evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infectivity by pseudoviral particles.since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection in humans in late 2019, it has rapidly spread worldwide. to identify the biological characteristics of sars-cov-2 in a normal laboratory environment (biosafety level 2 [bsl-2]), a lentiviral-based nucleocapsid was used to carry the spike protein of sars-cov-2 onto the surface of pseudoviral particles as a surrogate model to evaluate the infective characterization of sars-cov-2. this study indicated that ...202032275081
hydroxychloroquine use against sars-cov-2 infection in non-human primates.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic and no antiviral drug or vaccine is yet available for the treatment of this disease1-3. several clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of repurposed drugs that have demonstrated antiviral efficacy in vitro. among these candidates, hydroxychloroquine (hcq) has been given to thousands of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2)-the virus that causes covid-19-worldwi ...202032698191
chadox1 ncov-19 vaccine prevents sars-cov-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) emerged in december 20191,2 and is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic3. vaccines are an essential countermeasure and are urgently needed to control the pandemic4. here we show that the adenovirus-vector-based vaccine chadox1 ncov-19, which encodes the spike protein of sars-cov-2, is immunogenic in mice and elicites a robust humoral and cell-mediated response. this response was predominantly mediated by typ ...202032731258
safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine against the liver stage of plasmodium cynomolgi infection in rhesus macaques.previously, ivermectin (1 to 10 mg/kg of body weight) was shown to inhibit the liver-stage development of plasmodium berghei in orally dosed mice. here, ivermectin showed inhibition of the in vitro development of plasmodium cynomolgi schizonts (50% inhibitory concentration [ic50], 10.42 μm) and hypnozoites (ic50, 29.24 μm) in primary macaque hepatocytes when administered as a high dose prophylactically but not when administered in radical cure mode. the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ...202032660993
dna vaccine protection against sars-cov-2 in rhesus macaques.the global coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has made the development of a vaccine a top biomedical priority. in this study, we developed a series of dna vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the sars-cov-2 spike (s) protein and evaluated them in 35 rhesus macaques. vaccinated animals developed humoral and cellular immune responses, including neutralizing antibody titers at levels comparable to those fou ...202032434945
pit latrines may be a potential risk in rural china and low-income countries when dealing with covid-19.according to the latest reports, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), which caused coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), was successfully isolated from the excreta (stool and urine) of covid-19 patients, suggesting sars-cov-2 could be transmitted through excreta contaminated water. as pit latrines and the use of untreated excreta as fertilizer were common in rural china, we surveyed 27 villages of jiangxi and hubei provinces and found that pit latrines could be a potentia ...202033162149
risk assessment of sars-cov-2 in antarctic wildlife.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). this pathogen has spread rapidly across the world, causing high numbers of deaths and significant social and economic impacts. sars-cov-2 is a novel coronavirus with a suggested zoonotic origin with the potential for cross-species transmission among animals. antarctica can be considered the only continent free of sars-cov-2. therefore, concerns have been expressed regar ...202033162142
laboratory diagnosis of covid-19 in china: a review of challenging cases and analysis.since the initial emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in wuhan, hubei province, china, a rapid spread of the disease occurred around the world, rising to become an international global health concern at pandemic level. in the face of this medical challenge threatening humans, the development of rapid and accurate methods for early screening and diagnosis of covid-19 became crucial to containing the emerging public health threat, and prevent further spread within the population. desp ...202033153907
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2)-associated urogenital disease: a current update.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is quickly spreading around the world and causes coronavirus disease 2019, may attack the urogenital system. we thought that a summary of the current literature about urogenital disease associated with the virus would be useful for physicians treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019. pubmed was comprehensively screened for studies published from 2019 to 2020. studies of coronavirus disease 2019 patients with kidney disease, reproducti ...202033151049
bioinformatic study to discover natural molecules with activity against covid-19.background: in 2020, the world has struggled to deal with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), which started in 2019 in china and has spread throughout the globe, affecting at least 31,175,835 humans globally and claiming 962,634 lives reported till 22nd september, 2020 by the world health organization. the main causative agent for this disease is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). so far, there is no cure or proven therapeutics available till date. therefore, ...202033145015
measuring immunity to sars-cov-2 infection: comparing assays and animal models.the rapid scale-up of research on coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) has spawned a large number of potential vaccines and immunotherapies, accompanied by a commensurately large number of in vitro assays and in vivo models to measure their effectiveness. these assays broadly have the same end-goal - to predict the clinical efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in humans. however, the apparent potency of different interventions can vary considerably between assays and animal mode ...202033139888
the potential role of super spread events in sars-cov-2 pandemic; a narrative review.coronaviruses, members of coronaviridae family, cause extensive epidemics of vast diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) and coronavirus disease-19 (covid-19) in animals and humans. super spread events (sses) potentiate early outbreak of the disease and its constant spread in later stages. viral recombination events within species and across hosts lead to natural selection based on advanced infectivity and resistance. in this review, the importance of containment of sses was inve ...202033134970
genomic modeling as an approach to identify surrogates for use in experimental validation of sars-cov-2 and hunov inactivation by uv-c treatment.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) is responsible for the covid-19 pandemic that continues to pose significant public health concerns. while research to deliver vaccines and antivirals are being pursued, various effective technologies to control its environmental spread are also being targeted. ultraviolet light (uv-c) technologies are effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms when used even on large surface areas. in this study, we developed a pyrimidine din ...202033133042
long-acting nanoparticulate dnase-1 for effective suppression of sars-cov-2-mediated neutrophil activities and cytokine storm.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is a new strain of coronavirus not previously identified in humans. globally, the number of confirmed cases and mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) have risen dramatically. currently, there are no fda-approved antiviral drugs and there is an urgency to develop treatment strategies that can effectively suppress sars-cov-2-mediated cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards), and sepsis. as symptoms pro ...202033130319
could sars-cov-2-induced lung injury be attenuated by vitamin d?a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, sars-cov-2) has been confirmed to have the capacity to transmit from humans to humans, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and acute lung injury. angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ace2) has been found to be expressed on type ii pneumocytes. as a counterregulatory arm of the renin-angiotensin system (ras), ace2 plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of ards and acute lung injury. the affinity of the spike protei ...202033129966
pervasive rna secondary structure in the genomes of sars-cov-2 and other coronaviruses.the ultimate outcome of the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic is unknown and is dependent on a complex interplay of its pathogenicity, transmissibility, and population immunity. in the current study, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) was investigated for the presence of large-scale internal rna base pairing in its genome. this property, termed genome-scale ordered rna structure (gors) has been previously associated with host persistence in other positive-str ...202033127861
what defines an efficacious covid-19 vaccine? a review of the challenges assessing the clinical efficacy of vaccines against sars-cov-2.the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), has caused more than 1 million deaths in the first 6 months of the pandemic and huge economic and social upheaval internationally. an efficacious vaccine is essential to prevent further morbidity and mortality. although some countries might deploy covid-19 vaccines on the strength of safety and immunogenicity data alone, the goal of vaccine development is to gain direct evidence of vaccine efficacy in protecting ...202033125914
global scenario, public health concerns and mitigation strategies to counter current ongoing sars-cov-2 / covid-19 pandemic.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (sars-cov-2), the etiological agent of the novel coronavirus disease (covid-19), has posed a great public health threat to the global community as a pandemic. the origin of the virus has been linked to animals, through a yet-to-be-identified intermediate host. the disease is transmitted to humans mainly through inhalation or contact with infected droplets. the variable clinical presentation of covid-19 includes fever, cough, sore throat, breathles ...202033121328
molecular diversity of coronavirus host cell entry receptors.coronaviruses are a group of viruses causing disease in a wide range of animals including humans. since 2002, the successive emergence of bat-borne severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (sads-cov) and sars-cov-2 have reinforced efforts in uncovering the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms governing coronavirus cell tropism and interspecies transmission. decades of studies have ...202033118022
[evaluation of patients diagnosed with covid-19 in terms of risk factors].coronaviruses are rna viruses that can cause disease in the upper and lower respiratory tract in humans and animals. lately, a new coronavirus causing pneumonia cases was detected in wuhan, china in december 2019. soon after, the name of the virus was identified as the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2", and the world health organization named the disease coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19). in our country, the first cases began to appear in the second week of march. in this study ...202033107286
sterilizing immunity against sars-cov-2 infection in mice by a single-shot and modified imidazoquinoline tlr7/8 agonist-adjuvanted recombinant spike protein vaccine.the search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality as a result of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. several vaccine candidates are currently being tested in the clinic. inactivated virus and recombinant protein vaccines can be safe options but may require adjuvants to induce robust immune responses efficiently. in this work we descr ...202033106810
viewpoint: origin of sars-cov-2.the origin of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) virus causing the covid-19 pandemic has not yet been fully determined. despite the consensus about the sars-cov-2 origin from bat cov ratg13, discrepancy to host tropism to other human coronaviruses exist. sars-cov-2 also possesses some differences in its s protein receptor-binding domain, glycan-binding n-terminal domain and the surface of the sialic acid-binding domain. despite similarities based on cryo-em and bioc ...202033105685
neutralizing and binding activities against sars-cov-1/2, mers-cov, and human coronaviruses 229e and oc43 by normal human intravenous immunoglobulin derived from healthy donors in japan.there are several types of coronaviruses that infect humans and cause disease. the latest is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), which is an emerging global threat with no current effective treatment. normal intravenous immunoglobulin (n-ivig) has been administered to coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) patients to control severe inflammation and the cellular immune response. however, the neutralizing activity of n-ivig against sars-cov-2 has not yet been fully evaluate ...202033104267
the potential intermediate hosts for sars-cov-2.the coronavirus disease 19 (covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), has become a global pandemic since the first report in wuhan. covid-19 is a zoonotic disease and the natural reservoir of sars-cov-2 seems to be bats. however, the intermediate host explaining the transmission and evolvement is still unclear. in addition to the wildlife which has access to contact with bats in the natural ecological environment and then infects humans in wildlife market, ...202033101254
anti-sars-cov natural products with the potential to inhibit sars-cov-2 (covid-19).the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2), known to cause the disease covid-19, was declared a pandemic in early 2020. the objective of this review was to collate information regarding the potential of plants and natural products to inhibit coronavirus and targets associated with infection in humans and to highlight known drugs, which may have potential activity against sars-cov-2. due to the similarity in the rna genome, main proteases, and primary host receptor between s ...202033101023
the pandemic exposes human nature: 10 evolutionary insights.humans and viruses have been coevolving for millennia. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2, the virus that causes covid-19) has been particularly successful in evading our evolved defenses. the outcome has been tragic-across the globe, millions have been sickened and hundreds of thousands have died. moreover, the quarantine has radically changed the structure of our lives, with devastating social and economic consequences that are likely to unfold for years. an evolutiona ...202033093198
molecular characterization, pathogen-host interaction pathway and in silico approaches for vaccine design against covid-19.covid-19 has forsaken the world because of extremely high infection rates and high mortality rates. at present we have neither medicine nor vaccine to prevent this pandemic. lockdowns, curfews, isolations, quarantines, and social distancing are the only ways to mitigate their infection. this is badly affecting the mental health of people. hence, there is an urgent need to address this issue. coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) is caused by a novel betacorona virus named sars-cov-2 (severe acute ...202033091590
susceptibility of livestock and companion animals to covid-19.while the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) continues to wreak havoc, there is little known about the susceptibility of the livestock and companion animals relative to humans. here, we explore the susceptibility of companion and agricultural animals, in light of the existing information on natural infections, experimental infections, serosurveillance, and in vitro protein-homology binding interaction studies of the sars-cov ...202033090532
severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2): a perspective through the lens of the veterinary diagnostic laboratory.the sars-cov-2 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented challenges to veterinary diagnostic laboratories. these challenges include partial or complete shutdowns, interrupted courier services, disruptions in workflow and diagnostic testing, new physical distancing practices, protocol development or enhancement for handling samples from high-risk or susceptible species, and fulfilling requirements for pre-test permission approval from state and federal veterinary agencies, all of which have been imp ...202033088836
dose prediction for repurposing nitazoxanide in sars-cov-2 treatment or chemoprophylaxis.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has been declared a global pandemic and urgent treatment and prevention strategies are needed. nitazoxanide, an anthelmintic drug has been shown to exhibit in vitro activity against sars-cov-2. the present study used physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (pbpk) modelling to inform optimal doses of nitazoxanide capable of maintaining plasma and lung tizoxanide exposures above the reported sars-cov-2 ec90 .202033085781
a pragmatic randomized controlled trial reports lack of efficacy of hydroxychloroquine on coronavirus disease 2019 viral, we randomized 53 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) to hydroxychloroquine therapy (at a dose of 400 mg twice daily for seven days) in addition to standard care or standard care alone ( identifier, nct04316377). all severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) positive patients 18 years of age or older were eligible for study inclusion if they had moderately severe covid-19 at admission. treatment with hydroxychloroquine did not ...202033082342
safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated sars-cov-2 vaccine, bbibp-corv: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial.the ongoing covid-19 pandemic warrants accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. we aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) vaccine candidate, bbibp-corv, in humans.202033069281
rapid in vitro assays for screening neutralizing antibodies and antivirals against sars-cov-2.towards the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (cov) named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2), genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov), emerged in wuhan, hubei province of china, and has been responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in humans. since its first report, sars-cov-2 has resulted in a global pandemic, with over 10 million human infections and over 560,000 deaths reported worldwide at the end of june 2020. curre ...202033068703
sars-cov-2 is restricted by zinc finger antiviral protein despite preadaptation to the low-cpg environment in humans.recent evidence shows that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is sensitive to interferons (ifns). however, the most effective types of ifns and the underlying antiviral effectors remain to be defined. here, we show that zinc finger antiviral protein (zap), which preferentially targets cpg dinucleotides in viral rna sequences, restricts sars-cov-2. we further demonstrate that zap and its cofactors khnyn and trim25 are expressed in human lung cells. type i, ii, and iii if ...202033067384
higher mortality of covid-19 in males: sex differences in immune response and cardiovascular comorbidities.the high mortality rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection is a critical concern of the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic. strikingly, men account for the majority of covid-19 deaths, with current figures ranging from 59-75% of total mortality. however, despite clear implications in relation to covid-19 mortality, most research has not considered sex as a critical factor in data analysis. here, we highlight fundamental biological differences that ...202033063089
from people to panthera: natural sars-cov-2 infection in tigers and lions at the bronx zoo.despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars), middle east respiratory syndrome (mers), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) has killed millions. zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. the current sars-cov-2 pande ...202033051368
incidence and treatment of arrhythmias secondary to coronavirus infection in humans: a systematic review.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. arrhythmias are prevalent and reportedly, the second most common complication. several mechanistic pathways are proposed to explain the pro-arrhythmic effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection. a number of treatment approaches have been trialled, each with its inherent unique challenges. this rapid systematic review a ...202033043453
viruses that can and cannot coexist with humans and the future of sars-cov-2.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has become a worldwide pandemic. many projections concerning the outbreak, such as the estimated number of cases and deaths in upcoming months, have been made available. however, what happens to the virus after the pandemic subsides has not been fully explored. in this article, we discuss the ways that past and present human viruses have emerged via zoonotic transmission, the mechanisms that they have acquired the ability for effective ...202033042101
favipiravir at high doses has potent antiviral activity in sars-cov-2-infected hamsters, whereas hydroxychloroquine lacks activity.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) rapidly spread around the globe after its emergence in wuhan in december 2019. with no specific therapeutic and prophylactic options available, the virus has infected millions of people of which more than half a million succumbed to the viral disease, covid-19. the urgent need for an effective treatment together with a lack of small animal infection models has led to clinical trials using repurposed drugs without preclinical evidence o ...202033037151
potential zoonotic sources of sars-cov-2 infections.the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) causing coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19) likely has evolutionary origins in other animals than humans based on genetically related viruses existing in rhinolophid bats and pangolins. similar to other animal coronaviruses, sars-cov-2 contains a functional furin cleavage site in its spike protein, which may broaden the sars-cov-2 host range and affect pathogenesis. whether ongoing zoonotic infections are possible in addition to ef ...202033034151
death of a neonate with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019 in iran: a case report.a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was first reported in wuhan, china, in december 2019. the virus, known as covid-19, is recognized as a potentially life-threatening disease by causing severe respiratory disease. since this virus has not previously been detected in humans, there is a paucity of information regarding its effects on humans. in addition, only limited or no information exists about its impact during pregnancy.202033023635
origin, structural characteristics, prevention measures, diagnosis and potential drugs to prevent and covid-19.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) causes covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). this disease was detected in the city of wuhan in china in december 2019. people infected with covid-19 shows varying manifestations, depending on their health and age. the most common symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue, odynophagia, and dyspnea. infected adults older 60 years of age are the group of patients most susceptible to severe covid-19 states and present comor-bidity in the ...202033017386
predicting susceptibility to sars-cov-2 infection based on structural differences in ace2 across species.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is the cause of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19). sars-cov-2 is a zoonotic disease, but little is known about variations in species susceptibility that could identify potential reservoir species, animal models, and the risk to pets, wildlife, and livestock. certain species, such as domestic cats and tigers, are susceptible to sars-cov-2 infection, while other species such as mice and chickens are not. most ani ...202033015868
survival of sars-cov-2 and influenza virus on the human skin: importance of hand hygiene in covid-19.the stability of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) on human skin remains unknown, considering the hazards of viral exposure to humans. we generated a model that allows the safe reproduction of clinical studies on the application of pathogens to human skin and elucidated the stability of sars-cov-2 on the human skin.202033009907
the antibody response to the glycan α-gal correlates with covid-19 disease symptoms.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has affected millions of people worldwide. characterization of the immunological mechanisms involved in disease symptomatology and protective response is important to progress in disease control and prevention. humans evolved by losing the capacity to synthesize the glycan galα1-3galβ1-(3)4glcnac-r (α-gal), which resulted in the development of a protective response against path ...202033009829
covid-19 pandemic: current knowledge about the role of pets and other animals in disease transmission.on 11 march 2020, the world health organization (who) announced corona virus disease (covid-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), a pandemic. this ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of august 22, 2020. although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat covid-19 so fa ...202033008410
targeting coagulation activation in severe covid-19 pneumonia: lessons from bacterial pneumonia and sepsis.novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world, resulting in a pandemic with high mortality. there are no effective treatments for the management of severe covid-19 and current therapeutic trials are focused on antiviral therapy and attenuation of hyper-inflammation with anti-cytokine therapy. severe covid-19 pneumonia shares some pathological similarities with severe bacterial pneumonia a ...202033004529
a computational toolset for rapid identification of sars-cov-2, other viruses and microorganisms from sequencing this paper, we present a toolset and related resources for rapid identification of viruses and microorganisms from short-read or long-read sequencing data. we present fastv as an ultra-fast tool to detect microbial sequences present in sequencing data, identify target microorganisms and visualize coverage of microbial genomes. this tool is based on the k-mer mapping and extension method. k-mer sets are generated by uniquekmer, another tool provided in this toolset. uniquekmer can generate com ...202033003197
experimental infection of domestic dogs and cats with sars-cov-2: pathogenesis, transmission, and response to reexposure in cats.the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has reached nearly every country in the world with extraordinary person-to-person transmission. the most likely original source of the virus was spillover from an animal reservoir and subsequent adaptation to humans sometime during the winter of 2019 in wuhan province, china. because of its genetic similarity to sars-cov-1, it is probable that this novel virus has a similar host range and receptor specificity. du ...202032994343
the increasing importance of the novel coronavirus.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), has infected more`` than 20 million people, with more than more than 700000 deaths globally; and has been declared a pandemic. sars-cov-2 is recognized as the seventh coronavirus affecting homo sapiens. the symptoms of covid-19 consist of an elevated temperature, cough, diarrhea, and vomiting amongst others, whereas the transmission of sars-cov-2 is believed to arise via release of res ...202032990100
the immune response and immunopathology of covid-19.coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1960s and are named due to their crown-like shape. sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. an acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 or sars-cov-2 previously known as 2019-ncov) was identified as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) as it spread throughout china and subsequently across the globe. as of 14th july 2020, a total of 13.1 millio ...202032983152
immunosuppressive drugs and covid-19: a review.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). it is currently unknown whether immunosuppressive drugs are advantageous or detrimental in patients with covid-19. immunosuppressive drugs could be harmful in the initial phase of covid-19. in this phase, the host immune response is necessary to inhibit viral replication. however, immunosuppressive drugs might have a beneficial effect in the later, more severe phase of covid-19. in this ...202032982743
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, covid-19, and the renin-angiotensin system: pressing needs and best research practices.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. the virus responsible for covid-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ace2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ace2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (ras), which acts to oppose the actions of ang (angiotensin) ii by ...202032981369
quantification of sars-cov-2 neutralizing antibody by a pseudotyped virus-based assay.pseudotyped viruses are useful virological tools because of their safety and versatility. on the basis of a vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) pseudotyped virus production system, we developed a pseudotyped virus-based neutralization assay against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) in biosafety level 2 facilities. compared with the binding antibody test, the neutralization assay could discriminate the protective agents from the antibody family. this protocol includes prod ...202032978602
s protein-reactive igg and memory b cell production after human sars-cov-2 infection includes broad reactivity to the s2 subunit.the high susceptibility of humans to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), reflects the novelty of the virus and limited preexisting b cell immunity. igg against the sars-cov-2 spike (s) protein, which carries the novel receptor binding domain (rbd), is absent or at low levels in unexposed individuals. to better understand the b cell response to sars-cov-2 infection, we asked whether virus-reactive memory b cells ...202032978311
evolution of sars-cov-2 genome from december 2019 to late march 2020: emerged haplotypes and informative tag nucleotide variations.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) causes serious disease in humans. first identified in november/december 2019 in china, it has rapidly spread worldwide. we analyzed 2790 sars-cov-2 genome sequences from 56 countries that were available on april 2, 2020, to assess the evolution of the virus during this early phase of its expansion. we aimed to assess sequence variations that had evolved in virus genomes, giving the greatest attention to the s gene. we also aimed to ide ...202032975856
single-cell rna-seq identifies cell subsets in human placenta that highly expresses factors driving pathogenesis of sars-cov-2.infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) results in the novel coronavirus disease covid-19, which has posed a serious threat globally. infection of sars-cov-2 during pregnancy is associated with complications such as preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes, and a proportion of neonates born to infected mothers are also positive for the virus. during pregnancy, the placental barrier protects the fetus from pathogens and ensures healthy development. to ...202032974340
the 2020 pandemic: current sars-cov-2 vaccine development.coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome infecting animals and humans. coronaviruses have been described more than 70 years ago and contain many species. severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) and middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) are lethal species caused by human coronaviruses (hcovs). currently, a novel strain of hcovs, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). sars-cov-2 w ...202032973779
zoonotic and reverse zoonotic events of sars-cov-2 and their impact on global health.coronaviruses (covs) are enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded rna viruses. the viruses have adapted to infect a large number of animal species, ranging from bats to camels. at present, seven covs infect humans, of which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) is responsible for causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in humans. since its emergence in late 2019, sars-cov-2 has spread rapidly across the globe. healthcare systems around the globe have been stretch ...202032967592
animal models for covid-19.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in hubei province, china). as of 18 september 2020, sars-cov-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. as humans do not have pre-existing immunity to sars-cov-2, there is an urg ...202032967005
attenuated subcomponent vaccine design targeting the sars-cov-2 nucleocapsid phosphoprotein rna binding domain: in silico analysis.the novel coronavirus disease (covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has previously never been identified with humans, thereby creating devastation in public health. the need for an effective vaccine to curb this pandemic cannot be overemphasized. in view of this, we designed a subcomponent antigenic peptide vaccine targeting the n-terminal (nt) and c-terminal (ct) rna binding domains of the nucleocapsid protein that aid in viral replication. promising ...202032964056
transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) to animals: an updated review.covid-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) originated in wuhan (hubei province, china) during late 2019. it has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. covid-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. in addition to the considerable covid-19 cases, hospitalizat ...202032957995
diagnosis of covid-19: facts and the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) emerged in wuhan, china, then spread rapidly across the country and throughout the world. the causative agent is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2); according to the international committee on taxonomy of viruses, this virus has a nucleic acid sequence that is different from other known coronaviruses but has some similarity to the beta coronavirus identified in bats. coronaviruses are a large virus group ...202032953123
glycogen synthase kinase-3: a putative target to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) pandemic.the coronavirus disease 19 (covid-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) had turned out to be highly pathogenic and transmittable. researchers throughout the globe are still struggling to understand this strain's aggressiveness in search of putative therapies for its control. crosstalk between oxidative stress and systemic inflammation seems to support the progression of the infection. glycogen synthase kinase-3 (gsk-3) is a conserved serine/threonine ...202032948440
irrigation system and covid-19 recurrence: a potential risk factor in the transmission of sars-cov-2.several lines of evidence suggest the presence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) in wastewater. the use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally. wastewater is unsafe for human and animal consumption and contains impurities and microbial pathogens. here, we pose the question of whether the reuse of unt ...202032945160
molecular basis of pathogenesis of coronaviruses: a comparative genomics approach to planetary health to prevent zoonotic outbreaks in the 21st the first quarter of the 21st century, we are already facing the third emergence of a coronavirus outbreak, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic. comparative genomics can inform a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of covid-19. previous strains of coronavirus, sars-cov, and middle-east respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (mers-cov), have been known to cause acute lung injuries in humans. sars-cov-2 ...202032940573
tocilizumab in sars-cov-2 patients with the syndrome of cytokine storm; a narrative review.coronavirus is a group of viruses which causes diseases in mammals and birds. in humans, these family of viruses can cause the respiratory infections from mild form to fatal forms. it is preferably called as coronavirus. formally it known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) or 2019 novel coronavirus (2019- ncov) and this disease is called as coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). sars-cov-2 is infectious in humans and world health organization has announced that covid-1 ...202032940187
laparoscopy during the covid-19 pandemic: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.from a local outbreak to a global pandemic, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection has spread across 210 borders to infect 2.5 million humans. there is an organized disruption in the routine hospital functioning to divert the available resources for effective crisis management; most of the departments have been split to carve out a "covid task force." the recommended indications for treatment of various medical conditions, medical procedures, and protocols have regressed o ...202032939109
reverse vaccinology assisted designing of multiepitope-based subunit vaccine against sars-cov-2.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) linked with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) cause severe illness and life-threatening pneumonia in humans. the current covid-19 pandemic demands an effective vaccine to acquire protection against the infection. therefore, the present study was aimed to design a multiepitope-based subunit vaccine (mesv) against covid-19.202032938504
male gender and kidney illness are associated with an increased risk of severe laboratory-confirmed coronavirus identify factors predicting severe coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in adolescent and adult patients with laboratory-positive (quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) infection.202032938419
men and covid-19: a pathophysiologic review.coronaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid viruses that can cause illnesses in humans ranging from the common cold to severe respiratory disease and even march 2020, the world health organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (covid-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) as the first pandemic. compared to women, most countries with available data report that men with covid-19 have greater disease severity and higher mortality ...202032936693
sars-cov-2 (covid-19) has neurotropic and neuroinvasive, we know that the first report of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) was in december 2019 in wuhan, china. in january, the existence of a disease caused by a virus with respiratory tropism for humans was announced, and in february it was already named sars-cov-2. the world health organization (who) 1 gave it the name of covid-19, on february 11. one month later, who declared that the disease caused by this virus was already a pandemic (who, 2020) 1 . the virus start ...202032935417
why covid-19 transmission is more efficient and aggressive than viral transmission in previous coronavirus epidemics?severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is causing a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). the worldwide transmission of covid-19 from human to human is spreading like wildfire, affecting almost every country in the world. in the past 100 years, the globe did not face a microbial pandemic similar in scale to covid-19. taken together, both previous outbreaks of other members of the coronavirus family (severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars-cov) and middle east res ...202032933047
covid-19 and thyroid: progress and prospects.the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), has rapidly spread worldwide. a number of serious effects on various organs and systems have been reported in humans, and recently emerging evidence on the potential association between the infection and thyroid dysfunction are attracting attention from the scientific community. this editorial critically summarizes the main findings on this topic published so far and defin ...202032932954
highly conserved binding region of ace2 as a receptor for sars-cov-2 between humans and mammals.several cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection transmitted from human owners to their dogs have recently been reported. the first ever case of sars-cov-2 transmission from a human owner to a domestic cat was confirmed on march 27, 2020. a tiger from a zoo in new york, usa, was also reportedly infected with sars-cov-2. it is believed that sars-cov-2 was transmitted to tigers from their caretakers, who were previously infected with this virus. on may 25, 20 ...202032921279
structural basis of sars-cov-2 main protease inhibition by a broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drug.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) or 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-ncov), took tens of thousands of lives and caused tremendous economic losses. the main protease (mpro) of sars-cov-2 is a potential target for treatment of covid-19 due to its critical role in maturation of viral proteins and subsequent viral replication. conceptually and technically, targeting therapy against mpro is similar to target therapy t ...202032905393
current approaches used in treating covid-19 from a molecular mechanisms and immune response perspective.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), which is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), was declared by the world health organization (who) as a global pandemic on march 11, 2020. sars-cov-2 targets the respiratory system, resulting in symptoms such as fever, headache, dry cough, dyspnea, and dizziness. these symptoms vary from person to person, ranging from mild to hypoxia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and sometimes death. although not c ...202032905015
a review on current repurposing drugs for the treatment of covid-19: reality and challenges.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has become a global pandemic with a high growth rate of confirmed cases. therefore, therapeutic options are desperately urgent to fight with this damning virus. as it may take years to develop a specific therapy of covid-19, it is urgent to emphasize the repurposing of drugs used for other conditions. this study reviewed the most common drugs for covid-19 based on available on ...202032904710
ace2 expression in the cat and the tiger gastrointestinal tracts.angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) has been identified as the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2). it has been identified in the human gastrointestinal tract (git), and sars-cov-2 has been isolated in human and animal fecal samples. the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of ace2 in the gastrointestinal tract of domestic (cat) and wild (tiger) felines. samples of the pylorus, duodenum, and distal colon were collected fro ...202032903561
antivirals against coronaviruses: candidate drugs for sars-cov-2 treatment?coronaviruses (covs) are a group of viruses from the family coronaviridae that can infect humans and animals, causing mild to severe diseases. the ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) represents a global threat, urging the development of new therapeutic strategies. here we present a selection of relevant compounds that have been described from 2005 until now as having in vitro and/or in vivo antiviral activities against human and/or animal covs. we als ...202032903349
predicting the recombination potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) recently emerged to cause widespread infections in humans. sars-cov-2 infections have been reported in the kingdom of saudi arabia, where middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) causes seasonal outbreaks with a case fatality rate of ~37 %. here we show that there exists a theoretical possibility of future recombination events between sars-cov-2 and mers-cov rna. through computational analyses, we have identified homolog ...202032902372
genomic characterization of sars-cov-2 identified in a reemerging covid-19 outbreak in beijing's xinfadi market in 2020.after 56 days without coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) cases, reemergent cases were reported in beijing on june 11, 2020. here, we report the genetic characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) sequenced from the clinical specimens of 4 human cases and 2 environmental samples. the nucleotide similarity among six sars-cov-2 genomes ranged from 99.98% to 99.99%. compared with the reference strain of sars-cov-2 (genbank no. nc_045512), all six genome sequences ...202032895643
current state of vaccine development and targeted therapies for covid-19: impact of basic science discoveries.coronavirus disease-19 (covid-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). sars-cov-2 is closely related to two other coronaviruses that caused disease epidemic breakouts in humans in the last 2 decades, namely, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov). the similarities have enabled the scientists to apply the basic scientific discoveries garnered from studying the structure and ...202032889088
ad26 vaccine protects against sars-cov-2 severe clinical disease in hamsters.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in humans is often a clinically mild illness, but some individuals develop severe pneumonia, respiratory failure and death1-4. studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection in hamsters5-7 and nonhuman primates8-10 have generally reported mild clinical disease, and preclinical sars-cov-2 vaccine studies have demonstrated reduction of viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts in nonhuman primates11-13. here w ...202032884153
sars-cov-2 serology and virology trends in donors and recipients of convalescent plasma.sars-cov-2 has infected millions worldwide. the virus is novel, and currently there is no approved treatment. convalescent plasma may offer a treatment option. we evaluated trends of igm/igg antibodies/plasma viral load in donors and recipients of convalescent plasma. 114/139 (82 %) donors had positive igg antibodies. 46/114 donors tested positive a second time by np swab. among those retested, the median igg declined (p < 0.01) between tests. 25/139 donors with confirmed sars-cov-2 were negativ ...202032883593
possibility for reverse zoonotic transmission of sars-cov-2 to free-ranging wildlife: a case study of bats.the covid-19 pandemic highlights the substantial public health, economic, and societal consequences of virus spillover from a wildlife reservoir. widespread human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) also presents a new set of challenges when considering viral spillover from people to naïve wildlife and other animal populations. the establishment of new wildlife reservoirs for sars-cov-2 would further complicate public health control measures and could lea ...202032881980
direct activation of the alternative complement pathway by sars-cov-2 spike proteins is blocked by factor d inhibition.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is a highly contagious respiratory virus that can lead to venous/arterial thrombosis, stroke, renal failure, myocardial infarction, thrombocytopenia, and other end-organ damage. animal models demonstrating end-organ protection in c3-deficient mice and evidence of complement activation in humans have led to the hypothesis that sars-cov-2 triggers complement-mediated endothelial damage, but the mechanism is unclear. here, we demonstrate ...202032877502
potential use of noncoding rnas and innovative therapeutic strategies to target the 5'utr of sars-cov-2.after the increasing number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infections all over the world, researchers and clinicians are struggling to find a vaccine or innovative therapeutic strategies to treat this viral infection. the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection that occurred in 2002, middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) and other more common infectious diseases such as hepatitis c virus, led to the discovery of many rna-based drugs. among them, ...202032875809
in silico structure modelling of sars-cov-2 nsp13 helicase and nsp14 and repurposing of fda approved antiviral drugs as dual inhibitors.the high mortality rate from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infections in humans and the lack of effective therapeutic regime for its treatment necessitates the identification of new antivirals. sars-cov-2 relies on non-structural proteins such as nsp13 helicase and nsp14 which are the key components of the replication-transcription complex (rtc) to complete its infectious life cycle. therefore, targeting these essential viral proteins with small molecules will ...202032875166
mie scattering revisited: study of bichromatic mie scattering of electromagnetic waves by a distribution of spherical particles.two experiments to measure the size of microscopic dielectric spherical particles immersed in purified water with spheres of a nominal diameter 5.2 ± 0.15 μm have been carried out in order to revisit mie scattering techniques. the first experiment uses a 1 mw helium-neon (he-ne) laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, while the second one is carried out using a diode laser of 780.0 nm wavelength and a nominal power of 80 mw. the distribution of the scattered light intensity is recorded experimental ...202032872902
sars-cov-2 and its relationship with the genitourinary tract: implications for male reproductive health in the context of covid-19 pandemic.the current outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection, named coronavirus disease 19 (covid-19), is not the first well-known spillover of an animal originated virus to infect humans. however, one of the few to make such a fast jump in a powerful evolutionary shortcut. the incredible pattern of aggressiveness worldwide since the beginning of the outbreak is that up to 20% of those infected need hospitalization and 5% evolve to critical conditions, not limit ...202032869939
establishing an office-based framework for resuming otolaryngology care in academic practice during the covid-19 pandemic.the covid-19 health crisis abruptly disrupted the practice of otolaryngology. this article aims to define the changes needed to operate an academic otolaryngology practice safely and efficiently from within the epicenter of the pandemic. we define the areas of normal patient workflow that have been affected by covid-19, and we offer mitigation strategies with attention paid to the specific needs of subspecialties.202032867585
a mouse-adapted model of sars-cov-2 to test covid-19 countermeasures.coronaviruses are prone to transmission to new host species, as recently demonstrated by the spread to humans of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic1. small animal models that recapitulate sars-cov-2 disease are needed urgently for rapid evaluation of medical countermeasures2,3. sars-cov-2 cannot infect wild-type laboratory mice owing to inefficient interactions between the viral spike protein and t ...202032854108
combating covid-19: mva vector vaccines applied to the respiratory tract as promising approach toward protective immunity in the lung.the lung is the vital target organ of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). in the majority of patients the most active virus replication seems to be found in the upper respiratory tract, severe cases however suffer from sars-like disease associated with virus replication in lung tissues. due to the current lack of suitable anti-viral drugs the induction of protective immunity such as neutralizing antibodies in ...202032849655
can drinking microfiltered raw immune milk from cows immunized against sars-cov-2 provide short-term protection against covid-19?the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans (covid-19), has become a global health concern. currently, several vaccine candidates against sars-cov-2 are in clinical trials but approval of these vaccines is likely to take a long time before they are available for public use. in a previous report, the importance of passive immunity and how immunoglobulin (ig)g collected from recovered coronavirus patients ...202032849647
sars-cov-2 and three related coronaviruses utilize multiple ace2 orthologs and are potently blocked by an improved ace2-ig.the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has caused >20 million infections and >750,000 deaths. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), the etiological agent of covid-19, has been found closely related to the bat coronavirus strain ratg13 (bat-cov ratg13) and a recently identified pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-cov-2020). here, we first investigated the ability of sars-cov-2 and three related coronaviruses to utilize animal orthologs of angiotensin-convertin ...202032847856
clinical trials for use of melatonin to fight against covid-19 are urgently needed.the recent pandemic of covid-19 has already infected millions of individuals and has resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands worldwide. based on clinical features, pathology, and the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders induced by this and other highly homogenous coronaviruses, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response contribute to covid-19 pathology; these are caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2). ...202032847033
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2), a newly emerged pathogen: an overview.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) is a viral pneumonia, responsible for the recent pandemic, and originated from wuhan, china, in december 2019. the causative agent of the outbreak was identified as coronavirus and designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars- cov-2). few years back, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars- cov) and the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) were reported to be highly pathogenic and caused severe infectio ...202032840560
sars-cov-2 infection of human ace2-transgenic mice causes severe lung inflammation and impaired function.although animal models have been evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection, none have fully recapitulated the lung disease phenotypes seen in humans who have been hospitalized. here, we evaluate transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin i-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) receptor driven by the cytokeratin-18 (k18) gene promoter (k18-hace2) as a model of sars-cov-2 infection. intranasal inoculation of sars-cov-2 in k18-hace2 mice results in high levels ...202032839612
comorbidity and its impact on patients with covid-19.a novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), was identified in wuhan, china, in december 2019. since then, the virus has made its way across the globe to affect over 180 countries. sars-cov-2 has infected humans in all age groups, of all ethnicities, both males and females while spreading through communities at an alarming rate. given the nature of this virus, there is much still to be learned; however, we know that the clinical manifestations range fr ...202032838147
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