified sanger method of direct rna sequencing. analysis of aligned 16s rrna sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. the first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. the first treponeme subgroup consisted of treponema pallidum, treponema phagedenis, treponema denticola, a thermo ...19911917844
comparative in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi to cefuroxime and other antimicrobial agents.the in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of the lyme disease pathogen borrelia burgdorferi to cefuroxime were compared with those of several other antibiotics commonly used to treat this disease. cefuroxime demonstrated a higher mbc in vitro (1.0 microgram/ml) than ceftriaxone (0.08 microgram/ml) or erythromycin (0.32 microgram/ml), but the mbc was similar to that of amoxicillin (0.8 microgram/ml) and doxycycline (1.6 micrograms/ml). b. burgdorferi was considerably less susceptible to tetracycl ...19902073103
attenuation of borrelia anserina by serial passage in liquid medium.borrelia anserina (sakharoff) was successfully grown in a liquid medium (barbour-stoenner-kelly) for 39 passages. by the 12th serial passage in medium, infectivity of b anserina for chicks was lost. electron microscopy did not reveal structural differences between non-infective and infective cultured organisms. changes in the protein profiles were found by electrophoresis as the organisms were passed in culture.19902300719
shared flagellar epitopes of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina.antigenic cross-reactivity between borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina was studied using mouse immune sera and monoclonal antibodies. with immune sera, significant cross-reactivity between b. burgdorferi and b. anserina was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent assay. in immunoblots, most of the cross-reactivity was shown to be associated with the periplasmic flagella. using monoclonal antibodies in immunoblots, it was shown that b. burgdorferi and b. anserina shared at least two fla ...19892473569
sequential changes in tissue d-fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase activity in chickens experimentally infected with borrelia anserina.following experimental borrelia anserina infection of chickens, aldolase activity increased in the proventriculus, heart and bone marrow but declined in the kidney and cervical spinal cord.19892631380
involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). in indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (h5332) antibodies. studies on the dna composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an i. dammini lar ...19863943893
demonstration by immunodiffusion agar-gel test of borrelia anserina antigen in the organs of infected chickens. 19744211905
use of the immunofluorescence method for the serotype identification of borrelia anserina (sakharoff, 1891) strains. 19724559529
[effect of gamma rays on spirochetes of the species borrelia anserina, sakharoff, 1891. ii. changes in the antigenic structure]. 19734607894
[preservation of borrelia anserina strains at low temperatures (a preliminary report)]. 19734609093
[immunobiological and antigenic properties of borrelia anserina]. 19724657243
[electron microscopic study of borrelia anserina]. 19724657244
[study of the serotypes of borrelia anserina]. 19734755663
[age-related sensitivity of chickens to spirochetes of the genus borrelia anserina, sakharoff, 1891]. 19734802679
[effect of gamma rays on spirochetes of the species borrelia anserina, sakharoff 1891]. 19734802775
immunization of chicks against avian spirochetosis with vaccines of borrelia anserina. 19705521883
freeze preservation of borrelia anserina. 19705529339
[a method of counting spirochaeta anserina in the blood]. 19685754514
enteritis and green diarrhoea in experimental avian spirochaetosis.chickens infected with a virulent strain of borrelia anserina showed acute enteritis, haemosiderosis in intestinal villi and green diarrhoea. although spirochaetes in the intestine had begun to disintegrate 96 hours after infection, enteritis and green diarrhoea continued. it is suggested that the greenish discoloration may be a consequence of enteritis and haemosiderosis.19846522838
observations on the pathology of experimental avian spirochaetosis.in experimental infection of chickens with a virulent strain of borrelia anserina, peak spirochaetaemia was recorded from 72 to 96 hours. progressive enlargement of the spleen with mottling was the predominant gross finding. spleen, liver and small intestine showed extensive erythrophagocytosis, which continued even after the disappearance of spirochaetes from blood and tissues. while haemosiderosis was mild in the lungs, it was absent from the heart, kidney and brain. spirochaetes were demonstr ...19836635339
[clinical and pharmacological studies of technical tylosin phosphate from pharmachem in poultry diseases].investigations on the healing anbd prophylactic effectiveness of the technical tylosine phosphate "pharmachim" with 50 iu/mg activity (pharmazin t-50) in some bird diseases were carried out. it was established that a dose of 20 g/kg fodder pharmazin t-50 applied 2 days pre- and 3 days post chicken mycoplasma gallisepticum infection protects the chickens completely from respiratory mycoplasmosis. in order to attain a sure healing and prophylactic effect in hen spirohetosis control 10 g/kg fodder ...19806998102
[blood concentrations and anti-borrelia anserina activity of erythromycin salts in birds].tested was comparatively the antispirochaetal activity of erythromycin asparaginate (ea), thiocyanate (et), and lactate (el) in a total of 314 chickens, pullets and cockerels artificially infected with borrelia anserina (strains surnevo and pamoukchii). the antibiotics were applied via the crop, with the drinking water, and subcutaneously. the general status of the birds mortality rate, spirocheataemia, and the blood level of antibiotics were followed up along with the effect of ea and et on the ...19827112926
augmentation of haemo-tissue vaccine doses out-turn through blood transfusion in borrelia anserina infected chickens. 19827136369
[argas (persicargas) persicus and argas (argas) africolumbae as natural vectors of borrelia anserina and aegyptianella pullorum in upper volta]. 19817196729
preservation of borrelia anserina at different temperatures. 19807248533
a note on strain variation in akola and jabalpur strains of borrelia anserina. 19807415664
nematocera (ceratopogonidae, psychodidae, simuliidae and culicidae) and control methods.the biology, veterinary importance and control of certain nematocera are described and discussed. culicoides spp. (family ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (bt), african horse sickness (ahs), bovine ephemeral fever (bef) and akabane. some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by culicoides. these insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans leucocytozoon caulleryi and haemoproteus nettionis, and the pa ...19947711309
a morphological characterization of borrelia anserina.the morphology and ultrastructure of two strains of borrelia anserina were investigated by electron microscopy of negatively stained and ultrathin sectioned cells. one was a cultivable strain originally isolated in the usa and the other was originally isolated in nigeria and maintained in chickens. the cells were regularly helical, 9-21 microns long and 0.22-0.26 microns wide with a helix wavelength of about 1.7 microns. the cells were surrounded by a surface layer and appeared to divide by bina ...19957894723
acylated proteins in borrelia hermsii, borrelia parkeri, borrelia anserina, and borrelia coriaceae.borrelia hermsii, borrelia parkeri, borrelia anserina, and borrelia coriaceae produced several lipoproteins identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of bacteria grown in [3h]palmitate. five major acylated proteins were demonstrated by sequential alkaline and acid hydrolysis. high-pressure liquid chromatography of isolated proteins confirmed that covalently bound radioactivity was represented by fatty acids.19938285697
isolation and characterization of borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the saint croix river valley.field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of borrelia burgdorferi. blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during june 1991 at the saint croix national riverway in wisconsin, and one isolate, wi91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (melospiza melodia). this isolate was shown to be infectious for peromyscus leucopus and mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). isolate wi91-23 was confirme ...19938370728
borrelia in pigeons: no serological evidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection.in order to clarify the supposed involvement of urban pigeons (columba livia livia) in the epidemiology of lyme disease, the presence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina in pigeons' sera, collected in 12 areas of northern and central italy, was evaluated. this evaluation was carried out using a classic immunofluorescence assay (ifa), a surface immunofluorescence assay (sifa) and a standard western blot (wb) assay. a total of 104 out of 3,186 (3.26%) serum samples wer ...19958578924
binding of human urokinase type plasminogen activator and plasminogen to borrelia species.borrelia burgdorferi binds human urokinase plasminogen activator (upa), which cleaves plasminogen (pgn) to plasmin. the ability of other borrelia species to bind upa, pgn, or both was investigated. borrelia coriacae, borrelia garinii, borrelia parkeri, borrelia anserina, and borrelia turicatae were compared with infectious and noninfectious b. burgdorferi isolates. all borrelia species lacked endogenous proteases capable of digesting casein, but all species bound human upa and pgn, generating pg ...19968656020
phylogenesis of relapsing fever borrelia spp.the phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (rf) borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. the results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the rf borrelia spp. into three major cluste ...19968863409
phylogenetic analysis of borrelia species based on flagellin gene sequences and its application for molecular typing of lyme disease borreliae.we determined almost complete flagellin gene sequences of various borrelia species and aligned them with previously published sequences. a neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus borrelia was divided into the following three major clusters: new world relapsing fever borreliae (borrelia turicatae, borrelia parkeri, and borrelia hermsii), old world relapsing fever borreliae (borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia hispanica), and lyme disease borreliae (borrelia b ...19968863416
a surface-exposed region of a novel outer membrane protein (p66) of borrelia spp. is variable in size and sequence.a model of the 66-kda outer membrane protein (p66) of lyme disease borrelia spp. predicts a surface-exposed loop near the c terminus. this region contains an antigen commonly recognized by sera from lyme disease patients. in the present study, this region of p66 and homologous proteins of other borrelia spp. were further investigated by using monoclonal antibodies, epitope mapping of p66 of borrelia burgdorferi, and dna sequencing. a monoclonal antibody specific for b. burgdorferi bound to the p ...19989537355
cloning and molecular characterization of a multicopy, linear plasmid-carried, repeat motif-containing gene from borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of relapsing fever.borrelia turicatae is one of several spirochete species that can cause relapsing fever. here, we describe the identification and characterization of a gene from b. turicatae and other relapsing-fever spirochetes that exhibits homology with the rep+ and orf-e gene families of the lyme disease spirochetes. this gene, which we have designated repa, encodes a putative protein of 30.2 kda with an isoelectric point of 4.69. the central region of repa harbors a series of amino acid repeat motifs which ...19989733706
tick-borne relapsing fever in british columbia, canada: first isolation of borrelia hermsii.the spirochete that causes tick-borne relapsing fever, borrelia hermsii, was isolated in pure culture during 1995 and 1996 from three acutely ill human patients infected in southern british columbia, canada. the geographic area of exposure is a known focus of this disease dating back to 1930 when the first case was recognized in a human. analyses of plasmid dna, protein profiles, and reactivity with a species-specific monoclonal antibody identified the new isolates of spirochetes as b. hermsii, ...19989817862
immunodiffusion agar-gel test for demonstration of borrelia anserina antigen produced by liver of infected chickens. 196910200114
specific antibodies reactive with the 22-kilodalton major outer surface protein of borrelia anserina ni-nl protect chicks from infection.an outer surface lipoprotein of 22 kda was identified in the avian pathogen borrelia anserina ni-nl by using antibody preparations reactive with bacterial surface-exposed proteins. amino acid sequence analysis of the 22-kda protein demonstrated 90% identity with vmpa of b. turicatae, suggesting that the protein belongs to the family of 20-kda outer surface proteins of the genus borrelia. all of the 60 chicks intramuscularly treated with antibodies specifically reacting with the 22-kda protein an ...199910225933
molecular evidence for a new bacteriophage of borrelia burgdorferi.we have recovered a dnase-protected, chloroform-resistant molecule of dna from the cell-free supernatant of a borrelia burgdorferi culture. the dna is a 32-kb double-stranded linear molecule that is derived from the 32-kb circular plasmids (cp32s) of the b. burgdorferi genome. electron microscopy of samples from which the 32-kb dna molecule was purified revealed bacteriophage particles. the bacteriophage has a polyhedral head with a diameter of 55 nm and appears to have a simple 100-nm-long tail ...199910572135
genetic characteristics of borrelia coriaceae isolates from the soft tick ornithodoros coriaceus (acari: argasidae).two borrelia isolates (ca434 and ca435) cultured from the soft tick ornithodoros coriaceus were analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis of unrestricted and apai-restricted dna, standard electrophoresis of bamhi- and hindiii-restricted dna, southern hybridization, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of the 16s rrna gene, and amplification of the 5s-23s intergenic spacer region. these isolates were compared with borrelia coriaceae type strain ...200010878063
uptake and killing of leptospira interrogans and borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes pathogenic to humans, by reticuloendothelial cells in perfused rat liver.in situ-perfused rat livers were infused with a single dose of 1.5 x 10(7) radiolabeled cells of leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae, the agent of leptospirosis, or with borrelia burgdorferi irs, the agent of lyme disease. significant (p<0.0001) differences in the liver uptake of l. interrogans and of b. burgdorferi were observed, the uptakes being 37.4%+/-2.3% for l. interrogans and 60.5%+/-3.1% for b. burgdorferi. leptospires, in contrast to borreliae, were recovered from the li ...200010948172
serodiagnosis of louse-borne relapsing fever with glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) from borrelia recurrentis.human louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in sporadic outbreaks in central and eastern africa that are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. isolates of the causative agent, borrelia recurrentis, were obtained from the blood of four patients during a recent epidemic of the disease in southern sudan. the glpq gene, encoding glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, from these isolates was sequenced and compared with the glpq sequences obtained from other relapsing-fever spirochetes. ...200011015364
western immunoblotting with five treponema pallidum recombinant antigens for serologic diagnosis of syphilis.five immunodominant treponema pallidum recombinant polypeptides (rtpn47, rtmpa, rtpn37, rtpn17, and rtpn15) were blotted onto strips, and 450 sera (200 from blood donors, 200 from syphilis patients, and 50 potentially cross-reactive) were tested to evaluate the diagnostic performance of recombinant western blotting (recwb) in comparison with in-house whole-cell lysate antigen-based immunoblotting (wclwb) and t. pallidum hemagglutination (mha-tp) for the laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. none of ...200111329453
glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) among borrelia species.relapsing-fever spirochetes achieve high cell densities (>10(8)/ml) in their host's blood, while lyme disease spirochetes do not (<10(5)/ml). this striking contrast in pathogenicity of these two groups of bacteria suggests a fundamental difference in their ability to either exploit or survive in blood. borrelia hermsii, a tick-borne relapsing-fever spirochete, contains orthologs to glpq and glpt, genes that encode glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) and glycerol-3-phosphate transporte ...200312562805
ospa heterogeneity of borrelia valaisiana confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic analyses.although european borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates have been divided into five genospecies, specific tools for the serotype characterization of only three genospecies are available. monoclonals antibodies (mabs) h3ts, d6 and i17.3 identify b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss.), b. garinii and b. afzelii respectively, but no mabs are available to identify b. valaisiana. in the same way, specific primers exist to amplify the ospa gene of b. burgdorferi ss., b. garinii and b. afzelii. the aim ...200312823864
chemotherapy of borrelia anserina infection (spirochetosis) in chicks with amphomycin, kanamycin. telomycin. and tetracycline. 196013731948
experimental transmission of borrelia anserina (sakharoff 1891) by aedes aegypti. 196113742160
avian spirochetosis (borrelia anserina) epizootics in arizona poultry. 196113742888
use of fluorescein-labeled antibody to study borrelia anserina infection (avian spirochetosis) in the chicken. 196414227179
a comparison of eleven antibiotics in the treatment of borrelia anserina infection (spirochaetosis) in young chicks. 195114835454
studies on the immunology of spirochetoses. ii. immunologic relationships of treponema pallidum and borrelia anserina. 195214933679
first culture isolation of borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness.southern tick-associated rash illness (stari) is a lyme disease-like infection described in patients in the southeastern and south-central united states, where classic lyme disease is relatively rare. stari develops following the bite of a lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) and is thought to be caused by infection with an "uncultivable" spirochete tentatively named borrelia lonestari. in this study, wild lone star ticks collected from an area where b. lonestari is endemic were cocultured in a ...200415004069
the propagation of borrelia anserina in embryonated eggs employing the yolk sac technique. 195015436417
identification of a new borrelia species among small mammals in areas of northern spain where lyme disease is endemic.the role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where lyme disease is endemic in northern spain. a low rate of infestation by ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of b. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of b. burgdorferi sensu lato to i. ricinus larvae that fed on them. in contrast, questing ticks collected at the same time ...200515746336
variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii in western north america.borrelia hermsii is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in north america. when its tick vector, ornithodoros hermsi, acquires these spirochetes from the blood of an infected mammal, the bacteria switch their outer surface from one of many bloodstream variable major proteins (vmps) to a unique protein, vtp (vsp33). vtp may be critical for successful tick transmission of b. hermsii; however, the gene encoding this protein has been described previously in only one isolate. here we ident ...200516177341
a study of borrelia anserina infection (spirochetosis) in turkeys. 194916561664
isolation and molecular characterization of a brazilian strain of borrelia anserina, the agent of fowl spirochaetosis.borrelia anserina the agent of fowl spirochaetosis, has a worldwide distribution, where it is transmitted by argas spp. ticks. the present study reports the first molecular characterization and in vitro isolation of an avian spirochaete strain from brazil, presumably identified as b. anserina originated from naturally infected argas miniatus ticks. dna fragments of the rrs and flab genes were amplified by pcr and sequenced to determine phylogenetic similarities. the resulting sequences were 99.8 ...200717222877
borrelia burgdorferi surface-localized proteins expressed during persistent murine infection are conserved among diverse borrelia spp.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease in the united states, regulates numerous genes encoding lipoproteins on linear plasmid 54 in response to environmental cues. we analyzed a subset of these genes/proteins that were historically categorized as paralogous gene family 54 (bba64, bba65, bba66, bba68, bba69, bba70, bba71, and bba73) and found that the expression of several genes was influenced by the sigma(n)-sigma(s) regulatory cascade at the level of transcription and protein ...200818390998
relapsing fever spirochetes retain infectivity after prolonged in vitro cultivation.borrelia hermsii and borrelia burgdorferi, two closely related spirochetes, are the etiological agents of tick-borne relapsing fever and lyme disease, respectively. previous studies have shown the loss of infectivity of b. burgdorferi is associated with in vitro cultivation. this diminished infectivity of b. burgdorferi has occurred as early as three in vitro passages, and the loss of plasmids have been observed with these less virulent to noninfective cultures. the effects of long-term in vitro ...200818637723
changes in the biochemical composition of blood in chickens infected with borrelia anserina.three-month-old chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with blood infected with borrelia anserina. the serum levels of the enzymes alkaline and acid phosphatases (alp and acp), glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (got), proteins, lipids, uric acid, blood sugar and inorganic phosphate were measure. there was a decrease of alp and increase of got levels in the infected group. the level of acp was unchanged. the spirochaetosis was also accompanied by an increase of total protein, globulin and uri ...197718770344
the use of the indirect fluorescent antibody technique in avian spirochaetosis.the indirect fluorescent antibody technique was used for the detection of antibodies to borrelia anserina in chicken serum. sera from immunised and convalescent chickens, following experimental infection, gave specific fluorescence, whereas no such reaction could be observed with sera of healthy chickens with no history of the disease. this technique was also used in preliminary tests of two isolates with respect to strain differences.197818770395
identification of the determinant conferring permissive substrate usage in the telomere resolvase, rest.linear genome stability requires specialized telomere replication and protection mechanisms. a common solution to this problem in non-eukaryotes is the formation of hairpin telomeres by telomere resolvases (also known as protelomerases). these enzymes perform a two-step transesterification on replication intermediates to generate hairpin telomeres using an active site similar to that of tyrosine recombinases and type ib topoisomerases. unlike phage telomere resolvases, the telomere resolvase fro ...200919561077
avian spirochetosis in chickens following experimental transmission of borrelia anserina by argas (persicargas) miniatus.this study reports the experimental transmission of borrelia anserina to domestic chickens by infected argas (persicargas) miniatus. clinical alterations as well as prepatent and patent periods were evaluated. twenty-seven 67-day-old birds were divided into three groups in a randomized experimental design. the first group was exposed to ticks infected with b. anserina, the second group was exposed to noninfected ticks, and the third group was not exposed to ticks. blood smears from each bird of ...200919630219
killing of treponema denticola by mouse peritoneal macrophages.treponema denticola has been identified as an important cause of periodontal disease and hypothesized to be involved in extra-oral infections. the objective of this study was to investigate the role of t. denticola cell length and motility during mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro uptake. macrophages, incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, produced a similar amount of tnf-alpha when stimulated with escherichia coli lps. the uptake of flge- and cfpa-deficient mutants of t. denticola ...201020200417
survey for tick-borne zoonoses in the state of espirito santo, southeastern brazil.blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of espirito santo, brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were ...201020595502
the central region of the msp gene of treponema denticola has sequence heterogeneity among clinical samples, obtained from patients with periodontitis.treponema denticola is an oral spirochete involved in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. of its virulence factors, the major surface protein (msp) plays a role in the interaction between the treponeme and host. to understand the possible evolution of this protein, we analyzed the sequence of the msp gene in 17 t. denticola positive clinical samples.201021138575
the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia miyamotoi is cultivable in a modified kelly-pettenkofer medium, and is resistant to human complement.borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete found in ixodes ticks in north america, europe, and asia, and has recently been found to be invasive in humans. cultivation of this spirochete has not yet been described, but is important for patient diagnostics and scientific purposes. host specificity of borrelia species is dependent on resistance to host complement (serum resistance), and since b. miyamotoi has been identified as a human pathogen we were interested whether b. miyamotoi is res ...201425189195
novel borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, bothriocroton concolor, in australia.to date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. recently, a borrelia sp. related to the relapsing fever (rf) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (tachyglossus aculeatus). the present study investigated the presence of borrelia in 97 bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in queensland, new south wales, and victoria, australia, using nested pcr with borrelia-specific primers ...201627301754
chromosome and megaplasmid sequences of borrelia anserina (sakharoff 1891), the agent of avian spirochetosis and type species of the genus.sequences of the linear chromosome and plasmids of borrelia anserina, the cause of avian spirochetosis of poultry, revealed a smaller genome than those of other borrelia spp. transmitted by argasid ticks. missing or disrupted genes included a dam methylase and those in the pathway for synthesis of phospholipids from glycerol.201728302772
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