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in vivo and in vitro effect of cyclophosphamide on borrelia duttoni.sera taken from mice given cyclophosphamide 75 min previously fails to substantially inhibit borrelial multiplication in vitro. mice given cyclophosphamide were infected with borrelia duttoni. inability to demonstrate specific antibody in these mice did not prevent recovery from infection, resolution of the bacteraemia or appearance of an antigenic variant. cyclophosphamide may delete suppressor lymphocytes allowing enhanced production of antibodies which may not only protect, but induce antigen ...197941418
isolation of the outer envelope, chemical components, and ultrastructure of borrelia hermsi grown in vitro. 197941419
ticks and spirochetes.the concept is expressed that borrelia developed as symbionts of ticks (especially argasidae) but act as parasites in mammals and birds ... borrelial reservoirs and amplifiers following bites by infected ticks. certain tick borreliae may multiply in lice but one borrelia has evolved into a n independent species (b. recurrentis) associated only with lice and humans. seventeen argasid tick species are known as vectors of borrelia species and 4 ixodid tick species are known as vectors of b. theiler ...197941420
determination by means of electron microscopy of morphological criteria of value for classification of some spirochetes, in particular treponemes. 197658539
[conditions for maintaining a natural focus of tick-borne spirochetosis in southern tadzhikistan].the spontaneous infection of b. latyshevi population of o. tartakovskyi and its hosts in the foothill zone of southern tadjikistan was studied. a great part of the horsfield's terrapin unsusceptible to the spirochaete in the feeding of the tick's population was established. the foci is apparently maintained on account of the rising number of the redtailed libyan jird. in years of the depression of rodents number the main part in the preservation of the infection belongs to the ticks.1976133321
the spirochetes. 1977334048
tick-borne diseases of domestic animals in northern nigeria. ii. research summary, 1966 to 1976.during the first 10 years of its existence, the department of parasitology and entomology of the faculty of veterinary medicine, ahmadu bello university in zaria, nigeria, confirmed or described for the first time the occurrence of 25 different tick-borne parasites of domestic animals in the northern part of the country. most of these organisms occur as inapparent infections but may serve as complicating factors in any adverse host condition. the transmission of babesia bigemina by boophilus dec ...1977339447
motility and chemotaxis of spirochetes. 1978360979
clinical fever: its history, manifestations and pathogenesis.a short summary of some aspects of the history of clinical fever is presented with special reference to its association with inflammation. the role of bacterial endotoxins and endogenous pyrogen (released from inflammatory cells) in the genesis of human fevers is reviewed. clinical diseases are tabulated within various broad categories and discussed in relation to the frequency with which they are associated with fever and the probable pathogenetic mechanisms involved. certain unresolved discrep ...1979365586
some transfusion-induced parasitic infections in zambia.the risk of acquiring a transfusion-induced infection in zambia was studied for the first time. blood slide examination of donors, despite the insensitivity of the method, established malaria as the most serious hazard. the species involved was plasmodium falciparum, the cause of cerebral malaria, and which could be rapidly fatal in a non-immune host visiting an endemic area. microfilariae of dipetalonema perstans and wuchereria bancrofti were also found in donor populations. while no disease ma ...1979399289
feline pyothorax caused by a borrelia-like organism and corynebacterium pyogenes.a 2-year-old, neutered, male cat was euthanatized because of difficult repiration and inability to rise. necropsy revealed pyothorax. corynebacterium pyogenes was grown from the purulent thoracic exudate. a borrelia-like microorganism was demonstrated in the exudate, using phase-contrast microscopy.1979447585
relapsing fever. 1979448846
avian spirochetosis: natural transmission by argas (persicargas) sanchezi (ixodoidea: argasidae) and existence of different serologic and immunologic types of borrelia anserina in the united states.a mild strain of borrelia anserina was transmitted to chicks by an argasid tick identified as argas (persicargas)sanchezi dugès, 1887. disease was transmitted regularly to chicks less than 2 to 3 weeks old, and rarely to chicks 4 weeks old or older. this spirochete isolate was demonstrated to be immunologically and serologically diverse from an isolate obtained earlier in arizona. this is the first report of transmission of b anserina by a(p) sanchezi and of the presence of different serologic a ...1979453680
avian spirochaetosis: enhanced recognition of mild strains of borrelia anserina with bursectomized- and dexamethasone-treated chickens. 1979528695
infection with borrelia recurrentis: pathogenesis of fever and petechiae. 1979528787
borrelia persica and b. baltazardi sp. nov.: experimental pathogenicity for some animals and comparison of the ultrastructure.the ultrastructure of cells of borrelia persica was compared with that of cells of a new isolate of barrelia (borrelia "x"). this organism (b. "x") was isolated in a region of iran where b. persica is already known to exist. the morphology of the cells of the two strains differed in mean cell length and cell diameter. cells of b. persica were covered by a regularly structured surface layer, while those of b. "x" possessed an amorphous surface coat. furthermore, the strains differed in their expe ...1979533068
activation of protein mediators of inflammation and evidence for endotoxemia in borrelia recurrentis infection.fifteen patients with borrelia recurrentis infection were studied to evaluate the role of certain plasma proteins and endotoxin in the pathophysiology of both the acute illness and the jarisch-herxheimer-like reaction. the causative spirochetes disappeared from the blood during the jarisch-herxheimer-like reaction, which occurred about 2 hours after antibiotic therapy. the mean titers of hageman factor, plasma prekallikrein and serum hemolytic complement activity were decreased at the time of ad ...1977605915
the nature of sporadic cases of relapsing fever in kazeroun area, southern iran. 1977615684
tick-borne relapsing fever in the eastern united states.tick-borne relapsing fever is endemic in the western part of the united states, but it has not been reported east of the mississippi river. sporadic cases have been reported in the eastern part of the united states, but travel to the west during the incubation period appeared to provide the source of infection. in the fall of 1975, a case of relapsing fever was diagnosed in cincinnati in a child who had not traveled outside of ohio, indicating the presence of borrelia in this area. serial serolo ...1978623062
borrelia recurrentis infection: single-dose antibiotic regimens and management of the jarisch-herxheimer reaction. 1978659915
the transmission of borrelia theileri by boophilus annulatus (say, 1821). 1978664021
lipid metabolism of borrelia hermsi.the synthesis of complex lipids by borrelia hermsi while growing in kelly medium was investigated by labeling cultures with d-[14c]glucose or [14c]palmitic acid. labeled glucose was incorporated into phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol, monogalactosyl diglyceride, cholesterol glucoside, and acylated cholesteryl glucoside. the fatty acid composition reflected that of the medium suggesting that this spirochete directly incorporates acyl chains unaltered from its external milieu. furthermor ...1978669794
[borreliasis: rare etiology of a holiday fever]. 1978673776
pathobiology of borrelia theileri in the tropical cattle tick, boophilus microplus. 1978731072
[antimicrobial and antispirochetal activity of pharmachem's tylosin].studies are the following preparations, produced by "pharmachim": tylosine-base (tylosine-50), tylosine tartarate (tylosine pulvis) and tylosine phosphate (substance and granules) and their analogues: tylosine-base (tylan-50), tylosine tartarate (tylan soluble) and tylosine phosphate (tylan af 99), produced by the "elanco" company. the biological activity of the preparation was determined by means of the microbiological method of diffusion in agar. in the case of all experimental treatments, the ...1978751322
[arthropodan vectors of human parasites: their pathology and defence reactions (author's transl)].many infectious diseases of man are transmitted by arthropods. it is not known whether the carriers were primarily susceptible or insusceptible as the cycle first came into existence. similarly so little is understood, why some arthropods are suitable vectors and other close relatives are not suitable. only the hypothesis that the agents are original parasites and not at all commensals or symbionts can reasonably explain the evolution of the cycles. it is shown by means of numerous examples how ...1976769379
microscopy of blood films for parasites in the field. 1976794635
immunology of borreliosis in nonhuman primates. 1975805719
reinfection of vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) with borrelia hermsii.two of 4 untreated vervet monkeys infected with borrelia hermsii survived and were resistant to reinfection for at least 1 year. seven of 9 vervets receiving tetracycline could be reinfected after 12 to 36 weeks. immobilizine could be demonstrated for a shorter time in treated than in untreated vervets.1975807959
[comparison of nutrient media for isolation of microflora in swine dysentery].the usability of five nutrient media - three kinds of spirolate media, thioglycolate medium and brain hearth medium - suitable for the isolation of vibrio coli and germs similar to borrelia isolated from pigs affected by dysentery, and vibria isolated from cattle, was compared in the study. the results of comparison show that fresh-prepared substrates must be used bor the isolation of the mentioned germs in all cases and a corresponding medium must be provided. the modified spirolate media prepa ...1975812247
[study of the antigenic makeup of strains of borrelia anserina, sakharoff, 1891, of the surnevo and pamoukchii serotypes].an antigen analysis of borrelia anserina strains, belonging to two serotypes, was carried out for the first time by means of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, gel diffusion after ouchterlony, immunoelectrophoresis as modified by scheidegger, and whole serum macroagglutination reaction. it was found that the spirochetes of the strain rouen of pamoukchii serotype possess eight surface antigens, and those of strain surnevo i of the same serotype have 6. the two strains were found to have as man ...1975814698
vectors and vertical transmission: an epidemiologic perspective. 1975829470
[borreliosis (spirochetosis) in grey parrot (psittacus erithacus)]. 1977847459
tick-borne relapsing fever: an interstate outbreak originating at grand canyon national park.during the 1973 summer season, 27 employees and 35 overnight guests at the north rim, grand canyon national park, arizona, acquired febrile illnesses compatibel with relapsing fever. sixteen cases were confirmed by finding borrelia spirochetes in peripheral blood smears or inoculated swiss mice. retrospective surveys of 278 employees and 7247 guests at the park revealed that acquisition of illness was significantly associated with the persons sleeping in rustic log cabins and acquiring bites of ...1977871120
an experimental study of borrelia anserina in four species of argas ticks. 1. spirochete localization and densities. 1977919696
an experimental study of borrelia anserina in four species of argas ticks. 2. transstadial survival and transovarial transmission. 1977919697
[brucellosis, tularemia and borreliosis isolated from wild animals captured in ankara, konya, urfa and nevsehir provinces in turkey].621 citellus, 41 mus musculus, 35 microtus, 442 meriones, 70 rattus rattus, 56 turtle, 89 hare, 1 hamster, 1 hedgehog and 1 sea snake, altogether 1379 wild animals were captured in ankara, konya, urfa and nevşehir. neither brucella or francisella tularansis could be isolated nor borrelia could be seen. 1/40-1/80 agglutination titers obtained in 3 out of 134 sera taken from citellus, in 3 out of 264 sera taken from guinea pigs which were inoculated with spleen, liver and kidney suspensions of wil ...1976979704
[effectiveness of sodium arsamilate and its effect on the immunity of hens experimentally infected with borrelia anserina].the toxicity of sodium arsanilate for chickens was determined following a six-day oral application. doses higher than 0.15/kg body weight led to symptoms of intoxication and death, especially when the intake of water was restricted. no spirochetemia, clinical signs of spirochetosis, and death cases were noted in birds infected subcutaneously with a lethal dose of borrelia anserina simultaneously treated (orally) in the course of three days with sodium arsanilate either in solution or in tablets ...19761030868
characteristics of pure cultures of borrelia sp. isolated from the bovine rumen. 19751092135
letter: multiple thick films on the same slide. 19751101462
the cytocentrifuge for the isolation of parasites from the blood. 19751102109
borrelia anserina in chickens previously exposed to borrelia theileri.exposure of 10-week-old white leghorn chickens to sheep blood containing borrelia theileri neither resulted in infection nor conferred protection against b. anserina.19751120034
[biochemical changes in the blood of geese infected with borrelia anserina].studied were the changes in the values of some hematologic indices (hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocites) as well as the values of some biochemical (total protein and protein fractions, urea, total lipids, bilirubin, inorganic, phosphorus calcium) and enzyme factors (lactatedehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase, aldolase, amino transferrases, creatinephosphokinase) in geese prior to and after experimental infection of borrelia anserina. it was found that in the peak stage of spirochetemia ...19751179637
[letter: mysterious fever in a tourist returning from morocco]. 19751215204
[study of methods for obtaining high-titer antispirochete sera].a comparative serologic study was carried out on three methods for immunizing rabbits to obtain high titer antispirochete sera. it was found that the method making use of freund's adjuvant produces the best immunization effect. applying the spirochete substrate via the conjunctiva makes it possible to obtain a good immunization effect with the lowest amount of antigen. using no unspecific stimulating agents it was possible to obtain high titer antispirochete sera combining the conjunctival appli ...19751216681
[study of anemia in spirochetosis of poultry by means of radioactive iron].radioactive iron was used to follow up some hematologic indices in birds infected with irradiated spirochetes of the borrelia anderina species. used were a total of 90 cockerels, aged two months, divided into three groups. ist group - cockerels inoculated with spirochetes that had been gamma-irradiated at the rate of 40000 r; iind group-cockerels inoculated with untreated spirochetes; and iiird group - normal cockerels. the infective material consisted of strain rouen spirochetes of the pamoukch ...19751226698
[comparative study of the antigenic composition of strains of borrelia anserina. 2. antigenic structure and immunobiologic relationships of a newly isolated strain].agar immunoelectrophoresis and an immunofluorescence method were used to analyse antigenically a newly isolated spirochete strain of the borrelia anserina species. it was established that by its antigen structure it could not be classified under the already described two serologic types, surnevo i and pamoukchii. the strain possesses five antigens common to serotype surnevo i and four antigens common to serotype pamoukchii. besides, it has also one typespecific antigen. this strain was said to b ...19751226699
[study of agglomeration of borrelia duttonii. (1) observation by scanning electron microscopy]. 19751240211
molecular analysis of the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi for conserved and variable antibody binding domains.the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi is a major candidate for development of a borrelia vaccine. however, vaccine development may be aggravated by the immunological heterogeneity of ospa. in this respect the knowledge about conserved and variable epitopes is of major interest. in this study truncated proteins derived from two different ospa serotypes of b. burgdorferi were mapped for conserved and specific antibody-binding domains. the ospa fragments were reacted in the wes ...19921279368
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes persulcatus and ixodes ovatus ticks in japan.the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the adult stage of the ixodid ticks ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus collected in various localities in japan. the total prevalence values were 16.6% of 777 i. persulcatus and 23.6% of 687 i. ovatus. sixty-two (63.9%) of 97 isolates from i. persulcatus contained the 30-34-kd heterogeneous outer surface protein a (ospa) that reacted with monoclonal antibody h5332. in contrast, all 128 isolates from i. ovatus were homogeneous with re ...19921279996
azithromycin. a review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy.azithromycin is an acid stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin, with a similar spectrum of antimicrobial activity. azithromycin is marginally less active than erythromycin in vitro against gram-positive organisms, although this is of doubtful clinical significance as susceptibility concentrations fall within the range of achievable tissue azithromycin concentrations. in contrast, azithromycin appears to be more active than erythromycin again ...19921280567
development of polymerase chain reaction primer sets for diagnosis of lyme disease and for species-specific identification of lyme disease isolates by 16s rrna signature nucleotide analysis.we have determined and compared partial 16s rrna sequences from 23 lyme disease spirochete isolates and aligned these with 8 sequences previously presented. the 16s rrna signature nucleotide compositions were defined for each isolate and compared with the genomic species signature nucleotide sets previously established. to identify positions truly indicative of species classification which could serve as targets for polymerase chain reaction species-specific identification primers, 16s rrna-base ...19921280643
comparison of whole-cell antibodies and an antigenic flagellar epitope of borrelia burgdorferi in serologic tests for diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.a recombinant protein (p41-g) of an antigenic region of flagellin was used in a standard and amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis. comparable sensitivities (88 to 94%) were noted when sera from 17 persons who had erythema migrans and antibodies to whole-cell b. burgdorferi were tested against the p41-g antigen. in tests of a second study group of 36 persons who had erythema migrans but no detecta ...19921280650
comparison of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from humans and ixodid ticks in hokkaido, japan.four spirochetal isolates (jem1 to jem4) were obtained from cutaneous lesions of patients manifesting erythema chronicum migrans in hokkaido, japan. in the protein profiles by sds-page and the reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (h5332 and h9724) by immunoblotting, all the human isolates were identical with the tick isolates from ixodes persulcatus. these data indicate that i. persulcatus is an important vector of lyme disease for humans in japan.19921283437
[prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in hamburg blood donors].one thousand regular blood donors of the department of transfusion medicine at the university hospital in hamburg were screened for antibodies against the lyme disease spirochete, b. burgdorferi. 7.2% were initially reactive in the enzyme immunoassay, 37.5% of which were confirmed by immunoblot. the seroprevalence of anti-b. burgdorferi antibodies thus is 2.7% in hamburg blood donors. 25 of 27 positive donors received a physical exam, which did not reveal any symptoms of acute or chronic lyme di ...19921284777
[infections with borrelia burgdorferi in würzburg blood donors: antibody prevalence, clinical aspects and pathogen detection in antibody positive donors].the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, was determined in a group of blood donors from the würzburg area (southern germany). 26 of 472 donors (5.5%) tested positive in a hemagglutination test. when performing immunoblots only 13 donors (2.7%) gave rise to b. burgdorferi-specific antibodies. 9 of them were examined in more detail by anamnesis, physical examination, determination of inflammation parameters of the blood and polymerase chai ...19921284778
questionnaire surveys of cases of tick bite and lyme borreliosis in hunters in hokkaido with reference to detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody.an epidemic of lyme borreliosis on hokkaido island, japan, was surveyed by questionnaire in 587 hunters. the 308 returns (52.4%) revealed episodes of tick bite (usually 2 or more) in 210 cases. skin rashes appeared in 164 cases. associated itching, pain, etc., but not skin rash, were more frequent after 2 or more tick bite. previous determinations of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody titers in these subjects and in controls suggested an association with outdoor activities other than hunting, an ...19921286220
questions "push" for vaccination against borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19921289318
[lyme disease].after a short historical review of the lyme disease, the author describes the responsible bacteria, a spirochete called borrelia. epidemiology, physiopathology and clinical manifestations are studied, as well as the different phases of the disease (primary secondary and tertiary) and the various possible symptoms (dermatological, cardiovascular, rheumatical, neurological syndrome). the biological part includes isolation of the bacteria and detection of antibodies (ifi, elisa, passive hemagglutin ...19921290383
prevalence of serum specific antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi antigens in persons from region of high risk of tick bites. 19921292851
lyme disease in clinical practice. 19921292852
active immunization with pc protein of borrelia burgdorferi protects gerbils against b. burgdorferi infection.serious infection due to borrelia burgdorferi and the disseminated infection characteristic of the disease possess unique treatment problems. the wide and still increasing incidence of lyme borreliosis as well as the problems in treatment call for effective prevention strategies by active immunization. vaccination experiments were done to determine if active immunization of gerbils with recombinant ospa and pc protects against infection with strains of b. burgdorferi. gerbils were vaccinated wit ...19921293055
murine lyme borreliosis: route of inoculation determines immune response and infectivity.outer surface protein a ospa is the major outer surface protein of b. burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, and has been advocated as a vaccine candidate. it is recognized late or not at all in the course of human lyme disease, but has been identified as a major antigenic epitope for the anti-spirochetal immune response in a number of experimental models of b. burgdorferi infection. we injected b.burgdorferi into mice and tested the appearance of immunoreactivity to ospa by western b ...19921297405
prevention of lyme disease after tick bites. a cost-effectiveness analysis.in areas of endemic disease, the probability of lyme disease after a tick bite ranges from about 0.012 to 0.05. early treatment with oral antibiotics prevents most complications of lyme disease, but antibiotics are generally not prescribed until rash or other symptoms develop.19921298217
[survey on tick vectors of lyme disease spirochetes in china].since 1987 we have been studying on lyme disease in china. there were 71 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi recovered from six species of ticks including ixodes persulcatus, ixodes granulatus, ixodes rangtangensis, haemaphysalis concinna. haemaphysalis bispinosa and haemaphysalis longicornis, and 55 isolates from ixodes persulcatus collected from heilongjiang, jilin, liaoning, nei-monggol, hebei and xinjiang region (province). ixodes persulcarus is the dominant species accounted for more than 80% ...19921300244
[investigation of rodents and ixodes for lyme disease and four strains of borrelia burgdorferi first isolated from ixodes granulatus supino, rattus confucianus and r. norvegicus in fujian province].with bsk ii medium, 4 strains of borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes granulatus supino, rattus confucianus and r, novregicus, which ixodes and ruttus all captured from forest areas in northern of fujian province where have found lyme cases. these isolated strains were identified by institute of epidemiology and microbiology, chinese academy of preventive medicine.19921301268
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurological disorders in berlin.paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from 800 patients of a neurological department were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. a flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for antibody screening. all serum/csf pairs with any elevated antibody response were also tested by western blotting a method for confirmation. 65 patients (8.1%) had serum igg antibodies in elisa and 22 of these patients (2.8%) were confirmed by western blot. 20 patients (2.5%) had elevated an ...19921303693
inflammatory signs, antibody response and antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid over the course of neuroborreliosis.csf and serum specimens were consecutively obtained from three patients with neuroborreliosis (stage i, ii and iii), csf protein content, cell counts and differential, igg index, oligoclonal bands and anti-b. burgdorferi antibodies were measured. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) was tested for borrelia-dna being present prior to and after antibiotic treatment. while dna could be identified before ceftriaxone was administered, there were no more amplification products afterwards. the goal of this study ...19921303694
[endemic occurrence of lyme disease in the forested areas of the piła district].lyme disease (l.d.) caused by borrelia burgdorferi and spread by ixodes ticks arouses great interest with more and more clinicians and other scientists. it may be very difficult to diagnose a disease as l.d. because of its various clinical symptoms expressions. this is why it is often called "the great imitator". there are three phases in the natural history of the disease. diagnostic problems come from the fact that early phases are often lacking. the disease may begin with any symptom of any s ...19921305782
[comparable evaluation of serological diagnostic tests (elisa, ifa and pa methods) for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody].we have evaluated the usefulness of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa) and particle agglutination (pa) method as serological screening tests for lyme-borreliosis. serum samples obtained from two patients with lyme-borreliosis showed marked high antibody titers for borrelia burgdorferi when measured by these methods. of the serum of 368 healthy members of the self-defense force in north-eastern japan screened for the antibody to b. burgdorferi ...19921307628
examination of koch's postulates for borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of limb/joint dysfunction in dogs with borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi has been implicated as the causative agent of borreliosis in dogs, which is characteristically a limb/joint disorder, but can be associated with multiple-organ dysfunction. attempts to reproduce this disease by inoculating dogs with b burgdorferi have not been successful. in the study of this report, b burgdorferi from ixodes dammini ticks was used to induce signs of limb/joint dysfunction, fever, anorexia, depression, and systemic infection in dogs. a pure culture of this b ...19921307866
clinical and electrophysiologic findings in chronic neuropathy of lyme disease.we evaluated 25 patients with lyme disease and chronic peripheral neuropathy. all had immunologic evidence of exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and no other identifiable cause of neuropathy. neuropathic symptoms began a median of 8 months (range, 0 to 165) after erythema migrans and had been present for a median of 12 months (range, 2 to 168) prior to evaluation. twelve patients (48%) had generally symmetric distal, nonpainful paresthesia, and another 12 (48%) had generally asymmetric radicular p ...19921310529
[for which infections should a multi-organ donor be serologically tested?]. 19921312227
advances in solid-phase red cell adherence methods and transfusion serology. 19921312882
treatment of early lyme disease.to compare the safety and efficacy of azithromycin, amoxicillin/probenecid, and doxycycline for the treatment of early lyme disease, to identify risk factors for treatment failure, and to describe the serologic response in treated patients.19921313637
[lyme borreliosis: significance of the serological diagnosis of an infection with borrelia burgdorferi in neurological diseases with inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid syndrome].to look for a correlation between positive antibody-response against borrelia burgdorferi (bb) and an inflammatory csf-syndrome, from may 1988 to may 1989 333 patients from the neurological department of the university of bern underwent lumbar puncture with cell count, quantitative and qualitative protein analysis and antibody determination against bb in serum and csf. 6 patients with active syphilis were excluded. the results of the 333 remaining patients were analyzed using chi 2 or fisher's e ...19921321489
peripheral facial palsy caused by borrelia burgdorferi and viruses in south-western finland.in a prospective study from 1983 through 1984, 77 patients (31 men and 46 women with a mean age of 47 +/- 20 years) with peripheral facial palsy of primarily unknown etiology were investigated. only 2 patients with acute otitis media received antibiotics. serology of the patients was investigated on days 1 and 14. igg and igm antibodies against herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and cytomegalovirus were determined by enzyme immunoassay, and against epstein-barr virus by immunofluorescence. in a re ...19921321549
congenital infections and the nervous system.despite vaccines, new antimicrobials, and improved hygienic practices, congenital infections remain an important cause of death and long-term neurologic morbidity among infants world-wide. important agents include toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and rubella virus. in addition, several other agents, such as the varicella zoster virus, human parvovirus b19, and borrelia burgdorferi, can potentially infect the fetus and cause adverse fetal ...19921321971
[serous meningitis in lyme's borreliosis].the authors relate the results of clinical, epidemiological, immunological, neurophysiological, emg, ed and reg studies in patients in the early period of lyme's disease. the patients with clinical and subclinical signs of nervous system lesions and those with serous meningitis were examined. different levels of the impairment, multiple neuropathies running a subclinical course, interest of the subcortical brain structures and spinal motoneuronal pool are demonstrated. cases of the mixed infecti ...19921326172
antibody-resistant mutants of borrelia burgdorferi: in vitro selection and characterization.we used polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to inhibit the growth of clonal populations of two strains of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent, and thereby select for antibody-resistant mutants. mabs were directed at the outer membrane proteins, ospa or ospb. mutants resistant to the growth-inhibiting properties of the antibodies were present in the populations at frequencies ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2). the several escape variants that were examined were of four class ...19921339462
[epidemiological study of lyme disease in brazil].lyme disease is a tick-born infection first reported in united states of america in 1977 by allen c. steere. it occurred in the state of connecticut; other cases have been discovered in others states of usa and also in other countries (canada, soviet union, japan, china, australia). this disease has not been reported in south america yet. in order to investigate this disease in brasil, a multi-disciplinary group including microbiologists, entomologists and clinicians was created at the universit ...19921340016
[encephalitis. recent clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].the subjects of this paper are mainly the encephalitis of viral origin and in addition 3 types of non-viral encephalitis of practical importance. a review is given on the current diagnostic possibilities including; clinical criteria; examination of the cerebrospinal fluid; neuroradiology and; etiological investigation by means of direct identification of the microbes in the cerebrospinal fluid or by measuring intrathecally produced antibodies. after some general statements concerning treatment t ...19921348844
reversal by ceftriaxone of dilated cardiomyopathy borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19921349399
clinical outcome of borrelia burgdorferi related dilated cardiomyopathy after antibiotic treatment. 19921353241
evaluation of genetic divergence among borrelia burgdorferi isolates by use of ospa, fla, hsp60, and hsp70 gene probes.in order to assess the genetic variation of immunologically relevant structures among isolates of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, three chromosomal genes encoding flagellin (fla) and the heat shock proteins hsp60 and hsp70, as well as the plasmid gene encoding outer surface protein a (ospa), from 55 different european and north american strains obtained from ticks and mammal hosts have been investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps). rflps of fla and the ...19921356932
early antimicrobial treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with borrelia burgdorferi. 19921357392
roxithromycin in lyme borreliosis: discrepant results of an in vitro and in vivo animal susceptibility study and a clinical trial in patients with erythema migrans.a new semisynthetic macrolide roxithromycin was evaluated for its potential use in the treatment of lyme borreliosis. using a macro-dilution broth technique, borrelia burgdorferi was shown to be susceptible to roxithromycin with a minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc) of 0.06-0.25 microgram/ml. a systemic b. burgdorferi infection was established in gerbils; a dosage of greater than or equal to 25 mg/kg/day roxithromycin for 10 days eliminated the infection. a single blind, randomized multicen ...19921357894
neisserial surface variation: how and why?neisseria gonorrhoeae exhibits striking variability in several of its surface components (pili, opa proteins and lipooligosaccharide) in vivo and in vitro. such flagrant variation of this mucosal pathogen's surface components contrasts sharply with changes in single surface components of blood-borne trypanosomes and borreliae. despite these differences, similar molecular events are sometimes involved.19921360853
[etiology, treatment and prognosis of peripheral facial palsy in the light of borrelia and viral antibody findings]. 19901364672
[validity of positive anti-borrelia antibodies in patients with neuroborreliosis]. 19921364877
biological and social determinants of the lyme disease problem.lyme disease, presently the most common arthropod-borne disease in the united states, is a phenomenon of both medical and social importance. notwithstanding the substantial public health threat posed by borrelia burgdorferi infection, there is reason to suspect that the diagnosis of lyme disease is made more frequently than justified. on the other hand, the current dissatisfaction with serologic assays for b. burgdorferi infection may lead some physicians to inappropriately abandon consideration ...19921365529
[lyme borreliosis]. 19921366299
epitopes on the outer surface protein a of borrelia burgdorferi recognized by antibodies and t cells of patients with lyme disease.we have characterized immunogenic epitopes of the 31-kda outer surface protein a (ospa) protein of borrelia burgdorferi, which is a major surface ag of the spirochete causing lyme disease. full length and truncated forms of rospa proteins were expressed in escherichia coli, and their reactivities with antibodies and human t cell clones isolated from patients with lyme disease were determined. the epitopes recognized by three of four ospa-reactive t cell clones are contained within the 60 cooh-te ...19921370170
prognostic b-cell epitopes on the flagellar protein of borrelia burgdorferi.overlapping decapeptides based on the flagellin sequence of borrelia burgdorferi b31 (g. s. gassmann, m. kramer, u. b. göbel, and r. wallich, nucleic acids res. 17:3590, 1989) were used to identify immunologically reactive regions of flagellin. five serum specimens from patients with late manifestations of lyme disease and borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody h9724 reacted with an epitope in the central region of the flagellar protein (amino acids 205 to 226), which is heterologous to the amino ...19921370277
phylogenetic analysis of the genus borrelia: a comparison of north american and european isolates of borrelia burgdorferi.we have sequenced the 16s rrna molecules from four species of borrelia and from six isolates of borrelia burgdorferi via the reverse transcriptase primer extension method. the sequences were aligned and evolutionary relationships were determined, including the calculation of evolutionary distances and the construction of a phylogenetic tree. these analyses demonstrate significant divergence among b. burgdorferi isolates, with the european isolates g1 and g2 residing most distant from the main cl ...19921370282
identification of an endoflagellar associated protein in borrelia burgdorferi.dna of borrelia burgdorferi was cleaved by the endonuclease ecori and ligated with the bacteriophage expression vector lambda gt11. after infection of the escherichia coli strain y1089, the plaques of recombinant phages were screened with a b. burgdorferi antiserum (human) for fusion proteins containing borrelia antigen.s a positive clone produced a hybrid protein (p200) of c. 200 kda. the corresponding native borrelia protein (p97) was identified as having an mr of 97 kda. to localise protein p ...19921372363
characterization of antigenic determinants of borrelia burgdorferi shared by other bacteria.three antigenic determinants of borrelia burgdorferi that were shared with other spirochetes and gram-negative bacterial species, as measured by western blot, elisa, or both, were identified and characterized using monoclonal antibodies (mabs). two were associated with immunogenic integral membrane lipoproteins of 19- and 22-kda, respectively, by [3h]palmitate incorporation and triton x-114 phase partitioning. a third antigenic determinant was shown to be associated with a 72-kda heat shock prot ...19921372635
specific immunofluorescent staining of pathogenic treponemes with a monoclonal antibody.two hybrid cell lines which produced mouse monoclonal antibody to the dal-1 street strain of treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were established. these monoclonal antibodies strongly reacted with t. pallidum subsp. pallidum (nichols strain, dal-1, and two other street strains, strains mn-1 and mn-3) and t. pallidum subsp. pertenue by indirect microimmunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, but they did not react with normal rabbit testicular tissue. these monocl ...19921374079
mapping the major antigenic domains of the native flagellar antigen of borrelia burgdorferi.purified flagellar protein (p41) of borrelia burgdorferi (strain b31) was subjected to chemical cleavage with hydroxylamine or proteolysis with v8 protease, endoproteinase asp-n, or alpha-chymotrypsin. the resulting polypeptides were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their positions in the published dna sequence of the p41 protein were determined by amino-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis. epitope specificities of antibody binding by a monoclo ...19921378061
immobilized ph gradient isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting for investigations of anti-borrelia burgdorferi igg antibodies.anti-borrelia burgdorferi immunoglobulin g (igg) responses in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and joint fluid from lyme disease patients were investigated by immobilized ph gradient (ipg) isoelectric focusing (ief) in ph 4-10 and ph 4-7 gels. after focusing, the anti-b.-burgdorferi antibodies were blotted by affinity-driven transfer to antigen-coated polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (immunoblot) and the igg antibodies were immunoenzymatically stained. ipg-ief gels gave an excellent resolution of ...19921378387
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