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primary and combined resistance to four antimicrobial agents in helicobacter pylori in sofia, bulgaria.the aim of this study was to evaluate the primary and combined resistance of helicobacter pylori against four antimicrobial agents by a screening agar method (sam) and a modified disk diffusion method (mddm) alone and in combination. pre-treatment h. pylori isolates from 192 consecutive h. pylori-positive patients at three hospitals in sofia were investigated. mddm was performed with disks containing metronidazole (5 microg), clarithromycin (15 microg) or erythromycin (15 microg), ciprofloxacin ...200010798553
high prevalence of virulent helicobacter pylori strains in symptomatic bulgarian patients.the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of main virulence genes in helicobacter pylori strains from 116 patients with peptic ulcers (41 cases) and nonulcer diseases (75) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with pure cultures and to compare the results with those by multiplex pcr in 39 h. pylori-positive gastric biopsies in another center in sofia, bulgaria. strain susceptibility to amoxicillin, metronidazole, and clarithromycin was determined by agar dilution method. by pcr with pure ...200919631090
living in sofia is associated with a risk for antibiotic resistance in helicobacter pylori: a bulgarian study.the aim of the retrospective study was to evaluate geographic regions and residence places as possible risk factors for primary helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in bulgaria. data from sofia region, exhibiting the highest living density, were compared to those from other residence places. in total, 588 h. pylori strains from untreated adults who filled a questionnaire were evaluated. strain susceptibility was assessed by a breakpoint susceptibility test. resistance rates to metronidazole ...201323580173
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