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new degenerate cytophaga-flexibacter-bacteroides-specific 16s ribosomal dna-targeted oligonucleotide probes reveal high bacterial diversity in river taff epilithon.river microbial communities play an important role in global nutrient cycles, and aggregated bacteria such as those in epilithic biofilms may be major contributors. in this study the bacterial diversity of river taff epilithon in south wales was investigated. a 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) clone library was constructed and analyzed by partial sequencing of 76 of 347 clones and hybridization with taxon-specific probes. the epilithon was found to be very diverse, with an estimated 59.6% of the bacteri ...200211772628
the acylhalocapnines of halophilic bacteria: structural details of unusual sulfonate sphingoids.sulfonate sphingoids or sulfonolipids are bioactive unusual compounds found in members of the bacteroidetes family. the present report describes the structures of sulfonolipids of halophilic bacteria, sharing structural similarity with compounds of fungal origin inhibiting the serine palmitoyl transferase and with capnines, known as antagonists of von willebrandt factor. two sulfonolipids (sl1 and sl2) were isolated from the lipid extract of the halophile salisaeta longa and analyzed by esi-ms/m ...201020211932
genome-based taxonomic classification of bacteroidetes.the bacterial phylum bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16s rrna gene sequence. here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from bacteroidetes and closely related ...201628066339
topographical mapping of the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) microbiome reveals a diverse bacterial community with antifungal properties in the skin.the mucosal surfaces of wild and farmed aquatic vertebrates face the threat of many aquatic pathogens, including fungi. these surfaces are colonized by diverse symbiotic bacterial communities that may contribute to fight infection. whereas the gut microbiome of teleosts has been extensively studied using pyrosequencing, this tool has rarely been employed to study the compositions of the bacterial communities present on other teleost mucosal surfaces. here we provide a topographical map of the mu ...201526209676
a bacterial sulfonolipid triggers multicellular development in the closest living relatives of animals.bacterially-produced small molecules exert profound influences on animal health, morphogenesis, and evolution through poorly understood mechanisms. in one of the closest living relatives of animals, the choanoflagellate salpingoeca rosetta, we find that rosette colony development is induced by the prey bacterium algoriphagus machipongonensis and its close relatives in the bacteroidetes phylum. here we show that a rosette inducing factor (rif-1) produced by a. machipongonensis belongs to the smal ...201223066504
the elmiric acids: biologically active anandamide analogs.as chemical entities, lipoamino acids have been known for some time. however, more recently their occurrence and importance in mammalian species has been discovered. they appear to have close relationships with the endocannabinoids not only structurally but also in terms of biological actions. the latter include analgesia, anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition of cell proliferation and calcium ion mobilization. to date about 40 naturally occurring members of this family have been identified and, ...200818187165
the elmiric acids: biologically active anandamide analogs.as chemical entities, lipoamino acids have been known for some time. however, more recently their occurrence and importance in mammalian species has been discovered. they appear to have close relationships with the endocannabinoids not only structurally but also in terms of biological actions. the latter include analgesia, anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition of cell proliferation and calcium ion mobilization. to date about 40 naturally occurring members of this family have been identified and, ...200818187165
diversity and phylogenetic affiliations of morphologically conspicuous large filamentous bacteria occurring in the pelagic zones of a broad spectrum of freshwater habitats.filamentous bacteria with a conspicuous morphology were found in the majority of the bacterioplankton samples from a variety of freshwater habitats that were studied. these heterotrophic filaments typically account for < 1 to 11% of the total number of bacteria. the biovolume of this morphotype can exceed 40% of the biovolume for all bacteria. surprisingly, we found hardly any data on these morphologically conspicuous filaments in the literature. mixed cultures containing these filamentous bacte ...200515812022
novel sulfonolipid in the extremely halophilic bacterium salinibacter ruber.salinibacter ruber is an extremely halophilic bacterium, phylogenetically affiliated with the flavobacterium/cytophaga branch of the domain bacteria. electrospray mass analyses (negative ion) of the total lipid extract of a pure culture of s. ruber shows a characteristic peak at m/z 660 as the most prominent peak in the high-mass range of the spectrum. a novel sulfonolipid, giving rise to the molecular ion [m-h]- of m/z 660, has been identified. the sulfonolipid isolated and purified by thin-lay ...200415528534
changes in bacterial community composition and dynamics and viral mortality rates associated with enhanced flagellate grazing in a mesoeutrophic reservoir.bacterioplankton from a meso-eutrophic dam reservoir was size fractionated to reduce (<0.8-microm treatment) or enhance (<5-microm treatment) protistan grazing and then incubated in situ for 96 h in dialysis bags. time course samples were taken from the bags and the reservoir to estimate bacterial abundance, mean cell volume, production, protistan grazing, viral abundance, and frequency of visibly infected cells. shifts in bacterial community composition (bcc) were examined by denaturing gradien ...200111375187
comparative 16s rrna analysis of lake bacterioplankton reveals globally distributed phylogenetic clusters including an abundant group of actinobacteria.in a search for cosmopolitan phylogenetic clusters of freshwater bacteria, we recovered a total of 190 full and partial 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) sequences from three different lakes (lake gossenköllesee, austria; lake fuchskuhle, germany; and lake baikal, russia). the phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rdna data set showed that our sequences fall into 16 clusters, which otherwise include bacterial rdna sequences of primarily freshwater and soil, but not marine, origin. six of t ...200011055963
phylogenetic analysis of particle-attached and free-living bacterial communities in the columbia river, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean.the columbia river estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. pcr-amplified 16s rrna genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the columbia river, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 ...199910388721
bacterial filament formation, a defense mechanism against flagellate grazing, is growth rate controlled in bacteria of different phyla.a facultatively filamentous bacterium was isolated from eutrophic lake water and was identified as flectobacillus sp. strain mwh38 (a member of the cytophaga-flavobacterium-bacteroides phylum) by comparative 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. filament formation by flectobacillus sp. strain mwh38 and filament formation by flectobacillus major, the closest known relative of strain mwh38, were studied in chemostat cultures under grazing pressure by the bacterivorous flagellate ochromonas sp. strain d ...19999872755
symbiont-derived sphingolipids modulate mucosal homeostasis and b cells in teleost fish.symbiotic bacteria and mucosal immunoglobulins have co-evolved for millions of years in vertebrate animals. symbiotic bacteria products are known to modulate different aspects of the host immune system. we recently reported that flectobacillus major is a predominant species that lives in the gill and skin mucosal surfaces of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). f. major is known to produce sphingolipids of a unique molecular structure. here we propose a role for f. major and its sphingolipids in ...201627966609
scent of danger: floc formation by a freshwater bacterium is induced by supernatants from a predator-prey coculture.we investigated predator-prey interactions in a model system consisting of the bacterivorous flagellate poterioochromonas sp. strain ds and the freshwater bacterium sphingobium sp. strain z007. this bacterial strain tends to form a subpopulation of grazing-resistant microscopic flocs, presumably by aggregation. enhanced formation of such flocs could be demonstrated in static batch culture experiments in the presence of the predator. the ratio of aggregates to single cells reached >0.1 after 120 ...201020656874
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