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a tissue culture assay for direct detection of sodium channel blocking toxins in bacterial culture supernates.a quantitative assay for sodium channel blocking toxins such as tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin has been developed for use with a microtitre plate reader. mouse neuroblastoma cells, which die rapidly in the presence of ouabain and veratridine, were protected by tetrodotoxin; surviving cells were detected by their uptake of the vital dye neutral red which was quantified with a microtitre plate reader at 540 nm. a sigmoidal dose response curve was obtained and tetrodotoxin concentrations were readily m ...19921320584
sequence of the gene encoding flavocytochrome c from shewanella putrefaciens: a tetraheme flavoenzyme that is a soluble fumarate reductase related to the membrane-bound enzymes from other bacteria.flavocytochrome c from the gram-negative, food-spoiling bacterium shewanella putrefaciens is a soluble, periplasmic fumarate reductase. we have isolated the gene encoding flavocytochrome c and determined the complete dna sequence. the predicted amino acid sequence indicates that flavocytochrome c is synthesized with an n-terminal secretory signal sequence of 25 amino acid residues. the mature protein contains 571 amino acid residues and consists of an n-terminal cytochrome domain, of about 117 r ...19921333793
evaluation of the bacteriological quality of seafood.bacteria largely determine the quality of fresh and lightly preserved fish products. this paper surveys traditional and rapid methods for estimation of bacterial levels in seafood. the use of traditional agar techniques is discussed with reference to development of substrates and procedures suited for fish and fish products. this includes estimation of the bacteria specifically involved in the spoilage process. during the last decade, several microbiological rapid methods or principles (deft, mi ...19921389992
isolation and characterization of shewanella alga from human clinical specimens and emendation of the description of s. alga simidu et al., 1990, 335.genetic and phenotypic studies on the strains biochemically identified as shewanella putrefaciens, which had a g+c content ranging from 52 to 54 mol% were conducted. the moles percent g+c of the type strain of s. putrefaciens is 46. surprisingly, dna homology experiments revealed that all these strains are genetically related to shewanella alga (which was reported to produce tetrodotoxin), not to the type strain of s. putrefaciens. in this study, we reidentified clinical strains of s. putrefacie ...19921390113
effects of nitrate and nitrite on dissimilatory iron reduction by shewanella putrefaciens 200.the inhibitory effects of nitrate (no3-) and nitrite (no2-) on dissimilatory iron (fe3+) reduction were examined in a series of electron acceptor competition experiments using shewanella putrefaciens 200 as a model iron-reducing microorganism. s. putrefaciens 200 was found to express low-rate nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and ferrireductase activity after growth under highly aerobic conditions and greatly elevated rates of each reductase activity after growth under microaerobic condition ...19921548235
localization of cytochromes to the outer membrane of anaerobically grown shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.in gram-negative bacteria, numerous cell functions, including respiration-linked electron transport, have been ascribed to the cytoplasmic membrane. gram-negative bacteria which use solid substrates (e.g., oxidized manganese or iron) as terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration are presented with a unique problem: they must somehow establish an electron transport link across the outer membrane between large particulate metal oxides and the electron transport chain in the cytoplasmic ...19921592800
characterization of mela: a gene encoding melanin biosynthesis from the marine bacterium shewanella colwelliana.a recombinant plasmid with the ability to impart melanin synthesis to an escherichia coli host was isolated from a shewanella colwelliana genomic library. the genetic determinant of the mel+ phenotype is carried on a 1.3-kb dna fragment and sequence analysis of this revealed a single intact open reading frame that was sufficient for melanin synthesis (mel). this gene is expressed as a monocistronic transcript and a putative transcription start point is located 115 nucleotides upstream from the t ...19911756973
development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro dna amplification.by using two highly conserved region of the luxa gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. the fourth probe, g ...19911854194
further study on polyamine compositions in vibrionaceae.it has previously been reported that norspermidine, one of the unusual polyamines, is present in vibrio species. to expand this observation, the cellular polyamine compositions of additional species and strains in the family vibrionaceae (vibrio, photobacterium, listonella, and shewanella) as well as aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides, which have been proposed to be excluded from vibrionacea, were determined by using gas-liquid chromatography. some vibrio species previously reported ...19912059921
complete nucleotide sequences of seven eubacterial genes coding for the elongation factor tu: functional, structural and phylogenetic evaluations.the nucleotide sequences of cloned genes coding for the elongation factor tu of seven eubacteria have been determined. these genes were from anacystis nidulans, bacillus subtilis, bacteroides fragilis, "deinonema" spec., pseudomonas cepacia, shewanella putrefaciens and streptococcus oralis. the primary structures of the genes were compared to the available sequences of prokaryotic elongation factors tu and eukaryotic elongation factors 1 alpha. a conservation profile was determined for homologou ...19902110445
respiration-linked proton translocation coupled to anaerobic reduction of manganese(iv) and iron(iii) in shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.an oxidant pulse technique, with lactate as the electron donor, was used to study respiration-linked proton translocation in the manganese- and iron-reducing bacterium shewanella putrefaciens mr-1. cells grown anaerobically with fumarate or nitrate as the electron acceptor translocated protons in response to manganese (iv), fumarate, or oxygen. cells grown anaerobically with fumarate also translocated protons in response to iron(iii) and thiosulfate, whereas those grown with nitrate did not. aer ...19902172208
influence of respiratory substrate on the cytochrome content of shewanella putrefaciens.shewanella putrefaciens can use trimethylamine oxide (tmao) as electron acceptor under anoxic conditions. the associated cytochromes induced during growth under various respiratory conditions have been separated by liquid chromatography (deae sepharose cl6b) and sds-page and characterized spectrophotometrically and by redox potentiometry. two major low potential cytochromes and at least three minor low potential cytochromes, likely to be involved in tmao reduction, were found. no cytochrome spec ...19902210338
taxonomy of four marine bacterial strains that produce tetrodotoxin.four strains of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria isolated from a red alga and from pufferfish were characterized. two of these strains are members of the genus listonella macdonell and colwell. the phenotypic characteristics, guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and base sequences of the 16s rrnas of these organisms indicated that they are members of listonella pelagia (vibrio pelagius) biovar ii. the other two strains are members of the genus alteromonas baumann et al. and the genus shewanella macdon ...19902275851
classification of the spoilage flora of fish, with special reference to shewanella putrefaciens.one hundred and fifty-nine gram-negative strains isolated from refrigerated fish, taken from the baltic sea or swedish inland waters, together with 32 reference strains of shewanella, pseudomonas, aeromonas and alcaligenes, were phenotypically classified using 124 unit characters. data were processed by the simple matching (ssm) and jaccard (sj) coefficients, and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. fourteen clusters were defined at the 75% sj similarity level which correspo ...19902391295
[effect of the isolation medium and isolation conditions on the isolation of the bacterial species spectrum in drinking water].with the method of colony-count estimation according to german standards (trinkwasserverordnung, tvo), bacteria of the genera aeromonas, shewanella, pseudomonas etc. and (if present) representatives of the family enterobacteriaceae can be detected. longer incubation and application of low nutrient media enhance the colony counts up to 100-fold, and other bacteria can be isolated, in most cases belonging to the genera pseudomonas, alcaligenes, acinetobacter, flavobacterium etc.. for the detection ...19902393490
the bacteriology of fresh and spoiling lake victorian nile perch (lates niloticus).a total of 177 bacterial cultures isolated from lake victorian nile perch (lates niloticus) were investigated. the flora on newly caught nile perch consisted of organisms belonging to the genera moraxella, alcaligenes, acinetobacter, pseudomonas, aeromonas, micrococcus and other gram-positive organisms. 39% were identified as gram-positive species and 61% were negative in the gram-reaction. three cultures out of 53 investigated caused weak rotten off-odours in sterile fish broth and one culture, ...19902397157
nucleotide sequences of 5s ribosomal rnas from three marine eubacteria: shewanella hanedai, alteromonas colwelliana and vibrio mediterranei. 19892473444
growth and activity of shewanella putrefaciens isolated from spoiling fish.a total of 101 cultures of h2s-producing organisms isolated from spoiling cod was studied. all cultures were identified as shewanella putrefaciens. two groups were distinguished on the basis of pattern of trimethylamine oxide reduction determined by conductance measurement, generation time at 25 degrees c and salt tolerance. the s. putrefaciens cultures were further characterized in a number of model experiments in order to examine the spoilage activity under various conditions. a good correlati ...19892641275
glucose, the key substrate in the microbiological changes occurring in meat and certain meat products.the literature dealing with the role of glucose in the microbiological changes of meat and certain meat products is reviewed. discussion is centered on two aspects. first, glucose plays a part in the selection of the dominant spoilage organisms, pseudomonas fragi, ps. lundensis, and ps. fluorescens, on red meat stored aerobically under chill (2-7 degrees c) conditions. it is concluded that the pseudomonads flourish because they convert glucose to the less commonly used substrate, gluconate. the ...19883293613
modelling of microbial activity and prediction of shelf life for packed fresh fish.prediction of shelf life based on growth of specific spoilage organisms (sso) in model substrates was studied. the effect of co2 on the growth kinetics for photobacterium phosphoreum and shewanella putrefaciens was quantified and modelled. results showed that microbial spoilage of packed cod stored with various concentrations of co2 was accurately predicted from the effect of co2 on p. phosphoreum grown in model substrates. the short shelf life extensions previously reported for packed cod there ...19957488526
qualitative and quantitative characterization of spoilage bacteria from packed fish.the large cells recently suggested to be responsible for spoilage of packed cod, have been identified as photobacterium phosphoreum. the spoilage activity of these cells, of shewanella putrefaciens and of other microorganisms isolated form spoiled packed cod has been studied. both qualitative and quantitative tests were used for characterization of the microbial spoilage activity. the importance of the different groups of microorganisms was evaluated by comparison of microbial spoilage activity ...19957488527
design and application of rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the dissimilatory iron- and manganese-reducing bacterium shewanella putrefaciens.a 16s rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for the iron (fe3+)- and manganese (mn4+)-reducing bacterium shewanella putrefaciens was constructed and tested in both laboratory- and field-based hybridization experiments. the radioactively labeled probe was used to detect s. putrefaciens in field samples collected from the water column and sediments of oneida lake in new york and its major southern tributary, chittenango creek. s. putrefaciens was quantified by (i) hybridization of the probe ...19937506899
the 16s rrna sequence and genome sizing of tributyltin resistant marine bacterium, strain m-1.the 16s rrna of the tributyltin resistant marine bacterium, strain m-1, was partly sequenced to confirm the taxonomic status. the results indicated that this bacterium should be classified under the genus alteromonas, instead of a previous report in which this strain was identified as a vibrio. the genome size of this strain was also measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using a contoureclamped homogeneous electric field. the strain was found to contain a genome size of 2,240 kilo ...19947512189
phylogenetic analysis of the genera alteromonas, shewanella, and moritella using genes coding for small-subunit rrna sequences and division of the genus alteromonas into two genera, alteromonas (emended) and pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations.small-subunit ribosomal dna sequences were determined for 17 strains belonging to the genera alteromonas, shewanella, vibrio, and pseudomonas, and these sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic methods. the resulting data confirmed the existence of the genera shewanella and moritella, but suggested that the genus alteromonas should be split into two genera. we propose that a new genus, the genus pseudoalteromonas, should be created to accommodate 11 species that were previously alteromonas specie ...19957547295
occurrence of a furan fatty acid in marine bacteria.a fatty acid containing a furan ring was detected in the cellular lipids of marine bacteria, shewanella putrefaciens, marinomonas comunis, enterobacter agglomerans, pseudomonas fluorescens, etc., which were isolated from the intestinal liquor of fishes. analytical data indicated that the fatty acid was 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10, 12-dienoic acid. therefore, we propose that furan fatty acids detected in marine fish are derived not only from marine plants but also from intestinal bacteria of ...19957548190
[the neferm test in the identification of psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from milk and dairy products].sanitary and nutriti on quality of foods from animal sources, that means also of milk and dairy products, are significantly influenced by the presence of psychrotrophic bacteria, the lipolytic and proteolytic activity of which contributes to their nutritive and sensory changes. this applies particularly to psychrotrophic bacteria of the genus pseudomonas, shewanella, alcaligenes and flavobacterium (muir and phillips, 1984; piton and richard, 1985; craven and macauley, 1990). these bacteria cause ...19957571245
molecular cloning, expression in streptomyces lividans, and analysis of a gene cluster from arthrobacter simplex encoding 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-delta 5-isomerase and a hypothetical regulatory protein.the arthrobacter simplex gene coding for 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the degradation of the steroid nucleus, was cloned in streptomyces lividans. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the gene for 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase (ksdd) is clustered with at least two more genes possibly involved in steroid metabolism. upstream of ksdd, we found a gene, ksdr, encoding a hypothetical regulatory protein that shows homologies to kdgr, the negative regulator of pectin ...19957596291
shewanella (pseudomonas) putrefaciens bacteremia.shewanella (pseudomonas) putrefaciens is a rare pathogen in humans, and to our knowledge only 13 cases of s. putrefaciens bacteremia have ever been reported in the literature. in this retrospective study we describe 28 cases of s. putrefaciens bacteremia: 16 in premature and 1-day-old neonates, 9 in adults, and 3 in children younger than 1 year of age. all the babies presented with respiratory distress and/or pneumonia. six of the adults had associated traumatic lesions of the lower extremity, a ...19957620019
cloning and expression of a gene encoding a t-cell reactive protein from coccidioides immitis: homology to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase and the mammalian f antigen.the gene which encodes a previously described t-cell reactive protein (tcrp) of the human fungal pathogen coccidioides immitis (ci) was cloned and sequenced. both the genomic and cdna sequences were determined. the transcription start point was confirmed. the tcrp gene has three introns and a 1197-bp orf which translates to a 399-amino-acid (aa) protein (45.2 kda). the predicted protein has approx. 50% aa sequence identity and 70% similarity to mammalian 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd ...19957642122
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for shewanella colwelliana exopolysaccharide.six monoclonal antibodies were produced to whole cells of shewanella colwelliana (aco1 to aco6) and two (aco22 to aco23) to purified exopolysaccharide (eps). aco1, -4 to -6, -22, and -23 bound to both the cell surface and the purified eps, while aco2 and -3 bound to cells only. the eps of s. colwelliana was antigenically unique from those of nine other species of marine bacteria that were tested. mapping studies revealed that all of the eps-specific monoclonal antibodies bound to the same epitop ...19937686001
antibacterial effect of protamine assayed by impedimetry.impedimetric measurements were used to assay the antibacterial effect of protamine. a good linear correlation between the impedance detection time and the initial cell counts was obtained (r = 0.99, n = 2). as basic peptides may cause clumping of cells, this correlation curve was used when estimating the cell number after protamine treatment, rather than colony counts. protamine from salmon killed growing gram-positive bacteria and significantly inhibited growth of gram-negative bacteria in tryp ...19957730206
spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the tetraheme flavocytochrome c from shewanella putrefaciens ncimb400.electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) and magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) spectroscopic studies were carried out on the tetraheme flavocytochrome c from shewanella putrefaciens ncimb400. the epr spectrum reveals two sets of g-values--gz = 2.93, gy = 2.28, and gx = 1.51; and gz = 3.58--and the mcd spectrum shows a charge-transfer band at 1510 nm. these data combined show that all four hemes are low spin and have a nitrogenous sixth ligand. sequence comparisons with other tetraheme cytochromes, ...19957742319
the fnr family of transcriptional regulators.homologues of the transcriptional regulator fnr from escherichia coli have been identified in a variety of taxonomically diverse bacterial species. despite being structurally very similar, members of the fnr family have disparate regulatory roles. those from shewanella putrefaciens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas stutzeri and rhodopseudomonas palustris are functionally similar to fnr in that they regulate anaerobic respiration or carbon metabolism. four rhizobial proteins (from rhizobium me ...19947747934
homogentisic acid is the primary precursor of melanin synthesis in vibrio cholerae, a hyphomonas strain, and shewanella colwelliana.the enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase (hpph) is involved in pigmentation (pyomelanin) via homogentisic acid (hga). pyomelanin formation is correlated with hga production and expression of hpph in three disparate marine species: vibrio cholerae, a hyphomonas strain, and shewanella colwelliana. induction of pigmentation in v. cholerae 569b by nutrient limitation also correlated with production of hga.19957747976
the protein encoded by the shewanella colwelliana mela gene is a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase.the identity of the product of the mela gene from shewanella colwelliana with the enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic dioxygenase is shown. cloning of the mela gene endowed escherichia coli with the capacity to synthesize melanin-like pigments from l-tyrosine. e. coli contained transaminases that transforms l-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. this keto acid was detected in the cultures. on the other hand, e. coli containing mela was able to go further in the catabolic pathway, releasing a great a ...19947813886
iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation.dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as geobacter metallireducens or desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as shewanella putrefaciens. these bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that mn(iv) and fe(iii) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable ...19947826009
[a simple method for differentiation of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria by the ph-dependent edta-sensitivity test].the ph-dependent edta-sensitivity test was performed to differentiate several strains of bacteria forming black colonies by the production of hydrogen sulfide on tcbs (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar) medium (tentatively designated as hydrogen-sulfide production bacteria). two halotorelant strains of 16 hydrogen sulfide-producing strains showed the same bacteriological properties and isoprenoid quinone type as did a reference strain of proteus mirabilis and were classified into the ed ...19947830320
effects of electron donor and acceptor conditions on reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloromethane by shewanella putrefaciens 200.shewanella putrefaciens 200 is a nonfermentative bacterium that is capable of dehalogenating tetrachloromethane to chloroform and other, unidentified products under anaerobic conditions. since s. putrefaciens 200 can respire anaerobically by using a variety of terminal electron acceptors, including no3-, no2-, and fe(iii), it provides a unique opportunity to study the competitive effects of different electron acceptors on dehalogenation in a single organism. the results of batch studies showed t ...19957887629
effects of electron acceptors and donors on transformation of tetrachloromethane by shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.transformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds was examined in shewanella putrefaciens strain mr-1, an obligately respiring facultative anaerobe. under anaerobic conditions, mr-1 has been shown to transform tetrachloromethane to trichloromethane (24%), co2 (7%), cell-bound material (50%) and unidentified nonvolatile products (4%). the highest rate and extent of transformation were observed with mr-1 cells grown under iron(iii)-respiring conditions. lactate, formate and hydrogen were the most ...19947926693
homogentisic acid is the product of mela, which mediates melanogenesis in the marine bacterium shewanella colwelliana d.shewanella colwelliana d is a marine procaryote which produces a diffusible brown pigment that correlates with mela gene expression. previously, mela had been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in escherichia coli; however, the reaction product of mela had not been identified. this report identifies that product as homogentisic acid, provides evidence that the pigment is homogentisic acid-melanin (pyomelanin), and suggests that mela is p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase. this is the first report ...19948085836
purification and properties of a novel cytochrome: flavocytochrome c from shewanella putrefaciens.the major soluble cytochrome isolated from microaerobically grown cells of shewanella putrefaciens has been shown to be a novel type of flavocytochrome with fumarate reductase activity. this flavocytochrome, located in the periplasmic fraction of cell extracts, has been purified to homogeneity and shown to contain 4 mol of haem c and 1 mol of non-covalently bound fad per mol of protein. an m(r) value of 63,800 is estimated from sequence analysis assuming 4 mol of haem/mol of protein. in the pres ...19948093012
sequence determination and mutational analysis of the lly locus of legionella pneumophila.the lly (legiolysin) locus codes for a 39-kda protein which confers hemolysis, pigment production, and fluorescence on recombinant escherichia coli k-12 clones carrying the lly gene. the nucleotide sequences of the lly genes from two legionella pneumophila isolates were determined. the lly loci exhibited identical nucleotide sequences. they contained open reading frames of 348 amino acid residues, encoding proteins with a deduced molecular mass of 38.9 kda. n-terminal amino acid sequencing furth ...19948112844
isolation of anaerobic respiratory mutants of shewannella putrefaciens and genetic analysis of mutants deficient in anaerobic growth on fe3+.a genetic approach was used to study (dissimilatory) ferric iron (fe3+) reduction in shewanella putrefaciens 200. chemical mutagenesis procedures and two rapid plate assays were developed to facilitate the screening of fe3+ reduction-deficient mutants. sixty-two putative fe3+ reduction-deficient mutants were identified, and each was subsequently tested for its ability to grow anaerobically on various compounds as sole terminal electron acceptors, including fe3+, nitrate (no3-), nitrite (no2-), m ...19948113188
ferric iron reduction-linked growth yields of shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.the anaerobic reduction of ferric citrate by shewanella putrefaciens mr-1 cells was inhibited markedly by p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate, moderately by potassium cyanide, and to a small extent by 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-n-oxide. iron reduction was accompanied by increases in total cellular protein, with values of 0.33-7.54 g cell protein produced per mol fe(iii) reduced. the growth yields were dependent upon the growth conditions of the inoculum and the initial concentration of fe(iii) citr ...19948157545
a biochemical study of the intermediary carbon metabolism of shewanella putrefaciens.cell extracts were used to determine the enzymes involved in the intermediary carbon metabolism of several strains of shewanella putrefaciens. enzymes of the entner-doudoroff pathway (6-phosphogluconate dehydratase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase) were detected, but those of the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway were not. while several tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes were present under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, two key enzymes (2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate ...19948195102
sequence and genetic characterization of etra, an fnr analog that regulates anaerobic respiration in shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.an electron transport regulatory gene, etra, has been isolated and characterized from the obligate respiratory bacterium shewanella putrefaciens mr-1. the deduced amino acid sequence of etra (etra) shows a high degree of identity to both the fnr of escherichia coli (73.6%) and the analogous protein (anr) of pseudomonas aeruginosa (50.8%). the four active cysteine residues of fnr are conserved in etra, and the amino acid sequence of the dna-binding domains of the two proteins are identical. furth ...19938253682
spoilage and shelf-life of cod fillets packed in vacuum or modified atmospheres.microbial growth, sensory and chemical changes and composition of gas atmosphere were studied in vacuum packed (vp) and modified atmosphere packed (map) cod fillets stored at 0 degree c. contrary to previous studies, coccobacilli and pleomorphic gram-negative microorganisms (2-4 by 2-5 microns) and not shewanella putrefaciens were found most likely to be the main spoilage organisms. these microorganisms, which may be photobacterium phosphoreum, can explain the short shelf-life extension of vp an ...19938257657
involvement of cytochromes in the anaerobic biotransformation of tetrachloromethane by shewanella putrefaciens 200.shewanella putrefaciens 200 is an obligate respiratory bacterium that can utilize a variety of terminal electron acceptors, e.g., no3-, no2-, fe(iii), and trimethylamine n-oxide, in the absence of o2. the bacterium catalyzed the reductive transformation of tetrachloromethane (ct) under anaerobic conditions. the only identified product was trichloromethane (cf), but cf production was not stoichiometric. no dichloromethane, chloromethane, or methane was produced. a chloride mass balance indicated ...19938285682
the mela gene is essential for melanin biosynthesis in the marine bacterium shewanella colwelliana.the surface-adhering, gram-negative marine bacterium shewanella colwelliana synthesizes a red-brow melanin in the late stage of exponential growth in laboratory culture. previous studies identified a single gene, mela, from s. colwelliana that could impart the ability to produce melanin to an e. coli host. however, these studies did not demonstrate a requirement for mela during melanization in s. colwelliana. in this paper, genetic analyses, using a broad host range conjugation system to generat ...19938336107
inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish.the antibacterial effects of 209 pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled iced fish and newly caught fish were assessed by screening target organisms in agar diffusion assays. one-third (67 strains) inhibited the growth of one or several of six target organisms (escherichia coli, shewanella putrefaciens, aeromonas sobria, pseudomonas fluorescens, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus), of which s. aureus and a. sobria were the most sensitive. the inhibitory action was most pronounce ...19938357253
phylogenetic relationships of marine bacteria, mainly members of the family vibrionaceae, determined on the basis of 16s rrna sequences.the phylogenetic relationships of 50 reference strains, mostly marine bacteria which require na+ for growth, were determined on the basis of 600 16s rrna nucleotides by using reverse transcriptase sequencing. strains belonging to 10 genera were included (four genera of the family vibrionaceae, the genus aeromonas of the family aeromonadaceae, and the genera alteromonas, marinomonas, shewanella, pseudomonas, and deleya). the sequences were aligned, the similarity values and evolutionary distance ...19938427811
production and specificity of poly- and monoclonal antibodies raised against shewanella putrefaciens.polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits and mice against shewanella putrefaciens. murine monoclonal antibodies were produced against the type strain (atcc 8071) as well as wild type strains isolated from fish products. the specificities of four polyclonal and 12 monoclonal antibodies were tested by dot-blotting, an indirect and a competitive elisa against 16 gram-negative strains; including six strains of s. putrefaciens and one strain of pseudomonas rubescens (nc 10695). all polyclonal ant ...19938486552
human 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. primary structure and chromosomal localization of the gene.we report the primary structure of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase [4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating, decarboxylating)]. the work is based on the isolation of cdna clones from human liver lambda gt11 libraries. several overlapping clones covering the coding sequence were characterized. in parallel, peptides from four different digests of the purified protein were analysed for their amino-acid sequence. these peptide sequences covered 86% of the cdna-derived amino ...19938504803
purification and characterization of the 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase of arthrobacter simplex produced in streptomyces lividans.the 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase (ks1dh) gene of arthrobacter simplex ifo12069 cloned in streptomyces lividans was overexpressed, resulting in production of the enzyme both extracellularly and intracellularly. the enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies using deae-toyopearl, butyl-toyopearl and toyopearl hw55s from the supernatant of culture broth and cell-free extracts of s. lividans, and both preparations showed the same characteristics. the n-terminal ...19958586617
characterization of bacterial communities from activated sludge: culture-dependent numerical identification versus in situ identification using group- and genus-specific rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probesthe structures of bacterial communities were studied in activated sludge samples obtained from the aerobic and anaerobic zones of a wastewater treatment plant showing enhanced phosphorous removal. samples were analyzed by in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes complementary to selected regions of the 16s and 23s ribosomal rna (rrna) characteristic for defined phylogenetic entities (genera and larger groups). the microbial community structures revealed by molecular techniques were comp ...19968688004
interaction between fish spoilage bacteria pseudomonas sp. and shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue.the interaction between fish spoilage bacteria, pseudomonas sp. and shewanella putrefaciens, was investigated using fish extract and fish tissue as model systems. isolates of pseudomonas that produced iron chelators, siderophores, inhibited growth of s. putrefaciens in a fish-extract-agar diffusion assay but no, or only weak, antagonistic activity was seen when the medium was supplemented with iron. sterile-filtered supernatant fluid from a siderophore-producing pseudomonas grown in fish extract ...19968698659
production of eicosapentaenoic acid from marine bacteria.a marine bacterium, judged as a new species close to shewanella putrefaciens, was isolated from the intestinal contents of the pacific mackerel. the isolated strain scrc-2378 produced eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) as the sole polyunsaturated fatty acid, which amounted to 24-40% of the total fatty acid in the cell, which corresponded to 2% of dry cell weight. under the optimal growth conditions (ph 7.0, 20 degrees c, and grown aerobically for 12-18 h), the yield of scrc-2738 reached 15 g of dry cel ...19968729138
study of a melanic pigment of proteus mirabilis.the present study sought to determine whether the pigment produced by proteus mirabilis from the l-forms of various aromatic amino acids under aerobic conditions is melanic in nature. it is a black-brown pigment which behaves like a melanin in many respects, namely solubility features, bleaching by oxidizing agents and positive response to the fontana-masson assay. in the present study, for the first time, it was shown by electron spin resonance analysis that a bacterial melanin is able to act a ...19968761735
shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers.the first danish cases of shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infection. both patients survived; however, one of them had extensive myonecrosis, while the other patient had an uncomplicated course. the strains were initially believed to be shewanella putrefaciens on the ...19968783706
synergistic iron reduction and citrate dissimilation by shewanella alga and aeromonas veroniitwo bacterial isolates from great bay estuary, new hampshire, in co-culture carried out anaerobic dissimilation of citric acid with fe(iii) as the terminal electron acceptor. neither isolate oxidized citrate with fe(iii) anaerobically in axenic culture. the fe(iii) reducer, shewanella alga strain bry, did not grow anaerobically with citrate as an energy source. the citrate utilizer, aeromonas veronii, did not reduce iron axenically with a variety of electron donors including citrate. the onset o ...19968824150
spoilage bacteria of fresh broiler chicken carcasses.studies were conducted to identify the bacteria responsible for spoilage of fresh broiler chicken carcasses and to characterize the off-odors these bacteria produce. broiler carcasses were collected from processing plants in the northeast georgia area, the southeastern u.s., arkansas, california, and north carolina. the carcasses were allowed to spoil under controlled conditions at 3 c and spoilage bacteria were isolated. each spoilage bacterium was separately inoculated into a sterile chicken s ...19958825595
effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the tvb/tma-producing microflora of cod fillets.cod fillets (gadus morhua) were packed under modified atmospheres, with four different gas compositions (60% co2-10% o2-30% n2, 60% co2-20% o2-20% n2, 60% co2-30% o2-10% n2, 60% co2-40% o2), and stored at 6 degrees c. plate counts were carried out after 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days, to follow the growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, h2s-producing bacteria and enterobacteriaceae. the production of total volatile bases (tvb) and trimethylamine (tma), and the changes in ph of th ...19968880310
upstream sequence of the parahydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (mela) coding region leading to enhanced expression in shewanella colwelliana.hyperexpression of the enzyme, parahydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (phpph; mela), in the tyrosine degradative pathway yields excess homogentisic acid which oxidatively polymerizes to pyomelanin. depression of mela in shewanella colwelliana strain d was found to result from a single base pair transition upstream of the promoter. this was the sole lesion detected in phpph hyperexpressing strains. it is suggested that a t to c transition alters the mrna structure, exposing the ribosome binding si ...19968885416
purification and properties of a low-redox-potential tetraheme cytochrome c3 from shewanella putrefaciens.shewanella putrefaciens is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium in the gamma group of the proteobacteria, capable of utilizing a wide variety of anaerobic electron acceptors. an examination of its cytochrome content revealed the presence of a tetraheme, low-redox-potential (e'o = -233 mv), cytochrome c-type cytochrome with a molecular mass of 12,120 da and a pi of 5.8. the electron spin resonance data indicate a bis-histidine coordination of heme groups. reduction of ferric citrate was accompanie ...19968892848
bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products.the influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. the predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated beef and pork, are brochothrix thermosphacta, carnobacterium spp., enterobacteriaceae, lactobacillus spp., leuconostoc spp., pseudomonas spp. and shewanella putrefaciens. the main defects in meat are off ...19968913812
microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. this paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. shewanella putrefaciens and pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. modified atmosphere stored marine fi ...19968913813
morphological and metabolic responses to starvation by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry.the response of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry to carbon and nitrogen starvation was examined. starvation resulted in a gradual decrease in the mean cell volume from 0.48 to 0.2 micron 3 and a dramatic decrease in fe(iii) reductase activity. growth of starved cultures was initiated with o2, ferric oxyhydroxide, co(iii)-edta, or fe(iii)-bearing subsurface materials as the sole electron acceptor. microbially reduced subsurface materials reduced cro(4)2-. starvation ...19968953739
changes in cell morphology of listeria monocytogenes and shewanella putrefaciens resulting from the action of protamine.protamine, which is an antibacterial basic peptide, was shown to alter the cell morphology of listeria monocytogenes and shewanella putrefaciens. atomic force microscopy revealed that protamine smoothed the surface of cells, formed holes in the cell envelope, and caused fusion of s. putrefaciens cells. immunoelectron microscopy of protamine-treated cells of both l. monocytogenes and s. putrefaciens showed great damage to the cell wall and condensation of the cytoplasm. respiration of the cells w ...19968975598
cloning and sequence of cyma, a gene encoding a tetraheme cytochrome c required for reduction of iron(iii), fumarate, and nitrate by shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.the cyma gene, which encodes a tetraheme cytochrome c, was cloned from shewanella putrefaciens mr-1. this gene complemented a mutant which had a tnphoa insertion in cyma and which was deficient in the respiratory reduction of iron(iii), nitrate, fumarate, and manganese(iv). the 561-bp nucleotide sequence of cyma encodes a protein of 187 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 20.8 kda. no n-terminal signal sequence was readily apparent; consistent with this, a cytochrome with a size of 21 ...19979023196
protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.the inhibitory effect of the cationic peptide protamine on listeria monocytogenes, escherichia coli, and shewanella putrefaciens has been studied in detail. the addition of protamine (10 to 1,000 micrograms/ml) resulted in inhibition of oxygen consumption after less than 1 min and loss of intracellular carboxyfluorescein and atp after 2 to 5 min. maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline ph and in the absence of divalent cations. the efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of b ...19979055431
replication of plasmids with the p15a origin in shewanella putrefaciens mr-1.the plasmid pacyc184 was introduced into shewanella putrefaciens mr-1 by electroporation. in 100% of the transformants examined, the plasmid was maintained as a free replicon outside the chromosome. this was the case whether or not the plasmid contained a 224-bp dna insert derived from an open-reading frame of mr-1 genomic dna. therefore, in contrast to a report in the literature, plasmids containing the p15a origin of replication can replicate freely in s. putrefaciens mr-1, and do not make con ...19979080705
isolation and characterization of the gene encoding single-stranded-dna-binding protein (ssb) from four marine shewanella strains that differ in their temperature and pressure optima for growth.the ssb gene, coding for single-stranded-dna-binding protein (ssb), was cloned from four marine shewanella strains that differed in their temperature and pressure optima and ranges of growth. all four shewanella ssb genes complemented escherichia coli ssb point and deletion mutants, with efficiencies that varied with temperature and ssb gene source. the shewanella ssbs are the largest bacterial ssbs identified to date (24.9-26.3 kda) and may be divided into conserved amino- and carboy-terminal r ...19979141679
comparison of the gene expression of aspartate beta-d-semialdehyde dehydrogenase at elevated hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea bacteria.aspartate beta-d-semialdehyde dehydrogenase genes (asd) were cloned and sequenced from a deep-sea-adapted strictly barophilic bacterium, shewanella sp. strain db6705, and a moderately barophilic bacterium, shewanella sp. strain dss12. the determined asd sequences of these two strains were very similar, and the identity of the deduced amino acids sequences was 96.2%. the 5'-ends of the asd mrna from both strains were localized at corresponding sites by primer extension analysis, and two transcrip ...19979163523
differentiation of shewanella putrefaciens and shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization, and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis.seventy-six presumed shewanella putrefaciens isolates from fish, oil drillings, and clinical specimens, the type strain of shewanella putrefaciens (atcc 8071), the type strain of shewanella alga (iam 14159), and the type strain of shewanella hanedai (atcc 33224) were compared by several typing methods. numerical analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell protein and ribotyping patterns showed that the strains were separated into two distinct clusters with ...19979172338
outer membrane cytochromes of shewanella putrefaciens mr-1: spectral analysis, and purification of the 83-kda c-type cytochrome.the metal-reducing bacterium shewanella putrefaciens mr-1 is known to localize a majority of its membrane-bound cytochromes to its outer membrane when grown under anaerobic conditions. in this study, pyridine hemochrome spectra confirmed that these outer membrane cytochromes are c-type, and electrophoretic data demonstrated the presence of four distinct outer membrane cytochromes, with apparent molecular masses of 150, 83, 65, and 53 kda. fourth-order derivative analysis of 77 k spectra of the o ...19979218561
biosynthesis of furan fatty acids (f-acids) by a marine bacterium, shewanella putrefaciens.a mutant derived from shewanella putrefaciens 8cs7-4 treated with n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine was found to produce 15-20 mg of a furan fatty acid (f-acid), 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (f18), per liter of growth medium (10-15% of total fatty acids). capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters of the mutant revealed the presence of other f-acids, 8,11-epoxy-9-methylhexadeca-8,10-dienoic ...19979219910
diversity and association of psychrophilic bacteria in antarctic sea ice.the bacterial populations associated with sea ice sampled from antarctic coastal areas were investigated by use of a phenotypic approach and a phylogenetic approach based on genes encoding 16s rrna (16s rdna). the diversity of bacteria associated with sea ice was also compared with the bacterial diversity of seawater underlying sea ice. psychrophilic (optimal growth temperature, < or = 15 degrees c; no growth occurring at 20 degrees c) bacterial diversity was found to be significantly enriched i ...19979251193
expression of the eicosapentaenoic acid synthesis gene cluster from shewanella sp. in a transgenic marine cyanobacterium, synechococcus sp.the eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) synthesis gene cluster isolated from a marine bacterium, shewanella putrefaciens strain scrc-2738, was cloned and expressed in the marine cyanobacterium synechococcus sp. a broad-host-range cosmid vector, pjrd215 (10.2 kb, smr kmr), was used to clone a 38 kb insert, pepa, containing the epa synthesis gene cluster, creating plasmid pjrdepa (approx. 48 kb). this plasmid was transferred to the cyanobacterial host at a frequency of 2.2 x 10(-7). cyanobacterial transco ...19979274025
polyunsaturated fatty acids in the psychrophilic bacterium shewanella gelidimarina acam 456t: molecular species analysis of major phospholipids and biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid.the production of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5omega3; epa] from shewanella gelidimarina (acam 456t) was investigated with respect to growth temperature and growth on sole carbon sources. the percentage and quantitative yield of epa remained relatively constant at all growth temperatures within or below the optimal growth temperature region. at higher growth temperatures, these values decreased greatly. growth on differing sole carbon sources also influenced the percentage and amount of epa produc ...19979295160
preparation of a naturally occurring d-erythro-(2s, 3r)-sphingosylphosphocholine using shewanella alga ns-589.sphingosylphosphocholine, an n-deacylated derivative of sphingomyelin, has been found to be involved in many cellular events. this paper describes a new method for preparation of a d-erythro-sphingosylphosphocholine, which is naturally occurring but difficult to prepare by chemical methods, using marine bacteria as a biocatalyst. when cultured with shewanella alga ns-589 in synthetic medium, sphingomyelin was found to be efficiently converted by sphingomyelin deacylase to sphingosylphosphocholin ...19979323602
cloning and sequence analysis of a novel hemolysin gene (vlly) from vibrio vulnificus.a gene (vlly) encoding a novel hemolysin of vibrio vulnificus ckm-1 has been cloned and sequenced. when the vlly gene was expressed in minicells, a unique peptide of approximately 40 kda was identified. subcellular fractionation of escherichia coli cells carrying the vlly gene indicated that the vlly protein was distributed in both the cytoplasmic and the periplasmic fractions, with the notable ability to appear in the latter compartment. nucleotide sequence analysis predicted a single open read ...19979327548
magnification of tributyl tin toxicity to oyster larvae by bioconcentration in biofilms of shewanella colwelliana.the toxic effects of dissolved versus bioconcentrated tributyl tin (tbt) on oyster larvae were compared. water column tbt levels, which had no effect in solution, inhibited natural attachment and metamorphosis of oyster larvae on bottom surfaces due to bioconcentration by biofilms. this mechanism should be considered when evaluating heavy metal toxicity in the environment.19979327578
skin and soft-tissue manifestations of shewanella putrefaciens infection.shewanella putrefaciens, a saprophytic gram-negative rod, is infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. although a number of clinical syndromes have been attributed to s. putrefaciens, the pathogenic role of this agent remains largely undefined. we report 16 cases of s. putrefaciens infection that occurred at the veterans general hospital-kaohsiung in taiwan between 1990 and 1995. s. putrefaciens infection was associated with a wide clinical spectrum including bacteremia/septicemia, skin an ...19979332516
shewanella woodyi sp. nov., an exclusively respiratory luminous bacterium isolated from the alboran sea.thirty-four strains of nonfermentative, respiratory, luminous bacteria were isolated from samples of squid ink and seawater from depths of 200 to 300 m in the alboran sea. although these strains had a few properties similar to properties of shewanella (alteromonas) hanedai, they did not cluster phenotypically with any previously described bacterium. the nucleotide sequence of a 740-bp segment of luxa was not homologous with other known luxa sequences but clustered with the luxa sequences of shew ...19979336902
shewanella gelidimarina sp. nov. and shewanella frigidimarina sp. nov., novel antarctic species with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and grow anaerobically by dissimilatory fe(iii) reduction.a polyphasic taxonomic study was performed to characterize dissimilatory iron-reducing strains mostly isolated from antarctic sea ice. the strains were isolated from samples of congelated (land-fast) sea ice, grease ice, and ice algal biomass collected from the coastal areas of the vestfold hills in eastern antarctica (68 degrees s 78 degrees e). the strains were facultatively anaerobic, motile, and rod shaped, were capable of anaerobic growth either by fermentation of carbohydrates or by anaero ...19979336903
isolation and characterization of a transposon mutant of shewanella putrefaciens mr-1 deficient in fumarate reductase.a transposon mutant, designated cmtn-3, of shewanella putrefaciens mr-1 that was deficient in fumarate reduction was isolated and characterized. in contrast to the wild-type, cmtn-3 could not grow anaerobically with fumarate as the electron acceptor, and it lacked benzyl viologen-linked fumarate reductase activity. consistent with this, cmtn-3 lacked a 65 kda c-type cytochrome, which is the same size as the fumarate reductase enzyme. cmtn-3 retained the wild-type ability to use nitrate, iron(iii ...19979351256
structure of a phosphorylated polysaccharide from shewanella putrefaciens strain s29.a phosphorylated polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous layer of the phenol-water extract of a non-halophilic bacterium shewanella putrefaciens strain s29. the glycosyl phosphate linkage in the polysaccharide was split under mild acid conditions to give, after borohydride reduction, a phosphorylated oligosaccharide-alditol. on the basis of sugar analysis and 1h, 13c and 31p nmr spectroscopy, including 2d cosy, relayed cosy, rotating-frame noe spectroscopy (roesy), heteronuclear 13c,1h cosy ...19979373938
fatty acid synthesis of an eicosapentaenoic acid-producing bacterium: de novo synthesis, chain elongation, and desaturation systems.the fatty acid synthesis systems of a shewanella sp., strain scrc-2738, that produces a large amount of eicosapentaenoic acid were investigated. two kinds of fatty acid synthesis system, de novo synthesis and chain elongation ones, were detected in the cytosol. the de novo synthesis system required an acyl carrier protein, and produced palmitoyl- and palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier proteins as final products. the chain elongation system also required an acyl carrier protein, and produced an acyl-acyl ...19979378728
shewanella putrefaciens abscess of the lower extremity. 19979399562
[bacteremia caused by shewanella putrefaciens]. 19979410056
arthritis due to shewanella putrefaciens. 19989502507
distribution of the pressure-regulated operons in deep-sea bacteria.dna regions corresponding to portions of two different pressure-regulated operons previously identified in two deep-sea barophilic bacteria were separately pcr amplified from a variety of deep-sea microorganisms and sequenced. with the two sets of primers employed, amplification was particularly successful from the more barophilic bacteria examined. 16s rrna sequence analysis revealed that these bacteria are all phylogenetically related and belong in a sub-branch of the genus shewanella containi ...19989503608
biochemical and pathogenic properties of shewanella alga and shewanella putrefaciens.we characterized 49 strains of shewanella spp. from clinical (n = 31) and nonhuman (n = 18) sources. most shewanella alga organisms (gilardi biovar 2; centers for disease control and prevention [cdc] biotype 2) originated from clinical material (92%), failed to produce acid from carbohydrates other than d-ribose, and were biochemically and enzymatically fairly homogeneous. in contrast, shewanella putrefaciens organisms (gilardi biovars 1 and 3; cdc biotype 1) were more often associated with nonh ...19989508312
reclassification of shewanella putrefaciens owen's genomic group ii as shewanella baltica sp. nov.the taxonomic relationship between several shewanella putrefaciens isolates from the baltic sea and reference strains of this species is presented in this study. results from dna-dna hybridization using a newly developed non-radioactive detection system and from 16s rrna gene sequencing demonstrated that s. putrefaciens is a heterogeneous species containing more than a single genomic group. the genomic group ii was phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically distant enough from the specie ...19989542087
extremely barophilic bacteria isolated from the mariana trench, challenger deep, at a depth of 11,000 meters.two strains of obligately barophilic bacteria were isolated from a sample of the world's deepest sediment, which was obtained by the unmanned deep-sea submersible kaiko in the mariana trench, challenger deep, at a depth of 10,898 m. from the results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences, dna-dna relatedness study, and analysis of fatty acid composition, the first strain (db21mt-2) appears to be most highly similar to shewanella benthica and close relatives, and the second str ...19989546187
a periplasmic flavoprotein in wolinella succinogenes that resembles the fumarate reductase of shewanella putrefaciens.during growth with fumarate as the terminal electron transport acceptor and either formate or sulfide as the electron donor, wolinella succinogenes induced a peri-plasmic protein (54 kda) that reacted with an antiserum raised against the periplasmic fumarate reductase (fcc) of shewanella putrefaciens. however, the periplasmic cell fraction of w. succinogenes did not catalyze fumarate reduction with viologen radicals. w. succinogenes grown with polysulfide instead of fumarate contained much less ...19989560424
study of the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during storage at 8 degrees c.microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in cold-smoked salmon were studied during 5 weeks of vacuum storage at 8 degrees c. the aerobic 20 degrees c viable count reached its maximum level after 6 days (3 x 10(6) cfu g-1) however, the shelf-life of the product was estimated to be 2 or 3 weeks by the panellists, confirming that there is no correlation between those two factors. acid, pungent, sour and rancid odours and flavours and pasty texture were the main spoilage characteristics. trimet ...19989562883
physiological function and regulation of flavocytochrome c3, the soluble fumarate reductase from shewanella putrefaciens ncimb 400.shewanella putrefaciens produces a soluble flavocytochrome c under anaerobic growth conditions. this protein shares sequence similarity with the catalytic subunits of membrane-bound fumarate reductases from escherichia coli and other bacteria and the purified protein has fumarate reductase activity. it is shown here that this enzyme, flavocytochrome c3, is essential for fumarate respiration in vivo since disruption of the chromosomal fcca gene, which encodes flavocytochrome c3, leads to a specif ...19989579067
in vitro study of tmao reduction by shewanella putrefaciens isolated from cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere.a strain of shewanella putrefaciens was isolated from cod fillets in a modified atmosphere (60% co2, 30% o2, 10% n2). the effect of ph on the growth of shewanella putrefaciens and tmao reduction was studied in fish extract with citrate buffer systems at ph values from 5.8 to 6.8. the effect of the modified atmosphere (co2, o2) on the growth of s. putrefaciens and on the reduction of tmao to tma was studied using solid media from fish extract packed under variable mixtures of co2, o2 and n2. all ...19989602930
concurrent infection due to shewanella putrefaciens and mycobacterium marinum acquired at the beach.infection with marine bacteria is uncommon. a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed concurrent infection with shewanella putrefaciens and mycobacterium marinum (m. marinum) is described. after bathing leg ulcers in sea water, severe cellulitis of the left leg with necrotic areas and extensive bullae developed. infection due to s. putrefaciens was confirmed and a long course of hospitalization, oral ciprofloxacin and skin grafting was required. during hospitalization subcutaneou ...19989611378
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