bunyavirus isolations from mosquitoes in the western canadian arctic.strains of california encephalitis virus (snowshoe hare subtype) were isolated from 8 of 475 pools comprising 23 747 unengorged female mosquitoes of five species collected at three of six locations throughout the mackenzie valley of the northwest territories, canada, from latitudes 60 to 69 degrees n between 10 and 24 july 1976. minimum field infection rates included 1:2734 for aedes communis, 1:256 to 1:3662 for a. hexodontus and 1:911 to 1:1611 for a. punctor. northway virus was also isolated ...197718541
california encephalitis virus activity in mosquitoes and horses in southern ontario, 1975.a study was undertaken in 1975 to determine california encephalitis virus activity in southern ontario. three thousand and sixty-one mosquitoes, primarily aedes species, were divided into 104 pools and inoculated into suckling mice. isolates of snowshoe hare virus were obtained from one pool each of aedes fitchii and a. triseriatus mosquitoes collected in the guelph area. serological testing of horse sera revealed extensive virus activity in southern ontario and indicated that horses may serve a ...197834475
bunyavirus development in arctic and aedes aegypti mosquitoes as revealed by glucose oxidase staining and immunofluorescence.northway virus replication has been detected in salivary glands of wild-caught culiseta inornata and aedes communis mosquitoes from the western canadian arctic after incubation at 4 degrees c for 9 to 11 months, and after incubation at 13 degrees c for 3 to 4 months after they received virus by oral ingestion or intrathoracic injection. aedes hexodontus supported northway virus replication after incubation at 13 degrees c for one month after intrathoracic injection. aedes aegypti supported north ...197944464
california encephalitis virus development in mosquitoes as revealed by transmission studies, immunoperoxidase staining, and electron microscopy.isolates of the snowshoe hare subtype of california encephalitis (ce) virus from yukon mosquitoes during 1972 and 1973 were transmitted by bites of aedes aegypti mosquitoes after 4 to 5 weeks of extrinsic incubation at 55 degrees f after intrathoracic injection, and the 1973 strain was transmitted after mosquitoes were fed virus and held for 3 to 4 weeks at 75 degrees f. antigen of a 1971 isolate of ce virus (marsh lake 23) was detected in salivary glands of infected mosquitoes by the immunopero ...1975235355
california encephalitis virus prevalence throughout the yukon territory, 1971-1974.california encephalitis (ce) virus (snowshoe hare subtype) was isolated from 1 of 38 pools comprising 970 unengorged female aedes canadensis mosquitoes and from 3 of 152 pools containing 5,676 a. communis mosquitoes which were collected in the yukon territory, canada between latitudes 61 and 66 degrees n during june and july 1974. during four summers 1971 through 1974, this virus was recovered from 26 of 648 pools derived from 30,686 mosquitoes of 4 species. isolation of ce virus from 1 of 109 p ...1975239604
california encephalitis virus proliferation in yukon mosquitoes incubated at low temperatures.replication of a subarctic bunyavirus, california encephalitis (snowshoe hare subtype), was detected in salivary glands and thoraces of wild-caught aedes communis mosquitoes from the yokon territory, after intrathoracic inoculation with 0.1 to 100 mouse ld50 virus, and incubation for 7 to 21 days throughout their viable temperature range of 0 to 23 degrees c. immunoperoxidase staining confirmed that viral replication occurred in the cytoplasm of acinar cells of salivary glands, both by ligh micr ...1976963625
[a comparative experimental study of pathogenic properties of new strains of california encephalitis virus serogroups].experiments in noninbred mice, syrian hamsters and grey monkeys were made to characterize the pathogenic properties of new strain of the california encephalitis serogroup isolated for the first time on the island of taimir, in the murmansk, leningrad, tver regions and in karelia. all the strains displayed marked tropism for the cns. the strains isolated in the northern regions of this country turned out more pathogenic for the animals. the strain leiv-12812 kl (isolated in the tver region) diffe ...19921382758
california encephalitis virus endemicity in the yukon territory, 1972.sera from 218 of 1574 (14%) small mammals collected in the yukon territory between 14 may and 13 august 1972 neutralized a yukon strain of california encephalitis virus (snowshoe-hare subtype). these included 133 of 319 (42%) snowshoe hares (lepus americanus), 84 of 1243 (7%) ground squirrels (citellus undulatus) and 1 of 12 (8%) tree squirrels (tamiasciurus hudsonicus). california encephalitis virus (snow-shoe hare subtype) was isolated from four pools of unengorged aedes communis mosquitoes co ...19734146347
isolation of montana snowshoe hare serotype of california encephalitis virus group from a snowshoe hare and aedes mosquitoes. 19715003095
snowshoe hares and the california encephalitis virus group in alberta, 1961-1968. 19695817780
serologic evidence of california encephalitis virus and western equine encephalitis virus in snowshoe hares. 19645895901
establishment and characterization of three cell lines from aedes triseriatus (diptera: culicidae).three cell lines (a.t. grip-1, 2, and 3) were established from aedes triseriatus (say) embryonated eggs or neonate larvae and their morphology, growth, karyotype, and isozyme pattern were studied. the isozyme alleles observed in the 3 cell lines also were found in adults of the original mosquito colony. each cell line differed in enzymatic, morphological, and karyotypical patterns. la crosse encephalitis (lac) and snowshoe hare (ssh) viruses, members of the california encephalitis virus group, w ...19958551501
detecting bunyaviruses of the bunyamwera and california serogroups by a pcr technique.many bunyaviruses of the bunyamwera and california serogroups are medically important human pathogens. the development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using molecular biologic tools, such as pcr, improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. in this study, we evaluated eight pairs of primers for reactivity with 44 viruses of the genus bunyavirus, using a reverse transcriptase pcr technique. with a pair of serogroup-speci ...19968727900
isolation of california encephalitis virus from the blood of a snowshoe hare (lepus americanus) in western montana. 196113688984
tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys.tahyna virus (tahv) is a human pathogen of the california encephalitis virus (cev) serogroup (bunyaviridae) endemic to europe, asia, and africa. tahv maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. human tahv infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. tahv disease can progress to cns involvement, although ...201121435229
A Recombinant Chimeric La Crosse Virus Expressing the Surface Glycoproteins of Jamestown Canyon Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective against Challenge with either Parental Virus in Mice or Monkeys.La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), family Bunyaviridae, are mosquito-borne viruses that are endemic in North America and recognized as etiologic agents of encephalitis in humans. Both viruses belong to the California encephalitis virus serogroup, which causes 70 to 100 cases of encephalitis a year. As a first step in creating live attenuated viral vaccine candidates for this serogroup, we have generated a recombinant LACV expressing the attachment/fusion glycoproteins of JC ...201222013033
serological survey for antibodies to mosquito-borne bunyaviruses among us national park service and us forest service employees.serum samples from 295 employees of great smoky mountains national park (grsm), rocky mountain national park (romo), and grand teton national park with adjacent bridger-teton national forest (grte-btnf) were subjected to serological analysis for mosquito-borne bunyaviruses. the sera were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against six orthobunyaviruses: la crosse virus (lacv), jamestown canyon virus (jcv), snowshoe hare virus (sshv), california encephalitis virus, and trivittatus virus (tvtv) b ...201626855300
isolation and characterization of a california encephalitis serogroup orthobunyavirus from finnish mosquitoes.the mosquito-borne california encephalitis serogroup viruses of the genus orthobunyavirus (family bunyaviridae) include several causative agents of encephalitis in humans. until recently, inkoo virus (inkv) was the only orthobunyavirus isolated in finland, showing high seroprevalence in the population. in this study, we recovered five orthobunyavirus isolates from mosquitoes collected in eastern finland in the early autumns of 2007 and 2008 by inoculation of vero cells. the isolates were determi ...201424480054
serological surveillance for tahyna virus (california encephalitis orthobunyavirus, peribunyaviridae) neutralizing antibodies in wild ungulates in austria, hungary and romania.a serosurvey for tahyna virus (tahv), a mosquito-borne california encephalitis orthobunyavirus (peribunyaviridae) endemic to europe, was performed to estimate the activity of tahv on a broad geographic scale. sera from wild boar (sus scrofa), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) were collected from austria, hungary and romania. samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against tahv using a virus microneutralization assay. the results demonstrate that tahv transmissi ...201829516663
risk factors associated with seropositivity to california serogroup viruses in humans and pet dogs, quebec, canada.jamestown canyon and snowshoe hare viruses are two emerging human pathogens associated with cases of neuroinvasive disease in north america. this study aimed to identify environmental and individual risk factors for seropositivity to these arboviruses in humans and pet dogs from québec, canada, 2012-2014. in humans, areas with moderate densities of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were associated with higher odds of seropositivity compared with areas with low densities of white-tailed ...201829716671
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