complete sporogony of plasmodium relictum (lineage pgrw4) in mosquitoes culex pipiens pipiens, with implications on avian malaria epidemiology.plasmodium relictum (lineage pgrw4) causes malaria in birds and is actively transmitted in countries with warm climates and also temperate regions of the new world. in europe, the lineage pgrw4 has been frequently reported in many species of afrotropical migrants after their arrival from wintering grounds, but is rare in european resident birds. obstacles for transmission of this parasite in europe have not been identified. culex quinquefasciatus is an effective vector of pgrw4 malaria, but this ...201525958156
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