cases of lyme disease in the united states: locations correlated with distribution of ixodes dammini.lyme disease, defined by erythema chronicum migrans and sometimes followed by neurologic, cardiac, or joint involvement, is known to have affected 512 patients in the united states. the disease seems to occur in three distinct foci: along the northeastern coast, in wisconsin, and in california and oregon, a distribution that correlates closely with that of ixodes dammini in the first two areas and with ixodes pacificus in the last. the implicated tick, saved by six patients in the northeast, was ...1979496106
molecular analysis of the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi for conserved and variable antibody binding domains.the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi is a major candidate for development of a borrelia vaccine. however, vaccine development may be aggravated by the immunological heterogeneity of ospa. in this respect the knowledge about conserved and variable epitopes is of major interest. in this study truncated proteins derived from two different ospa serotypes of b. burgdorferi were mapped for conserved and specific antibody-binding domains. the ospa fragments were reacted in the wes ...19921279368
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes persulcatus and ixodes ovatus ticks in japan.the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the adult stage of the ixodid ticks ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus collected in various localities in japan. the total prevalence values were 16.6% of 777 i. persulcatus and 23.6% of 687 i. ovatus. sixty-two (63.9%) of 97 isolates from i. persulcatus contained the 30-34-kd heterogeneous outer surface protein a (ospa) that reacted with monoclonal antibody h5332. in contrast, all 128 isolates from i. ovatus were homogeneous with re ...19921279996
azithromycin. a review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy.azithromycin is an acid stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin, with a similar spectrum of antimicrobial activity. azithromycin is marginally less active than erythromycin in vitro against gram-positive organisms, although this is of doubtful clinical significance as susceptibility concentrations fall within the range of achievable tissue azithromycin concentrations. in contrast, azithromycin appears to be more active than erythromycin again ...19921280567
development of polymerase chain reaction primer sets for diagnosis of lyme disease and for species-specific identification of lyme disease isolates by 16s rrna signature nucleotide analysis.we have determined and compared partial 16s rrna sequences from 23 lyme disease spirochete isolates and aligned these with 8 sequences previously presented. the 16s rrna signature nucleotide compositions were defined for each isolate and compared with the genomic species signature nucleotide sets previously established. to identify positions truly indicative of species classification which could serve as targets for polymerase chain reaction species-specific identification primers, 16s rrna-base ...19921280643
comparison of whole-cell antibodies and an antigenic flagellar epitope of borrelia burgdorferi in serologic tests for diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.a recombinant protein (p41-g) of an antigenic region of flagellin was used in a standard and amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis. comparable sensitivities (88 to 94%) were noted when sera from 17 persons who had erythema migrans and antibodies to whole-cell b. burgdorferi were tested against the p41-g antigen. in tests of a second study group of 36 persons who had erythema migrans but no detecta ...19921280650
comparison of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from humans and ixodid ticks in hokkaido, japan.four spirochetal isolates (jem1 to jem4) were obtained from cutaneous lesions of patients manifesting erythema chronicum migrans in hokkaido, japan. in the protein profiles by sds-page and the reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (h5332 and h9724) by immunoblotting, all the human isolates were identical with the tick isolates from ixodes persulcatus. these data indicate that i. persulcatus is an important vector of lyme disease for humans in japan.19921283437
[prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in hamburg blood donors].one thousand regular blood donors of the department of transfusion medicine at the university hospital in hamburg were screened for antibodies against the lyme disease spirochete, b. burgdorferi. 7.2% were initially reactive in the enzyme immunoassay, 37.5% of which were confirmed by immunoblot. the seroprevalence of anti-b. burgdorferi antibodies thus is 2.7% in hamburg blood donors. 25 of 27 positive donors received a physical exam, which did not reveal any symptoms of acute or chronic lyme di ...19921284777
[infections with borrelia burgdorferi in würzburg blood donors: antibody prevalence, clinical aspects and pathogen detection in antibody positive donors].the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, was determined in a group of blood donors from the würzburg area (southern germany). 26 of 472 donors (5.5%) tested positive in a hemagglutination test. when performing immunoblots only 13 donors (2.7%) gave rise to b. burgdorferi-specific antibodies. 9 of them were examined in more detail by anamnesis, physical examination, determination of inflammation parameters of the blood and polymerase chai ...19921284778
questionnaire surveys of cases of tick bite and lyme borreliosis in hunters in hokkaido with reference to detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi epidemic of lyme borreliosis on hokkaido island, japan, was surveyed by questionnaire in 587 hunters. the 308 returns (52.4%) revealed episodes of tick bite (usually 2 or more) in 210 cases. skin rashes appeared in 164 cases. associated itching, pain, etc., but not skin rash, were more frequent after 2 or more tick bite. previous determinations of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody titers in these subjects and in controls suggested an association with outdoor activities other than hunting, an ...19921286220
questions "push" for vaccination against borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19921289318
[lyme disease].after a short historical review of the lyme disease, the author describes the responsible bacteria, a spirochete called borrelia. epidemiology, physiopathology and clinical manifestations are studied, as well as the different phases of the disease (primary secondary and tertiary) and the various possible symptoms (dermatological, cardiovascular, rheumatical, neurological syndrome). the biological part includes isolation of the bacteria and detection of antibodies (ifi, elisa, passive hemagglutin ...19921290383
prevalence of serum specific antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi antigens in persons from region of high risk of tick bites. 19921292851
lyme disease in clinical practice. 19921292852
active immunization with pc protein of borrelia burgdorferi protects gerbils against b. burgdorferi infection.serious infection due to borrelia burgdorferi and the disseminated infection characteristic of the disease possess unique treatment problems. the wide and still increasing incidence of lyme borreliosis as well as the problems in treatment call for effective prevention strategies by active immunization. vaccination experiments were done to determine if active immunization of gerbils with recombinant ospa and pc protects against infection with strains of b. burgdorferi. gerbils were vaccinated wit ...19921293055
murine lyme borreliosis: route of inoculation determines immune response and infectivity.outer surface protein a ospa is the major outer surface protein of b. burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, and has been advocated as a vaccine candidate. it is recognized late or not at all in the course of human lyme disease, but has been identified as a major antigenic epitope for the anti-spirochetal immune response in a number of experimental models of b. burgdorferi infection. we injected b.burgdorferi into mice and tested the appearance of immunoreactivity to ospa by western b ...19921297405
prevention of lyme disease after tick bites. a cost-effectiveness areas of endemic disease, the probability of lyme disease after a tick bite ranges from about 0.012 to 0.05. early treatment with oral antibiotics prevents most complications of lyme disease, but antibiotics are generally not prescribed until rash or other symptoms develop.19921298217
[survey on tick vectors of lyme disease spirochetes in china].since 1987 we have been studying on lyme disease in china. there were 71 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi recovered from six species of ticks including ixodes persulcatus, ixodes granulatus, ixodes rangtangensis, haemaphysalis concinna. haemaphysalis bispinosa and haemaphysalis longicornis, and 55 isolates from ixodes persulcatus collected from heilongjiang, jilin, liaoning, nei-monggol, hebei and xinjiang region (province). ixodes persulcarus is the dominant species accounted for more than 80% ...19921300244
[investigation of rodents and ixodes for lyme disease and four strains of borrelia burgdorferi first isolated from ixodes granulatus supino, rattus confucianus and r. norvegicus in fujian province].with bsk ii medium, 4 strains of borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes granulatus supino, rattus confucianus and r, novregicus, which ixodes and ruttus all captured from forest areas in northern of fujian province where have found lyme cases. these isolated strains were identified by institute of epidemiology and microbiology, chinese academy of preventive medicine.19921301268
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurological disorders in berlin.paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from 800 patients of a neurological department were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. a flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for antibody screening. all serum/csf pairs with any elevated antibody response were also tested by western blotting a method for confirmation. 65 patients (8.1%) had serum igg antibodies in elisa and 22 of these patients (2.8%) were confirmed by western blot. 20 patients (2.5%) had elevated an ...19921303693
inflammatory signs, antibody response and antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid over the course of neuroborreliosis.csf and serum specimens were consecutively obtained from three patients with neuroborreliosis (stage i, ii and iii), csf protein content, cell counts and differential, igg index, oligoclonal bands and anti-b. burgdorferi antibodies were measured. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) was tested for borrelia-dna being present prior to and after antibiotic treatment. while dna could be identified before ceftriaxone was administered, there were no more amplification products afterwards. the goal of this study ...19921303694
[endemic occurrence of lyme disease in the forested areas of the piła district].lyme disease (l.d.) caused by borrelia burgdorferi and spread by ixodes ticks arouses great interest with more and more clinicians and other scientists. it may be very difficult to diagnose a disease as l.d. because of its various clinical symptoms expressions. this is why it is often called "the great imitator". there are three phases in the natural history of the disease. diagnostic problems come from the fact that early phases are often lacking. the disease may begin with any symptom of any s ...19921305782
[comparable evaluation of serological diagnostic tests (elisa, ifa and pa methods) for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody].we have evaluated the usefulness of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa) and particle agglutination (pa) method as serological screening tests for lyme-borreliosis. serum samples obtained from two patients with lyme-borreliosis showed marked high antibody titers for borrelia burgdorferi when measured by these methods. of the serum of 368 healthy members of the self-defense force in north-eastern japan screened for the antibody to b. burgdorferi ...19921307628
examination of koch's postulates for borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of limb/joint dysfunction in dogs with borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi has been implicated as the causative agent of borreliosis in dogs, which is characteristically a limb/joint disorder, but can be associated with multiple-organ dysfunction. attempts to reproduce this disease by inoculating dogs with b burgdorferi have not been successful. in the study of this report, b burgdorferi from ixodes dammini ticks was used to induce signs of limb/joint dysfunction, fever, anorexia, depression, and systemic infection in dogs. a pure culture of this b ...19921307866
clinical and electrophysiologic findings in chronic neuropathy of lyme disease.we evaluated 25 patients with lyme disease and chronic peripheral neuropathy. all had immunologic evidence of exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and no other identifiable cause of neuropathy. neuropathic symptoms began a median of 8 months (range, 0 to 165) after erythema migrans and had been present for a median of 12 months (range, 2 to 168) prior to evaluation. twelve patients (48%) had generally symmetric distal, nonpainful paresthesia, and another 12 (48%) had generally asymmetric radicular p ...19921310529
treatment of early lyme compare the safety and efficacy of azithromycin, amoxicillin/probenecid, and doxycycline for the treatment of early lyme disease, to identify risk factors for treatment failure, and to describe the serologic response in treated patients.19921313637
[lyme borreliosis: significance of the serological diagnosis of an infection with borrelia burgdorferi in neurological diseases with inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid syndrome].to look for a correlation between positive antibody-response against borrelia burgdorferi (bb) and an inflammatory csf-syndrome, from may 1988 to may 1989 333 patients from the neurological department of the university of bern underwent lumbar puncture with cell count, quantitative and qualitative protein analysis and antibody determination against bb in serum and csf. 6 patients with active syphilis were excluded. the results of the 333 remaining patients were analyzed using chi 2 or fisher's e ...19921321489
peripheral facial palsy caused by borrelia burgdorferi and viruses in south-western a prospective study from 1983 through 1984, 77 patients (31 men and 46 women with a mean age of 47 +/- 20 years) with peripheral facial palsy of primarily unknown etiology were investigated. only 2 patients with acute otitis media received antibiotics. serology of the patients was investigated on days 1 and 14. igg and igm antibodies against herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and cytomegalovirus were determined by enzyme immunoassay, and against epstein-barr virus by immunofluorescence. in a re ...19921321549
congenital infections and the nervous system.despite vaccines, new antimicrobials, and improved hygienic practices, congenital infections remain an important cause of death and long-term neurologic morbidity among infants world-wide. important agents include toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and rubella virus. in addition, several other agents, such as the varicella zoster virus, human parvovirus b19, and borrelia burgdorferi, can potentially infect the fetus and cause adverse fetal ...19921321971
borrelia burgdorferi infection may be the cause of sarcoidosis.serum antibody to borrelia burgdorferi was measured in 33 patients with sarcoidosis which was confirmed clinically and pathologically. the results showed that 81.8% of the patients were positive for anti-b. burgdorferi antibody. in addition, a strain of b. burgdorferi was isolated from a patient's blood. fifteen patients received ceftriaxone 2g per day or penicillin 12 million u per day. the antibody titers of the patients decreased to nearly normal levels rapidly. serum angiotensin converting e ...19921333393
antibody-resistant mutants of borrelia burgdorferi: in vitro selection and characterization.we used polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to inhibit the growth of clonal populations of two strains of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent, and thereby select for antibody-resistant mutants. mabs were directed at the outer membrane proteins, ospa or ospb. mutants resistant to the growth-inhibiting properties of the antibodies were present in the populations at frequencies ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2). the several escape variants that were examined were of four class ...19921339462
[epidemiological study of lyme disease in brazil].lyme disease is a tick-born infection first reported in united states of america in 1977 by allen c. steere. it occurred in the state of connecticut; other cases have been discovered in others states of usa and also in other countries (canada, soviet union, japan, china, australia). this disease has not been reported in south america yet. in order to investigate this disease in brasil, a multi-disciplinary group including microbiologists, entomologists and clinicians was created at the universit ...19921340016
[incidence of skin manifestations of lyme disease in croatia].in the study, the most relevant historical data concerning lyme-borreliosis are shortly reviewed. the most frequent skin manifestations, i.e. erythema cronicum migrans (ecm), lymphocytoma cutis (lcc) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) are described. the clinical course of lyme disease and the chronologic review of the most significant data on the disease are given. the frequency of skin manifestations of lyme-borreliosis in various areas of croatia from 1988 to 1989 based on the repor ...19921343019
[encephalitis. recent clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].the subjects of this paper are mainly the encephalitis of viral origin and in addition 3 types of non-viral encephalitis of practical importance. a review is given on the current diagnostic possibilities including; clinical criteria; examination of the cerebrospinal fluid; neuroradiology and; etiological investigation by means of direct identification of the microbes in the cerebrospinal fluid or by measuring intrathecally produced antibodies. after some general statements concerning treatment t ...19921348844
reversal by ceftriaxone of dilated cardiomyopathy borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19921349399
rrna gene organization in the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the causative agent is the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. the copy number and organization of the genes encoding the rrnas of this organism were determined. there is a single gene for 16s rrna and two copies each of the 23s rrna and 5s rrna genes. all of the genes are located within a chromosomal fragment of approximately 9.5 to 10.0 kb. the 23s and 5s rrna genes are tandemly duplicated in the order 23s-5s-23s-5s and ar ...19921350586
clinical outcome of borrelia burgdorferi related dilated cardiomyopathy after antibiotic treatment. 19921353241
evaluation of genetic divergence among borrelia burgdorferi isolates by use of ospa, fla, hsp60, and hsp70 gene order to assess the genetic variation of immunologically relevant structures among isolates of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, three chromosomal genes encoding flagellin (fla) and the heat shock proteins hsp60 and hsp70, as well as the plasmid gene encoding outer surface protein a (ospa), from 55 different european and north american strains obtained from ticks and mammal hosts have been investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps). rflps of fla and the ...19921356932
early antimicrobial treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with borrelia burgdorferi. 19921357392
roxithromycin in lyme borreliosis: discrepant results of an in vitro and in vivo animal susceptibility study and a clinical trial in patients with erythema migrans.a new semisynthetic macrolide roxithromycin was evaluated for its potential use in the treatment of lyme borreliosis. using a macro-dilution broth technique, borrelia burgdorferi was shown to be susceptible to roxithromycin with a minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc) of 0.06-0.25 microgram/ml. a systemic b. burgdorferi infection was established in gerbils; a dosage of greater than or equal to 25 mg/kg/day roxithromycin for 10 days eliminated the infection. a single blind, randomized multicen ...19921357894
borrelia burgdorferi and shulman syndrome. 19921360588
genome structure of spirochetes.the genome structures of several pathogenic spirochetes have recently been determined. the genomes of borrelia species consist of a linear chromosome of approximately one million base pairs (mb) and various linear and circular plasmids. analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16s ribosomal rna sequence data indicate the division of borrelia burgdorferi into at least three distinct genetic groups. leptospira interrogans has a circular chromosome 5 mb in size and a 0.35 mb extrac ...19921362002
biological and social determinants of the lyme disease problem.lyme disease, presently the most common arthropod-borne disease in the united states, is a phenomenon of both medical and social importance. notwithstanding the substantial public health threat posed by borrelia burgdorferi infection, there is reason to suspect that the diagnosis of lyme disease is made more frequently than justified. on the other hand, the current dissatisfaction with serologic assays for b. burgdorferi infection may lead some physicians to inappropriately abandon consideration ...19921365529
epitopes on the outer surface protein a of borrelia burgdorferi recognized by antibodies and t cells of patients with lyme disease.we have characterized immunogenic epitopes of the 31-kda outer surface protein a (ospa) protein of borrelia burgdorferi, which is a major surface ag of the spirochete causing lyme disease. full length and truncated forms of rospa proteins were expressed in escherichia coli, and their reactivities with antibodies and human t cell clones isolated from patients with lyme disease were determined. the epitopes recognized by three of four ospa-reactive t cell clones are contained within the 60 cooh-te ...19921370170
prognostic b-cell epitopes on the flagellar protein of borrelia burgdorferi.overlapping decapeptides based on the flagellin sequence of borrelia burgdorferi b31 (g. s. gassmann, m. kramer, u. b. göbel, and r. wallich, nucleic acids res. 17:3590, 1989) were used to identify immunologically reactive regions of flagellin. five serum specimens from patients with late manifestations of lyme disease and borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody h9724 reacted with an epitope in the central region of the flagellar protein (amino acids 205 to 226), which is heterologous to the amino ...19921370277
phylogenetic analysis of the genus borrelia: a comparison of north american and european isolates of borrelia burgdorferi.we have sequenced the 16s rrna molecules from four species of borrelia and from six isolates of borrelia burgdorferi via the reverse transcriptase primer extension method. the sequences were aligned and evolutionary relationships were determined, including the calculation of evolutionary distances and the construction of a phylogenetic tree. these analyses demonstrate significant divergence among b. burgdorferi isolates, with the european isolates g1 and g2 residing most distant from the main cl ...19921370282
identification of an endoflagellar associated protein in borrelia burgdorferi.dna of borrelia burgdorferi was cleaved by the endonuclease ecori and ligated with the bacteriophage expression vector lambda gt11. after infection of the escherichia coli strain y1089, the plaques of recombinant phages were screened with a b. burgdorferi antiserum (human) for fusion proteins containing borrelia antigen.s a positive clone produced a hybrid protein (p200) of c. 200 kda. the corresponding native borrelia protein (p97) was identified as having an mr of 97 kda. to localise protein p ...19921372363
species-specific identification of and distinction between borrelia burgdorferi genomic groups by using 16s rrna-directed oligonucleotide probes.examination of a number of previously published aligned borrelia 16s rrna sequences revealed the presence of regions which could serve as oligonucleotide probe targets for both species-specific identification of borrelia burgdorferi and distinction between genomic groups. total cellular rna isolated from borrelia cultures was used in slot blot analysis. radiolabeled oligonucleotides designed to hybridize to specific 16s rrna targets were used as probes. these probes allowed for both species-spec ...19921372620
characterization of antigenic determinants of borrelia burgdorferi shared by other bacteria.three antigenic determinants of borrelia burgdorferi that were shared with other spirochetes and gram-negative bacterial species, as measured by western blot, elisa, or both, were identified and characterized using monoclonal antibodies (mabs). two were associated with immunogenic integral membrane lipoproteins of 19- and 22-kda, respectively, by [3h]palmitate incorporation and triton x-114 phase partitioning. a third antigenic determinant was shown to be associated with a 72-kda heat shock prot ...19921372635
specific immunofluorescent staining of pathogenic treponemes with a monoclonal antibody.two hybrid cell lines which produced mouse monoclonal antibody to the dal-1 street strain of treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were established. these monoclonal antibodies strongly reacted with t. pallidum subsp. pallidum (nichols strain, dal-1, and two other street strains, strains mn-1 and mn-3) and t. pallidum subsp. pertenue by indirect microimmunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, but they did not react with normal rabbit testicular tissue. these monocl ...19921374079
immunoregulatory effects of borrelia burgdorferi on t-b cell interactions.late stages of lyme borreliosis are characterized by a disproportionate inflammatory response presumably elicited by only minute amounts of persisting antigen. to explore the possibility that amplification mechanisms of the immune response shape disease manifestations, we studied immunoregulatory properties of borrelia burgdorferi antigens and analyzed whether they influence b cell-t cell cooperation. b. burgdorferi was found to induce peripheral resting b cells to function as effective antigen ...19921375647
mapping the major antigenic domains of the native flagellar antigen of borrelia burgdorferi.purified flagellar protein (p41) of borrelia burgdorferi (strain b31) was subjected to chemical cleavage with hydroxylamine or proteolysis with v8 protease, endoproteinase asp-n, or alpha-chymotrypsin. the resulting polypeptides were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their positions in the published dna sequence of the p41 protein were determined by amino-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis. epitope specificities of antibody binding by a monoclo ...19921378061
immobilized ph gradient isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting for investigations of anti-borrelia burgdorferi igg antibodies.anti-borrelia burgdorferi immunoglobulin g (igg) responses in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and joint fluid from lyme disease patients were investigated by immobilized ph gradient (ipg) isoelectric focusing (ief) in ph 4-10 and ph 4-7 gels. after focusing, the anti-b.-burgdorferi antibodies were blotted by affinity-driven transfer to antigen-coated polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (immunoblot) and the igg antibodies were immunoenzymatically stained. ipg-ief gels gave an excellent resolution of ...19921378387
current recommendations for the treatment of lyme disease.lyme disease is a multisystem inflammatory disease caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi. soon after the tick bite which transmits the infection, the pathognomonic skin rash erythema chronicum migrans occurs in 50 to 70% of patients, often with associated symptoms resembling a 'summer cold' or viral infection. therapy for this stage of disease consists of 3 to 4 weeks of oral therapy. the agents currently used are: amoxicillin (500 mg 3 or 4 times daily) with or without probenecid 500 mg ...19921379147
the 23s/5s ribosomal rna genes (rrl/rrf) are separate from the 16s ribosomal rna gene (rrs) in borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiological agent of lyme disease.dna fragments containing the rrna genes for borrelia burgdorferi strain b31 were cloned in bacteriophage lambda embl3. a restriction map of the fragments was constructed and the organization of the rrna genes was determined by southern hybridization. one genomic dna fragment contained a single copy of the rrs sequence and another cloned fragment contained both rrl and rrf sequences. the results revealed that the rrs gene is located separately from the set of rrl/rrf genes, suggesting that these ...19921379622
borrelia burgdorferi hsp70 homolog: characterization of an immunoreactive stress protein.the gene encoding an immunoreactive borrelia burgdorferi hsp70 homolog was isolated and characterized. the predicted amino acid sequence of this spirochetal protein confirms that this gene encodes a member of the hsp70 family of proteins. although there appears to be a single copy of this gene on the spirochetal chromosome, two distinct transcripts hybridizing to the hsp70 probe are detected in rna isolated from b. burgdorferi. the amount of spirochetal hsp70 rna transcripts is shown to be therm ...19921379988
delineation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group vs461 associated with lyme borreliosis.we studied 48 borrelia isolates that were associated with lyme borreliosis or were isolated from ticks and identified three dna relatedness groups by using the s1 nuclease method. the three dna groups (genospecies) were associated with specific rrna gene restriction patterns, protein electrophoresis patterns, and patterns of reactivity with murine monoclonal antibodies. genospecies i corresponded to borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto since it contained the type strain of this species (strain atc ...19921380285
detection of glycoproteins in borrelia burgdorferi.the presence of carbohydrates on proteins of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was investigated by using a digoxigenin labeling method together with schiff staining and n-glycosidase f assay. the two major outer surface exposed proteins of 31 kda and 34 kda showed to be glycosylated and gel filtration high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) of proteins of b. burgdorferi metabolically labeled with 14c-n-acetylglucosamine revealed the incorporation of the carbohydrate i ...19921380795
characterization of a borrelia burgdorferi dnaj homolog.the gene encoding a borrelia burgdorferi dnaj homolog, located immediately 3' of the hsp70 gene, was characterized. although there is a single copy of the dnaj gene on the spirochetal chromosome, two distinct dnaj transcripts are detected in b. burgdorferi rna. rna blot analysis indicates that the dnaj gene can be transcribed alone or as part of a larger transcript containing the hsp70 homolog.19921383161
relapsing fever and its serological discrimination from lyme borreliosis.patients with borrelia-caused relapsing fever produce cross-reacting antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the anti-genetically related causative agent of lyme borreliosis. the antibody response of the serum of a patient (acute and convalescent) with relapsing fever was analysed by the immunoblot technique using borrelia hermsii and b. burgdorferi as antigens. the diagnosis was established by microscopic detection of spirochetes in the patient's blood. the patient's serum showed significantly elev ...19921385332
live borrelia burgdorferi preferentially activate interleukin-1 beta gene expression and protein synthesis over the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.lyme arthritis is one of the few forms of chronic arthritis in which the cause is known with certainty. because cytokines are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic arthritis, we investigated the effect of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, on the gene expression and synthesis of il-1 beta and the il-1 receptor antagonist (il-1ra) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. live b. burgdorferi induced fivefold more il-1 beta than il-1 alpha and sevenfold more il-1 ...19921387885
no evidence for a spirochaetal origin of localized scleroderma.we looked for evidence of a borrelia infection in 15 patients with morphoea. we were not able to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in any of these 15 patients. none of the 14 skin biopsies examined by immunohistochemistry showed evidence of spirochaetes. skin biopsies were cultured in 10 patients. all were negative. these results do not support a spirochaetal origin of localized scleroderma.19921390164
[etiopathogenic aspects of lyme disease]. 19921391003
lyme disease.lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. it is transmitted to human and animal hosts primarily by ticks of the ixodes ricinis complex. recognition of its characteristic skin and eye manifestations facilitates diagnosis and treatment.19921395157
molecular detection of persistent borrelia burgdorferi in a man with dermatomyositis.a 40-year-old white man with a several year history of various immunologic disorders, including anti-jo-1 autoantibody positive dermatomyositis, developed clinical lyme disease after being biten by a tick. the patient was treated with oral tetracycline and his initial symptoms resolved; however, he suffered an exacerbation of his muscle disease which was difficult to control despite cytotoxic therapy. antibiotic therapy was reinstituted after borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the patient's pe ...19921395222
sequence of the complete osp operon encoding two major outer membrane proteins of a european borrelia burgdorferi isolate (b29)the nucleotide sequence of the operon encoding the major outer surface proteins, ospa and ospb, of a european isolate of borrelia burgdorferi (strain b29) was determined and compared to the osp operon of the american strain, b31. an amino acid (aa) identity of 80.7% was found when comparing the ospa of b29 with that of b31, whereas the aa sequence of the ospb of b29 reveals only 61.3% identity with the ospb of b31. thus, strains b31 and b29 can be regarded as representatives of different b. burg ...19921398118
coiling phagocytosis is the preferential phagocytic mechanism for borrelia burgdorferi.the uptake mechanism for the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was investigated by electron microscopy for human and murine phagocytes. spirochetes of both a low- and a high-passage strain were preferentially internalized by coiling rather than by conventional phagocytosis. the spirochetes engulfed by coiling phagocytosis were found to disintegrate in an organelle exclusion zone without evident participation of lysosomes. preincubation of b. burgdorferi with m ...19921398932
the 93-kilodalton protein of borrelia burgdorferi: an immunodominant protoplasmic cylinder antigen.using immunoblots, we identified proteins of borrelia burgdorferi recognized by sera from 62 patients with either acute or chronic lyme disease. in all groups studied, the 41-kda flagellar protein and a relatively minor 93-kda protein (p93) were the most commonly recognized antigens in patients with acute and chronic disease due to b. burgdorferi. a murine monoclonal antibody (mab 181.1) was developed against p93, and the antigen was detected by immunoblot analysis in four european and american ...19921398941
low-passage-associated proteins of borrelia burgdorferi b31: characterization and molecular cloning of ospd, a surface-exposed, plasmid-encoded lipoprotein.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, loses its ability to infect and cause disease in mammalian hosts after repeated in vitro passage. to identify proteins preferentially expressed by the low-passage strain and thus representing potential virulence factors, the polypeptide profiles of virulent, low-passage and nonvirulent, high-passage forms of b. burgdorferi b31 were compared by nonequilibrium ph gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. four low-passage-associated pro ...19921398980
comparison of polymerase chain reaction and culture for detection of borrelia burgdorferi in naturally infected peromyscus leucopus and experimentally infected c.b-17 scid/scid mice.culture and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were compared for detection of borrelia burgdorferi infection in wild-caught peromyscus leucopus and experimentally inoculated c.b-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. pcr targeted highly conserved regions of the ospa gene and could detect one to five cultured organisms and 10 to 50 copies of molecularly cloned ospa dna. organs (kidney, spleen, and urinary bladder) and/or ear biopsy samples were obtained from 108 captured p. leucopu ...19921400962
in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of borrelia burgdorferi: a microdilution mic method and time-kill studies.the susceptibility of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, to various antimicrobial agents varies widely among published studies. these differences are probably due in part to variations in susceptibility testing techniques and growth endpoint determinations. we developed a microdilution method for determining the mics of antibiotics against b. burgdorferi. the method incorporated bsk ii medium, a final inoculum of 10(6) cells per ml, and a 72-h incubation period and wa ...19921400969
polymerase chain reaction for detection of leptospira spp. in clinical samples.a sensitive assay for leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis, was developed on the basis of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a 331-bp sequence from the leptospira interrogans serovar canicola rrs (16s) gene was amplified, and the pcr products were analyzed by dna-dna hybridization by using a 289-bp fragment internal to the amplified dna. specific pcr products also were obtained with dna from the closely related nonpathogenic leptospira biflexa but not with dna from other spiro ...19921400983
surface immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of lyme disease.a surface immunofluorescence assay (sifa) was analyzed and compared with a conventional indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detecting immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in sera from patients with lyme disease. fifty-five patients with syphilis and 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were used as disease controls. the sensitivity of the sifa was low during the acute phase of lyme disease (sera from seven of ...19921401015
[study of the anti borrelia burgdorferi antibody of hunters in hokkaido].we examined the sera of 587 hunters in hokkaido (japan's northernmost island) for the antibody to borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) by enzyme immunoassay, clarified the conditions related to antibody positivity in these subjects according to region, and studied the effects of factors such as age and lifestyle on the antibody titer. in contrast with an anti-b. burgdorferi antibody positive rate of 7.1% in control sera, that in the hunters' sera was 16.0%. among those positive for the anti-b. ...19921402062
clinical and laboratory findings with giant cell arteritis.out of 66 patients who were diagnosed as suffering from polymyalgia rheumatica (pmr; n = 40), temporal arteritis (at; n = 14) or both (n = 12) in a 6.5 year period (incidence 3.4/100,000 per year), 9 died and 49 were followed up for an average period of 28 months. exacerbations of the illness (n = 24) and complications in the course (n = 32) were more frequent with an initial esr greater than 90 mm/h. postural vertigo (n = 11), amaurosis fugax (n = 11) and polyneuropathy (n = 8) were the most fr ...19921402990
pathogenetic role of chlamydia, yersinia and borrelia in undifferentiated oligoarthritis.we studied the cellular and humoral immune response to chlamydia trachomatis, yersinia enterocolitica and borrelia burgdorferi in paired samples of peripheral blood and synovial fluid (sf) in undifferentiated oligoarthritis, reactive arthritis (rea) and rheumatoid arthritis. antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation was found in sf of 43% of patients with rea and 34% of patients with undifferentiated oligoarthritis. c. trachomatis was the most frequent single agent. hla-b27 was positive in 83% o ...19921404159
incompetence of roe deer as reservoirs of the lyme borreliosis determine whether the roe deer, capreolus capreolus l. may serve as a reservoir host for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, evidence of spirochetal infection was sought in nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) that had engorged as larvae on roe deer. sixteen roe deer were shot in lyme disease enzootic areas of south-central sweden during august-november 1990 and august 1991. an average of 276 (range, 84-658) larvae of i. ricinus was collected ...19921404260
genetic polymorphism of the gene encoding the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi.the genes coding for the outer surface protein (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis have been cloned and sequenced. two german strains (skin isolate pko and cerebrospinal fluid isolate pbi) have been analyzed. using an ospa-specific monoclonal antibody (l32 2e7) for immunological screening of a genomic puc18 library of b. burgdorferi strain pko, and ospa-producing clone was detected and subclones containing the open reading frame were constructed. the gene codi ...19921406458
experimentally induced infection of cats with borrelia determine whether cats could be infected experimentally with borrelia burgdorferi, 15 cats were inoculated with approximately 1,000 b burgdorferi. seven cats were inoculated by the iv route, 2 by the oral route, 2 by the ocular route, and 4 by the oral-ocular route. six control cats were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution by the iv, oral, and ocular routes. prior to the start of the study, all 21 cats were seronegative for b burgdorferi on the basis of results of the indirect ...19921416347
in vitro susceptibilities of borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.we determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. mics for b. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). when b. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the mic of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill 99 ...19921416868
borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes ricinus from habitats in denmark.a total of 2647 ticks of the genus ixodes was sampled by flagging the vegetation in thirty-one sites in eastern jutland, denmark. all ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus linnaeus. a total of 317 ticks (202 nymphs and 115 adults) from three different sites were examined for the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. by indirect fluorescent antibody staining; the frequency of infection varied from 7% to 22%. it is concluded that i. ricinus, known to be the most common tick in denmark, ...19921421487
screening of blood donors and recipients for borrelia burgdorferi antibodies: no evidence of b. burgdorferi infection transmitted by the study presented here, the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, was determined in a group of blood donors from the würzburg area (southern germany). 13 of 472 donors (2.7%) tested were positive by immunoblotting (ib). these 13 donors were examined in more detail by physical examination, anamnesis and determination of inflammation parameters of the blood. all persons were asymptomatic for lyme borreliosis. one of 5 who remembered a ...19921422081
determination of antibody titres for borrelia burgdorferi in the serum of gipsies living in attika, greece. 19921425722
evaluation of an immunoenzymatic test (elisa) for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was assessed to detect in humans igm and igg against the main serogroups/serovars of leptospira present in italy. sonicated antigens from strain wijnberg, serogroups icterohaemorrhagiae and riccio 2, serogroup australis, were used in elisa and the results were compared to microagglutination test (mat). igm were confirmed to be the predominant class of antibodies; the total sensitivity obtained by wijnberg/elisa with the sera of patients infected by di ...19921426167
evidence that borrelia burgdorferi immunodominant proteins p100, p94 and p83 are identical.recently there have been reports on high-molecular mass components of borrelia burgdorferi, namely the p100, p94 and p83, which claimed these proteins to be specific marker antigens for the serodiagnosis of late lyme borreliosis. the nucleotide sequences of the p100 and p83 have been published. the alignment of the deduced n-terminal amino acid sequences with the n-terminal sequence of the p94 now provides evidence that all three proteins are identical.19921426983
seroprevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in a population of horses in central texas.four hundred sixty-nine serum samples were obtained from horses admitted to the internal medicine service of the texas veterinary medical center between jan 1 and dec 31, 1990. serum samples were tested by elisa for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. of these 469 samples, 1 (0.2%) was repeatedly seropositive for the organism by elisa. confirmatory testing by protein immunoblot was negative. the observed seroprevalence was 0%; the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval was 0.6%. these findings ...19921429127
the hamster immune response to tick-transmitted borrelia burgdorferi differs from the response to needle-inoculated, cultured organisms.the human immune response to natural infection with borrelia burgdorferi appears to differ from that seen in small mammals infected by needle inoculation. in humans, antibody to outer surface proteins a and b (ospa and ospb) is not detectable until late in infection, but small mammals inoculated with b. burgdorferi produce early antibody to ospa and ospb. to investigate this disparity we compared the immune response in hamsters to b. burgdorferi after needle inoculation with cultured organisms o ...19921431134
csf findings in lyme meningitis.the results of cerebrospinal fluid examination in 59 cases of meningitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi were analysed and compared with 73 non-lyme meningitis cases. there was no statistically significant difference in the median cell count of 160 x 10(6)/l in the lyme meningitis patients and the 150 x 10(6)/l in the non-lyme cases. the protein level was elevated in both patients groups to 0.9 g/l and 0.8 g/l, respectively. the glucose level of 2.9 mmol/l (1.0-6.1) was, however, significantly (p ...19921431169
diagnostic tools in lyme borreliosis: clinical history compared with serology.the occurrence of a history of clinical lyme borreliosis and the prevalence of positive antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were studied in 431 dutch hunters. the majority of the hunters (336 or 78%) did not report any complaints and had no positive igg antibodies to b. burgdorferi. sixty-five hunters (15.1%) had no clinical manifestations but did not have positive antibodies to b. burgdorferi. only 1.9% of the population studied had had past symptoms of definite or probable lyme borreliosis. lik ...19921432003
[ocular findings in infection with borrelia burgdorferi].during the years 1988 to 1990 ten patients were observed in the eye clinic of rwth aachen with ocular findings of infection with borrelia burgdorferi. 6 of them showed neuro-ophthalmological signs, 4 had uveitis. in both groups recent infections were documented in fresh and chronic stages of the disease, lasting longer than one year. the various clinical pictures of the disease following infection with borrelia burgdorferi are described. as a vaccination against borreliosis is not yet available, ...19921434386
a comprehensive multiple matrix model representing the life cycle of the tick that transmits the agent of lyme extension of leslie matrix methodology was developed to describe the life cycle of ixodes dammini, the tick that transmits the agent of lyme disease in eastern north america. thereby, we described the seasonally changing pattern of interactions of the tick with its various hosts in a well-studied site on nantucket island, massachusetts. particular numerical values representing the site were estimated mainly on the basis of published values and interpreted on the basis of experience. the model ...19921434674
a controlled trial of antimicrobial prophylaxis for lyme disease after deer-tick bites.borrelia burgdorferi, which causes lyme disease, is transmitted by deer ticks (lxodes dammini) in the northeastern and midwestern united states. although deer-tick bites are common in areas in which the disease is endemic, there is uncertainty about how to manage the care of persons who are bitten.19921435930
[correlation between neurologic disease and borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in 800 paired serum/cerebrospinal fluid samples].paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from 800 patients of a neurological clinic were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. a flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for antibody screening. all serum/csf pairs with any elevated antibody response were also tested by a western blot, a method for confirmation. 65 patients (8.1%) had serum igg antibodies on elisa screening and 22 of these (2.8%) were confirmed by western blot. 20 patients (2.5%) had elevated antibo ...19921436252
western blotting in evaluating lyme seropositivity and the utility of a gel densitometric approach.the antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi is widely used in the diagnosis of lyme neuroborreliosis and other manifestations of lyme disease. however, a problem with immunoassays has been a significant number of false positives. the western blotting technique is a useful adjunct in the serodiagnosis of other infections, but its use in lyme borreliosis has been limited because of a lack of definition of what constitutes a positive assay. using a gel densitometric analysis, we devised quantitat ...19921436533
changes in the protein profile and antigenicity of different borrelia burgdorferi strains after reintroduction to ixodes ricinus ticks.eight swiss strains of borrelia burgdorferi, with various protein profiles and the north-american strain b31 were artificially introduced into ixodes ricinus ticks and reisolated 10 days later. all isolates were subsequently examined by sds-page analysis. comparing initial isolates with the reisolates, we observed that 7 out of 9 strains changed their protein pattern with respect to the major proteins ospa, ospb and the 22 kda protein after passage in the tick. the strains ne2, ne4 and ne83 with ...19921437234
vegetation structure influences the burden of immature ixodes dammini on its main host, peromyscus determine whether the relative abundance of immature ixodes dammini (the vector of lyme disease and human babesiosis) is related to habitat structure, we examined tick burdens on their main host, the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), in 4 structurally diverse sites on great island, massachusetts, usa. vegetation structure at each site was quantified with respect to 25 habitat variables. principal components analysis was used to reduce this set of habitat variables to seven new and ort ...19921437266
arthropoda as zoonoses and their implications.some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in mediterranean areas are briefly discussed. selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in europe. finally, the risk of the emergence of lyme borreliosis (borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spr ...19921441188
lyme disease: ecology, epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and management. 19921442314
cystitis induced by infection with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in mice.previous studies have demonstrated that the urinary bladder is a consistent source for isolating the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from both experimentally infected and naturally exposed rodents. we examined histopathologic changes in the urinary bladder of different types of rodents experimentally infected with lyme spirochetes, including balb/c mice (mus musculus), nude mice (m. musculus), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and grasshopper mice (onychomys leucogaster). a ...19921443051
vesicular erythema migrans.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is an early sign of the disease. clinical criteria remain the "gold standard" for diagnosis at this stage of illness.19921444504
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