susceptibility of mink to certain viral animal diseases foreign to the united states.mink (mustela vison) were inoculated with viruses: african horse sickness (ahs), african swine fever (asf), bovine herpes virus ii (bhv2), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), goat pox (gp), hog cholera (hc), peste des petits ruminants (ppr), rinderpest (rp), swine vesicular disease (svd), vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) and vesicular stomatitis (vs). their susceptibility was measured by development of clinical signs, virus isolation and detection of precipitin and/or virus neutralizing antibodies. ...1979228092
etiology of the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex in nigerian dwarf goats.the causative agent of stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex was isolated in domesticated goats and vero cell culture. it was identified immunologically and morphologically as identical with the "peste des petits ruminants" virus. there were cross reactions between stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus isolate and rinderpest virus by immunodiffusion and complement fixation tests but no cross neutralization. goats recovered from stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex were protected against a challeng ...1976826310
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and other seal species. virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in northwest europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (cdv), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. an epidemic in baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a m ...19921481361
characterisation of the european seal morbillivirus.the elisa test originally developed for the detection of serum antibodies to rinderpest virus has been shown to detect cross-reacting antibodies in sera of diseased common and grey seals. analysis of sera collected from various seal populations is in progress to establish the correlation between different morbillivirus neutralisation tests, elisa tests and the disease status of the animals. rna purified from post-mortem tissues removed from diseased seals has been analysed by hybridisation with ...19902402877
an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection.peste des petits ruminants virus was suspected to be the cause of a disease outbreak in a zoological collection at al ain in the arabian gulf. clinically the outbreak affected gazelles (gazellinae), ibex and sheep (caprinae) and gemsbok (hippotraginae); subclinical involvement of nilgai (tragelaphinae) was suspected. a morbillivirus was isolated and using monoclonal antibodies and biological tests in cattle, sheep and goats the virus of peste des petits ruminants was identified.19873424615
neutralizing antibodies to phocine distemper virus in atlantic walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from arctic canada.the first evidence of phocine distemper virus (pdv) infection in atlantic walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from nottingham island, northwest territories, canada, is reported. blood samples were collected from three male walruses killed by inuit hunters in the fall of 1990. differential virus neutralization test for each animal yielded higher titers against pdv than against other members of the morbillivirus genus including canine distemper, peste des petits ruminants, rinderpest and measles ...19948151831
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is a hemolysin.the fusion glycoprotein (f protein) of paramyxoviruses plays a vital role in virus-induced cytopathology. to explore the role of the f protein in peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv)-induced cytopathology, the f protein of pprv was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. the purified f protein, when incubated with chicken erythrocytes, caused lysis suggesting that pprv f protein is a hemolysin. furthermore, the hemolysis can be inhibited by hyperimmune serum against f protein. the virus-in ...199910446657
the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus mediates biological fusion in the absence of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase study the process of membrane fusion in morbilliviruses, the fusion (f) glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the recombinant f proteins were found to be localized at the surface of transfected cells. the fusion activity, as evident from cell fusion assays and lysis of chicken erythrocytes, documented that transiently expressed pprv f glycoprotein induces cell fusion in the absence of homotypic hemagg ...200111601920
[canine distemper virus--an agent looking for new hosts].canine distemper is caused by the canine distemper virus (cdv), a rna virus belonging to the genus morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae. the genus morbillivirus includes measles virus, rinderpest virus and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus. the host spectrum of cdv, which includes numerous families of carnivores, has been changed in the last years and distemper-like diseases have been observed in numerous other species. these include epidemics in large felids, marine mammals and javelinas. ...200312756952
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
response of white-tailed deer to infection with peste des petits ruminants virus.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were infected experimentally with two strains of peste des petits ruminants virus. the response varied from fatal consequence to subclinical infection. the clinical signs and gross lesions were similar to those in goats. virus was recovered from all the infected deer, and survivors developed specific antibodies demonstrated by complement fixation and virus neutralization tests. survivors also resisted challenge with virulent rinderpest virus that was le ...197616502689
rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus antigen in sudan by agar gel precipitation (agpt) and haemagglutination (ha) tests.agpt and ha tests were employed for rapid diagnosis of pprv infection in sheep and goats in sudan. forty lymph nodes and spleen samples from suspected cases of ppr in both sheep and goats were examined by agpt and ha tests for detection of pprv antigen. viral antigen was detected from (77.5%) of the samples tested by agpt and (92.5%) tested by ha test. the results of both tests revealed that ha test was more sensitive than agpt for detection of pprv antigen (kappa statistics 0.4366). another adv ...200818509945
examples of probable host-pathogen co-adaptation/co-evolution in isolated farmed animal populations in the mountainous regions of north vietnam, for a number of specific geographical and historical reasons, the mountainous areas have preserved an exceptional diversity of wild and domestic animal species of high socioeconomic interest. this endemic genetic diversity fosters a rapid response to environmental change in mostly isolated local communities and, in particular, fosters the constant adaptation of ecosystems common to humans and farmed and wild animal populations and pathogens. during a 2-year study carried out in sever ...200819120225
a serologic investigation for peste des petits ruminants infection in sheep, cattle and camels (camelus dromedarius) in aydin province, west anatolia. 201019554466
detection and genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus in free-living bharals (pseudois nayaur) in tibet, china.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an important viral disease of sheep and goats. the wildlife hosts of ppr, which may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease, are not well characterized. the research was undertaken to study the infection of ppr virus (pprv) in free-living bharals (pseudois nayaur) in tibet, china. in 2007, pprv infection was confirmed in two bharals in rutog county of tibet based on clinical signs and detection of pprv rna in tissue samples. in 2008, pprv in ...201120591454
seroprevalance of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in goitered gazelle (gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa) in turkey.gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa (goitered gazelle) is a native species of anatolia. because of the risk of extinction, captured gazelles have been taken under protection in a restricted area at the ceylanpinar state farm, southeast anatolia, turkey. peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection had been detected previously in domestic ruminant species in this region, like in many other parts of turkey. in this study, serum samples from 82 goitered gazelle were tested using competitive enzy ...201020688672
evidence of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection in sindh ibex (capra aegagrus blythi) in pakistan as confirmed by detection of antigen and outbreak resulting in mortality in sindh ibex (capra aegagrus blythi) was investigated. there was a history of about 36 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of 1 month. disease appeared in a generalized form, affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. major lesions were respiratory distress, pustules on and in the mouth, ocular-nasal discharges, and severe diarrhea. the most significant lesion was the oculonasal discharges and diarrhea. deaths were mainly due to blindness, an ...201121221782
Fatalities in Wild Goats in Kurdistan Associated with Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus.Between August 2010 and February 2011, over 750 deaths were recorded among wild goats (Capra aegagrus, the endangered progenitor of the domestic goat) in Kurdistan. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by laboratory analysis, and the virus was found to be closely related to a Turkish strain isolated in 2000. During the outbreak in wild goats, no disease in domestic animals was reported. ...201122074184
emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the southern morocco*during the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such bluetongue (bt), west nile (wn), african horse sickness (ahs), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in north africa and in europe. camel (camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for camelpox (cp). a serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes ...201222222004
peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a widespread viral disease caused by a morbillivirus (paramyxoviridae). there is a single serotype of ppr virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. cattle and african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. ppr has recently spread in southern and northern africa, and in central and f ...201223313537
genetic characterization of a novel mutant of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from capra ibex in china during 2015.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (ppr). the spread of ppr often causes severe economic losses. therefore, special attention should be paid to the surveillance of ppr emergence, spread, and geographic distribution. here we describe a novel mutant of pprv china/xjbz/2015 that was isolated from capra ibex in xinjiang province in china 2015. the sequence analysis and phylogenetic assessment indicate that china/xjbz/2015 belongs to lineage i ...201626998489
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
seroprevalence of infectious diseases in saiga antelope (saiga tatarica tatarica) in kazakhstan 2012-2014.286 serum samples were collected from three sub-populations of saiga in kazakhstan (betpakdala, ustyurt and volga-ural) between 2012 and 2014, and were tested for the presence of antibodies to brucella spp., bluetongue virus, peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus, akabane virus, schmallenberg virus, chlamydophila, toxoplasma, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and coxiella burnetii (q fever). seropositives to coxiella burnetii of saiga were detected and the adjusted seroprevalence ...201627094147
are we prepared for emerging and re-emerging diseases? experience and lessons from epidemics that occurred in tanzania during the last five decades.this paper reviews preparedness for containing and controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases drawing lessons from disease events that occurred in animal and human populations in the last five decades (1961-2011). a comprehensive analysis based on retrieval and analysis of grey and published literature as well as reported cases was carried out to document type and trend of occurrence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in different parts of tanzania. overall, the majority of disea ...201126591993
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rh3l) of buffalopox virus in animal models.buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. h3l gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant h3l protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. a pa ...201626723250
emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, hendra, nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as ...201324426290
a transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the canary islands, spain.the canary islands contain the most important dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) population in the european union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental europe and latin america. we investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 canarian camel sera. selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by pcr. sera were tested for antibodies against bluetongue virus (btv; 0%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv; 0%), camelpox virus (c ...201323992795
mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and other respiratory viruses in dromedary camels in sudan, an abattoir study.this study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. a total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in sudan. using immunocapture elisa (icelisa), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for ppr antigen. the highest prevalence was found in central sudan (59.9 %) then n ...201525904508
peste des petits ruminants virus detected in tissues from an asiatic lion (panthera leo persica) belongs to asian lineage this study, peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) was detected in frozen pooled tissue samples from a dead asiatic lion (panthera leo persica). the samples were negative for canine distemper virus and positive for pprv nucleic acids when tested with one-step rt-pcr using the appropriate virus-specific primers. subsequent amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid, matrix, and fusion genes confirmed the presence of pprv nucleic acid. comparative sequence and phylogene ...201222705744
use of slam and pvrl4 and identification of pro-hb-egf as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (mv), canine distemper (cdv), rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (pprv) viruses, while cd46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of mv. more recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (pvrl4), also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for mv, cdv and pprv on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. pvrl4 is also up-regulated by mv in human br ...201425171206
peste des petits ruminants virus in vulnerable wild small ruminants, iran, 2014-2016, >1,000 wild goats and sheep in 4 northern and central provinces of iran died from peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. partial nucleoprotein sequencing of pprv from 3 animals showed a close relationship to lineage 4 strains from china. control measures are needed to preserve vulnerable ruminant populations.201728322692
diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants in wild and domestic animals in xinjiang, china, 2013-2016.peste des petits ruminants viruses (pprvs) re-emerged in china at the end of 2013 and then spread rapidly into 22 provinces through movement of live goats and sheep. in this study, 96 samples of domestic animals and 13 samples of wildlife were analysed for the presence of pprv infection by elisa or rt-pcr. of 96 samples from sheep and goats, 91 were pprv positive, whereas all of the 13 samples from three wild species, capra ibex (capra ibex sibirica), argali (ovis ammon) and goitered gazelle (ga ...201728101989
history and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in tanzania.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (ppr) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. ppr is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and s ...201627770516
sequence analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from ibexes in xinjiang, china.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an infectious disease caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). while ppr mainly affects domestic goats and sheep, it also affects wild ungulates such as ibex, blue sheep, and gazelle, although there are few reports regarding pprv infection in wild animals. between january 2015 and february 2015, it was found for the first time that wild ibexes died from pprv infection in bazhou, xinjiang, china, where a total of 38 ibexes (including young and adult i ...201627323119
the first report of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in camels (camelus dromedarius) in mid-july 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from kuwait to the khuzestan province in southwest of iran. the clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. necropsy findings included keratoconjunctiviti ...201627155951
protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) of indian origin (pprv jhansi 2003) initially adapted in vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (ta) vero cells grown at 40 °c for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of ta vaccine against ppr in goats and sheep. the virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in ta vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. the dev ...201425674603
toll-like receptor responses to peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. the host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as toll like receptors (tlr). we investigated the role of tlr and cytokines in differential susc ...201425369126
experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from kurdistan.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in africa and asia. its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. as an example, an asian lineage iv strain of pprv was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in kurdistan in 2010/2011. in separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of german domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected shee ...201424908276
assessment of seroconversion to a peste des petits ruminants virus live vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 201324277919
immune responses in mice vaccinated with a suicidal dna vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin glycoprotein from the peste des petits ruminants virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr), an acute and highly contagious disease, affects sheep, goats, and some small ruminants. the hemagglutinin (h) glycoprotein of the ppr virus (pprv) is considered important for inducing protective immune responses. in this study, a suicidal dna vaccine based on the semliki forest virus (sfv) replicon was constructed and tested for its ability to induce immunogenicity in a mouse model. for this, the h gene of pprv was cloned and inserted into psca1, an sfv replicon ...201323896018
isolation, identification and characterization of a peste des petits ruminants virus from an outbreak in nanakpur, india.a peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) was isolated from an outbreak that occurred in sheep and goats in nanakpur village of mathura district in uttar pradesh (india). based on hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells (rbcs), cytopathic effect similar to that caused by the morbilliviruses in vero cells, and amplification and sequence analysis of the viral nucleoprotein (n) gene, the identity of the virus was confirmed as pprv and named pprv/c. hircus-tc/india/2012/nanakpur1 (in short pprv/ ...201323500799
complete genome sequence of a peste des petits ruminants virus recovered from wild bharal in tibet, china.for the first time, here we announce the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) derived from macerated rectal tissue of a free living bharal (pseudois nayaur) that displayed clinical disease consistent with severe infection with pprv. further, we compare the full genome of this isolate, termed pprv tibet/bharal/2008, with previously available pprv genomes, including those of virus isolates from domestic small ruminants local to the area where the r ...201222966182
[foot-and-mouth disease and its differential diagnoses].foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which leads to the formation of vesicles, erosions und ulcerations in the mouth and hairless parts of the skin, in particular on the feet. due to its dramatic economic consequences, fmd is considered to be one of the most important diseases of animals. there is a permanent risk of introduction of the virus into europe due to travel and illegal importation of agricultural products. cloven-hoofed animals (c ...201222911230
effects of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance and primary antibody response against peste des petits ruminants in dwarf bengal goats ( capra hircus).an experiment was conducted to exploit the immune-modulation effect of trivalent chromium (cr) for augmenting immunity against peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in dwarf black bengal goats (capra hircus). the goats (n = 6 per treatment group) either received a basal diet devoid of supplemental cr (control) or were supplemented with 0.5 mg cr as chromic chloride (+cr) for 60 days. live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency improved (p < 0.05) in the +cr dietary group. supplemental cr did not ...200922444223
emetine inhibits replication of rna and dna viruses without generating drug-resistant virus a noncytotoxic concentration, emetine was found to inhibit replication of dna viruses [buffalopoxvirus (bpxv) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1)] as well as rna viruses [peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and newcastle disease virus (ndv)]. using the time-of-addition and virus step-specific assays, we showed that emetine treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of viral rna (pprv and ndv) and dna (bpxv and bhv-1) as well as inhibiting viral entry (ndv and bhv-1). in addition, emetine treatm ...201728624461
fatal peste des petits ruminants disease in chowsingha.this communication reports fatal peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in chowsingha (tetracerus quadricornis), a member of the subfamily bovinae and family bovidae captured in a zoological park. the animals showed clinical signs of acute respiratory disease with frothy nasal discharge (1-2 days) and mortality of twenty animals (80%) within 48 hr. necropsy of dead chowsingha showed haemorrhagic patches in trachea and severe congestion of lungs and ocular mucosa. there was no characteristic le ...201728805043
first report of peste des petits ruminants virus lineage ii in hydropotes inermis, this study, we investigated an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) at a hydropotes inermis (water deer) farm in anhui province, china. these results demonstrated that ppr viruses (pprvs) can infect h. inermis and also revealed that virulent lineage ii pprvs exist in china, where they have been responsible for the deaths of wild animals. the government should pay close attention to the threat of pprv epidemiology in china.201728736887
screening of peste des petits ruminants virus in a population of district khairpur, pakistan.goats are the pakistan's fastest growing ruminants, and pakistan is the third largest goat producer in the world after india and china. goat meat preference is the main reason for its increased demand. in the country, there are 25 goat breeds and two wild relatives such as mark and goats. at present, pakistan has 53.8 million goats, according to the 2006 gop report, and their population growth rate was more than 3% per year (37, 23, 22, and 18% of the goat population in punjab, sindh, balochista ...201728973722
letter to the editor concerning "first report of peste des petits ruminants virus lineage ii in hydropotes inermis, china" by zhou et al. (transbound emerg dis; 2017: 201829476605
outbreak of peste des petits ruminants among critically endangered mongolian saiga and other wild ungulates, mongolia, 2016-2017.the 2016-2017 introduction of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) into livestock in mongolia was followed by mass mortality of the critically endangered mongolian saiga antelope and other rare wild ungulates. to assess the nature and population effects of this outbreak among wild ungulates, we collected clinical, histopathologic, epidemiologic, and ecological evidence. molecular characterization confirmed that the causative agent was pprv lineage iv. the spatiotemporal patterns of cases amon ...202031855146
peste des petits ruminants in large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts.since its first report in 1942, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) has caused several epidemics in a wide range of susceptible hosts around the world. in the last 30 years, the evidence of natural and experimental infections and virus isolation were reported from novel but unusual hosts such as camel, cattle, buffalo, dogs, asiatic lion and pigs. in addition, pprv in a potential vector, biting midges (culicoides imicola), has been reported. either presented as clinical and/or subclinical in ...202031917649
peste des petits ruminants virus transmission scaling and husbandry practices that contribute to increased transmission risk: an investigation among sheep, goats, and cattle in northern tanzania.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. pprv transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these systems and which husbandry practices impact risk is needed. to investigate transmission scaling and husbandry practice-associated risk, this study combined 395 household questionnaires with over 7115 cross-s ...202032847058
camelids and cattle are dead-end hosts for peste-des-petits-ruminants virus.peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. the possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of pprv remains to be clarified. recent transmission trials with the virulent pprv lineage iv (liv)-strain kurdistan/2011 revealed that pigs and wild boar are possible sources of pprv-infection. we therefore investigated the role of cattle, llamas, alpacas, and dromedary camels in transmission trials ...201931817946
neglected hosts of small ruminant morbillivirus.eradication of small ruminant morbillivirus (pprv) is targeted for 2030. pprv lineage iv is found in much of asia and africa. we used pprv lineage iv strain kurdistan/2011 in transmission trials to investigate the role of pigs, wild boar, and small ruminants as pprv reservoirs. suids were a possible source of infection.201830457523
evidence of peste des petits ruminants' virus in dromedary camels in the kingdom of saudi arabia between 2014 and 2016.infection with the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) is a highly devastating viral infection of small ruminants. dromedary camels live in close proximity of small ruminants in arabian peninsula (ap) and many other regions in the world. little is known about the reasons behind continuous pprv emergence in saudi arabia (ksa). our objective was to test some dromedary camel population across the kingdom for the presence of specific pprv antibodies. our results show detection of specific pprv a ...201932089813
experimental infection of dromedary camels with virulent virus of peste des petits ruminants.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively in last years through asia and africa. pprv, known to infect exclusively small ruminants, has been recently reported in camels in iran and sudan. reported clinical symptoms are similar to those observed in small ruminants, fatality rate still unknown. however most of the authors reported seropositive camels without clinical signs. camel sensitivity to pprv is still controversi ...201931383302
peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in dromedary camels and small ruminants in mandera and wajir counties of kenya.a study was conducted to determine the presence of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in camel population kept together with small ruminants in isiolo, mandera, marsabit, and wajir counties of kenya. this was done in the wake of a disease with unknown etiology "camel sudden death syndrome" camels in the horn of africa. thirty-eight (38) samples, 12, 8, 15, and 3 samples, were collected from mandera, wajir, isiolo, and marsabit, respectively, from 25 camels, 7 goats, and 4 sheep. one camel in mande ...201930956658
rnaseq reveals the contribution of interferon stimulated genes to the increased host defense and decreased ppr viral replication in cattle.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) is known to replicate in a wide variety of ruminants causing very species-specific clinical symptoms. small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible to disease while domesticated cattle and buffalo are dead-end hosts and do not display clinical symptoms. understanding the host factors that influence differential pathogenesis and disease susceptibility could help the development of better diagnostics and control measures. to study this, we generated tran ...202032325933
productive replication of peste des petits ruminants virus nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain in vero cells correlates with inefficiency of maturation of the viral fusion protein.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), a member of the genus morbillivirus, in the family paramyxoviridae expresses two membrane glycoproteins, the fusion (f) and haemagglutinin (h) glycoproteins which mediate virus-to-cell fusion and cell-to-cell fusion leading to the induction of syncytia in pprv infected cells. in the context of the characterization of the virulent lineage iv strain pprv kurdistan 2011, isolated from wild goats from the kurdistan region in iraq, we observed that both pprv k ...201931129173
a novel recombinant newcastle disease virus vectored diva vaccine against peste des petits ruminants in goats.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv, species: small ruminant morbillivirus) is the causative agent of the eponymous notifiable disease, the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in wild and domestic sheep and goats. mortality rates vary between 50% and 100%, causing significant losses of estimated 1.5 to 2 billion us dollars per year. live-attenuated pprv vaccine strains are used in the field for disease prevention, but the application of a more thermostable vaccine enabling differentiation betwee ...202032354145
eradicating the scourge of peste des petits ruminants from the world.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a highly contagious viral disease of both domestic (goats and sheep) and wild ruminants. caused by a morbillivirus, that belongs to the family paramyxoviridae. the disease is clinically and pathologically similar to rinderpest of cattle and human measles. ppr is one of the most economically devastating viral diseases of small ruminants. in april 2015, the food and agriculture organization of the united nations (fao) and the world organisation for animal health ...202032183412
molecular characterization of peste des petits ruminants viruses in the marmara region of turkey.recent outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in the marmara region of turkey including the european part of thrace is important due to its proximity to europe (greece and bulgaria) and the potential threat of spread of ppr into mainland europe. in order to investigate the circulation of pprv in the region suspect clinical and necropsy samples were collected from domestic sheep (n = 211) in the marmara region of turkey between 2011 and 2012. ppr virus (pprv) genome was detected in 10.4% ( ...201930525310
evaluation of a recombinant major envelope protein (f1l) based indirect- elisa for sero-diagnosis of orf in sheep and goats.orf or contagious ecthyma, is a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats. for sero-diagnosis of orf, recombinant antigen based assays are considered as alternatives to conventional approaches such as serum neutralization test (snt) and counter-immuno-electrophoresis (cie). a major envelope protein of orf virus (orfv), f1l, is highly immunogenic and is a candidate for use in these assays. in this study, the f1l gene of the orfv-59/05 strain encoding a recombinant mature f1l prot ...201830149033
first detection and genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from dorcas gazelles "gazella dorcas" in the sudan, may 2017, many free-ranging dorcas gazelles (gazella dorcas) with suspected signs of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) were reported in dinder national park, south-eastern sudan. peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antigen and nucleic acid were detected in specimens from these gazelles using an immunocapture elisa and a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays. pprv was also detected in four healthy semi-captive dorcas gazelles from two areas of khartoum state. phylo ...201931309291
peste des petits ruminants at the wildlife-livestock interface in the northern albertine rift and nile basin, east the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (ppr) emerged in east africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. in order to understand better ppr at the wildlife-livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern albertine rift. pprv antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from south sudan (2 ...202032156067
spatio-temporal analysis of peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in pr china (2013-2018): updates based on the newest data.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants. the purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemic characteristics of ppr outbreaks in the people's republic of china (pr china) from 2013 to 2018. a total of 41,876 ppr outbreaks were recorded in small ruminant populations in pr china during that period. data from february to june 2018 were used to study new developments in the ppr epidemic in pr china. spatio-temporal clusters and temporal distribution p ...201931207143
pathological and molecular characterisation of peste des petits ruminants in nubian ibex (capra nubiana) in israel.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a devastating disease that generally affects sheep and goats, mostly in asia, the middle east and africa. the disease has been declared a target for global eradication. despite its high prevalence in domestic flocks and its high seroprevalence among wildlife, it is rarely reported as a fulminant disease in wild ruminant species (with the exception of central asia). in this report, we describe a severe ppr outbreak in a zoo herd of nubian ibex (capra nubiana), ...201931089959
epidemic and evolutionary characteristics of peste des petits ruminants virus infecting procapra przewalskii in western china.due to the migration or transboundary spread of domestic and wild animals, peste des petits ruminants virus posed a high potential threat to them. in this study, we initially detected that a class of animal named procapra przewalskii was infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv chinags2018) in gansu province. according to phylogenetic relationships analysis, we found that chinags2018 comprised of 15,954 nucleotides and was classified into iv genotypes. in addition, indirect immunoflu ...201931415822
serological evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus and peste des petits ruminants virus infection in alpacas (vicugna pacos) in shanxi province, northern china.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) are two important pathogens associated with a variety of disease syndromes that result in substantial financial losses in animal husbandry. this study was performed to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to bvdv and pprv among alpacas raised in shanxi province of northern china. serum samples were obtained from 246 alpacas in taiyuan (n=182), xinzhou (n=31), and jinzhong cities (n=33) of shanxi province, and serol ...202133939008
detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in pneumonic lungs from clinically apparently healthy camels slaughtered at tambul slaughterhouse, central sudan.the study investigated the presence and prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viral antigens among camels in tambul area, gezira state, central sudan, regardless of its sex, age and breed, and their possible contribution in the epidemiology of the disease in the sudan. hundred pneumonic lung tissues were aseptically collected from clinically apparently healthy camels showed no signs of illness at ante-mortem examination, from tambul slaughterhouse, tambul area, gezira state, central sud ...202133645909
peste des petits ruminants virus infection at the wildlife-livestock interface in the greater serengeti ecosystem, 2015-2019.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in africa, the middle east and asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to ppr virus (pprv) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. the role of wild species in pprv epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the global strategy for the control and eradication of ppr. these studies aimed to investigate pprv inf ...202134066336
a review of the current status of peste des petits ruminants epidemiology in small ruminants in tanzania.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats with high mortality. the disease is of considerable economic importance in countries such as tanzania, where small ruminant products are important for sustainable livelihoods. this review assesses current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of pprv in tanzania, highlighting the challenges with respect to control and suggesting possible interventions. thirty-three articles were identified after literature se ...202033324702
avidin-biotin recombinant nucleoprotein competitive elisa for the detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in sheep and goats.the present study describes the development of a truncated recombinant peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) nucleoprotein (rpprv-npn) and its polyclonal antibodies-based immuno-diagnostic assay, avidin-biotin (ab) recombinant nucleoprotein competitive elisa (abrc-elisa) for the detection of pprv antibodies in the sheep and goats. the pprv n-terminal immunogenic region (1-266 aa) of nucleoprotein (npn) coding sequence was amplified and cloned into the petite vector. the rpprv-npn with a molecu ...202134119607
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