isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) from ixodes scapularis and dermacentor albipictus ticks (acari: ixodidae) in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes scapularis say and dermacentor albipictus packard that were removed as partially fed adults from white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmermann, in oklahoma. isolation in media was accomplished only after homogenates of pooled field-collected ticks were inoculated into laboratory-reared peromyscus leucopus and reisolated from the urinary bladder into bsk ii media. both isolates were confirmed by western blot analysis and reactivity with monoclo ...19921495072
attempted transmission of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) (jdi strain) by ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae), dermacentor variabilis, and amblyomma americanum.laboratory-reared ixodes scapularis say, amblyomma americanum (l.), and dermacentor variabilis (say) were fed on new zealand white rabbits experimentally infected with borrelia burgdorferi (jdi strain). at repletion, spirochetes could be detected by dark-field microscopy only in i. scapularis. acquisition rates were 18 and 21%. when previously exposed nymphs of each species were fed on susceptible rabbits, i. scapularis was the only tick of the three species that transmitted b. burgdorferi. when ...19921495078
prevalence of borrelia (spirochaetaceae) spirochetes in texas ticks.between 1990 and 1992, ticks from eight texas parks were collected and analyzed to determine the prevalence of spirochete-infected ticks. borrelia spirochetes were detected in 1.03% of 5,141 amblyomma americanum (l.) adults examined, a species texas residents often encounter. no spirochetes were observed in the other tick species tested.19948189421
competence of peromyscus maniculatus (rodentia: cricetidae) as a reservoir host for borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetares: spirochaetaceae) in the wild.although capable of maintaining and transmitting borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, the causative spirochete of lyme disease, in the laboratory, the specific ability of deer mice, peromyscus maniculatus le conte, to support this zoonosis has not been established. demonstration that p. maniculatus is a competent reservoir host in the wild would indicate that the spread of lyme disease is not limited to the range of the primary reservoir host, p. leucopus rafinesqu ...19938510121
ticks (acari: ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a georgia barrier island.from september 1997 through july 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on st. catherine's island, liberty county, ga. seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature s ...200111296828
[staining of leptospiras (spirochaetaceae)]. 195014809441
reservoir role of lizard psammodromus algirus in transmission cycle of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (spirochaetaceae) in investigate the reservoir role of the lizard psammodromus algirus for the lyme disease spirochete, 199 lizards were trapped from april to october 2003 in el jouza, northwestern tunisia. in this site, the infection rate of free-living ixodes ricinus (l.) by borrelia was evaluated by immunofluorescence as 34.6% for adult ticks and 12.5% for nymphs. eighty percent of p. algirus (117/146) captured during this study were infested by i. ricinus, the predominant tick species collected from lizards. ...200616892633
novel spirochetes isolated from mosquitoes and black flies in the czech republic.during the years 1999-2002, a total of 4,898 individuals of 26 species of hematophagous insects (4,149 mosquitoes, 583 black flies, and 166 tabanid flies) was examined for the presence of spirochetes using dark-field microscopy. there was an overall recovery of spirochetes from the midguts of culicidae and simuliidae of 23.5% and 11.4%, respectively. spirochetes were not detected in tabanidae. seven spirochetal strains have been successfully recovered from mosquitoes and black flies: br149 (cule ...201020618647
complete genome sequence of spirochaeta smaragdinae type strain (sebr 4228).spirochaeta smaragdinae magot et al. 1998 belongs to the family spirochaetaceae. the species is gram-negative, motile, obligately halophilic and strictly anaerobic and is of interest because it is able to ferment numerous polysaccharides. s. smaragdinae is the only species of the family spirochaetaceae known to reduce thiosulfate or element sulfur to sulfide. this is the first complete genome sequence in the family spirochaetaceae. the 4,653,970 bp long genome with its 4,363 protein-coding and 5 ...201021304743
new phylogenetic lineages of the spirochaetes phylum associated with clathrina species (porifera).though spirochetes have been repeatedly found in marine sponges and other invertebrates, little attention has been paid to the specificity of this association. this study demonstrates that different geno-and morphotypes of spirochetes can reside within the same sponge individual and develop in considerable numbers. specimens of the calcareous sponge clathrina clathrus collected from the adriatic sea off rovinj (croatia) were found to harbor spirochete-like bacteria, which were characterized by s ...201020799080
phagocytosis of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, by cells from the ticks, ixodes scapularis and dermacentor andersoni, infected with an endosymbiont, rickettsia peacockii.tick cell lines were used to model the effects of endosymbiont infection on phagocytic immune responses. the lines tested for their ability to phagocytose the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae), were ise6 and ide12 from the black-legged tick, ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae) and dae15 from the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni stiles. rickettsia peacockii (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of d. andersoni, was used a ...200720331397
community dynamics within a bacterial consortium during growth on toluene under sulfate-reducing conditions.a sulfate-reducing bacterial consortium was enriched from an anoxic aquifer contaminated with btex compounds, using toluene as a growth substrate. total cell counts, protein contents and sulfide production were determined to follow growth at the in situ temperature (14 degrees c) and at 25 degrees c, respectively. community members were identified by 16s rrna gene cloning and sequencing. phylogenetic analysis revealed 12 sequence types belonging to deltaproteobacteria (several groups), epsilonpr ...200919780826
design and evaluation of group-specific oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of intestinal ecosystems: their application to assessment of equine colonic microflora.nine oligonucleotide probes complementary to conserved regions of small subunit rrna from phylogenetically defined clusters of intestinal anaerobic bacteria were designed and evaluated for use in quantitative analysis of intestinal microflora. optimum wash temperatures (t(w)) were determined according to the temperature of dissociation (t(d)) of each probe and target group specificity was demonstrated by comparing hybridisation to target and non-target rrna immobilised on nylon membranes. three ...200319719641
managing japanese barberry (ranunculales: berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (acari: ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae).in many connecticut forests with an overabundance of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus zimmermann), japanese barberry (berberis thunbergii dc) has become the dominant understory shrub, which may provide a habitat favorable to blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis say) and white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus rafinesque) survival. to determine mouse and larval tick abundances at three replicate sites over 2 yr, mice were trapped in unmanipulated dense barberry infestations, areas where b ...200919689875
the incidence and significance of the presence of borrelia vincenti and other spirochaetaceae on beverage glasses. 193616559908
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) adults in new jersey, 2000-2001.using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 ixodes scapularis say adults collected from 16 of new jersey's 21 counties for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease. overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. b. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. the observed statewide prevalence in new jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-atlantic states.200314680126
high 16s rdna bacterial diversity in glacial meltwater lake sediment, bratina island, antarctica.the microbial diversity in maritime meltwater pond sediments from bratina island, ross sea, antarctica was investigated by 16s rdna-dependent molecular phylogeny. investigations of the vertical distribution, phylogenetic composition, and spatial variability of bacteria and archaea in the sediment were carried out. results revealed the presence of a highly diverse bacterial population and a significantly depth-related composition. assessment of 173 partial 16s rdna clones analyzed by amplified rd ...200312910387
the prevalence of borrelia burgdorfieri (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (rickettsiaceae: ehrlichieae) in ixodes scapularis (acari:ixodidae) collected during 1998 and 1999 from minnesota.we tested 103 adult ixodes scapularis say from 12 counties in minnesota for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi and the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total of 17 ticks (16.5%) was positive for b. burgdoiferi using nested pcr for the flagellin gene. or both pcr for the ospa gene and nested pcr for the flagellin gene. a total of four ticks (3.8%) was positive for the agent of hge using nested pcr for 16s rdna. counties in minnes ...200211931260
the impact of fermentative organisms on carbon flow in methanogenic systems under constant low-substrate conditions.we compared carbon flow under constant low-substrate conditions (below 20 microm glucose in situ) in laboratory-scale glucose-fed methanogenic bioreactors containing two very different microbial communities that removed chemical oxygen demand at similar rates. one community contained approximately equal proportions of spiral and cocci morphologies, while the other community was dominated by cocci. in the former bioreactor, over 50% of the cloned ssu rrna genes and the most common ssu rdna termin ...200111549033
taxonomy and virulence of oral spirochetes.all oral spirochetes are classified in the genus treponema. this genus is in the family spirochaetaceae as in bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. other generic members of the family include spirochaeta, cristispira and borrelia. this conventional classification is in accord with phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes based on 16s rrna cataloguing. the oral spirochetes fall naturally within the grouping of treponema. only four species of treponema have been cultivated and maintained rel ...200011155157
effect of lactosucrose (4g-beta-d-galactosylsucrose) on fecal flora and fecal putrefactive products of cats.the effects of lactosucrose (4g-beta-d-galactosylsucrose) on fecal flora and fecal putrefactive products were studied in 3 himalayan and 5 persian cats fed 175 mg of lactosucrose/each/day for 2 weeks. during lactosucrose administration, the counts of lactobacilli increased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas the counts of clostridia, including clostridium perfringens and enterobacteriaceace decreased significantly (p < 0.05). the levels of fusobacteria and staphylococci were decreased significantl ...19938513012
adhesion to and invasion of cultured tick (acarina: ixodidae) cells by borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) and maintenance of infectivity.lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi, interact with cultured tick cells in ways similar to those reported to occur in the vector ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin. spirochete adhesion and penetration were examined using a cell line from embryos of rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann that morphologically resembles tick gut cells, rae25. cocultivation of b. burgdorferi with these cells permitted prolonged maintenance of infectivity for hamsters. borrelial adherence to ...19938510118
utilization of ammonia nitrogen by intestinal bacteria isolated from a medium containing ammonia, proteose peptone, and cysteine as nitrogen sources, 17 of 24 bacteroidaceae strains, 3 of selenomonas strains, 1 of 7 curved rods, 3 of 7 spirochaetaceae strains, 8 of 20 eubacterium strains, 8 of 13 peptococcaceae strains, 3 of 4 clostridium strains, 19 of 20 enterobacteriaceae strains, and 1 of 8 streptococcus strains utilized ammonia nitrogen preferentially to proteose peptone nitrogen. to determine the ability of intestinal microbes to synthesize amino acids f ...19807356320
antigenic cross-reactivity between treponema pallidum and other pathogenic members of the family spirochaetaceae.the antigenic cross-reactivity between treponema pallidum and several pathogenic members of the family spirochaetaceae was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting techniques. blots of t. pallidum antigens were incubated with antiserum from rabbits infected or immunized with t. pallidum, treponema paraluiscuniculi, treponema hyodysenteriae (strains b204 and t22), borrelia hermsii serotype 7, or leptopsira interrogans serogroup canicola. t. pallid ...19846384040
chemical compositions of cell walls and polysaccharide fractions of spirochetes.cellular polysaccharide fractions of various representative members of genera of the family spirochaetaceae were obtained by the ammonium hydroxide extraction method. the sugar composition of the polysaccharide preparations was complex and many kinds of sugars such as rhamnose, fucose, ribose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose were detected in all of the spirochetes tested. of particular interest was the presence of 4-o-methylmannose as a constituent polysaccharide in members of the genus ...19846472134
borrelia burgdorferi: another cause of foodborne illness?borrelia burgdorferi was identified as the etiological agent of lyme disease in 1982. this gram-negative spirochete is classified in the order spirochaetales and the family spirochaetaceae. the pathogen is fastidious, microaerophilic, mesophilic and metabolises glucose through the embden-meyerhof pathway. a generation time of 11 to 12 h at 37 degrees c in barbour-stoenner-kelly medium has been reported. lyme disease, named after lyme in connecticut, is distributed globally. it is the most common ...19911790102
presence of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in southern kettle moraine state forest, wisconsin, and characterization of strain w97f51.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner; babesiosis, caused by babesia microti franca; and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum bakken & dumler have been reported in wisconsin, mainly in the endemic areas of the northwestern part of the state. people exposed to blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, from this region can potentially contract one or all of these diseases concurrently. within the past several year ...200515962800
analysis of outer membrane ultrastructure of pathogenic treponema and borrelia species by freeze-fracture electron microscopy.we analyzed the outer membrane (om) ultrastructure of four pathogenic members of the family spirochaetaceae by freeze fracture. the om of treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue contained a low intramembranous particle concentration, indicating that it contains few om transmembrane proteins. the concave om fracture faces of treponema hyodysenteriae and borrelia burgdorferi contained dense populations of particles, typical of gram-negative organisms. a relatively low concentration of particles which w ...19911885536
leptospirosis. do you consider the diagnosis?patients with leptospirosis, usually a water borne zoonotic disease, are likely to present themselves to royal naval primary health carers, who deal with a young active population, frequently participating in watersports. leptospira, which belong to the order spirochaetaceae, comprise of two distinct species. within each species there are a number of serologically different serovars (serotypes), arranged in related serogroups. l. interrogans var icterhaemorrhagiae and l. interrogans var hebdomad ...19892693693
prevalence of lyme disease agents and several emerging pathogens in questing ticks from the german baltic summer 2008, a total of 512 ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) ticks was collected from vegetation in four areas at the baltic coast of germany and tested for the presence of lyme disease spirochetes. among them, 293 ticks from three areas were screened for anaplasma phagocytophilum (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae), rickettsiae of the spotted fever group (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae), and babesia spp. (piroplasmida: babesiidae), respectively. borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies (spiro ...201121485387
phylogenetic foundation of spirochetes.the spirochetes are free-living or host-associated, helical bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to man and animal. comparisons of 16s rrna sequences demonstrate that the spirochetes represent a monophyletic phylum within the bacteria. the spirochetes are presently classified in the class spirochaetes in the order spirochetales and are divided into three major phylogenetic groupings, or families. the first family spirochaetaceae contains species of the genera borrelia, brevinema, cristispira, ...200011075904
complete genome sequence of treponema succinifaciens type strain (6091).treponema succinifaciens cwyk and canale-parola 1981 is of interest because this strictly anaerobic, apathogenic member of the genus treponema oxidizes carbohydrates and couples the embden-meyerhof pathway via activity of a pyruvate-formate lyase to the production of acetyl-coenzyme a and formate. this feature separates this species from most other anaerobic spirochetes. the genome of t. succinifaciens 6091(t) is only the second completed and published type strain genome from the genus treponema ...201121886863
[classification of spirochetes infecting man].the systematics od spirochetes must from now own fulfil the genomic criteria recently laid down. formerly, these parasites were classified on the basis of various phenotypic features, among which the pathogenicity and epidemiological criteria played the predominant role. at present, the order of spirochaetales is divided into two families: spirochaetaceae and leptospiraceae. two of the four genera of spirochaetaceae, treponema and borrelia, include species that are pathogenic to man. among lepto ...19892740779
phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus cristispira.comparative sequence analysis of 16s rrna genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus cristispira to other spirochetes. since cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16s rrna genes were amplified directly from bacterial dna isolated from cristispira cell-laden crystalline styles of the oyster crassostrea virginica. the amplified products were then cloned into escherichia coli plasmids. sequence comparisons of the gene coding for 16s rrna (rdna) insert ...19968975621
[chronic erythema migrans and tick-transmitted meningopolyneuritis (garin-bujadoux-bannwarth): borrelia infections?].antibodies against borrelia duttoni using indirect immunofluorescence could be demonstrated in 6 patients with erythema chronicum migrans and in 8 persons with tick-borne meningopolyneuritis. significant increases of igg and igm antibody titres in the course of the disease and igg antibodies in the csf indicate recent contact with borrelia duttoni or a closely related agent. demonstration by fluorescence serology of spirochaetaceae in ixodes ricinus in two sites of infection equally indicate suc ...19836839977
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